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**Rigid Spheres Into Ballistic Gelatin
**

by Steven B. Segletes

ARL-TR-4393 March 2008

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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Army Research Laboratory

Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069

ARL-TR-4393 March 2008

Modeling the Penetration Behavior of

Rigid Spheres Into Ballistic Gelatin

Steven B. Segletes

Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

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4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Modeling the Penetration Behavior of Rigid Spheres Into Ballistic Gelatin

5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

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AH80

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6. AUTHOR(S)

Steven B. Segletes

5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

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U.S. Army Research Laboratory

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Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069

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13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

14. ABSTRACT

The penetration of 20% ballistic gelatin by rigid steel spheres is studied and analytically modeled. In order to properly capture

the response for a wide variety of sphere sizes and impact velocities, a rate-dependent strength formulation is required for the

ballistic resistance of gelatin.

15. SUBJECT TERMS

gelatin, penetration, rigid, sphere, rate-dependence

16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF:

19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

Steven B. Segletes

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UNCLASSIFIED

b. ABSTRACT

UNCLASSIFIED

c. THIS PAGE

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410-278-6010

Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98)

Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18

ii

Contents

List of Figures iv

1. Introduction 1

2. Theory 3

3. Results 6

3.1 Model Parameters and Qualitative Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3.2 Comparison to Experimental Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4. Conclusions 19

5. References 21

Distribution List 23

iii

List of Figures

Figure 1. Drag coefﬁcients for spheres traversing Newtonian ﬂuid as a function of

Reynolds number (5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Figure 2. Normalized penetration of steel sphere into 20% ballistic gelatin, pre-

dicted as a function of striking velocity, with sphere diameter as a parameter.. . . . . . . 8

Figure 3. Normalized penetration for steel sphere (D = 10 mm) into 20% ballistic

gelatin, predicted as a function of striking velocity, with relative residual veloc-

ity, V

r

/V

0

, as a parameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Figure 4. Normalized penetration for steel sphere (D = 10 mm) into 20% ballistic

gelatin, predicted as a function of striking velocity, with residual velocity, V

r

, as

a parameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 5. Drag coefﬁcient vs. Reynolds number for 2.38 mm and 6.35 mm spheres

penetrating gelatin vis- ` a-vis a Newtonian ﬂuid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Figure 6. Normalized penetration vs. striking velocity for 2.38 mm (0.85 gr.) steel

spheres penetrating gelatin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 7. Normalized penetration vs. striking velocity for 4.76 mm (7 gr.) steel

spheres penetrating gelatin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 8. Normalized penetration vs. striking velocity for 6.35 mm (16 gr.) steel

spheres penetrating gelatin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Figure 9. Normalized penetration vs. striking velocity for 4.445 mm steel spheres

penetrating gelatin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Figure 10. Velocity vs. position for 2.38 mm steel spheres of Sturdivan (3), with com-

parison to model predictions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Figure 11. Velocity vs. position for 4.76 mm steel spheres of Sturdivan (3), with com-

parison to model predictions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

iv

Figure 12. Velocity vs. position for 6.35 mm steel spheres of Sturdivan (3), with com-

parison to model predictions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Figure 13. Velocity vs. position for 4.445 mm steel spheres of Minisi (4), with com-

parison to model predictions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Figure 14. Position vs. time for 2.38 mm steel sphere of Sturdivan (3), impacting at

2229 m/s, with comparison to model predictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

v

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

vi

1. Introduction

One may calculate the interface force, F, upon a projectile as the target’s averaged ﬂow

stress applied over the directional component of the projectile’s wetted area, to obtain

F/A

p_wet

= k

T

ρ

T

U

2

+R

T

, (1)

where A

p_wet

is the wetted area of the projectile, projected onto a plane perpendicular to

the velocity vector, k

T

is the target-ﬂow "shape factor," ρ

T

is the target density, U is the

penetration velocity, and R

T

is the so-called target resistance, an integrated amalgam of

the deviatoric stress ﬁeld developed in the target. For ductile eroding targets, many

analyses have suggested (and experiments have supported) that the target resistance can

be treated as a constant (i.e., independent of penetration velocity) whose magnitude is in

the range of four to six times the uniaxial ﬂow stress of the material.

When the projectile erodes, the eroding nose of the projectile assumes a roughly

hemispherical shape which is fully wetted by the erosion products. In this circumstance,

one may reasonably assume that A

p_wet

approaches the cross-sectional area of the

projectile, A

P

, and that k

T

approaches the value of 0.5 associated with the Bernoulli

stagnation pressure. The result is that the decelerative stress averaged over the cross

section is given by

¯ σ = F/A

P

= 1/2ρ

T

U

2

+R

T

. (2)

Such a result is seen, for example, as part of the stress balance in the so-called

extended-Bernoulli equation used by Tate (1) and others.

If, however, the projectile remains rigid during the penetration event, then a different set

of simpliﬁcations apply. While it is deduced that the penetration velocity, U, must equal

the projectile velocity, V, no simpliﬁcations are obvious regarding the shape factor and

wetted area, k

T

and A

p_wet

, respectively. Thus, the cross-section-averaged decelerative

stress is

¯ σ = F/A

P

= (k

T

ρ

T

V

2

+R

T

) · A

p_wet

/A

P

. (3)

When this equation is approximated by taking A

p_wet

as A

P

, with constant values of k

T

and R

T

, and when it is used as the decelerative stress acting upon the cross section of a

rigid projectile, the form the equation takes is known as the Poncelet form.

1

The Poncelet form looks like

−M

˙

V = BV

2

+C (4)

and is traditionally solved by expressing the acceleration

˙

V as V(dV/dx), where x is the

coordinate of penetration. Given a striking velocity, V

0

, the solution yields the

penetration depth as a function of the current velocity:

x(V) =

M

2B

log

_

C +BV

2

0

C +BV

2

_

. (5)

The ﬁnal penetration depth is obtained when the instantaneous velocity, V drops to zero,

to yield

P(V

0

) =

M

2B

log

_

1 +

B

C

V

2

0

_

. (6)

Segletes and Walters (2) also offered a time-dependent explicit solution to the Poncelet

form (i.e., in terms of V(t) and x(t), where t is the time variable) when they solved for

the residual rigid-body penetration phase of an otherwise eroding-body event. The form

of their solution, using the nomenclature of equation 4, is

V(t) =

_

C

B

tan

_

√

BC

M

(t

f

−t)

_

(7)

and

x(t) =

M

B

log cos

_

√

BC

M

(t

f

−t)

_

− log cos

_

√

BC

M

t

f

_

, (8)

where the event duration, t

f

, is given by

t

f

=

M

√

BC

tan

−1

_

V

0

_

B

C

_

. (9)

It can be shown, through trigonometric substitution, that x for the case of V = 0 in

equation 5 is identical to x for the case of t = t

f

in equation 8. This is as it should be since

the total penetration should not depend on whether V was integrated over t or x.

2

2. Theory

Presently, we wish to model the penetration of gelatin by rigid spheres. To do so, we will

re-examine the data of Sturdivan (3) and Minisi (4). Sturdivan modeled the gelatin by

considering the effects of inertial and viscous deceleration using a generalization of

Resal’s law. Gelatin strength was not part of Sturdivan’s model. As a result, the latter

stages of penetration tended to be overestimated since viscous deceleration loses its

potency at diminished velocity vis- ` a-vis strength-based deceleration. In the current

approach, a rate-based strength is introduced, allowing one to bridge the gap between

pure viscous and pure strength-based velocity retardation models.

In hopes of simplifying equation 3 to a useful, solvable form that is nonetheless more

general than the Poncelet form, we will make several assumptions a priori and later

determine their appropriateness. First, we will assume k

T

and A

p_wet

/A

P

to be constant.

We will generalize the target resistance R

T

(i.e., the ﬂow stress) to be a material property

that is not constant as in the Poncelet form but instead dependent upon a power of the

characteristic strain rate, ˙ .

Therefore, from equation 3, we have

F/A

P

= 1/2ρ

T

· [bV

2

+V

2

c

( ˙ / ˙

c

)

α

] , (10)

where b, α, V

c

, and ˙

c

are constants (b and α are dimensionless) that have been

introduced in a manner compatible with our assumptions. A characteristic strain rate

may be conveniently deﬁned as

˙ = 2V/D , (11)

where D is the projectile diameter (D/2 is the characteristic length of shearing strain).

With the form of equation 10 and in light of equation 11, the instantaneous drag

coefﬁcient may be expressed as

C

D

=

F

1/2ρ

T

V

2

A

P

= b +

_

D

c

D

_

α

_

V

c

V

_

2−α

. (12)

Note that since the penetrator remains rigid, the sphere diameter of equation 12 is a

constant parameter for any given test, varying only when the projectile is changed for

3

different test cases. However, the dependence of C

D

on instantaneous velocity V means

that for a target material with strength, the drag coefﬁcient will change (i.e., increase for

typical α) during the course of deceleration.

