# Calculus Cheat Sheet

Limits
Definitions Precise Definition : We say lim f ( x ) = L if Limit at Infinity : We say lim f ( x ) = L if we
x ®a

for every e > 0 there is a d > 0 such that whenever 0 < x - a < d then f ( x ) - L < e . “Working” Definition : We say lim f ( x ) = L if we can make f ( x ) as close to L as we want by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a . Right hand limit : lim+ f ( x ) = L . This has
x ®a x ®a

can make f ( x ) as close to L as we want by taking x large enough and positive. There is a similar definition for lim f ( x ) = L
x ®-¥

x ®¥

except we require x large and negative. Infinite Limit : We say lim f ( x ) = ¥ if we can make f ( x ) arbitrarily large (and positive) by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a . There is a similar definition for lim f ( x ) = -¥ except we make f ( x ) arbitrarily large and negative.
x ®a x ®a

the same definition as the limit except it requires x > a . Left hand limit : lim- f ( x ) = L . This has the
x ®a

same definition as the limit except it requires x<a. Relationship between the limit and one-sided limits lim f ( x ) = L Þ lim+ f ( x ) = lim- f ( x ) = L lim+ f ( x ) = lim- f ( x ) = L Þ lim f ( x ) = L
x ®a x ®a x ®a +

lim f ( x ) ¹ lim- f ( x ) Þ lim f ( x ) Does Not Exist
x ®a x ®a

x ®a

x ®a

x ®a

x ®a

Properties Assume lim f ( x ) and lim g ( x ) both exist and c is any number then,
x ®a x ®a

1. lim écf ( x ) ù = c lim f ( x ) û x ®a ë x ®a 2. lim é f ( x ) ± g ( x ) ù = lim f ( x ) ± lim g ( x ) û x®a x ®a ë x ®a 3. lim é f ( x ) g ( x ) ù = lim f ( x ) lim g ( x ) û x ®a x ®a ë x ®a

é f ( x ) ù lim f ( x ) x ®a 4. lim ê provided lim g ( x ) ¹ 0 ú= x ®a x ®a g ( x ) ë û lim g ( x ) x ®a
n 5. lim é f ( x ) ù = élim f ( x ) ù ë û ë x ®a x ®a û 6. lim é n f ( x ) ù = n lim f ( x ) û x ®a ë x®a n

Basic Limit Evaluations at ± ¥ Note : sgn ( a ) = 1 if a > 0 and sgn ( a ) = -1 if a < 0 . 1. lim e x = ¥ &
x®¥ x ®¥ x®- ¥

lim e x = 0
x ®0 -

5. n even : lim x n = ¥
x ®± ¥

2. lim ln ( x ) = ¥ 3. If r > 0 then lim
x ®¥

&

lim ln ( x ) = - ¥

6. n odd : lim x n = ¥ & lim x n = -¥
x ®¥ x ®- ¥

b =0 xr 4. If r > 0 and x r is real for negative x b then lim r = 0 x ®-¥ x

7. n even : lim a x + L + b x + c = sgn ( a ) ¥
n

x ®± ¥

8. n odd : lim a x n + L + b x + c = sgn ( a ) ¥ 9. n odd : lim a x n + L + c x + d = - sgn ( a ) ¥
x ®-¥ x ®¥

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.

