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Fundamentals of Engineering Exam Review Lee L. Lowery, Jr., PhD, P.E.
~·uttl.i~
A force is a vector quantity. It is defined when its (1) magnitude, (2) point of application, and (3) direction are known.
RESULTANT (Two Dimensions)
The resultant, F, of n forces with components and Fv. ,0 has the magnitude of F
Fx,i
=
[(iLl Fx•i)
n
2
+ (iLl
n
n
Fy•i)
2
1/2
]
The resultant direction with respect to the xaxis using fourquadran t angle functions is
o=
F
n
arctan (iLl FY•i liLl
r.,)
The vector form of the force is
= Fx i + Fyj
r, =
RESOLUTION OF A FORCE F cos Ox; Fy
=
F cos By;
r, =
F cos Oz
cos Ox
=
Fx/F;
cos Oy
=
Fy/F;
cos Oz
=
Fz/F
Separating a force into components (geometry of force is known  R = j x2 + y2 + z2 )
r, =
(x/R)F;
Fy
=
(y/R)F;
r, =
(z/R)F
MOMENTS (COUPLES)
A system of two forces that are equal in magnitude,
opposite in direction, called a couple. and parallel to each other is
A moment M is defined as the cross product of the radius vector dist.ance r Rnn t.h~ fnrro 1? T"V"\.;'nf
f"l"'t"\TYl !:II
r, =
(x/R)F;
r. =
or"""
I"y
IN'
(y/R)F;
F
Z

(z/R)F
MOMENTS (COUPLES)
A system of two forces that are equal in magnitude, opposite in direction, and parallel to each other is called a couple. A moment
M is defined as the cross product of the radius vector distance r and the force F from a point
to the line of action of the force.
M
= r x F;
Mx
My
=
yFz  zFy'
»r,  »r; and
Mz SYSTEMS OF FORCES
F M
xFy  yFx'
= =
LFn
L (rn x Fn)
0
Equilibrium Requirements LFn LMn 0
CENTROIDS OF MASSES, AREAS, LENGTHS, ANDVOLUMES
Formulas for centroids, moments of inertia, and first moment of areas are presented in the MATHEMATICS section for continuous functions. The following discrete formulas are for defined regular masses, areas, lengths, and volumes:
r:
=~
m.
r
l s:
rri
urho?o
or the second moment of area. = CEYn1n)/L where L :E In The centroid of a line is defmed as ZZc = (L Zn In)/L The centroid of volume is defmed as s. vn)/V. In)/L. :E Y nan' with respect to the xaxis.: «: =: (L =.: where with respect to center of the coordinate system A xZc YZc :E an (:E =. is defined as I~ = ! x2 dA . May Max Xac The moment of area (Ma) is defined as = = L xn an ' with respect to the yaxis. where V L ». and the radius vector to the center of the total mass from the selected reference point. (:Eynvn)/V (L Zn vn)/V MOMENT OF INERTIA The moment of inertia.mn tne mass or eacri particle making up the systern. May/A Max/A The centroid of area is defined as s. 3 rn rc the radius vector to each particle from a selected reference point.
. = J y2 dA The polar moment of inertia J of an area about a point is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia of the area about any two perpendicular axes in the area and passing through the same point..__ ..JI ""''& (L Xn vn)/V. where V r. I. d = =: + d2A lyc + d2A... I XC ~nr1 where distance between the two axes in question... is defined as t... IYc +I = J Xc (x 2 + y2)dA r2A p where Transfer Theorem = the radius of gyration (see next page). LA.. = J x2 dA t....••  ..J.. I'x I.._ _ _I . rp = = J = .. or the second momen t of area... Ix c IYc = the moment of inertia about the centroidal J = RYi~ ..... "" .. Moment of Inertia The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is defined as the moment of inertia of the area about a parallel centroidal axis plus a term equal to the area multiplied by the square of the distance d from the centroidal axis to the axis in question. zvc (LYnVn)/V (L Zn vn)/V MOMENT OF INERTIA The moment of inertia..
where . A. 5 r.. respect to the xycoordinate sysrespect to the xzcoordinate sysand respect to the yzcoordinate sys The transfer theorem also applies: I:y Ixcyc dx dy for the xycoordinate system. Any further increase in applied forces would cause motion. where xaxis distance between the two axes in question and yaxis distance between the two axes in question.I'x' I'y = the moment of inertia about the new axis. etc.) is defined as: J xydA. with tem. with tem. I yzdA. + dxdy FRICTION The largest frictional force that is possible to develop is called the limiting friction. F = J.L N . with tem. ry = /Iy/A. r. Ixz Iyz J xzdA. = The product Ixy /Ix/A. Radius of Gyration The radius of gyration "»: rx' ry is the distance from a reference axis at which all of the area can be considered to be concentrated to produce the moment of inertia. = / J/A Product of Inertia of inertia (Ixy' etc.