For an eroding conﬁguration into a traditional Tate-like ductile target material, the value

of b would equal unity and the exponent α would be zero. In contrast, for a rigid

penetrator in a constant-drag ﬂuid (e.g., for a laminar Newtonain ﬂuid at moderate

Reynolds number, 2000 < R < 250, 000), the value of b would equal the ﬁxed drag

coefﬁcent (approximately 0.4 for a sphere in Newtonian ﬂuid, see ﬁgure 1) and the

values of V

c

would equal zero.

Figure 1. Drag coefﬁcients for spheres traversing Newtonian

ﬂuid as a function of Reynolds number (5).

For the special case of α = 1 in which the ﬂow stress of the target is directly proportional

to the strain rate (i.e., when the material behaves as a Newtonian ﬂuid), the drag form of

equation 12 for vanishing V will mimic the low-Reynolds-number Stoke’s formula for

drag upon a sphere. Thus, we see that the form we have chosen in equation 10, merely

through the selection of parameters α and b, can be made to emulate material behavior

somewhere between an ideal ductile solid (α = 0 and b = 1) and a laminar Newtonian

ﬂuid (very approximately, α = 1 and b = C

D(steady)

).

When the retardation force is formulated according to equation 10, the resulting

equation of motion becomes

−(M/A

P

) ·

˙

V = 1/2 ρ

T

· [bV

2

+V

2

c

( ˙ / ˙

c

)

α

] . (13)

4

Substituting for the geometric terms as well as the strain rate, ˙ , allows one to obtain the

formulation in terms of V and D:

−

_

ρ

P

ρ

T

_

2L

eff

˙

V = bV

2

+

_

D

c

D

_

α

V

2−α

c

V

α

, (14)

where the effective length, L

eff

, can be characterized as the projectile volume divided by

the projectile’s presented area when projected onto a plane perpendicular to the velocity

vector. For the present case of a spherical projectile, the term 2L

eff

simply becomes

(4/3)D.

Having formulated a ﬂow-retardation form for rigid spheres (equation 14) that is more

general than the Poncelet form (equation 4) we must now derive the solution to it. Using

the standard approach of decomposing

˙

V as V dV/dx, equation 14 can be reformulated

into:

−V

1−α

dV

bV

2−α

+ (D

c

/D)

α

V

2−α

c

=

3

4

_

ρ

T

ρ

P

_

dx

D

. (15)

Such a form is directly integrable over the velocity limits V

0

to V as

3

4

_

ρ

T

ρ

P

_

x

D

=

1

b(2 −α)

log

_

1 +b(D/D

c

)

α

(V

0

/V

c

)

2−α

1 +b(D/D

c

)

α

(V/V

c

)

2−α

_

. (16)

For the case where penetration ceases at V = 0, one obtains the total penetration, P, as

3

4

_

ρ

T

ρ

P

_

P

D

=

1

b(2 −α)

log

_

1 +b(D/D

c

)

α

(V

0

/V

c

)

2−α

_

. (17)

Unfortunately, no time-based solution, comparable to that given in equations 7–9 has

been obtained for this more general case. However, for certain select values of α,

additional progress may be had, as will be subsequently explored. Regardless,

equation 17 provides a solution which can be compared against aggregated penetration

vs. striking-velocity data, while equation 16 can be used to examine the deceleration

characteristics of individual tests, for which P vs. V data have been extracted. With a

target-material description that is a function of strain rate, however, normalized

penetration, P/D, is no longer independent of projectile diameter.

Fitting equation 17 would appear to require the speciﬁcation of four ﬁtting parameters,

b, α, D

c

, and V

c

. However, the terms involving the parameters V

c

and D

c

can, in fact, be

grouped together as V

2−α

c

D

α

c

and therefore represent a single independent parameter. In

5

practice, D

c

is arbitrarily taken as the sphere diameter for which some test data is

available, and V

c

is ﬁt accordingly.

For certain select values of α, additional progress may be had in obtaining analytical

solutions. The fortuitous ﬁtting of the α parameter to a value of 1/2 will provide such an

opportunity. In this case, one may begin with equation 14, using the substitution of

z

2

= V, in order to arrive at the form

−

3ρ

T

dt

8ρ

P

D

=

dz

bz

3

+a

, (18)

where

a =

_

D

c

D

_

1/2

V

3/2

c

. (19)

While a contains the diameter D, which can vary from test to test, the integration

required of equation 18 is not adversely affected since a remains constant for any given

test case. This form is directly integrable (6) and yields, upon resubstitution for V,

3ρ

T

8ρ

P

D

t =

k

3a

_

1

2

log

(k +

√

V)

3

a +bV

3/2

+

√

3 tan

−1

2

√

V −k

k

√

3

_

V

0

V

, (20)

where

k =

3

_

a

b

. (21)

Once t(V) is known through equation 20 and given that x(V) is known through

equation 16, one can construct x vs. t as an implicit function of V for this very special

case of α = 1/2.

3. Results

The presentation of data vis- ` a-vis the model is complicated by the fact that the available

data cover a range of sphere diameters and not all of the collected data span the

complete test. For example, the tests of Sturdivan (3) terminated data collection while

there was still signiﬁcant residual velocity in the penetrator.

It should also be noted that the reporting of penetration into gelatin is further

complicated by the presence of a large elastic recoil in the target. Because of this recoil,

6

the ﬁnal penetration can be somewhat less than the point of maximum penetration, which

occurs prior to the recoil. Arguments can be made for the use of either metric as the

more appropriate measure of penetration. However, because the current model (which

ignores recoil) is intended to be used to predict the time-response of penetration, this

report uses the maximum penetration to deﬁne the penetration.

It is perhaps easiest, therefore, to navigate through the results by ﬁrst presenting the

ﬁtted parameters, then examining the functional behavior of the model with those

parameters, and ﬁnally, showing how the sundry experimental data compare with the

model.

3.1 Model Parameters and Qualitative Behavior

The parameter D

c

was arbitrarily selected as 4.445 mm (0.175 in), corresponding to the

sphere diameter employed in a number of tests by Minisi (4) into 20% ballistic gelatin.

The other model parameters were ﬁtted to equation 17 using the data of Sturdivan (3)

and Minisi (4). In the case of Minisi, x(t) data were provided directly in tabular form,

while in the case of Sturdivan, the x(t) data were digitized from plots. In both cases,

central differencing was employed to estimate the instantaneous slope of the x(t) curve

(representing V(t)).

With this technique, and using the more extensive data set of Sturdivan spanning three

sphere diameters and striking velocities out to 2229 m/s, the remaining model

parameters were ﬁtted. Their values are given in table 1. In the case of Minisi’s more

limited data set, all ﬁtted parameters remained the same except V

c

, which was best ﬁt as

105 m/s. We will take the ﬁts to the Sturdivan dataset as the baseline set of ﬁtted

parameters to examine here. Note, however, that in both cases, the ﬁtted value of α is

1/2, which fortuitously allows for the employment of equation 20 if the time response of

Table 1. Model parameter ﬁts.

Parameter Sturdivan Data Minisi Data

(baseline)

α 0.5 0.5

b 0.34 0.34

D

c

(mm) 4.445 4.445

V

c

(m/s) 85 105

7

the deceleration is desired.

First, we examine how this model predicts normalized penetration vs. striking velocity

for spheres of different diameters. Figure 2 shows how the sphere diameter affects the

normalized penetration proﬁles. All these curves would collapse into a single curve if

the strain rate dependence were absent (i.e., if α = 0). As it is, however, the strain-rate

dependence signiﬁcantly lowers the normalized penetration as the sphere diameter is

decreased. The ﬁgure includes curves for a number of sphere diameters, including the

three (ranging from 2.38 mm to 6.35 mm) tested by Sturdivan (3) that were also used to

ﬁt the model parameters (to be later examined in greater detail).

Normalized Steel Sphere Penetration into Gelatin

(predicted as a function of velocity

with sphere diameter as a parameter)

V

0

(m/s)

0 500 1000 1500 2000

P

/

D

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

D (mm)

25.4

10

6.35

1

0.5

0.1

2.38

4.76

Figure 2. Normalized penetration of steel sphere

into 20% ballistic gelatin, predicted as a

function of striking velocity, with sphere

diameter as a parameter.