L 6. -2p . 1. n x (n even) for all x ³ 0 .81) 3 + x x®9 ( x + 9 ) 3 + x Polynomials at Infinity p ( x ) and q ( x ) are polynomials.2x x ( x .. e x for all x.L 2 2 2 2 4. .81 3 + x 9. x ¹ L . 9.81 x ®9 x . ln x for x > 0 .x 3.math. p . Visit http://tutorial.3x if x ³ -2 Compute two one sided limits.4 3 x lim = lim 2 5 = lim 5 x = x ®-¥ 5 x . x ®a g ( x ) x ®a g ( x ) 0 ±¥ Continuous Functions and Composition f ( x) f ¢( x) lim = lim a is a number.2 x 2 x ®-¥ x x ®. except for x’s that give 8.x 2 + 5 = 9 x ®-2 One sided limits are different so lim g ( x ) x ®-2 x ®-2+ lim g ( x ) = lim+ 1 . x 2 3 . x ¹ L . To compute p ( x) factor largest power of x in q ( x ) out x ®± ¥ q ( x ) lim of both p ( x ) and q ( x ) then compute limit. Polynomials for all x. cot ( x ) and csc ( x ) provided 5. 2p . .42 3x 2 . Then there exists a number c such that a < c < b and f ( c ) = M . Intermediate Value Theorem Suppose that f ( x ) is continuous on [a.. Rational function. 0.( x + h) ö lim ç .42 3 . 3p p p 3p 3.÷ = lim ç ÷ h ®0 h x + h x ø h ®0 h ç x ( x + h ) ÷ è è ø 1 æ -h ö 1 -1 = lim ç =.Calculus Cheat Sheet Evaluation Techniques Continuous Functions L’Hospital’s Rule f ( x) 0 f ( x) ± ¥ If f ( x ) is continuous at a then lim f ( x ) = f ( a ) x ®a If lim = or lim = then. ¥ or -¥ f ( x ) is continuous at b and lim g ( x ) = b then x ®a g ( x ) x ®a g ¢ ( x ) lim f ( g ( x ) ) = f lim g ( x ) = f ( b ) x ®a x ®a ( ) x ®a Factor and Cancel ( x . 2. 7. cos ( x ) and sin ( x ) for all x.lamar.¥ 2 x -2 x -2 ( ( ) ) Piecewise Function ( ) ( ) -1 1 =(18)( 6 ) 108 Combine Rational Expressions 1æ 1 1ö 1 æ x .g ( x ) = lim. If the two one sided limits had been equal then lim g ( x ) would have existed x ®-2 and had the same value. tan ( x ) and sec ( x ) provided division by zero. © 2005 Paul Dawkins . . .2 ÷ = lim h ®0 h ç x ( x + h ) ÷ h®0 x ( x + h ) x è ø = ì x 2 + 5 if x < -2 lim g ( x ) where g ( x ) = í x ®-2 î1 . n x (n odd) for all x. lim.x 3+ x lim 2 = lim 2 x ®9 x .12 lim = lim 2 x®2 x®2 x .2 )( x + 6 ) x 2 + 4 x .3 x = 7 x ®-2 x ®-2 doesn’t exist.x -1 = lim = lim 2 x ®9 ( x .edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.2) x+6 8 = lim = =4 x®2 x 2 Rationalize Numerator/Denominator 3. b] and let M be any number between f ( a ) and f ( b ) . -p . Some Continuous Functions Partial list of continuous functions and the values of x for which they are continuous.

( x ) = n xn-1 – Power Rule dx d 7. h ®0 h If y = f ( x ) then all of the following are equivalent notations for the derivative. f ¢ ( a ) is the instantaneous rate of change of f ( x ) at x = a .math.1 2 dx 1.Calculus Cheat Sheet Derivatives Definition and Notation f ( x + h) . x > 0 dx d ( ln x ) = 1 . © 2005 Paul Dawkins . 3. Basic Properties and Formulas If f ( x ) and g ( x ) are differentiable functions (the derivative exists).csc x cot x dx d ( cot x ) = . 2. 1.f g ¢ – Quotient Rule ÷ = g2 ø æ f 4.sin x dx d ( tan x ) = sec2 x dx d ( sec x ) = sec x tan x dx d ( csc x ) = .a ) . ( ) Common Derivatives d ( x) = 1 dx d ( sin x ) = cos x dx d ( cos x ) = . c and n are any real numbers. m = f ¢ ( a ) is the slope of the tangent line to y = f ( x ) at x = a and the equation of the tangent line at x = a is given by y = f ( a ) + f ¢ ( a )( x .x d 1 ( tan -1 x ) = 1 + x2 dx d x ( a ) = a x ln ( a ) dx d x (e ) = ex dx d 1 ( ln ( x ) ) = x . 3. ç èg d (c) = 0 dx d n 6.csc2 x dx d ( sin -1 x ) = 1 2 dx 1. Interpretation of the Derivative 2. df dy d f ¢ ( x ) = y¢ = = = ( f ( x ) ) = Df ( x ) dx dx dx If y = f ( x ) all of the following are equivalent notations for derivative evaluated at x = a . ( c f )¢ = c f ¢ ( x ) ( f ± g )¢ = f ¢ ( x ) ± g ¢ ( x ) ( f g )¢ = f ¢ g + f g ¢ – Product Rule ö¢ f ¢ g . df dy f ¢ ( a ) = y ¢ x =a = = = Df ( a ) dx x =a dx x =a If y = f ( x ) then.lamar. x > 0 dx Visit http://tutorial. f ( g ( x )) = f ¢ ( g ( x )) g¢ ( x ) dx This is the Chain Rule 5.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. If f ( x ) is the position of an object at time x then f ¢ ( a ) is the velocity of the object at x = a .x d ( cos-1 x ) = .f ( x) If y = f ( x ) then the derivative is defined to be f ¢ ( x ) = lim . 1. x ¹ 0 dx x d 1 ( log a ( x ) ) = x ln a .