the two axes in ques FRICTION The largest frictional force that is possible to develop is called the limiting friction. + . and normal force between surfaces in contact. M external moment applied to axis of screw.load on jack applied along and on the line of the axIS.L N .. Any further increase in applied forces would cause motion. P .dy tion and yaxis distance between tion. BRAKEBAND OR BELT FRICTION Fl FI = F2 ~(). . square thread. where friction force. r aJL the mean thread radius.. F F J.is for screw loosening. the pitch angle of the thread. M = Prtan (a + ¢). and tan ¢ = the appropriate coefficient of friction. N SCREW THREAD For a screwjack . where force being applied in the direction of impend . where is for screw tightening.L = J. coefficient of static friction.
~M = 0 5. where and FH Fv horizontal forces and member components vertical forces and member components. 4. A truss is statically indeterminate if the reactions and member forces cannot be solved with the equations of equilibrium.V1. STATICALLY DETERMINATE TRUSS Plane Truss A plane truss is a rigid framework lowing conditions: satisfying the fol 1. The truss reactions and member forces can be determined using the equations of equilibrium. . 2. All of the external loads lie in the plane of the framework and are applied at the joints only.l. 3. LF = o.L () coefficien t of static friction. The members of the framework lie in the same plane.VC. and the total angle of contact between the surfaces expressed in radians. ~ Fv = 0 and E FH = 0. The members are connected at their ends by frictionless pins. appucu liU lCi::Sli::Sli uUpeuuulg UIULIOn. J. Plane Truss: Method of Joints The method consists of solving for the forces in the members by writing the two equilibrium equations for each join t of the truss..
oree.framework and are applied at the joints only. EM =0 . system of forces wherein neet at one point. . 'lane Truss: Method of Joints "he method consists of solving for the forces in the nembers by writing the two equilibrium equations for ach join t of the truss. their lines of action all l'wo Dimensions E r. The truss reactions and member forces can be determined using the equations of equilibrium. A truss is statically indeterminate if the reactions and member forces cannot be solved with the equations of equilibrium. >lane Truss: Method of Sections l'he method consists of drawing a freebody diagram of l portion of the truss in such a way that the desired russ member unknown force is exposed as an external . E Fy 0 I'hree Dimensions o . ~ONCURRENT FORCES \. = 0. where and "v "H horizontal forees and member components vertical forees and member components. EF=O' . E Fv = 0 and E FH = 0.
y N x .
10 +y .
\\ +y +x .
/Z. Neglect hook bending. F2 = 1500 N F. Determine the magnitude of the resultant of the forces. 1010 ElYReview Manual _ ( ( 4. = 1000 N (A) 989 N (B) 1140 N (C) 1250 N (D) 1510 N #342 694 . Three forces act on a hook.
13 .
5j + 15k x z (A) y R = 25i + 60j + 55k (3.4) .6. What shown? is the resultant 14 R of the system of forces y F1 = 15i + 25j .FESTYLE EXAM PROBLEMS 1.10k F3 = 1 Oi + 40j + 50k F2 = 20i .
5 ft 3FT 2 ft .2000lb 50016 D 2Ft 800lb .
z
200 N
x
15cm~
E
17
__ 5ftC
12 kips
·1 kips
_l
15ft
20 ft
~ 2~~i~
10ft ~ 15ft ~
SAMPLE PROBLEM 7.8 The cable AE supports three vertical loads from the points indicated. If point Cis 5 ft below the left support, determine (a) the elevations of points Band D, (b) the maximum slope and the maximum tension in the cable.
Solution.
The reaction components
Ax and Ay are determined
as follows:
Free Body: Entire Cable
+i
"LME 0: Ax(20 ft)  Ay(60 ft) + (6 kips)(40 ft) + (12 kips)(30 ft) + (4 kips)(15 ft) = 0 20Ax  60Ay + 660 = 0 Free Body: ABC
=
+i
"LMc = 0:
Ax(5 ft)  Ay(30 ft) + (6 kips)(l0 ft) SAx  30Ay + 60 0
=
=
0
Solving the two equations
simultaneously,
we obtain Ax = 18 kips~ Ay = 5 kips! the portion of cable AB as a free
Ax = 18 kips Ay = +5 kips a. Elevation body, we write of Point B. Considering
(18 kips)YB  (5 kips)(20 ft) Elevation we write of Point D.
=0
YB = 5.56 ft below:\
......
Using the portion of cable ABCD as a free body,
+i
LMD (18
=
0: kips)YD  (5 kips)(45 ft) + (6 kips)(25 ft) + (12 kips)(15 ft) = 0 If D = 5.8.3 ft above A
......
b. Maximum Slope and Maximum Tension. We observe that the maximum slope occurs in portion DE. Since the horizontal component of the tension is constant and equal to 18 kips, we write _ 14.17 t an 8  15 ft T
max
=
18 kips cos 8
Tmax
= 24.8 kips
......