Figure 3 considers the situation for one diameter of sphere (10 mm) and examines the

penetration that is achieved as the sphere is decelerated to a particular fraction of the

striking velocity (V

r

/V

0

). Here, the term V

r

refers to the residual velocity possessed by

the penetrator upon penetrating a certain depth of gelatin. Because the penetrator is

rigid, however, V

r

also represents the instantaneous penetration velocity. While the

numerical values of residual and penetration velocity will be equal, the distinction is

whether attention is being called to the behavior of the penetrator or the target,

8

Normalized 10mm Steel Sphere Penetration into Gelatin

(predicted as a function of velocity with

residual velocity fraction as a parameter)

V

0

(m/s)

0 500 1000 1500 2000

P

/

D

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

V

r

/V

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.6

Figure 3. Normalized penetration for steel sphere

(D = 10 mm) into 20% ballistic gelatin,

predicted as a function of striking

velocity, with relative residual velocity,

V

r

/V

0

, as a parameter.

respectively. The larger spacing between the low-residual-velocity curves (at high

striking velocity) indicates that the greatest penetration efﬁciency occurs at these lower

penetration velocities. Such a result is not wholly unexpected since the strain-rate

dependence of the model is one that yields a stronger target at higher strain rates (i.e., at

higher instantaneous penetration velocities).

The horizontal ﬂatness of the curves at higher striking velocity indicates that for a ﬁxed

percent residual-velocity degradation, a ﬁxed penetration is obtained, regardless of the

actual striking velocity. This result represents the solution to any inertially driven

problem (i.e., where strength is a small fraction of the inertial force) and is not a function

of the strain-rate dependence of the target material.

Rather than portraying the information in terms of relative residual velocity, as in

ﬁgure 3, the same information can be displayed in terms of the abolute residual velocity.

This is done in ﬁgure 4, which reveals a few additional subtleties compared to ﬁgure 3.

While the same basic trend of higher penetration efﬁciency at lower penetration

9

Normalized 10mm Steel Sphere Penetration into Gelatin

(predicted as a function of velocity

with residual velocity as a parameter)

V

0

(m/s)

0 500 1000 1500 2000

P

/

D

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

V

r

(m/s)

0

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

2

0

0

1

5

0

1

0

0

5

0

Figure 4. Normalized penetration for steel sphere

(D = 10 mm) into 20% ballistic gelatin,

predicted as a function of striking

velocity, with residual velocity, V

r

, as a

parameter.

velocities is quite apparent (e.g., for V

r

below 250 m/s), ﬁgure 4 shows that this trend has

its limits at low striking velocities. For V

r

below 25 m/s, the efﬁciency drops

precipitously. This reversal is due to the fact that at very low penetration velocities, the

inertial term is becoming dwarfed by the strength magnitude, even as the strength term

is itself decreasing. For the data ﬁt being considered, optimal penetration efﬁciency

appears to occur in the range of 50–150 m/s, though it remains relatively high to

penetration velocities approaching 500 m/s.

Another interesting representation of the model can be considered by comparing the

drag coefﬁcient as a function of the Reynolds number for the current gelatin model

vs. the data that exists for spheres traversing purely Newtonian ﬂuids. This comparison

is displayed in ﬁgure 5, speciﬁcally for spheres of 2.38 mm and 6.35 mm diameter

vis- ` a-vis Newtonian ﬂow. To estimate the Reynolds number in gelatin, a value for

viscosity had to be established. And while viscous drag is not part of the current gelatin

model, a value was selected based on estimates of Sturdivan (3). Taking Sturdivan’s

boundary-layer thickness as the radius of the sphere, the value of µ/D takes on a

10

Gelatin Drag Coefficient, as modelled

R = ρ VD/μ

1e-1 1e+0 1e+1 1e+2 1e+3 1e+4 1e+5 1e+6

C

D

0.1

1

10

100

α=0.5, b=0.34,

V

c

=85 m/s, D

c

=4.445mm

D=2.38mm

in gelatin

D=6.35mm

in gelatin

Spheres in

Newtonian Fluid

(ref. Schlichting)

C

D

= b + (D

c

/D)

α

(V

c

/V)

2−α

Note: The curve for spheres in Newtonian ﬂuid was adapted

from (5) in ﬁgure 1.

Figure 5. Drag coefﬁcient vs. Reynolds number for

2.38 mm and 6.35 mm spheres penetrating

gelatin vis- ` a-vis a Newtonian ﬂuid .

constant value of 15,000 Pa·s/m. To repeat, this value was used merely to establish a

Reynolds number in gelatin for comparative purposes and is not an integral part of the

current strength-based gelatin model. The effect on the ﬁgure of selecting a different

value for µ/D would be to shift the model curves horizontally (to the left if µ/D were

increased and to the right if it decreased). Such a variation will not invalidate the

inferences to be drawn about the qualitative behavior of the drag coefﬁcient in gelatin.

The comparison shown in ﬁgure 5 reveals several salient points. First, with decreasing

Reynolds numbers, the gelatin drag rises more steeply than the Newtonian data. This

feature occurs because shear strength is a component of the gelatin drag, whereas it is

not in Newtonian ﬂuids. As the penetration velocity (i.e., the Reynolds number) is

decreased, the inﬂuence of the strength term becomes more prominent.

The other important point to draw is that in the ﬂat (i.e., steady-state) range of laminar

ﬂow, drag in gelatin is somewhat less than that in Newtonian ﬂuids (a drag coefﬁcient of

0.34 as compared with approximately 0.40). This behavior of gelatin is believed to arise

11

from the gelatin’s tensile strength. In particular, the strength of gelatin serves to retard

the tension-induced ﬂow separation by providing an ability to withstand some level of

tension as the ﬂow approaches the waist of the sphere. The retarded separation

produces what can only be described as a more streamlined ﬂow vis- ` a-vis a Newtonian

ﬂuid, having the net effect of lowering the form drag upon the sphere.

The sharp adjustment of Newtonian drag for R > 10

5

depicts the effect of a transition

from laminar to turbulent ﬂow. To this point, no evidence of such a transition in gelatin

has been observed, though it is not exactly clear what form turbulance might take in a

viscoelastic solid.

3.2 Comparison to Experimental Data

Having laid out the form and functional behavior of this strain-rate dependent gelatin

model, one may turn to a comparison with ballistic data of sphere penetration into 20%

gelatin. Surdivan (3) presented data in the form of penetration vs. time. Data collection

often ceased while there was still forward motion of the sphere. To represent his data for

this report, Sturdivan’s graphs were digitized in order to estimate late-time penetrations

and associated residual velocities. More recently, Minisi (4) has collected low-velocity

impact data for steel spheres into gelatin. Minisi’s data has the virtue of being collected

out to the point where forward velocity of the sphere ceased.

Because the predicted response is dependent upon the projectile diameter, it will prove

easist to present comparisons for each respective sphere size for which data is available.

In all cases, however, it is the same model parameters described in the prior section of

this report which are used for the model predictions of the data, for all projectile

diameters. Namely, these parameters take on the values depicted in table 1.

First, we consider 2.38 mm-diameter steel-sphere data collected by Sturdivan,

corresponding to a mass of 0.85 gr. The results are shown in ﬁgure 6. Predictions for the

low-velocity impacts are quite insensitive to small amounts of residual velocity because

the sphere deceleration is quite pronounced at these low velocities. The high velocity

data above 2000 m/s are likewise matched very well by the model.

Next, we consider Sturdivan’s data for 7 gr. steel spheres with 4.76 mm diameters. The

comparison to the model is shown in ﬁgure 7. Both experimental data are matched

closely by the model.

12

P/D for 0.85 gr (D = 2.38mm) Steel Spheres

V

0

(m/s)

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

P

/

D

0

20

40

60

80

2.38mm steel sphere (Sturdivan)

Model (V

r

=0)

Model (V

r

/V

0

= 0.03)

Model (V

r

/V

0

= 0.07)

V

r

/V

0

= 0.017

V

r

/V

0

= 0.029

V

r

/V

0

< 0.071

V

r

/V

0

= 0.

V

r

/V

0

= 0.021

Figure 6. Normalized penetration vs. striking

velocity for 2.38 mm (0.85 gr.) steel

spheres penetrating gelatin.

V

0

(m/s)

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

P

/

D

0

20

40

60

80

4.76mm steel sphere (Sturdivan)

Model (V

r

=0)

Model (V

r

/V

0

= 0.0615)

Model (V

r

/V

0

= 0.137)

V

r

/V

0

= 0.0615

V

r

/V

0

= 0.137

P/D for 7 gr (D = 4.76mm) Steel Spheres

Figure 7. Normalized penetration vs. striking

velocity for 4.76 mm (7 gr.) steel

spheres penetrating gelatin.