( ) ( ) Implicit Differentiation ¢ if e 2 x -9 y + x3 y 2 = sin ( y ) + 11x .Calculus Cheat Sheet Chain Rule Variants The chain rule applied to some specific functions. 2 4. é f ( x )ù = n é f ( x )ù f ¢ ( x ) 5. the (n-1)st derivative. If f ¢ ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then f ( x ) is increasing on the interval I. © 2005 Paul Dawkins .lamar. f ( n-1) x . Visit http://tutorial.3x 2 y 2 + 3x y + 2 x y y¢ = cos ( y ) y¢ + 11 2 2 3 Þ 11 . If f ¢ ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then f ( x ) is decreasing on the interval I. = f ¢( x)e ( ) 6. Increasing/Decreasing 1.3x 2 y 2 y¢ = 3 2 x y . ( sec [ f ( x)]) = f ¢( x) sec [ f ( x)] tan [ f ( x)] 3.cos ( y ) Increasing/Decreasing – Concave Up/Concave Down Critical Points x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) provided either 1. If f ¢¢ ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then f ( x ) is concave down on the interval I. f ¢ ( c ) = 0 or 2. n n -1 d d 1. the derivative of first derivative.e. After differentiating solve for y¢ .e.9 y¢e 2 x -9 y ( 2 x y .9e x 2 -9 y .9e2 x -9 y .2e 2 x -9 y . ln é f ( x ) ù = ë û dx dx f ( x) f ¢( x) d d tan -1 é f ( x ) ù = 8.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. Remember y = y ( x ) here. cos é f ( x ) ù = . If f ¢ ( x ) = 0 for all x in an interval I then f ( x ) is constant on the interval I. 3. If f ¢¢ ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then f ( x ) is concave up on the interval I. 2. Concave Up/Concave Down 1.9 y¢ ) + 3 x 2 y 2 + 2 x3 y y¢ = cos ( y ) y¢ + 11 2e 2 x -9 y 3 . sin é f ( x ) ù = f ¢ ( x ) cos é f ( x ) ù ë û ë û ë û dx 1 + é f ( x )ù dx ë û ( ) ( ( ( ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) Higher Order Derivatives The Second Derivative is denoted as The nth Derivative is denoted as d2 f dn f f ¢¢ ( x ) = f ( 2) ( x ) = 2 and is defined as f ( n ) ( x ) = n and is defined as dx dx ¢ f ¢¢ ( x ) = ( f ¢ ( x ) )¢ . i. i.math. f ¢ ( x ) . 2. so products/quotients of x and y Find y will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule.2e2 x -9 y . The “trick” is to differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y¢ (from the chain rule).f ¢ ( x ) sin é f ( x ) ù ë û ë û ë û ë û dx dx d f ( x) d f x e tan é f ( x ) ù = f ¢ ( x ) sec 2 é f ( x ) ù 2.cos ( y ) ) y¢ = 11 . e 2 x -9 y ( 2 . the derivative of the f ( n ) ( x ) = f ( n -1) ( x ) . f ¢ ( c ) doesn’t exist. ë û ë û dx dx d f ¢( x) d 7. Inflection Points x = c is a inflection point of f ( x ) if the concavity changes at x = c .

