This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the seventeenth century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the 1860s. Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's fashion capitals, and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses. Historically, many of the world's top designers and fashion houses have been French, including Coco Chanel, Christian Dior, Louis Vuitton, Lanvin, Chloé, Hermès, Guy Laroche, Yves Saint Laurent, and shoe designer Christian Louboutin.
History Seventeenth century
The association of France with fashion and style (French: la mode) dates largely to the reign of Louis XIV when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe. The rise in prominence of French fashion was linked to the creation of the fashion press in the early 1670s (due in large part to Jean Donneau de Visé) which transformed the fashion industry by marketing designs to a broad public outside the French court and by popularizing notions such as the fashion "season" and changing styles.
France renewed its dominance of the high fashion (French: couture or haute couture) industry in the years 1860-1960 through the establishing of the great couturier houses, the fashion press (Vogue was founded in 1892) and fashion shows. The first modern
Parisian couturier house is generally considered the work of the Englishman Charles Frederick Worth who dominated the industry from 1858-1895. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the industry expanded through such Parisian fashion houses as the house of Jacques Doucet (founded in 1871), Jeanne Paquin (founded in 1891; she was the first woman to open her own fashion house), the Callot Soeurs (founded 1895 and operated by four sisters), Paul Poiret (founded in 1903), Madeleine Vionnet (founded in 1912), Chanel (founded by Coco Chanel, it first came to prominence in 1925), Elsa Schiaparelli (founded in 1927) and Balenciaga (founded by the Spaniard Cristobal Balenciaga in 1937).
World War II
Many fashion houses closed during occupation of Paris during World War II, including the Maison Vionnet and the Maison Chanel. Germany, meanwhile, was taking possession of over half of what France produced, including high fashion, and was also considering relocating French haute couture to the cities of Berlin and Vienna, neither of which had any significant tradition of fashion. The archives of the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture were seized, most consequentially the client list. Jews were excluded from the fashion industry. Due to the difficult times, the number of models in shows was limited to seventy-five, evening wear was shortened and day wear was much lighter, made using substitute materials whenever possible. From 1940 onward, no more than thirteen feet (four meters) of cloth was permitted to be used for a coat and a little over three feet (one meter) was all that allowed for a blouse. No belt could be over one and a half inches (four centimeters) wide. Among young men in the War Years the zazou suit became popular.
In spite of the fact that so many fashion houses closed down or moved away during the war, several new houses remained open, including Jacques Fath, Maggy Rouff, Marcel Rochas, Jeanne Lafaurie, Nina Ricci, and Madeleine Vramant. During the Occupation, the only true way for a woman to flaunt her extravagance and add to color to a drab outfit was to wear a hat. In this period, hats were often made of scraps of material that would have otherwise been thrown away, sometimes incorporating butter muslin, bits of paper, and wood shavings. Among the most innovative milliners of the time were Pauline Adam, Simone Naudet, Rose Valois, and Le Monnier.
Post-war fashion returned to prominence through Christian Dior's famous "New Look" in 1947: the collection contained dresses with tiny waists, majestic busts, and full skirts swelling out beneath small bodices, in a manner very similar to the style of the Belle Époque. The extravagant use of fabric and the feminine elegance of the designs appealed greatly to a post-war clientèle. Other important houses of the period included Pierre Balmain and Hubert de Givenchy (opened in 1952). The fashion magazine Elle was founded in 1945. In 1952, Coco Chanel herself returned to Paris In the 1960s, "high fashion" came under criticism from France's youth culture (including the yé-yés) who turning increasing to London and to casual styles. In 1966, the designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established high fashion norms by launching a prêt-à-porter ("ready to wear") line and expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing and marketing (member houses of the Chambre Syndicale were forbidden to use even sewing machines). Further innovations were carried out by Paco Rabanne and Pierre Cardin. In post-1968 France, youth culture would continue to gravitate away from the "sociopolitically suspect" luxury clothing
new trends were established by Sonia Rykiel. Legal status The expression Haute couture is. the Ecole de la chambre syndicale de la couture parisienne (created in 1928). Paulo Melim Andersson (Swedish) at Chloe. preferring instead a more "hippy" look (termed baba cool in French). the Fédération française de la couture. The Federation also has a fashion school. Fashion weeks The Paris Fashion week takes place twice a year after the London Fashion Week and before Milan Fashion Week. in France. Jean-Paul Gaultier and Christian Lacroix in the 1970s and 80s.industry. Dates are 4 . Stefano Pilati (Italian) at Yves Saint Laurent. Claude Montana. Kenzo Takada (Japan) and Alexander McQueen (English) at Givenchy (until 2001). Thierry Mugler. New York. Milan and Tokyo. Nevertheless. Marc Jacobs American at Louis Vuitton. the Chambre syndicale du prêt-à-porter des couturiers et des créateurs de mode (ready-to-wear) and the Chambre syndicale de la haute couture (high fashion). John Galliano (British) at Dior. a legally protected name. guaranteeing certain quality standards. French couture is regulated by an industry governing body. Since the 1960s. The 1990s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals. du prêt-à-porter des couturiers et des créateurs de mode created in 1973. the latter having been created in 1868. France's fashion industry has come under increasing competition from London. many foreign designers still seek to make their careers in France: Karl Lagerfeld (German) at Chanel. which itself consists of the Chambre Syndicale de la mode masculine (men's fashion). With a greater focus on marketing and manufacturing.