13

The data for 16 gr. steel spheres from Sturdivan are examined in ﬁgure 8. The match of

the model to data is generally excellent, with the lone exception being the highest

velocity datum whose penetration is several diameters beyond the predicted amount;

nonetheless, this amounts to an error of less than 7%.

Finally, we consider the data of Minisi, collected for 4.445 mm steel spheres impacting at

speeds below 300 m/s. The data and two corresponding ﬁts are displayed in ﬁgure 9.

When using the ﬁtting parameters employed for the Sturdivan data set, the prediction

was on the high side of the data. In order to match this limited data set better, one of the

ﬁtted parameters, V

c

, was set to a larger value of 105 m/s.

As to why there is this slight systematic disparity, one possibility is offered here for

consideration. Hydrated ballistic gelatin is a material unlike most targets of ballistic

interest in that several key phases of the preparation are performed, not in a

manufacuting plant but by the end user. These key phases include hydrating the gelatin

powder to the right concentration in water of the proper temperature, mixing the

solution to maximize homogeneity while minimizing void content, and refrigerating the

hydrated liquid gelatin to the proper temperature until the material sets. With all these

key phases in the hands of the end user, it is perhaps not surprising that if two

laboratories were to start with the same gelatin powder, they might produce batches of

20% ballistic gelatin with slight, yet systematic variations in mechanical properties.

Given that the Sturdivan and Minisi data sets were generated over 25 years apart in two

different facilities, the author ﬁnds such a disparity of minor concern. To help clarify the

nature of this data disparity, it would have been beneﬁcial if the Minisi data could have

been extended out to higher velocities.

Figures 6–9 portray the maximum penetration achieved by a variety of different spheres

impacting over a large range of striking velocities. The corresponding curves, given by

equation 17, which accounts for the effect of local strain rate, appear to provide excellent

ﬁts to the data. However, a better measure of the quality of the ﬁt may be obtained by

examining the decelerations of individual tests and their corresponding predictions

according to equation 16. Figures 10–13 provide those curves for all the test data

examined in this report where, as before, each ﬁgure depicts the data for a different

sphere diameter. Despite some scatter in the data, the model captures very well the

transitions from high-velocity deceleration, to mid-velocity penetration efﬁciency, to

low-velocity arrest.

14

Penetration of 6.35 mm spheres

into gelatin

V

0

(m/s)

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

P

/

D

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

6.35mm steel sphere (Sturdivan)

Model (V

r

=0)

Model (V

r

/V

0

= 0.09)

Model (V

r

/V

0

= 0.145)

V

r

/V

0

= 0.098

V

r

/V

0

= 0.145

V

r

/V

0

= 0.089

V

r

/V

0

= 0.090

V

r

/V

0

= 0.104

Figure 8. Normalized penetration vs. striking

velocity for 6.35 mm (16 gr.) steel

spheres penetrating gelatin.

V

0

(m/s)

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

P

/

D

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

4.445mm steel sphere (Minisi)

Model (V

r

=0, V

c

=85m/s)

Model (V

r

=0, V

c

=105m/s)

Penetration of 4.445 mm spheres

into gelatin

Figure 9. Normalized penetration vs. striking

velocity for 4.445 mm steel spheres

penetrating gelatin.

15

0.85 gr. Steel Sphere, D = 2.38 mm

z (cm)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

V

(

m

/

s

)

0

500

1000

1500

2000

230m/s

285m/s

305m/s

521m/s

814m/s

951m/s

979m/s

2028m/s

2229m/s

Figure 10. Velocity vs. position for 2.38 mm steel

spheres of Sturdivan (3), with

comparison to model predictions.

7 gr. Steel Sphere, D = 4.76mm

z (cm)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

V

(

m

/

s

)

0

200

400

600

800

1000

287m/s

942m/s

Figure 11. Velocity vs. position for 4.76 mm steel

spheres of Sturdivan (3), with

comparison to model predictions.

16

16 gr. Steel Sphere, D = 6.35 mm

z (cm)

0 10 20 30 40

V

(

m

/

s

)

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

305m/s

696m/s

1012m/s

1022m/s

1375m/s

Figure 12. Velocity vs. position for 6.35 mm steel

spheres of Sturdivan (3), with

comparison to model predictions.

Steel Sphere: D = 4.445 mm

(using V

c

= 105 m/s)

z (cm)

0 2 4 6 8

V

(

m

/

s

)

0

50

100

150

200

250

240 m/s

220 m/s

198 m/s

166 m/s

142 m/s

114 m/s

Figure 13. Velocity vs. position for 4.445 mm

steel spheres of Minisi (4), with

comparison to model predictions.

17

While Sturdivan did not publish V vs. x plots (only V vs. t), he did derive the equation

characterizing the Resal’s Law form that he utilized. The equation takes the form of

V = V

0

−c(1 −e

−dx

) . (22)

Such a form does not change concavity. . . it is always concave upwards. The

concave-downward “knee,” which is invariably present at the lower right terminus of

the curves in ﬁgures 10–13, cannot be modeled with Resal’s Law, as Sturdivan himself

admits. As such, a ﬁt of Sturdivan’s model to the high-velocity segment of the data will

invariably lead to a systematic overestimation of the ﬁnal penetration when Resal’s Law

is utilized. Likewise, an attempt to match the ﬁnal penetration with Resal’s Law will

produce a poor ﬁt of velocity over much of the deceleration. Such deﬁciencies do not

apply to the currently proposed strain-rate dependent model.

Because of the fortuitous value of the ﬁtted coefﬁcient α = 1/2, position vs. time is also

implicitly available, by way of equations 20 and 16 (see ﬁgure 14 for an example).

Distance vs. time, V

0

=2229 m/s

0.85 gr., 2.38 mm sphere

t (s)

0.0000 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006

x

(

c

m

)

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

Model

Data (Sturdivan)

Figure 14. Position vs. time for 2.38 mm steel

sphere of Sturdivan (3), impacting at

2229 m/s, with comparison to

model predictions.

18

4. Conclusions

In this report, a model was proposed to characterize the resistance of gelatin to

penetration by spherical penetrators. The proposed model differs from traditional

resistance formulations, where the resistance is assumed to be a constant material

property. It also differs from the gelatin model of Sturdivan (3), which treats the target

resistance in terms of Newtonian viscosity. In the present model, the resistance is

assumed to be a power of the strain rate, the actual exponent being a ﬁtted parameter of

the model. In this manner, the current model bridges the gap between a pure

strength-based resistance formulation and a Newtonian-viscous formulation.

The net effect of a rate-dependent formulation for gelatin is that the target resistance

varies with both penetration velocity as well as projectile diameter. The behavior of such

a model was ﬁtted to and compared against historical data of Sturdivan (3) as well as

more recent data of Minisi (4). Over velocities which reached as high as 2229 m/s and

over a range of sphere diameters from 2.38 mm to 6.35 mm, the model was shown to

match the data in an excellent manner.

Unlike the Resal’s Law formulation employed by Sturdivan, where the projectile

velocity is always concave upward as a function of instantaneous penetration, the

current model can and does capture the change in concavity in velocity vs. penetration,

as the sphere is rapidly decelerated and brought to a halt in the latter stages of the event.

The general form of the current model is able to provide a closed-form solution for

velocity vs. instantaneous penetration (i.e., position). However, in the current case,

because the ﬁtted strain-rate exponent is exactly 1/2, there also exists a closed-form

solution for time vs. velocity. In this manner, position vs. time results are available as an

implicit function of velocity.

While comparison to data over a wider range of sphere diameters would be highly

desirable to further validate the rate-dependence feature of the proposed model, the

existing data nonetheless spans a respectable range of striking velocities and projectile

diameters. Another problem worthy of future investigation would be to adapt the model

for use with nonspherical projectiles. While such an adaptation should hopefully be

straightforward for rigid, compact (L/D ≈ 1) fragments, the modeling of eroding,

19

slender (L/D > 1), or ﬂat (L/D < 1) projectiles would require additional considerations,

especially if the penetration into gelatin were not aerodynamically stable.

20

5. References

1. Tate, A. A Theory for the Deceleration of Long Rods After Impact. Journal of

Mechanics and Physics of Solids 1967, 15, 387–399.

2. Segletes, S. B.; Walters, W. P. Extensions to the Exact Solution of the Long-Rod

Penetration/Erosion Equations. International Journal of Impact Engineering 2003, 28,

363–376.

3. Sturdivan, L. M. A Mathematical Model of Penetration of Chunky Projectiles in a Gelatin

Tissue Simulant; ARCSL-TR-78055; U.S. Army Chemical Systems Laboratory:

Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, December 1978.

4. Minisi, M. LS-Dyna Simulations of Ballistic Gelatin; U.S. Army ARDEC: Picatinny

Arsenal, NJ, report in progress, 31 October 2006.