lamar. in [ a. max.f ( a ) . 3. Finding Relative Extrema and/or Classify Critical Points 1. 1. a rel. x = c is an absolute minimum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) £ f ( x ) for all x in the domain. 3. min. 2. then x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) . Use the 1st derivative test or the 2nd derivative test on each critical point. b-a Newton’s Method If xn is the nth guess for the root/solution of f ( x ) = 0 then (n+1)st guess is xn +1 = xn provided f ¢ ( xn ) exists. f ( xn ) f ¢ ( xn ) Visit http://tutorial. or neither if f ¢¢ ( c ) = 0 . [ a. Evaluate f ( a ) and f ( b ) . of f ( x ) if f ¢ ( x ) < 0 to the left of x = c and f ¢ ( x ) > 0 to the right of x = c . 2nd Derivative Test If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) such that f ¢ ( c ) = 0 then x = c 1. 2. Mean Value Theorem If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval [ a. x = c is a relative (or local) minimum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) £ f ( x ) for all x near c. x = c is an absolute maximum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) ³ f ( x ) for all x in the domain.(smallest function value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3. Identify the abs. min. © 2005 Paul Dawkins . f ( c ) is the abs. of f ( x ) if f ¢ ( x ) > 0 to the left of x = c and f ¢ ( x ) < 0 to the right of x = c . Find all critical points of f ( x ) in [ a. 2.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. may be a relative maximum. b ] and differentiable on the open interval ( a. Evaluate f ( x ) at all points found in Step 1. 2. a £ c. relative minimum. b ] use the following process. b] then there exist numbers c and d so that. (largest function value) and the abs. 4. 2. max.math. Fermat’s Theorem If f ( x ) has a relative (or local) extrema at x = c . not a relative extrema of f ( x ) if f ¢ ( x ) is the same sign on both sides of x = c .Calculus Cheat Sheet Absolute Extrema 1. x = c is a relative (or local) maximum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) ³ f ( x ) for all x near c. max. a rel. 1st Derivative Test If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) then x = c is 1. Extreme Value Theorem If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval Extrema Relative (local) Extrema 1. 3. f ( d ) is the abs. b] . is a relative maximum of f ( x ) if f ¢¢ ( c ) < 0 . d £ b . b] . 1. 2. is a relative minimum of f ( x ) if f ¢¢ ( c ) > 0 . b ) then there is a number a < c < b such that f ¢ ( c ) = f (b) . in [ a. Find all critical points of f ( x ) . 3. 2. min. Finding Absolute Extrema To find the absolute extrema of the continuous function f ( x ) on the interval [ a. b] .