Currently. 5 . Emperor Napoleon stopped the import of English textiles and he revived the Valenciennes lace industry so that fine fabrics like tulle and batiste could be made there. Bonaparte also had fireplaces at the Tuileries blocked up so that ladies would wear more clothing. Paris Since the seventeenth century. overtaken the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in high fashion as well as accessories. Ladies dresses had extra fabric gathered into the back and trains were seen again for evening. to some extent. To make women buy more material he forbade them to wear the same dress more than once to court. Other areas. French Influence on Early C19th Fashion Bonaparte's Influence on Fashion 1804 Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor in 1804 and was keen to make France a leader of fashion and innovator of design and craft skills. the Fashion Week is held in the Carrousel du Louvre. During the French Revolution the French textile industry had suffered and unlike in England. the Avenue Montaigne has. use of textile machinery had been non existent. Since the 1980s. such as Le Marais. the headquarters for fashion houses have been traditionally situated in the quarter around the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. have also included the clothing industry.determined by the French Fashion Federation. a traditional Jewish quarter.
Right .Post French Revolution simplified dress .Bonaparte was following a long tradition of promoting the French economy through fashion.Full skirt raised waist Empire dresses from the late 1790s. By 1799 the empire line silhouette shown left was well established and is the line we associate with dress of the early 1800s. Louis XIV promoted fashion in an earlier era he sent fashion dolls to European courts. The costume history plate of 1800 shown right. a short 6 . The volume in the skirt is still great and bears a relationship with fuller skirts of the 1790s shown above.Josephine in Full Regalia. Empress Josephine was a great fashion leader. The Empire dress which evolved in the late 1790s began as a chemise shift gathered under the breasts and at the neck. Bonaparte did not ignore men's rôle in the revival of the textile economy and he enforced male military officials to wear white satin breeches on formal occasions. Named after The First Empire. is a good example of how the fullness of the muslin shift dress was first drawn together under the bustline with a girdle. The Empire Dress Style 1800 The high waisted graceful styles of early 19th century are known as the Empire style. Many of her Regency fashion dresses were designed by Leroy. She was an ideal model for the slender fashions of the day. by 1800 the gown silhouette had a very décolleté low square neckline as seen right. Above Left .
Flesh Toned Pantaloons 7 .Chemisettes like these with side fastenings were worn under low necked gowns as a modesty filler.Dress of 1799 Le Journal Des Dames et Des Modes 1799 Frequently the small neat puff sleeves barely capped the shoulder. The lady of 1799 at the turn of the 19th century wears a chemisette and her coiffure (hair) is bound by a fichu cap. Left .narrow backed bodice attached to a separate skirt. For modesty until 1810 a tucker or simple chemisette (a side opening half blouse) filled the bare neckline by day. They were pulled back by the narrow cut of the bodice and this restricted arm movement to a certain daintiness. Underwear of 1800 The soft muslin dresses of 1800 clung to the body highlighting the natural body outline so stays were unpopular unless the figure demanded them. The practical solution to the discomfort of lighter clothing was to simply adopt the warm undergarment called pantaloons and already worn by men. From Les Journal Des Dames et Des Modes 1799. The Chemisette Regency dress in the period 1800-1820 was based on classical principles of flowing Grecian robes. Right . These Empire fashions at the turn of the century were often little more than sheer nightgowns.
. but the white muslins still needed a great deal of attention to keep them looking pristine clean. Although muslins were less costly than silks. This is why Empire women often appear to be wearing no underwear when seen in paintings of the era. Muslin also laundered better than silks. Regular wearing of white gowns was a sign of social status as white soiled so easily. good white work embroidered lawn fabrics still cost money. The flesh tone pantaloons acted in just the same way under clothes as they do today when a woman wears a flesh toned bra and briefs under white or pastel trousers and top. White gowns generally were kept for evening and in the day pastel or coloured robes were thought more suitable. To support extra skirt fullness a small bustle pad lifted the dress back. 8 . Fabrics for the Empire Line Dress The fabric for Empire line dresses was usually fine white lawn. Later it became fashionable to wear a white or pastel slippery silk satin slip over the stays making the dress silhouette quite smooth.The pantaloons were made of light stockinet in a flesh toned nude colour and reached all the way to the ankles or to just below the knee. muslin or batiste.
faithfully following the classical influence. All the embroidery was initially delicate and light. cottons. Egyptian Ornament on Classical Dress 1804-1807 One of the problems of such simple classical silhouettes was their very simplicity. For example Napoleon's expeditions to the east and items brought back by him and other soldiers created interest in Egyptian ornamentation. Decoration That Helps Identify and Date Dresses 18001825 The classical decoration was inspired by images of Grecian ladies from original Greek art. This soon led to boredom and decorative innovation as the restraint of staying pure to plain classical robes was too much for some. sleeve bands and shawls. Classical Grecian Decoration on Dress 1800-1803 Between 1800 and 1803 classical ornament used geometric shapes. but eventually the embroidery became coarsely executed. To help you date costumes in prints. fine wools and silks were used and sometimes extra warmth came from flannel petticoats or full under slip dresses. Greek key patterns decorated borders and garment hems.In winter heavier velvets. paintings and productions it is useful to understand that the classical line was debased by other types of decoration dependant on fashion influences. linens. Between 1804 and 1807 the classical robes developed an eastern exotic feel with Etruscan and Egyptian decoration with 9 .