5. Schlichting, H. Boundary-Layer Theory; 7

th

ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1979 (ﬁrst

published in German as Grenzschicht-Theorie, 1951).

6. Beyer, W. H. CRC Standard Math Tables; 26

th

ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 1981.

21

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NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator.

**Army Research Laboratory
**

Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069

ARL-TR-4393

March 2008

**Modeling the Penetration Behavior of Rigid Spheres Into Ballistic Gelatin
**

Steven B. Segletes

Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

penetration. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release. In order to properly capture the response for a wide variety of sphere sizes and impact velocities. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. REPORT TYPE 3. SUBJECT TERMS gelatin. Z39.18 ii . ABSTRACT c. 13. rigid. sphere. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER Modeling the Penetration Behavior of Rigid Spheres Into Ballistic Gelatin 6. rate-dependence 16. TASK NUMBER 5f. distribution is unlimited. ABSTRACT The penetration of 20% ballistic gelatin by rigid steel spheres is studied and analytically modeled. to Department of Defense. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188). no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. DATES COVERED (From . Segletes AH80 5e. VA 22202-4302. Arlington. SPONSOR/MONITOR'S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. a rate-dependent strength formulation is required for the ballistic resistance of gelatin. GRANT NUMBER 5c. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response.S. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. including suggestions for reducing the burden. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Steven B. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. AUTHOR(S) 5d. 1. REPORT b. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. PROJECT NUMBER Steven B. searching existing data sources. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. Washington Headquarters Services. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. Segletes 19b. including the time for reviewing instructions. 15. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8.To) March 2008 4.REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. MD 21005-5069 9. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. Army Research Laboratory ATTN: AMSRD-ARL-WM-TC Aberdeen Proving Ground. and completing and reviewing the collection information. gathering and maintaining the data needed. Suite 1204. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final September 2006–July 2007 5a. THIS PAGE 17. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UL 36 410-278-6010 Standard Form 298 (Rev. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TR-4393 10.

. . .2 6 Model Parameters and Qualitative Behavior . . . . . . . . . . 12 19 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents List of Figures iv 1. . . . . . 7 Comparison to Experimental Data . . . . . . . Introduction 1 2. . . . . References 21 Distribution List 23 iii . . . . . . Theory 3 3. . . Conclusions 5. .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results 3. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Normalized penetration vs.. . . . 10 Figure 5. . . . . 15 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . predicted as a function of striking velocity. . . . 8 Figure 3. . . . . . . . position for 2. . . . .85 gr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 7. . . Drag coefﬁcients for spheres traversing Newtonian ﬂuid as a function of Reynolds number (5). . . . . . as a parameter. Vr . . .) steel spheres penetrating gelatin. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 iv . . . . . . . 4 Figure 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normalized penetration vs. . . . . .445 mm steel spheres penetrating gelatin. . . . . . striking velocity for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with relative residual velocity. . . . . . . . . . . striking velocity for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity vs. . .. . . . . . . . . . with comparison to model predictions. . . . . 15 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . .76 mm steel spheres of Sturdivan (3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . striking velocity for 2. .35 mm spheres penetrating gelatin vis-a-vis a Newtonian ﬂuid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 8. . . . . . . . . . . .) steel spheres penetrating gelatin. . . . . with comparison to model predictions. . Drag coefﬁcient vs. . . . . . striking velocity for 6. . . . . . Velocity vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normalized penetration vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 mm (0. . . . . . . . . . . Normalized penetration for steel sphere (D = 10 mm) into 20% ballistic gelatin. . . . . . . . . 11 ` Figure 6. position for 4. . . Reynolds number for 2. . Normalized penetration of steel sphere into 20% ballistic gelatin. . . .38 mm and 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures Figure 1. . . . . . Normalized penetration for steel sphere (D = 10 mm) into 20% ballistic gelatin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with sphere diameter as a parameter. . . . . . . . 9 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . with residual velocity. . . .38 mm steel spheres of Sturdivan (3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . predicted as a function of striking velocity. . . . . Vr /V0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) steel spheres penetrating gelatin. .35 mm (16 gr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . as a parameter. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 11. predicted as a function of striking velocity. . . . . . . . .76 mm (7 gr. . . . . . . . . . . . . Normalized penetration vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . with comparison to model predictions. . position for 6. . . . . . . with comparison to model predictions. . . . . . . Position vs. . . . .. . . . . . . . 17 Figure 14. . . with comparison to model predictions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . position for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 mm steel sphere of Sturdivan (3). Velocity vs. . . . . . . . . . . time for 2. . . .Figure 12. . impacting at 2229 m/s. . . . . . . . . . . 17 Figure 13. . . . . . . . . . . .35 mm steel spheres of Sturdivan (3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity vs. . . . . . . . . . .445 mm steel spheres of Minisi (4). . . . . . . . . . 18 v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi .I NTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK .

U is the penetration velocity. In this circumstance. ¯ (2) Such a result is seen." ρT is the target density. as part of the stress balance in the so-called extended-Bernoulli equation used by Tate (1) and others. 1 . and that kT approaches the value of 0. independent of penetration velocity) whose magnitude is in the range of four to six times the uniaxial ﬂow stress of the material. the projectile remains rigid during the penetration event. with constant values of kT and RT . The result is that the decelerative stress averaged over the cross section is given by σ = F/AP = 1/2ρT U2 + RT . no simpliﬁcations are obvious regarding the shape factor and wetted area. the eroding nose of the projectile assumes a roughly hemispherical shape which is fully wetted by the erosion products. for example. Introduction One may calculate the interface force. AP . (1) where Ap_wet is the wetted area of the projectile.. then a different set of simpliﬁcations apply. Thus. and when it is used as the decelerative stress acting upon the cross section of a rigid projectile. F. projected onto a plane perpendicular to the velocity vector. U.5 associated with the Bernoulli stagnation pressure. must equal the projectile velocity.1. While it is deduced that the penetration velocity. V. kT and Ap_wet . and RT is the so-called target resistance. one may reasonably assume that Ap_wet approaches the cross-sectional area of the projectile. to obtain F/Ap_wet = kT ρT U2 + RT . ¯ (3) When this equation is approximated by taking Ap_wet as AP . kT is the target-ﬂow "shape factor. upon a projectile as the target’s averaged ﬂow stress applied over the directional component of the projectile’s wetted area. respectively. the form the equation takes is known as the Poncelet form. many analyses have suggested (and experiments have supported) that the target resistance can be treated as a constant (i. For ductile eroding targets.e. If. an integrated amalgam of the deviatoric stress ﬁeld developed in the target. When the projectile erodes. the cross-section-averaged decelerative stress is σ = F/AP = (kT ρT V 2 + RT ) · Ap_wet /AP . however.

is given by M tan−1 tf = √ BC V0 B C . V drops to zero. (8) where the event duration.. to yield M B 2 P(V0 ) = log 1 + V0 . through trigonometric substitution.The Poncelet form looks like ˙ −MV = BV 2 + C (4) ˙ and is traditionally solved by expressing the acceleration V as V(dV/dx). where t is the time variable) when they solved for the residual rigid-body penetration phase of an otherwise eroding-body event. is V(t) = and M x(t) = B C tan B √ BC (tf − t) M √ (7) √ BC (tf − t) − log cos log cos M BC tf M . 2 . tf . This is as it should be since the total penetration should not depend on whether V was integrated over t or x. the solution yields the penetration depth as a function of the current velocity: x(V) = M log 2B 2 C + BV0 C + BV 2 . Given a striking velocity. that x for the case of V = 0 in equation 5 is identical to x for the case of t = tf in equation 8. (6) 2B C Segletes and Walters (2) also offered a time-dependent explicit solution to the Poncelet form (i. The form of their solution. (9) It can be shown.e. (5) The ﬁnal penetration depth is obtained when the instantaneous velocity. V0 . in terms of V(t) and x(t). where x is the coordinate of penetration. using the nomenclature of equation 4.