19 150 mm r 1 B:H" r 200mm A .
__ 250 rnrn  r 25m m t~~tof 25m III Prob. 1031 .20 y ] 50 mrn _"""t] 50 mm 50 mrn  T.
__.'~7~~++.ZI T '__'T__". 5 111m L y xI~X 200 mrn 15 mrn .__.._=J +..
5 in. r .22 I. rl Cc C  > I  x • y lOin. x 20 in....____.l I8in I  t. r+" ~_j .
.~ .
and the integral (9. we can associate to each element dA of coordinates x and y an element cIA' of coordinates x and .15. for example.Product of Inertia. the contributions of any pair of elements chosen in this way cancel out. is known as the product of inertia of the area A with respect to the x and y axes. The integral lxv == f xy dA obtained by multiplying each element dA of an area A by its coordinates x and y and integrating over the area (Fig.12) reduces to zero. Consider. When one or both of the x and y axes are axes of symmetry for the area A. Clearly. 9. . Unlike the moments of inertia Ix and Iv' the product of inertia IXY may be either positive or negative. the channel section shown in Fig. 9. Since this section is symmetrical with respect to the x axis.y.14). the product of inertia lxv is zero.
Determine the range of values for which the horizontal force P will prevent the crate from slipping down or up the inclined plane.25 473. .1. Take JLs = 0.
4745 The refrigerator has a weight of 200 lb and a center of gravity at G. Determine the force P required to move it.Ls = 0. .4. Will the refrigerator tip or slip? Take J.
) are parallel. or if the pulley is free to move. If the pulley is attached to a load. etc. belts.Figure 12. chains. the pulley advantage is . 1 Mechanical Advantage of RopeOperated Machines 27 121 121 122 122 122 fixed sheave / free sheave ordinary pulley block (n sheaves) differential pulley block F Fideal w W 2 W n If the pulley is attached by a bracket to a fixed location. wire ropes. it is said to be a fixed pulley. it is known as a free pulley. In such cases. Most sirnple problems disregard friction and assume that all ropes (fiber ropes.
28 A p IIII. .1 1 5 t .·1 I' II . 1.
29 p .B .
Find the tension. T (A) 100 N (B) (C) (D) 300 N 400 N 600 N #356 687 . that must be applied to pulley A to lift the 1200 N weight. T.SAMPLE PROBLEMS 1.
Find W. (A) 830 N (B) 1000 N (C) 1500 N (D) 1700 N . The system shown is in static equilibrium.3( L.
The angle of wrap.4 Figure 12.4. rope. 3 Belt Friction F1 (tight) ldng Hl~ The net transmitted torque is on. 12.5 at tangential . must be expressed in radians.ne ng he Friction between a belt. one side of the belt (the tight side) will have a higher tension than the other (the slack side). B. or band wrapped around :JL a pulley or sheave is responsible for the transfer of torque. on tic The power transmitted velocitv v + is to a belt running 12. 12. The basic relationship between the belt tensions and the coefficient of friction neglects centrifugal effects and is given by Eq. Fl is the tension on the tight side (direction of movement). F2 is the tension on the other side. Except when stationary.
90 . F pulley with 35 em diameter e = 60° ~ = 0.33 Problems 2 and 3 refer to the following illustration.
3 BLOCK MOVE }JK =: 0.213 P = gOO rJ • "? .tts= 'vi ILL 3'+ 0.
5 1000 ~ 1 0001J / \AlrLL BLOCK MoVe ? .p= 3~ ':.
.
the turnbuckle will be selflocking. Is the turnbuckle selflocking? lkN 1 kN Fig. m When the moment is removed.Sec. r = 5 rom. mm = 6. (1) and solving gives M = 2[(2000 N)(5 mm) tan (14. M = 6375.04°. i. If the coefficient of friction between the screw and the turnbuckle is J1s = 0. cPs = tanI J1s = tanI (0. W = 2000 N. .25) = 14. since cPs > (Jp.04° + 3. 93. Since friction at two screws must be overcome.25.1 N .. it will not unscrew. and (Jp = tan I (p/2rrr) = tan I (2 mm/[27T{5mm))) = 3.4 I Frictional 37 Forces on Example 98 The turnbuckle shown in Fig.64°. 920 has a square thread with a mean radius of 5 mm and a pitch of 2 mm.38 N .e. this requires (1) Here. 9. determine the moment M that must be applied to draw the end screws closer together.64°)] Ans. 920 Solution The moment may be obtained by using Eq. Substituting these values into Eq.