This empire line muslin gown shown right and from 1807 has an appropriate border. European and Military Influence in Decoration 1808 A la Mameluke Sleeves After 1808 Spanish ornament featured on robes and appeared as slashed areas and tiered sleeves. complete with tassels. The eastern patterns first appeared from gifts Napoleon gave to his Empress Josephine after his visits to Egypt. 10 . especially outdoor wear.The Napoleonic Wars meant that a soldier's uniform had high visibility and military style details featured on clothing for both sexes. cords. Image examples here illustrate this extra long sleeve length. braids. When sleeves covered the hand they were called à la mamelouk. The border is emphasised on the coordinating shawl.Peasant influence from European dress was particularly applied to the name of coats. velvet and other trims lent a topical jaunty dashing air to many a garment. Empress Josephine was an icon and fashion leader of her time. cloaks and mantles such as the Witzchoura redingote an empire cloak of Russian origin. Soon everyone copied the items. Frogging.woven or embroidered borders on fabric lengths and on stoles. The most usual coat in the Regency era was the Pelisse coat.
It was usually fur trimmed. After 1810 it was worn full length and was a warmer longer sleeved coat than the Spencer. but often made of the same materials. The Pelisse was normally worn over pale gowns which were visible as it was worn open at the front.The Pelisse 1800-1850 The Pelisse can be a confusing term because there were several forms over a 50 year period. 11 . straight in cut. dark green and blue. It could be suitable for indoors or outdoors and was essentially a sturdy front fastening carriage. belted at a high waist like the gown and sported a broad cape like collar an influence of military styles. walking or day dress. The colours for pelisses were golden brown. From 1818 onwards women wore a coat dress variation called a pelisse-robe. The first form of pelisse worn from 1800 to 1810 was an empire line coat like garment to the hip or knee.
The Gothic Influence 1811
By 1811 in Britain, influence of the Middle Ages, termed Gothic crept into dress styles debasing the pure classical lines. The bodice gained more shaping and could be panelled. It was not cut as tight and narrow as in the first decade of the century, so it made the shoulder line broader and the dress more comfortable to wear. The flowing medieval touches soon broadened to include Tudor and Elizabethan times with ruffed and Vandyke triangular pointed decoration and cross over bodices. In England copious trimmings on skirts were all the rage from flounces and padded rolls to pleated, fanned and tucked trims. Left - Elaborate mock Tudorbethan touches, sleeves, slashes and Vandyke point hems. Embellishment was according to the latest fashion which sometimes took its own course due to the hostilities between France and Britain. By 1820 the dress had lost all classical form and took on a pure Gothic line which lasted until Queen Victoria's accession.
Variations in Fashion Between France and England 1808-1814
In wartime between 1808 and 1814 the female waistline lengthened in England. English ladies really had little idea of what was happening to Paris fashion.
Skirt Style 1815
When visitors from Britain returned to France after the 1814 peace treaty they were amazed that fashions were so different.
In Paris waists were worn very much higher than in those of Regency England and skirt hems were wider, more A-line, padded and decorated.British fashion soon followed the French lead after the French ridiculed the English dresses in cartoons making them appear very ugly with bulbous tulip round waisted skirts and solid corsetry. fig- Shorter flared styles of 1813 Pelisse Coat and Regency Dress 1814 (Ackermann's Repository).
Rise and Fall of the Waistline 1815-1825
In 1815 with the Napoleonic wars over, Britain began to follow French fashion trends for wearing a high waistline. The waistline reached its peak height in 1816-17 when the line fell directly under the breasts. Almost as soon as the waist had risen, 1818 fashion plates began to show the waistline dropping and tightening. It continued to drop annually by an inch, until by 1825 it was at last in its normal position.
Skirt Styles, 1818, 1819, 1822
Left - Regency Gown - Iris blue dress 1818.Centre - Regency Gown - Blue semi opaque sleeved dress 1819.Right - Regency Dress - Sea green gown 1822.
French designer had to follow the whims of his clients and drop the dress waists and widen the skirts. It seems that French ladies soon preferred the English style. Anglomania began to sweep France. After 1820 as the neat slim waist emerged, corsets were worn again by all women. The narrower buckle belted day waist or sash wrapped evening waist was balanced by widening skirts which were often horsehair padded and frilled to make them stand away from the legs. By 1824-5 the wider skirts were balanced by a wider shoulder line with a leg of lamb sleeve often known as a gigot sleeve as seen in the central pink dress.
Green dress 1825 showing how the waist is at last at its natural position. Its originator is thought to be Earl Spencer who singed the tails of his coat when standing beside a fire. A female version was soon adopted by gentlewomen who at the time were wearing the thin light muslin dresses of the 1790s. and eventually such sheer sleeves became a solid fabric. The semi opaque sleeve was the forerunner of all manner of fancy sleeve styles setting the scene for more romantic dress styles of the 1830s. Above Right . He then had the tails trimmed off and started a fashion. Earl Spencer and the Short Spencer Jacket 1795 The Spencer was a short top coat without tails worn by men during the 1790s as an extra covering over the tailed coat. It had long sleeves and was frequently decorated with military frogging. It 15 . The Spencer was worn as a cardigan or shrug is worn today.This had begun as a short sleeve which had been covered over by a transparent or semi opaque sleeve as the pastel pink evening dress shows.
a short jacket similar to a decorated Spencer was called a Hussar jacket. A Spencer was perfect to keep chills away. frogging and cords.A Lady Wearing a Spencer to read.Left . many Pelisses and Spencers were covered in decorative braids. tassels. Areas of Spencers back and front were decorated with braids and cording. When it was worn as an indoor evening Spencer it was called a canezou. Right .was a short form of jacket to just above waist level cut on identical lines to the dress. The Redingote 1818 16 . In time. as a result their wearers looked like members of the Hussars. Military Touches As the fashion for military touches persisted. This lemon Regency Spencer is from a fashion plate of 1818.A very cropped short high waisted Regency Spencer of 1817. Regency Spencers The Spencer was worn both indoors and outdoors and for eveningwear and was made of silk or a wool material known as kerseymere. When the waist slowly began its drop on dresses so did the waist of the Spencer as in this illustration of the cerise Spencer circa 1820. Italian quilting was popular as it created a raised surface pattern. This Spencer also has Gothic and military overtones with its decorative work. Spencers stayed in fashion for about 20 years whilst the waistline remained high.