4 y Þ y = 125 nd By 2 deriv. max.2) = y 2 .7 2 = 176 . Visit http://tutorial. 7 7 ( . Ex.2 y ) x = 500 . A 15 foot ladder is resting against a wall. Determine point(s) on y = x 2 + 1 that are 500 ft of fence material and one side of the closest to (0.5 ) tan ( 0.01) = 50 x¢ = 0. x x¢ sec q = Þ sec q tan q q ¢ = 50 50 We know q = 0. Solve constraint for x 2 and plug into the function. At what rate is the distance pushed towards the wall at 1 ft/sec. 2 ) © 2005 Paul Dawkins . 2 x2 = y . 3 and 2 ) ( 1 2 . find x.5 )( 0.2 (125 ) = 250 The dimensions are then 250 x 125. Plug in and solve for y¢ . Finally.1 ) + 176 y¢ = 0 Þ y¢ = ft/sec 4 4 176 We have q ¢ = 0. Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity. x = 500 .01 rad/min.2) = y -1 + ( y .Calculus Cheat Sheet Related Rates Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities.0 ) + ( y . Solve constraint for x and plug into area. Ex.math. Find critical points of equation in range of variables and verify that they are min/max as needed. Determine dimensions that will maximize the enclosed area. Two people are 50 ft apart when one The bottom is initially 10 ft away and is being starts walking north.5 rad? is the top moving after 12 sec? x¢ is negative because x is decreasing.2 y 2 Differentiate and find critical point(s). Minimize f = d 2 = ( x . x¢ sec ( 0. and want to find x¢ . x 2 = 3 . test this is a rel.2). The angle q changes at 0.e.01 rad/min. A = y ( 500 .2 y Þ = 500 y .1 Þ f = x2 + ( y . f ¢ = 2y -3 Þ y=3 2 By the 2nd derivative test this is a rel. x 2 + y 2 = 152 Þ 2 x x¢ + 2 y y¢ = 0 After 12 sec we have x = 10 .3 .3112 ft/sec Remember to have calculator in radians! Optimization Sketch picture if needed.12 ( 1 ) = 7 and 4 so y = 152 . A¢ = 500 .lamar. We can use various trig fcns but easiest is. Solve constraint for one of the two variables and plug into first equation. add on a derivative every time you differentiate a function of t). write down equation to be optimized and constraint. min. Using Pythagorean Theorem and differentiating. field is a building.2 ) and the 2 2 Maximize A = xy subject to constraint of x + 2 y = 500 .edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.3 y + 3 Differentiate and find critical point(s). constraint is y = x 2 + 1 . and so is the answer we’re after.1 = 1 Þ x = ± 12 2 2 2 The 2 points are then ( 1 2 . We’re enclosing a rectangular field with Ex. Ex. Write down equation relating quantities and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i. How fast 4 between them changing when q = 0.05 so plug in q ¢ and solve. and so all we need to do is find x value(s).

n ¹ -1 ò x dx = ò x dx = ln x + c ò a x + b dx = a ln ax + b + c ò ln u du = u ln ( u ) . Then lim ò a f ( x ) dx = n å f ( x ) D x . c is a constant b b cf ( x ) dx = c ò f ( x ) dx .cos u + c ò sec u du = tan u + c ò sec u tan u du = sec u + c ò csc u cot udu = .csc u + c ò csc u du = .edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. © 2005 Paul Dawkins . F ( x ) . b] .v¢ ( x ) f [ v ( x ) ] dx ò v( x ) an anti-derivative of f ( x ) (i.lamar. i b ®¥ =1 * i ¥ Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Variants of Part I : Part I : If f ( x ) is continuous on [ a. b ] into n subintervals of width D x and choose x from each interval. Divide [ a.cot u + c 2 ò tan u du = ln sec u + c ò sec u du = ln sec u + tan u + c u ò a + u du = a tan ( a ) + c u 1 ò a .a ) £ ò f ( x ) dx £ M ( b . b ] dx ò a a d b d x f ( t ) dt = -v¢ ( x ) f év ( x ) ù and g ¢ ( x ) = f ( t ) dt = f ( x ) . such that F ¢ ( x ) = f ( x ) .Calculus Cheat Sheet Integrals Definitions Anti-Derivative : An anti-derivative of f ( x ) Definite Integral: Suppose f ( x ) is continuous on [ a. b ] . * i is a function. Indefinite Integral : ò f ( x ) dx = F ( x ) + c where F ( x ) is an anti-derivative of f ( x ) .F ( a ) . b ] then d u( x) x f ( t ) dt = u ¢ ( x ) f éu ( x ) ù ë û g ( x ) = ò f ( t ) dt is also continuous on [ a.e. ë û òa dx ò v( x ) dx d u( x) Part II : f ( x ) is continuous on [ a.math. c is a constant òa a b f ( x ) dx = 0 a òa b a f ( x ) dx = ò f ( t ) dt a b a b ò a f ( x ) dx = -òb f ( x ) dx If f ( x ) ³ g ( x ) on a £ x £ b then If f ( x ) ³ 0 on a £ x £ b then b a a b b ò f ( x ) dx £ ò a b f ( x ) dx ò f ( x ) dx ³ ò g ( x ) dx b ò f ( x ) dx ³ 0 a If m £ f ( x ) £ M on a £ x £ b then m ( b .a ) Common Integrals ò cos u du = sin u + c 2 ò k dx = k x + c n n 1 ò x dx = n+1 x + c. a b ò f ( x ) ± g ( x ) dx = ò f ( x ) dx ± ò g ( x ) dx b b b f ( x ) ± g ( x ) dx = ò f ( x ) dx ± ò g ( x ) dx òa a a òa a Properties ò cf ( x ) dx = c ò f ( x ) dx . F ( x ) is f ( t ) dt = u ¢ ( x ) f [ u ( x ) ] . F ( x ) = ò f ( x ) dx ) then ò f ( x ) dx = F ( b ) .u du = sin ( a ) + c 1 2 2 1 -1 -1 2 2 Visit http://tutorial.u + c ò e du = e + c +1 -1 1 1 1 u u ò sin u du = .