e. the ﬂow stress) to be a material property that is not constant as in the Poncelet form but instead dependent upon a power of the characteristic strain rate. the instantaneous drag coefﬁcient may be expressed as F =b+ CD = 1/2ρT V 2 AP Dc D α Vc V 2−α .. In the current ` approach. (11) where D is the projectile diameter (D/2 is the characteristic length of shearing strain).2. the sphere diameter of equation 12 is a constant parameter for any given test. A characteristic strain rate may be conveniently deﬁned as ˙ = 2V/D . In hopes of simplifying equation 3 to a useful. the latter stages of penetration tended to be overestimated since viscous deceleration loses its potency at diminished velocity vis-a-vis strength-based deceleration. we will assume kT and Ap_wet /AP to be constant. Theory Presently. Therefore. a rate-based strength is introduced. we have 2 F/AP = 1/2ρT · [bV 2 + Vc ( ˙ / ˙ c )α ] . (10) where b. Sturdivan modeled the gelatin by considering the effects of inertial and viscous deceleration using a generalization of Resal’s law. we wish to model the penetration of gelatin by rigid spheres. First. To do so. We will generalize the target resistance RT (i. With the form of equation 10 and in light of equation 11. Vc . allowing one to bridge the gap between pure viscous and pure strength-based velocity retardation models. solvable form that is nonetheless more general than the Poncelet form. Gelatin strength was not part of Sturdivan’s model. varying only when the projectile is changed for 3 . we will make several assumptions a priori and later determine their appropriateness. we will re-examine the data of Sturdivan (3) and Minisi (4). ˙ . α. (12) Note that since the penetrator remains rigid. and ˙ c are constants (b and α are dimensionless) that have been introduced in a manner compatible with our assumptions. As a result. from equation 3.

increase for typical α) during the course of deceleration. In contrast. for a laminar Newtonain ﬂuid at moderate Reynolds number. However. merely through the selection of parameters α and b. when the material behaves as a Newtonian ﬂuid). the value of b would equal unity and the exponent α would be zero. the dependence of CD on instantaneous velocity V means that for a target material with strength.. the drag coefﬁcient will change (i.. For the special case of α = 1 in which the ﬂow stress of the target is directly proportional to the strain rate (i. Drag coefﬁcients for spheres traversing Newtonian ﬂuid as a function of Reynolds number (5).g. the drag form of equation 12 for vanishing V will mimic the low-Reynolds-number Stoke’s formula for drag upon a sphere. (13) 4 .different test cases.. Thus. Figure 1.e.e. for a rigid penetrator in a constant-drag ﬂuid (e. 2000 < R < 250. For an eroding conﬁguration into a traditional Tate-like ductile target material. see ﬁgure 1) and the values of Vc would equal zero. the resulting equation of motion becomes 2 ˙ −(M/AP ) · V = 1/2 ρT · [bV 2 + Vc ( ˙ / ˙ c )α ] . we see that the form we have chosen in equation 10.4 for a sphere in Newtonian ﬂuid. 000). can be made to emulate material behavior somewhere between an ideal ductile solid (α = 0 and b = 1) and a laminar Newtonian ﬂuid (very approximately. α = 1 and b = CD(steady) ). the value of b would equal the ﬁxed drag coefﬁcent (approximately 0. When the retardation force is formulated according to equation 10.

Regardless. (15) = 2−α + (D /D)α V 2−α 4 ρP D bV c c Such a form is directly integrable over the velocity limits V0 to V as 3 4 ρT ρP x 1 1 + b (D/Dc )α (V0 /Vc )2−α = log D b(2 − α) 1 + b (D/Dc )α (V/Vc )2−α . for certain select values of α. Fitting equation 17 would appear to require the speciﬁcation of four ﬁtting parameters. one obtains the total penetration. α. However. Having formulated a ﬂow-retardation form for rigid spheres (equation 14) that is more general than the Poncelet form (equation 4) we must now derive the solution to it. striking-velocity data. additional progress may be had. be 2−α grouped together as Vc Dα and therefore represent a single independent parameter. the term 2Leff simply becomes (4/3)D. while equation 16 can be used to examine the deceleration characteristics of individual tests. and Vc . For the present case of a spherical projectile. equation 14 can be reformulated into: −V 1−α dV 3 ρT dx . V data have been extracted. b. Using ˙ the standard approach of decomposing V as V dV/dx. can be characterized as the projectile volume divided by the projectile’s presented area when projected onto a plane perpendicular to the velocity vector. (14) where the effective length. P. for which P vs. ˙ . In c 5 . comparable to that given in equations 7–9 has been obtained for this more general case. however. normalized penetration. allows one to obtain the formulation in terms of V and D: − ρP ρT ˙ 2Leff V = bV 2 + Dc D α 2−α Vc V α . is no longer independent of projectile diameter. P/D. (16) For the case where penetration ceases at V = 0. no time-based solution. in fact. With a target-material description that is a function of strain rate. Dc . However. Leff . as 3 4 ρT ρP P 1 = log 1 + b (D/Dc )α (V0 /Vc )2−α D b(2 − α) . the terms involving the parameters Vc and Dc can. equation 17 provides a solution which can be compared against aggregated penetration vs. (17) Unfortunately.Substituting for the geometric terms as well as the strain rate. as will be subsequently explored.

8ρP D bz + a 1/2 (18) Vc3/2 . 6 . the integration required of equation 18 is not adversely affected since a remains constant for any given test case.practice. This form is directly integrable (6) and yields. which can vary from test to test. t as an implicit function of V for this very special case of α = 1/2. V (20) a . and Vc is ﬁt accordingly. 3. one can construct x vs. For example. The fortuitous ﬁtting of the α parameter to a value of 1/2 will provide such an opportunity. (19) While a contains the diameter D. one may begin with equation 14. Results The presentation of data vis-a-vis the model is complicated by the fact that the available ` data cover a range of sphere diameters and not all of the collected data span the complete test. For certain select values of α. Dc is arbitrarily taken as the sphere diameter for which some test data is available. It should also be noted that the reporting of penetration into gelatin is further complicated by the presence of a large elastic recoil in the target. using the substitution of z2 = V. √ √ k 1 (k + V)3 √ 3ρT −1 2 V − k √ t= log + 3 tan 8ρP D 3a 2 a + bV 3/2 k 3 where k= 3 V0 . In this case. Because of this recoil. b (21) Once t(V) is known through equation 20 and given that x(V) is known through equation 16. in order to arrive at the form − where a= Dc D dz 3ρT dt = 3 . the tests of Sturdivan (3) terminated data collection while there was still signiﬁcant residual velocity in the penetrator. upon resubstitution for V. additional progress may be had in obtaining analytical solutions.

this report uses the maximum penetration to deﬁne the penetration.175 in). showing how the sundry experimental data compare with the model. The other model parameters were ﬁtted to equation 17 using the data of Sturdivan (3) and Minisi (4). the x(t) data were digitized from plots. the ﬁtted value of α is 1/2.5 0. However. Arguments can be made for the use of either metric as the more appropriate measure of penetration. x(t) data were provided directly in tabular form. 3.445 85 0. therefore. central differencing was employed to estimate the instantaneous slope of the x(t) curve (representing V(t)). In the case of Minisi’s more limited data set. to navigate through the results by ﬁrst presenting the ﬁtted parameters. while in the case of Sturdivan. all ﬁtted parameters remained the same except Vc . In the case of Minisi. and using the more extensive data set of Sturdivan spanning three sphere diameters and striking velocities out to 2229 m/s. We will take the ﬁts to the Sturdivan dataset as the baseline set of ﬁtted parameters to examine here.445 105 Minisi Data 7 . which fortuitously allows for the employment of equation 20 if the time response of Table 1. because the current model (which ignores recoil) is intended to be used to predict the time-response of penetration.1 Model Parameters and Qualitative Behavior The parameter Dc was arbitrarily selected as 4. Note. which was best ﬁt as 105 m/s.34 4. Model parameter ﬁts.5 0. which occurs prior to the recoil. and ﬁnally. Their values are given in table 1. however. In both cases. With this technique. the remaining model parameters were ﬁtted. It is perhaps easiest. corresponding to the sphere diameter employed in a number of tests by Minisi (4) into 20% ballistic gelatin. Parameter α b Dc (mm) Vc (m/s) Sturdivan Data (baseline) 0. then examining the functional behavior of the model with those parameters.445 mm (0.the ﬁnal penetration can be somewhat less than the point of maximum penetration.34 4. that in both cases.

The ﬁgure includes curves forSphere Penetration into Gelatin three (ranging from 2.5 0. As it is. While the numerical values of residual and penetration velocity will be equal. the distinction is whether attention is being called to the behavior of the penetrator or the target.38 1 0.35 4.1 P/D 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 V0 (m/s) Figure 2. if α = 0). Because the penetrator is rigid. 8 . we examine how this model predicts normalized penetration vs. All these curves would collapse into a single curve if the strain rate dependence were absent (i. the strain-rate dependence signiﬁcantly lowers the normalized penetration as the sphere diameter is Normalized Steel a number of sphere diameters. however.4 10 6.38 mm to (predicted as a function of velocity that were also used to 6. including the decreased. with sphere diameter as a parameter. Figure 2 shows how the sphere diameter affects the normalized penetration proﬁles. Figure 3 considers the situation for one diameter of sphere (10 mm) and examines the penetration that is achieved as the sphere is decelerated to a particular fraction of the striking velocity (Vr /V0 ). First.. Vr also represents the instantaneous penetration velocity. 100 90 80 70 60 D (mm) 25. Normalized penetration of steel sphere into 20% ballistic gelatin. the term Vr refers to the residual velocity possessed by the penetrator upon penetrating a certain depth of gelatin.the deceleration is desired.35 mm) tested by Sturdivan (3) with sphere diameter as a parameter) ﬁt the model parameters (to be later examined in greater detail). striking velocity for spheres of different diameters.e.76 2. however. predicted as a function of striking velocity. Here.