The romantic spirit in fashionable dress lasted until the late 1840s. Because of some overlap due to the acknowledged prominence of the Prince in court consider the Regency era to being in 1807 The Peak of the Romantic Era 1825-1835 The neo-Gothic influence in fashion history dress fashions was at its peak during the Romantic Era between 1825 and 1835. lived on until 1820. already a cause celebre acted as Regent for nine years of the King's madness and then reigned himself from 18201830.The Redingote was worn from 1818 onwards initially indoors in cold weather. It was used in place of a loose cloak and as it developed a series of shoulder capes it became very suitable for travel. His son the Prince Regent. worn open whilst revealing the dress beneath. As dresses widened so the Redingote widened. Its name derives from the 18th century version of a riding coat. or the Regency fashion era. Anglomania After the Napoleonic wars became a memory. George III. this is known as The Regency Period. Regency or Both? The period 1800-1837 is part of the Georgian era. Redingotes were usually trimmed with fur and mostly made of heavy dark cloth. The British writings of Sir Walter Scott and Lord Byron helped popularise a thirst for a more 17 . French fashion was dominated by a new wave of Anglomania. Because of the influence of the Georgian Prince Regent. George. insane after 1811. 1800-1825 is it Late Georgian.
Generally the beret sleeve was worn for evening. The Fashion Silhouette The Romantic Skirt Silhouette Until 1820 dress waists had been round. The outer circle was gathered and set into the armhole. So gauze sleeves became very 18 . Evidence in museums suggests that real women were still wearing and making dresses with a slightly raised waistlines well into the 1830s despite the low waist illustrations of fashion plates. There was an opening in the centre for the arm and this was gathered and bound into a band. The rules and refinements of manners set at that time were built on and developed by the middle classes of Europe who sought to gentrify themselves. Sometimes a sheer oversleeve of silk embroidered shimmering gauze covered the beret puff. The arms and décolletage along with the highly desirable and visible sloped shoulders left some women feeling quite undressed and exposed. but in 1828 the bodice waistline took on a V-pointed form. Many of the attitudes toward the 'Art Of Dress' had been codified by Beau Brummell in his relationship with the Prince Regent.romantic image. Even so it was the late 1830s before every lady sported the fashion for long pointed bodices. cultivated and refined. There was a snobbish attraction on the continent for all things English.Picture of the overweight Prince Regent. Left . Beret Sleeves Beret sleeves were cut from a circle.
The Gigot or Gigot De Mouton Sleeve 1825-1833 The sleeves of the Romantic Era are the main feature and were built on an inverted triangle bodice. The long sleeve pattern was cut on the true cross of the fabric. throat and the sloping shoulders. They came to typify the look we now associate with the costume of the Romantic Era. When by 1835 the supports stopped being effective the sagged fabric volume collapsed down the arm and merged into a new sleeve fashion. Next the elbow fullness 19 .fashionable by the mid 1820s and were worn until the sleeves subsided to new styles. The bodice décolletage was so exposed by the pull of the wide sleeves that it really showed off the chest.By the mid 1830s the enlarged top cap was sagging with its own enormity. It was rounded at the top. was first seen in 1824. After 1836 a New Slim Sleeve Over a few years after 1836 the Romantic sleeve fullness inevitably worked its way down the sleeve giving a much tighter top arm and more fullness at the elbow.The full length gigot or leg of lamb sleeve or the gigot de mouton known as the leg of mutton sleeve. There was so much material that the fullness initially held up with inner stiff buckram support or 'crin' horsehair fabric began to flop. The buckram was replaced with either whalebone hoops in a cotton cover or feather filled pads.Romantic gigot sleeves C1826 After 1825 the decade saw sleeves billow to huge proportions by 1833. increasing to greater size. Left .
but as a fashion they were dead by the 1840s. Tight sleeves were set into a low small armscye restricting women's arm movements and increasing the demure mannerisms we associate with Victorian women. The turbans they twisted up from scarves. satin and velvet exotic turbans or berets especially on one side of the head.dropped to the wrist and excess material was gathered into a rouleau or band creating a new sleeve shape. so little difference was seen between the types. Their similarity was that each covered the very wide shoulders and could aid modesty. Coal scuttle bonnet styles with deep crowns accommodated the high Apollo knot coiffure and were a great feature of the Romantic Era. Loose uncut ribbon ties were a feature of the bonnets and by 1828 both bonnets and hats were quite vast affairs. For evening many married ladies liked to wear gauzy silk. ornately trimmed with feathers. The pelerine grew wider as it spread over the increasing shoulder line of gigot sleeves. By 1840 early Victorian day sleeves could be quite slim fitting. Bonnets were virtually interchangeable with hats. loops of ribbons and bows complemented the wide shoulder lines of the 1830s. Hats Large romantic wide hats. By 1845 the shoulder line of dresses showed that a new fashion era was in the making. It accentuated the shoulder width and made the waist of 20 . The first style was a fine white collar embroidered or lace trimmed and which looked like a cape. Pelerine Collars 1830 Pelerine collars came in several variations.