ò v du and Ex. n and m both odd. m even.x ) = 5ln ( 5) . n odd.1 sec5 x + c 7 5 ( u = sec x ) ò cos x dx (sin x ) sin x sin x sin x sin x ò cos x dx = ò cos x dx = ò cos x dx (1. Strip 1 tangent and 1 secant out and convert the rest to secants using tan 2 x = sec 2 x . Use either 1.lamar.sin (1) ) ò a u dv = uv Ex. 4.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. to sines using cos 2 x = 1 . Strip 1 cosine out and convert rest 2.Calculus Cheat Sheet Standard Integration Techniques Note that at many schools all but the Substitution Rule tend to be taught in a Calculus II class. then use the substitution u = tan x . then use the substitution u = sec x . Strip 1 sine out and convert rest to 1. Choose u and dv from a integral and compute du by differentiating u and compute v using v = ò dv .cos ( 2 x ) ) sin5 x 3 Ex. Trig Formulas : sin ( 2 x ) = 2sin ( x ) cos ( x ) . ò 1 5x 2 cos ( x3 ) dx 3 3 ò 1 5x 2 2 cos ( x3 ) dx = ò 5 cos 1 3 8 5 3 8 ( u ) du u = x 3 Þ du = 3x 2 dx Þ x 2 dx = 1 du 3 x = 1 Þ u = 1 = 1 :: x = 2 Þ u = 2 = 8 Integration by Parts : ò u dv = uv . n and m both even. cos 2 ( x ) = n odd.3ln ( 3) . For indefinite integrals drop the limits of integration. Use double angle 3. b a . or 2.ò (1-u ) du = . Strip 2 secants out and convert rest to tangents using sec2 x = 1 + tan 2 x . n even and m odd. Each integral will be dealt with differently.1 . 3.sin 2 x .1) sec 4 x tan x sec xdx = ò ( u 2 .x -x -x -x -x u=x dv = e.1) u 4 du = 1 sec7 x .2 Products and (some) Quotients of Trig Functions For ò sin n x cos m x dx we have the following : For ò tan n x sec m x dx we have the following : 1. and/or half angle formulas to reduce the 4.xe + ò e dx = . ò xe -x -x dx du = dx v = -e .ò v du . = 5 sin ( u ) 1 = 3 b b ( sin (8) . . 2 2 cosines using sin x = 1 .1 cos 2 x + c 2 2 © 2005 Paul Dawkins Visit http://tutorial.math.ò dx = ( x ln ( x ) . ò tan 3 x sec5 x dx Ex. sin ( x ) = 2 (1 . Ex. ò tan 3 x sec5 xdx = ò tan 2 x sec 4 x tan x sec xdx = ò ( sec2 x . then use the substitution u = sin x . n odd and m even.cos x ) sin x =ò dx ( u = cos x ) cos x = . 2. then use the substitution u = cos x .cos x . 2 1 1 2 (1 + cos ( 2 x ) ) .x Þ ò3 ln x dx dv = dx Þ du = 1 dx v = x x 5 5 5 3 3 5 ò xe dx = . or 2. Use either 1.ò 1-2u +u du u u 5 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 = 1 sec2 x + 2 ln cos x .e +c u = ln x ò3 5 ln x dx = x ln x 3 . m odd. integral into a form that can be integrated.xe . u Substitution : The substitution u = g ( x ) will convert 2 ( ) ò a f ( g ( x ) ) g ¢ ( x ) dx = ò g (a ) f ( u ) du b g b using du = g ¢ ( x ) dx .