8 0.1 0.. respectively.5 0. The horizontal ﬂatness of the curves at higher striking velocity indicates that for a ﬁxed percent residual-velocity degradation.e.Normalized 10mm Steel Sphere Penetration into Gelatin (predicted as a function of velocity with residual velocity fraction as a parameter) 100 90 80 70 60 Vr /V0 0 0.. Such a result is not wholly unexpected since the strain-rate dependence of the model is one that yields a stronger target at higher strain rates (i.9 0 500 1000 1500 2000 P/D 50 40 30 20 10 0 V0 (m/s) Figure 3. The larger spacing between the low-residual-velocity curves (at high striking velocity) indicates that the greatest penetration efﬁciency occurs at these lower penetration velocities. Vr /V0 . While the same basic trend of higher penetration efﬁciency at lower penetration 9 . This is done in ﬁgure 4. where strength is a small fraction of the inertial force) and is not a function of the strain-rate dependence of the target material. Normalized penetration for steel sphere (D = 10 mm) into 20% ballistic gelatin. with relative residual velocity. at higher instantaneous penetration velocities). Rather than portraying the information in terms of relative residual velocity.4 0. predicted as a function of striking velocity. which reveals a few additional subtleties compared to ﬁgure 3. regardless of the actual striking velocity. This result represents the solution to any inertially driven problem (i. as in ﬁgure 3.7 0.2 0.3 0. the same information can be displayed in terms of the abolute residual velocity. a ﬁxed penetration is obtained.6 0.e. as a parameter.

38 mm and 6. This reversal is due to the fact that at very low penetration velocities. a value for ` viscosity had to be established.35 mm diameter vis-a-vis Newtonian ﬂow. a value was selected based on estimates of Sturdivan (3). optimal penetration efﬁciency appears to occur in the range of 50–150 m/s. speciﬁcally for spheres of 2. Another interesting representation of the model can be considered by comparing the drag coefﬁcient as a function of the Reynolds number for the current gelatin model vs. even as the strength term is itself decreasing. the value of µ/D takes on a 10 . with residual velocity. For the data ﬁt being considered. the data that exists for spheres traversing purely Newtonian ﬂuids. the inertial term is becoming dwarfed by the strength magnitude. Vr . though it remains relatively high to penetration velocities approaching 500 m/s. Taking Sturdivan’s boundary-layer thickness as the radius of the sphere. the efﬁciency drops precipitously. Normalized penetration for steel sphere (D = 10 mm) into 20% ballistic gelatin. for Vr below 250 m/s). For Vr below 25 m/s. predicted as a function of striking velocity. ﬁgure 4 shows that this trend has its limits at low striking velocities. This comparison is displayed in ﬁgure 5.Normalized 10mm Steel Sphere Penetration into Gelatin (predicted as a function of velocity with residual velocity as a parameter) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 500 1000 1500 50 0 10 50 1 0 20 Vr (m/s) 0 P/D 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 2000 V0 (m/s) Figure 4. And while viscous drag is not part of the current gelatin model. velocities is quite apparent (e..g. as a parameter. To estimate the Reynolds number in gelatin.

The effect on the ﬁgure of selecting a different value for µ/D would be to shift the model curves horizontally (to the left if µ/D were increased and to the right if it decreased).38 mm and 6.e. the inﬂuence of the strength term becomes more prominent. Schlichting) D=6. the Reynolds number) is decreased. First.34. this value was used merely to establish a Reynolds number in gelatin for comparative purposes and is not an integral part of the current strength-based gelatin model. Reynolds number for 2. Vc=85 m/s. whereas it is not in Newtonian ﬂuids. The comparison shown in ﬁgure 5 reveals several salient points. This behavior of gelatin is believed to arise 11 . ` constant value of 15.5. Such a variation will not invalidate the inferences to be drawn about the qualitative behavior of the drag coefﬁcient in gelatin. the gelatin drag rises more steeply than the Newtonian data.35 mm spheres penetrating gelatin vis-a-vis a Newtonian ﬂuid .38mm in gelatin CD = b + (Dc /D)α(Vc /V)2−α 100 α=0. To repeat.. This feature occurs because shear strength is a component of the gelatin drag. b=0..35mm in gelatin 0. Drag coefﬁcient vs. The other important point to draw is that in the ﬂat (i. steady-state) range of laminar ﬂow. as modelled D=2. with decreasing Reynolds numbers. Dc=4.40).1 1e-1 1e+0 1e+1 1e+2 1e+3 1e+4 1e+5 1e+6 R = ρ VD/μ Note: The curve for spheres in Newtonian ﬂuid was adapted from (5) in ﬁgure 1.Gelatin Drag Coefficient.34 as compared with approximately 0.000 Pa·s/m. drag in gelatin is somewhat less than that in Newtonian ﬂuids (a drag coefﬁcient of 0.e.445mm 10 CD 1 Spheres in Newtonian Fluid (ref. Figure 5. As the penetration velocity (i.

The retarded separation produces what can only be described as a more streamlined ﬂow vis-a-vis a Newtonian ` ﬂuid. To represent his data for this report. no evidence of such a transition in gelatin has been observed. The results are shown in ﬁgure 6. 12 . corresponding to a mass of 0. In all cases. it is the same model parameters described in the prior section of this report which are used for the model predictions of the data. for all projectile diameters. it will prove easist to present comparisons for each respective sphere size for which data is available. The sharp adjustment of Newtonian drag for R > 105 depicts the effect of a transition from laminar to turbulent ﬂow. time. Namely. Predictions for the low-velocity impacts are quite insensitive to small amounts of residual velocity because the sphere deceleration is quite pronounced at these low velocities. though it is not exactly clear what form turbulance might take in a viscoelastic solid. To this point.2 Comparison to Experimental Data Having laid out the form and functional behavior of this strain-rate dependent gelatin model. The comparison to the model is shown in ﬁgure 7. one may turn to a comparison with ballistic data of sphere penetration into 20% gelatin. we consider 2. these parameters take on the values depicted in table 1. More recently. Data collection often ceased while there was still forward motion of the sphere. Next. Because the predicted response is dependent upon the projectile diameter.85 gr. steel spheres with 4. Minisi (4) has collected low-velocity impact data for steel spheres into gelatin. Surdivan (3) presented data in the form of penetration vs. however.from the gelatin’s tensile strength. Minisi’s data has the virtue of being collected out to the point where forward velocity of the sphere ceased. In particular. The high velocity data above 2000 m/s are likewise matched very well by the model. the strength of gelatin serves to retard the tension-induced ﬂow separation by providing an ability to withstand some level of tension as the ﬂow approaches the waist of the sphere. Both experimental data are matched closely by the model.76 mm diameters. we consider Sturdivan’s data for 7 gr. First. having the net effect of lowering the form drag upon the sphere. 3. Sturdivan’s graphs were digitized in order to estimate late-time penetrations and associated residual velocities.38 mm-diameter steel-sphere data collected by Sturdivan.

Normalized penetration vs.38mm steel sphere (Sturdivan) Model (Vr=0) Model (Vr /V0 = 0.76mm) Steel Spheres 80 60 P/D 40 Vr /V0 = 0.85 gr.0615 20 4. Normalized penetration vs.07) 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 V0 (m/s) Figure 6.85 gr (D = 2.137) 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 V0 (m/s) Figure 7.76 mm (7 gr.071 Vr /V0 = 0. striking velocity for 2.137 Vr /V0 = 0.017 Vr /V0 = 0.38 mm (0.0615) Model (Vr /V0 = 0.03) Model (Vr /V0 = 0.) steel spheres penetrating gelatin.76mm steel sphere (Sturdivan) Model (Vr=0) Model (Vr /V0 = 0.) steel spheres penetrating gelatin.029 P/D 40 Vr /V0 = 0. 13 . striking velocity for 4. Vr /V0 = 0. P/D for 7 gr (D = 4.021 20 2.P/D for 0.38mm) Steel Spheres 80 60 Vr /V0 < 0.