trimmed with fur and worn as an outdoor garment. Another later mid 19th century variation was a fashionable long fronted little shoulder short backed cape mostly made of velvet or wool. Decoration of stuffed rouleau tubes. The Wider Skirt Hemline 1820-1835 Skirts were a source of endless variation. They were first stiffened with horsehair about 1815 and gradually padding adding was added. Fichu Pelerine In the second version if the lace pelerine had long front ends. Another name for this item was a tulle canezou. Gores disappeared at 21 . The padding backed the lower six inches of the skirt. It also shortened the dress to reveal the ankle at the same time. Women's fashions took on a pert cheeky air. Italian quilting and flounces and frills were added to push out the skirt hem width in an architectural way. so that width could be added to hemlines whilst keeping the waist clear of bulk. Skirts were gored into panels between 1820 an 1828. When all forms of decoration had been exhausted just the padded hems remained by about 1828. These ends could be crossed at the front waist and tied at the back waist. it was called a fichu-pelerine.the 1830s look very small and was a popular feature of dress in the Romantic period. The width of the lace pelerine reached about 31 inches when at its widest fashion and the pelerines were sometimes attached to a chemisette which was a sleeveless side opened blouse fastened at the waist.
The 22 . As the skirt expanded the robust linen or cotton petticoats increased in number. The Underwear With the return of the waist women had to wear stays. After 1848 this day coat-dress was called a redingote as fashion writers had called it for many years. Sleeves on the pelisse robe were too big to wear under coats so shawls and cloaks were more practical. Small shoulder straps were made detachable and the wearer could wear the stays with more revealing necklines. The Pelisse Robe and Pelisse Mantle 1818-1845 By 1831 the pelisse robe fashionable since 1818 was worn almost as a house dress.the same time and from then on skirts were made from straight panels of dress material pleated and gathered to waistbands. Once again they returned to tight lacing to make the waist look narrow and pinched in to balance the wide skirts and wide shoulder line. Stays were made from cloth layers that had whalebone inserted in channels. The silhouette changed and lost its overall puffiness by 1835. The skirts began to get rounder and more bell like.As a dress the pelisse robe was supplanted by the pelisse mantle in the 1830s. They supported crisp firm silk or woollen materials and in summer or indoors cotton chintzes and muslins. Over the stays women wore a chemise and a waist petticoat. Corsets were intended to emphasise the natural curves rather than create a false silhouette. Little gussets at the hips allowed for roundness rather than trying to flatten the line. setting the scene for the Victorian Era.
but if you look really closely you will see they are not at all alike. Another lesser style was the 'Madonna' coiffure with the centre parted and built up with ringlets at crown and sides. Some even thought this style too elaborate. a striking style tending to lean to one side. Apollo Knot Hairstyle so typical of the Romantic period. Left. They are similar. There are many fashion plates and paintings that show both these styles because they were so typical of the age. 23 . The most modish hair fashion was the 'Apollo Knot'. As I have suggested elsewhere on the FashionEra. Dating Dresses in the Romantic Era Compared to eras where the dating of dresses can be confusing the Romantic Era has quite definite periods of style variations that make it fairly easy to date garments to within a few years.Romantic Era white redingote 1826 Hair Women's hair between 1825 an 1845 was elaborate and ingenious. Hairstyles and hair ornamentation give a very definite feel of an era.com site always look at the hairstyles and headwear of the wearer of the garment. Occasionally students confuse the period 1892-1896 fashions because of the similar fashion for leg of mutton sleeves.pelisse mantle was the ideal answer during the Romantic Era. It was an interlined warm deep cloak and was the most used outer garment in chilly weather remaining fashionable until 1845. even when it was mostly worn for evening.
Victorian Recreations. Victorian Homelife Changes. You'll also find other relevant information in sections like Jewellery. At the start of the Victorian era most fashions lasted about a decade. but mass communications and mass production both improved so much that by 1901 the history of fashion was moving in a yearly cycle. Chambre Syndicale. Much fuller details of petticoats styles are given in Crinolines and Bustles. Illustrations of Victorian clothes of the last 20 years of the C19th can be dated to within a year or two. coiled Apollo top knots and ringlet loops of the Romantic Era. Looking at the section on Crinolines. Early Victorian Fashion Overview This is an overview of fashion history of the early Victorian era and can be read in line with other related topics. Bustles and S Bends Corsets would help those new to costume to understand the subtle changes in dress and hairstyles and how to spot the changes from a fashion history 24 . Movements like the Rational Dress Reform Society and the Aesthetic Dress Movement highlight positive and negative reactions to industrial and technical applications happening in Victorian society. In terms of Victorian fashion history this also brought changes in women's position and dress. A Woman's Place in the 19th Century. Dating Victorian Costume Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901 and was succeeded by her 60 year old son Edward the Prince of Wales. The Seaside and Fashion Dolls. What's in a Name as well as the social effects on Victorians. Shopping in the Past.The frizzed and curled hairstyles of the Naughty Nineties are quite different from the demure centre hair partings. Make up.