Integrate the partial fraction decomposition (P.C Set coefficients equal to get a system and solve to get constants. Start with setting numerators equal in previous example : 7 x 2 + 13x = A ( x 2 + 4 ) + ( Bx + C ) ( x .F.math.1 + 2 ln ( x 2 + 4 ) + 8 tan -1 ( x ) 2 Here is partial fraction form and recombined. 7 x 2 + 13x = ( A + B ) x 2 + ( C .x if x < 0 In this case we have 4 .4sin q = 4 cos q = 2 cos q = ò 12 csc 2 dq = -12 cot q + c Use Right Triangle Trig to go back to x’s.9x 2 = 4 .F.). Visit http://tutorial. Set numerators equal and collect like terms.C = 0 A=4 B=3 C = 16 An alternate method that sometimes works to find constants.B ) x + 4 A . ò 7 x2 +13 x ( x -1)( x 2 dx +4) + ( x -1)( x + 4 ) 7 x2 +13 x = x -1 A + Bx +C = x2 + 4 A( x2 + 4) + ( Bx + C ) ( x -1) ( x -1)( x 2 + 4 ) ò ( x -1)( x2 + 4 ) 7 x2 +13 x dx = ò x4 1 + 3xx2+16 dx +4 3x x2 + 4 16 x2 + 4 = ò x41 + - dx 3 = 4 ln x .F. For each factor in the denominator we get term(s) in the decomposition according to the following table. Recall x 2 = x . 2 From this we see that cot q = 4 -9 x 2 3x 4 -9 x 2 x . If we had a definite integral we’d need to compute q ’s and remove absolute value bars based on that and.Calculus Cheat Sheet Trig Substitutions : If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution and formula to convert into an integral involving trig functions.1 ó õ 16 4 sin 2 q ( 2cosq ) 9 òx 16 2 4 -9 x 2 dx x = 2 sin q Þ dx = 2 cos q dq 3 3 2 2 4 . a 2 . Factor denominator as completely as possible and find the partial fraction decomposition of the rational expression. For example if x = 1 we get 20 = 5A which gives A = 4 . Factor in Q ( x ) ax + b Term in P.9x = 2 cos q . Because we have an indefinite integral we’ll assume positive and drop absolute value bars. So.D Factor in Q ( x ) A ax + b Ax + B 2 ax + bx + c Term in P.D. A+ B = 7 C . a b 2 x 2 .B = 13 4A .lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.a 2 Þ x = b sec q a 2 + b 2 x 2 Þ x = a tan q b sec2 q = 1 + tan 2 q 12 ( 2 cos q ) dq = ò sin2 q dq 3 tan 2 q = sec 2 q . òx 16 2 4 -9 x 2 dx = .sin 2 q Ex.4 +c Partial Fractions : If integrating ò Q( x) dx where the degree of P ( x ) is smaller than the degree of P( x ) Q ( x ) . Chose nice values of x and plug in. This won’t always work easily. © 2005 Paul Dawkins .1) .D Ak A1 A2 + +L + 2 k ax + b ( ax + b ) ( ax + b ) ( ax + b ) k ax 2 + bx + c ( ax 2 + bx + c ) k Ak x + Bk A1 x + B1 +L + k 2 ax + bx + c ( ax 2 + bx + c ) 2 Ex. ì x if x ³ 0 x =í î.b 2 x 2 Þ x = a sin q b cos 2 q = 1 . From substitution we have sin q = 32x so.