When using the ﬁtting parameters employed for the Sturdivan data set. appear to provide excellent ﬁts to the data. Given that the Sturdivan and Minisi data sets were generated over 25 years apart in two different facilities.The data for 16 gr. Figures 10–13 provide those curves for all the test data examined in this report where. The data and two corresponding ﬁts are displayed in ﬁgure 9. to low-velocity arrest. nonetheless. The corresponding curves. not in a manufacuting plant but by the end user. However. The match of the model to data is generally excellent. Finally. To help clarify the nature of this data disparity. steel spheres from Sturdivan are examined in ﬁgure 8. we consider the data of Minisi. it would have been beneﬁcial if the Minisi data could have been extended out to higher velocities. collected for 4. In order to match this limited data set better. mixing the solution to maximize homogeneity while minimizing void content. the prediction was on the high side of the data. As to why there is this slight systematic disparity. Vc . each ﬁgure depicts the data for a different sphere diameter. they might produce batches of 20% ballistic gelatin with slight. Despite some scatter in the data. and refrigerating the hydrated liquid gelatin to the proper temperature until the material sets. one possibility is offered here for consideration. was set to a larger value of 105 m/s. Hydrated ballistic gelatin is a material unlike most targets of ballistic interest in that several key phases of the preparation are performed. one of the ﬁtted parameters. which accounts for the effect of local strain rate. given by equation 17. With all these key phases in the hands of the end user. as before. a better measure of the quality of the ﬁt may be obtained by examining the decelerations of individual tests and their corresponding predictions according to equation 16. the model captures very well the transitions from high-velocity deceleration. yet systematic variations in mechanical properties. it is perhaps not surprising that if two laboratories were to start with the same gelatin powder.445 mm steel spheres impacting at speeds below 300 m/s. this amounts to an error of less than 7%. 14 . with the lone exception being the highest velocity datum whose penetration is several diameters beyond the predicted amount. These key phases include hydrating the gelatin powder to the right concentration in water of the proper temperature. the author ﬁnds such a disparity of minor concern. Figures 6–9 portray the maximum penetration achieved by a variety of different spheres impacting over a large range of striking velocities. to mid-velocity penetration efﬁciency.

35 mm (16 gr. 15 .) steel spheres penetrating gelatin. striking velocity for 4.104 Vr /V0 = 0.445 mm spheres into gelatin 50 45 40 35 30 4.35 mm spheres into gelatin 80 70 60 50 Vr /V0 = 0. Vc=85m/s) Model (Vr=0. Normalized penetration vs.445 mm steel spheres penetrating gelatin.09) Model (Vr /V0 = 0. Normalized penetration vs.445mm steel sphere (Minisi) Model (Vr=0.35mm steel sphere (Sturdivan) Model (Vr=0) Model (Vr /V0 = 0.145) 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 V0 (m/s) Figure 8.090 Vr /V0 = 0. Penetration of 4.Penetration of 6. striking velocity for 6.098 P/D 40 30 20 10 0 0 6. Vc=105m/s) P/D 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 V0 (m/s) Figure 9.145 Vr /V0 = 0.089 Vr /V0 = 0.

76mm 1000 287m/s 942m/s 800 600 V (m/s) 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 z (cm) Figure 11. D = 2. 7 gr.38 mm steel spheres of Sturdivan (3). 16 . with comparison to model predictions. D = 4. Steel Sphere.38 mm 2000 1500 V (m/s) 230m/s 285m/s 305m/s 521m/s 814m/s 951m/s 979m/s 2028m/s 2229m/s 1000 500 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 z (cm) Figure 10.76 mm steel spheres of Sturdivan (3).85 gr. with comparison to model predictions. Velocity vs.0. position for 2. Velocity vs. position for 4. Steel Sphere.

35 mm steel spheres of Sturdivan (3). Velocity vs. D = 6. position for 4. Velocity vs. Steel Sphere.16 gr.445 mm comparison to model predictions. (using Vc = 105 m/s) 250 240 m/s 220 m/s 198 m/s 166 m/s 142 m/s 114 m/s 200 V (m/s) 150 100 50 0 0 2 4 6 8 z (cm) Figure 13. position for 6. with Steel Sphere: D = 4. 17 .445 mm steel spheres of Minisi (4).35 mm 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 305m/s 696m/s 1012m/s 1022m/s 1375m/s V (m/s) z (cm) Figure 12. with comparison to model predictions.

by way of equations 20 and 16 (see ﬁgure 14 for an example).. time is also 0. . (22) Such a form does not change concavity. x plots (only V vs. Position vs. . it is always concave upwards.38 mm steel sphere of Sturdivan (3). position vs.While Sturdivan did not publish V vs. The concave-downward “knee.38 mm sphere implicitly available. Likewise. with comparison to model predictions. an attempt to match the ﬁnal penetration with Resal’s Law will produce a poor ﬁt of velocity over much of the deceleration. as Sturdivan himself admits.0006 t (s) Figure 14. Such deﬁciencies do not apply to the currently proposed strain-rate dependent model. time for 2. Distance vs. 0 Because of the fortuitous value of the ﬁtted coefﬁcient α = 1/2. As such. he did derive the equation characterizing the Resal’s Law form that he utilized.0002 0. t). V =2229 m/s 18 16 14 12 x (cm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. 18 .0004 0. 2.” which is invariably present at the lower right terminus of the curves in ﬁgures 10–13. The equation takes the form of V = V0 − c(1 − e−dx ) . impacting at 2229 m/s. time. a ﬁt of Sturdivan’s model to the high-velocity segment of the data will invariably lead to a systematic overestimation of the ﬁnal penetration when Resal’s Law is utilized. cannot be modeled with Resal’s Law.0000 Model Data (Sturdivan) 0.85 gr.

The general form of the current model is able to provide a closed-form solution for velocity vs.e. In the present model. position). because the ﬁtted strain-rate exponent is exactly 1/2. the resistance is assumed to be a power of the strain rate. the modeling of eroding. which treats the target resistance in terms of Newtonian viscosity. While such an adaptation should hopefully be straightforward for rigid. It also differs from the gelatin model of Sturdivan (3). the model was shown to match the data in an excellent manner. the actual exponent being a ﬁtted parameter of the model. there also exists a closed-form solution for time vs. instantaneous penetration (i. However. While comparison to data over a wider range of sphere diameters would be highly desirable to further validate the rate-dependence feature of the proposed model. as the sphere is rapidly decelerated and brought to a halt in the latter stages of the event. position vs. Another problem worthy of future investigation would be to adapt the model for use with nonspherical projectiles.38 mm to 6. Over velocities which reached as high as 2229 m/s and over a range of sphere diameters from 2. the existing data nonetheless spans a respectable range of striking velocities and projectile diameters. penetration. 19 .35 mm. compact (L/D ≈ 1) fragments. The proposed model differs from traditional resistance formulations.4. where the projectile velocity is always concave upward as a function of instantaneous penetration. velocity. The behavior of such a model was ﬁtted to and compared against historical data of Sturdivan (3) as well as more recent data of Minisi (4).. the current model can and does capture the change in concavity in velocity vs. In this manner. Conclusions In this report. where the resistance is assumed to be a constant material property. in the current case. In this manner. the current model bridges the gap between a pure strength-based resistance formulation and a Newtonian-viscous formulation. a model was proposed to characterize the resistance of gelatin to penetration by spherical penetrators. The net effect of a rate-dependent formulation for gelatin is that the target resistance varies with both penetration velocity as well as projectile diameter. time results are available as an implicit function of velocity. Unlike the Resal’s Law formulation employed by Sturdivan.

or ﬂat (L/D < 1) projectiles would require additional considerations.slender (L/D > 1). especially if the penetration into gelatin were not aerodynamically stable. 20 .

report in progress. 1979 (ﬁrst published in German as Grenzschicht-Theorie.5. CRC Standard Math Tables. CRC Press: Boca Raton. NJ. U..S. Army Chemical Systems Laboratory: Aberdeen Proving Ground. 28. 6. 7th ed. W. 387–399. Army ARDEC: Picatinny Arsenal.S. Beyer. 3. 1951). U. 15. MD. 26th ed. December 1978. Sturdivan. McGraw-Hill: New York. 363–376. Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids 1967. References 1. Boundary-Layer Theory. S. B. 4. ARCSL-TR-78055. A Theory for the Deceleration of Long Rods After Impact. 21 . A Mathematical Model of Penetration of Chunky Projectiles in a Gelatin Tissue Simulant. Minisi. Walters. H. 1981. M. Segletes. 2. LS-Dyna Simulations of Ballistic Gelatin. 31 October 2006. 5. H. P.. Tate. M.. Extensions to the Exact Solution of the Long-Rod Penetration/Erosion Equations. International Journal of Impact Engineering 2003. Schlichting. A. L. W.

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