Lavishly trimmed bonnets stayed in fashion for half a century and weren't worn much after 1890. c1838 By 1840 the collapsed sleeve was much narrower.point of view. This meant that an early Victorian woman's arm movements were restricted.The early sentimental Victorian look often used to depict ladies of the era. Right . The limited range of arm 25 . In 1836 Gigot sleeves collapsed abruptly and so costume began to develop the sentimental 'early Victorian look' we associate with Queen Victoria's early rule. All the boned bodice seam lines and trims were directional to emphasize the small waists. The Early Victorian Silhouette 1837-56 The look of demure prim gentility was emphasized by the loss of the great hats in 1835 for bonnets. For theatrical and re-enactment work there are clear distinctions in dress in every Victorian decade. but still retained a restrictive seam line on the dropped shoulder. The early Victorian tight fitting pointed bodice was much longer and had a very small tight fitting waist. Prim sentimentality was emphasized by the popular ringlet hairstyle. more streamlined early Victorian dresses of 1838. Great hats had given a flirtatious air to clothes and their replacement by bonnets changed the whole character of day dresses. By 1845 the boned bodice was even more elongated into a V shape and the shoulder sleeve seam line drooped even more. The boning also helped stop the bodice from horizontal creasing. Left .Slimmer fitting sleeves of plainer.
To make the skirts appear wider. Both were often made of delicate whitework and gave an air of refinement and daintiness. extra flounces were added in the early 1840s to evening dresses and by 1845. A Victorian woman could also emphasize modesty by wearing freshly laundered detachable white collars and false undersleeves called engageantes. The wider skirts were supported by stiffened fabrics like linen which used horsehair in the weave. Later by 1850 the word crinoline began to mean the whole of the beehive shaped 26 . 'Crin' is French for horsehair so the word crinoline suggesting a crin lining was used for any garment area that was stiffened to give shaped foundation. flounces and short overskirts were a regular feature of day dresses. but after 1846 flat pleating the fabric gave more overall hemline width. Because the new version was larger it acted as an outer wrap and when folded in half and draped over the shoulders would reach almost to ground level in some cases. By 1842 they needed a great deal of support from extra petticoats. After being absent for a decade the cashmere shawl was brought back into fashion about 1840. Strip hem linings and a sleeve head are just two examples where crin was used. As bell shaped skirts of the 1830s became wider and they began to also look dome shaped. Softer more demure plain colours and small delicate dimity patterns helped to add a neat ladylike quality to gowns. Cartridge pleats were used at first to draw up the skirt fabric in 1841.movements increased the appearance of demure vulnerability and helplessness we so often associate with Victorian femme fatales.
S Thompson took out a patent on a cage frame in 1856 and then marketed a steel frame cage crinoline 27 . Right . flannel or wool petticoats used under one skirt could weigh as much as 14 pounds.skirt.Typical domed appearance of petticoat supported Victorian crinoline dress and child's confirmation dress of 1851. The cotton. In the early Victorian years time corsets also lost their shoulder straps and a fashion for producing two bodices. Six petticoats at least were needed to hold the wide skirts out. This fashion for two piece costumes. Lace bertha neckline 1856 very usual on early Victorian evening dress. The cut of the low shoulder line filled in to the neckline by day followed through to evening dresses. All this exposure was restricted to the upper and middle classes. The décolleté style meant that the shawl became an essential feature of dresses. Using a separate bodice to skirts meant that a tighter waist could be achieved. Victorian working class women would never have revealed so much flesh. so clothes were uncomfortably hot and heavy in summer. with a closed décolletage for day and a décolleté one for evening. crinolines. but known as a dress lasted until about 1908. It was then only another step to call the later artificial or cage hooped support frame petticoats after 1856. Another American W . Evening dresses totally exposed a woman's shoulders in a style called the 'bertha'. Sometimes the bertha neckline was trimmed over with a 3 to 6 inch deep lace flounce or the bodice neckline was draped with several horizontal bands of fabric pleats.
sleeves were like large bells too and sometimes had open splits allowing for lavish decorative sleeve hemlines and detachable false undersleeves called engageantes. Charles Worth was responsible for many interesting sleeve styles of the mid-Victorian era. Skirts among all classes began to look rounded. Within a few years the crinoline was improved when it became articulated and various modifications such as subtle flattening of the front created a less domed more pyramid effect by 1860.throughout Europe. William Perkin Discovers Coal Tar Aniline Dyes 1856 In 1856 William Perkin did some experiments and discovered Mauveine an extract from coal tar. It freed women from excessive petticoat weight. Petticoats were always cut following the line of the top garment. Engageantes To balance the effect of the cage crinoline. launder and re-stitch into position.Engageantes . linen. It is these distinctively styled sleeves that help date the first softer polonaise bustle when looking at illustrations. Freed from excess petticoat weight women began to gain a jaunty spring in their step.false detachable undersleeves. It let women's legs move freely beneath. although a top petticoat give a softer foundation for the dress skirt. Right . Engageantes were often made from fine lace. like gigantic domed beehives and soon they reached maximum size. but it could be unstable in gusts of wind. so it was fortunate that women had universally adopted the wearing of drawers some years before. Mauveine was a bright 28 . cambric or Broderie Anglaise and were easy to remove. lawn.