What is the tension in cable CE? E A 0. Point E is 0. A box has uniform density and a total weight of 600 N. and CE. It is suspended by three equallength cables.5 m directly above the center of the box's top surface.6 m .38 9. AE. as shown. BE.
or link reaction in line with cable or link...:%::. 1 Types of TwoDimensional Supports type of support simple..~s . or frictionless surface reactions and moments 105 number of unknowns'<' reaction normal to surface. " \\. "'.. no moment 1 frictionless guide or collar .. ball. roller.Systems of Forces Table 10... rocker. S""... . no moment 1 cable in tension.
pin connection. one moment 3 frictionless hinge. no moment 1 builtin. fixed support two reaction components.with cable or un«. no moment 2 (a) The number of unkowns is valid for twodimensional problems only. no moment qo frictionless guide or collar reaction normal to rail. or rough surface reaction in any direction. .
. wu.(D) 710 N #351 394 4l Proble 3. ~ 3000 N 5m ..nn l\T (compression) (tension) (4~~~: ~\ (B) (e) . I .. (A) (A) 0 (B) 1000 N (C) fn) 1500 N ') t.. 3000 N 5. 5m . Wh (A) 7.5 m (B) (e) (D) D 3000 N . ..... Determine the force in member Be. ~ 5m . I 6...
.
J::.c co Q) Vl Q) Vl 0 II (J co . I 1:) c 0 C/') w co .s: ~ Q C) sc 0 CD co .c .._ 0 Q) <D 0 ~ C/') ~ w C a L a..J .c Q) Q) L ro 0.(J . 0 M '+V) c . .... <D U c: LL .. .. . ~) .. ~ .. CD <0 .0 Q) u E E ~ .
1 41 10 (A) 0 (B) 160 N (C) 200 N (D) 250 N #3368 594 so Sol M( 8. What is the force in member IJ? I)F J01 AI 10000 N 5011 Th col the 5m .. and K. . 100 N I . AI 5m 5m Soh (A) 8000 N (B) 8000 N (compression) (tension) . J. 20 m ..100 N ~ g' :... The pedestrian bridge truss shown has 10000 N applied loads at points I. 5m 5m 5m ..
C :)00 1blft ~'" 1'.45 3.7 m .157 Jim 55 N/m Loading curves are semicircles.1 m and 0.156 • 3. <. ""i 4 ft ~?".... ~~ :.....  4ft~ Figure P3. . I  I 3ft~1 Figure P3. . 1ft . radii 1.156 ".. ~1ft .... c ! I 3ft ! !.155 3001b/ft 300 Ib/ft 1001b/ft I ~ 3 ft =1~:.155 3....9 / Distributed Force Systems 147 the ~t of 3._ 4ft~~ . l. SOOlb/ft ~~ ..' "..
2 m 0.5 N·m 0.1 m 0.4 m .5 m 0.t'OO N A 100 N/m 2.
'/7 .
o~ .48 u~ J . ~ . J I I"'"'\~.~  ..
5 ftl .5 ft 6ft / 7.L 2.5 ft 2.
50 3 ft~ 1ft .
51 .
0 ..s:: . . C \.
.I . o o .D .D II "I::l t:: I I <.... t:: 0 . ·Vi r 0..t:: t:: 0 I r <. ..D t:: If) .I ..D <. .53 <.0 t:: <.
r r Cl tE rrl z: a \._~~ a 0 .) coo I_. a VI "T 'V . 0:::: <. t 0: tE rrl ~ 1 E VI ''" c::s ~ • ~ 0:::: '« ~_l I........ E C/) r.c 0 rrl ~ .~I z...z 0 0 0l E .)" •t t ... .J VI "T ~I \.
..:.55 t ._____~~ Z VI E~~ E .( I~ I~ ..
97 1.8 kN . P4.Dimensions in mm 420 E Fig.
57 .
. E 30 in x . 81r!. y ".58 f£' <..
9)(l.0472) 2190 N (2200 N) Answer is C.nd be .. = (853.. .5 N (60°) T2eP.___:_ 2000 N .:.5 N)e(O.828) = 61.6 kg (D) 12.0472 rad lPlC TI ~ ~ 1000 N he m. (A) 0 (B) 10. SOLUTIONS TO FESTYLE EXAM PROBLEMS Solution 1: The freebody diagrams are T2 = !lIN = !llmg = = (0.=  2000 N + (1000 N Hsm 4a V ) +W sin fj W sin W cos /3 /3 = tan /3 = :"::.3° 1472 N (1500 N) 20 m Answer is C.1 kg #3501 194 Solution 2: F= T.:..6~a:) = 1.(1000 N)(sin 45°) (1000 N)(cos 45°) = 16 m 1. ._..828 /3 = tanI (1.(J '94 8 45° = = = (2..J.wn .58)(150 kg) (9..0 kg (C) 11.en ~ .81 ~) 853. 2000 N J.3° W = = (1000 N)(cos 45°) cos 61.
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