purple dye synthesized under laboratory conditions and it revolutionized the textile industry. Until that time fashion details and changes were suggested by the customers. Perkin made a fortune from his discovery of aniline dyes. Brighter fashion colours were soon in use. The House of Worth became a leader of ideas for the next 30 years. Fragile gauze dresses decorated with flowers and ribbons that were made for wealthy young women were only intended to be worn for one or two evenings and then cast aside as they soiled and crushed so easily. Charles Worth Redefines Haute Couture in 1858 In 1857 the Englishman Charles Worth set up a Paris fashion house at 7 Rue de la Paix a then unfashionable Paris district. In 1858 he made a collection of clothes that were unsolicited designs. When the dyes were used on silk the colours sang with vibrancy. Silk flowers. Such conspicuous waste and conspicuous consumption were hallmarks of Victorian high living. froths of tulle and pleated gauze trims would have emphasised the innocence of virginal girls whilst signalling their availability on the marriage market. but could also be garish when seen next to naturally dyed fabrics. Haute Couture during the Victorian period was an ideal foil for conspicuous consumption. but there were some like the Aesthetics who reacted against the brasher tones. Other dye colours such as magenta and brilliant blue were soon on the market and in 1856 the Frenchman Verguin discovered fuchsine. 29 . He showed the clothes on live models and when people bought his original designs he became a leading fashion design couturier of the Victorian era.
married more senior women wore statelier fabrics like heavy satins. which only the really rich found practical. It was thought good etiquette to dress according to one's position in society and that also meant not wearing clothes more suited to a younger woman. In 1864 Worth designed an overskirt which could be lifted and buttoned up by tabs. Firstly the sewing machine had been invented. This top skirt gave a lot of scope for added ornamentation and by 1868 it was being drawn and looped right up at the back creating drapery and fullness. However.Older. When researching fashion history it is important to remember that ordinary women were dressed in a much more subdued manner. as he did manipulate the style. Charles Worth thought the crinoline skirt unattractive. secondly clothes would in future become couture design led. he is associated with it. 30 . crisp silks and plush velvet. Fourthly in 1860 the crinoline domed skirt silhouette had a flattened front and began to show a dramatic leaning toward the garment back. as a result the shape soon changed to a new trained.Dress designed by Charles F. thirdly synthetic dyes would make available intense colours. Right . Worth for Empress Elizabeth of Austria and painted by Winterhalter in 1865. Many would mainly wear occupational dress or household serving uniform. softer bustled version. The Mid Victorian Silhouette 1860-1880 Factors Affecting the Fashion Silhouette after 1860 We arrive at 1860 with four significant facts that were to seriously affect fashion of the future.
This is the dress style often used to depict the constrained buttoned up repressed governess character of Jane Eyre in films. 31 . Sleeves in day dresses were often of a banana shape. Later Princess styles were slimmer and much more form fitting. On the left a tiered soft bustle ball gown of 1872. The Princess gown was cut in one piece and consisted of a number of joined panels fitted and gored from shoulder to hem that gave the figure shape through seaming. Rounder waistlines were fashionable and waistlines even began to rise very slightly. The Soft Bustle Fashion Silhouette 1867-1875 By 1867 with the fullness bunched up to the back of the skirt creating a polonaise style. Left . Right . crinolines and cages suddenly disappeared evolving into tournures or bustles.Apron style tablier top layer half skirt over bustle. The Louvre Paris. After 1868 Worth's overskirt really caught on in England and contrasting underskirts and gown linings were all revealed as the over top skirt was divided or turned back.Women in the Garden by Claude Monet 1866-7. Other top skirts were called aprons and they were also draped making the wearer look like a piece of elaborate upholstery.The New Princess Line 1866 In 1866 the new Princess gown also changed the line of fashionable dress. The Gabriel Princess gown with a small neat white collar was mainly made in grey silk and followed the fuller skirt lines of the era. The bustles supported accentuated drapes on the hips.
ball gowns always had a train.Painting 'Too Early' by James Tissot 1873 . braids and fringing. Left . The Princess line sheath had a bodice line similar to the very tight fitting cuirasse bodices which had been getting longer and longer. ruffles. By 1875 soft polonaise bustle styles were becoming so extreme that the soft fullness began to drop down the back of the garment and form itself into a tiered.Slim fitting trained dress with cuirasse bodice 1876. women of the late Victorian era have a very different look about them compared to earlier Victorian women. By 1878 the cuirasse bodice reached the thighs. Trains were very heavily ornamented with frills. The sewing machine instead of simplifying sewing. just became a tool to add more ostentation. pleats. draped and frilled train. Soon by 1873 the train was seen in day dress. 32 . The other main feature of the style change was the introduction of the cuirasse bodice which dipped front and back extending a little over the hips. Right .Guildhall Art Gallery UK. The Late Victorian Silhouette 1878-1901 By 1878. By 1880 the soft bustle styles of the 1870s had totally disappeared.From 1870. The Princess Line and the Cuirasse Bodice The soft polonaise style bustle styles were replaced by Princess sheath garments without a waist seam with bodice and skirt cut in one.
The slimline style needed good dressmaking skills to get a flattering fit. It made an exceptionally form fitting draped sheath dress which was elongated even further by the train. Left . 33 . It reappeared even larger than ever as a hard shape that gave women a silhouette like the hind legs of a horse as shown in the page heading.The second hard bustle style 1883. Right . By 1880 the two ideas merged and the whole of the dress was in Princess line style with shoulder to hem panels. but a small pad would have helped any trained fabric to fall well. but all too often swathes of fabric were wrapped and arranged across the garment in an effort to disguise poor dressmaking skills.The cuirasse bodice of 1880 reached the hem actually becoming the princess panel dress.By 1878 the cuirasse bodices had reached the thighs. It was not a very practical garment and only really suited to the very slim and those who did not have to work. When done well it was attractive. As a fashion it barely lasted 3 years. The New Hard Bustle of 1883 Suddenly out of nowhere in 1883 a new jutting out shelf like style of bustle appeared. The cuirasse bodice was corset like and dipped even deeper both front and back extending well down the hips creating the look of a body encased in armour. It had been shown in Paris in 1880. but as a fashion took off later outside of Paris. The silhouette was slim and elongated even more by the train. No bustle was needed for the cuirasse bodice or Princess sheath dress.
Power Dressing 34 . The pointed bodice began to look quite tailored. The sleeves look like quite a different style than on the bustle dress of the 1870s which had sleeves that would not have looked out of place on dresses of 1860. Art Institute Chicago. What drapery there was. It had minimal drapery compared to the former and a slimmer more fitted severely tailored princess bodice. with a much flatter front. This later bustle fashion was very moulded to the body and the heavy corsetry gave an armour like rigidity to the silhouette. was tidily arranged at the front of the dress as a small apron. Victorian Fashion History . In 1887 the sleeves were still slimmer. By 1889 silhouette changes now couturier led were changing more rapidly and the sleeve developed a very slight leg of mutton outline which soon needed support. For support the spring pivoted metal band Langtry bustle gave the correct foundation for the wider skirts. Soon even that disappeared. Tailored garments had been introduced in 1874 and their influence on design was subtle.Dress of 1889 showing signs of elevation at the sleeve head. Right . plain and close fitting.The new bustle dress had a different look. but led eventually to the tailor made suit so fashionable in the 1890s. See Crinolines and Bustles. Right -La Grande Jatte by Georges Seurat 1884-6.
royal blue. purple. At night ladies evening dresses were in softer hues and although they were extravagantly trimmed in contrast fabrics and very décolleté. The armour like hour glass figure 35 . Other military and more tailor made styles of jacket were also popular.It's interesting to note how late Victorian women embraced the sharper tailored jacket fashion which gave them a different posture with a more confident air reflecting the ideals of early female emancipation. mandarin. There are similarities in the period 1885 with 1985 when women also showed their strength in the corporate workplace with Power Dressing through more masculine tailored. As before the bustle foundation softened until only a small pad was left by 1893. in combination. bright apple green. Some dresses also had a more severe air about them. A similar broad shoulder trend occurred in the Utility Clothing era of the 1940s when women did work usually thought of as men's work. sea green were used alone. or in tartan fabrics. Some colour combinations were very strange. 1890s Gradually the skirt widened and flared as the fullness of the bustle began to fall into pleats down the garment back eventually disappearing to nothing. Vivid colours such as deep red. Bright Aniline Dyed Colours The gowns of the 1880s were almost always made in two colours of material. shoulder padded clothes. peacock blue. they followed the general line of fashion.
Leg of Mutton Sleeves The leg of mutton sleeves continued to develop and sprouted high above the shoulders. Together they set the tone for society and fashion in the last decade of the century in the 1890s and into their own reign of the Edwardian era from 1901 to 1910.Evening gown with train 1890. Princess Alexandra.soon developed into the S-Bend shape corset which set the Edwardian Corsetry silhouette until 1907-8. Left . people who were in mourning still followed court guidelines on mourning dress. A variety of sleeve styles popular from about 1860 to 1885 in the mid Victorian period 36 . As happened in 1830 to balance the huge shoulders the skirt widened and flared. By 1895 the sleeves swelled into enormous puffs similar to those of 1833. Queen Victoria's influence over fashion was long gone. whilst keeping the waist tight and handspan narrow. The real royal influence in fashion was the wife of the Prince of Wales.
Elaborate decoration was common and many sleeve style trends were set by Charles Worth. The invention of the sewing machine led to even more elaboration on dress.
Fashionable Victorian ladies sleeves
Sleeves from Victorian ladies dresses
Tinted Victorian Fashion Drawings of Mantelets.
Edwardian Fashion History La Belle Époque Edwardian Fashion History
What is La Belle Époque? Aspects of Edwardian fashion history are examined in the sections on the Society Hostess, The Edwardian Seamstress and Edwardian Corsetry. Here we give a general overview of the main popular styles in the period 1890-1914 by which time fashion moved in a yearly cycle. The French called the era from 1895 to 1914 La Belle Époque. It was an epoch of beautiful clothes and the peak of luxury living for a select few - the very rich and the very privileged through birth. In retrospect we can see it is an era very separate from the 20th century despite belonging at its start. The attitudes and lifestyles of two decades were swept away by war and because the war was so atrocious a new socialism and sense of personal identity was born. The masses started to reject the concept of privilege as the reason for a better life. Clothes worn after 1915 could probably be worn today in certain circumstances, but clothes before then are more in tune with the elaborate clothes of 1770
a 40 . The Silhouette after 1890 The bustle disappeared from day dresses and the new day skirt style was flared smoothly over the hips from a handspan waist and then gradually widened at the hemline. right .Grace Palotta Tailor Made Ready to Wear Costumes The tailor made was called a costume or a suit and made of wool or serge. The size of the sleeves was highlighted by the comparison of the tiny sashed or belted waist against the simple gored skirt that flared out all round to balance the massive sleeve heads. But the tailored suit as we know it was first introduced in the 1880s by the Houses of Redfern and Creed. Looser less fitted versions of a simple suit had been available for informal wear since 1850. Middle and upper class women wore them with shirtwaist blouses. Initially only the jacket was tailored and it was worn with a draped bustle skirt.Mary Moore. Left . In the 1890s the tailored suit was thought both masculine and unladylike. By the 1890s and until 1910 the gored skirt also looked more tailored and matched the jacket style which followed the changing silhouette of the time.and would only be seen today at a costumed event or as bridal wear. Hostess beauties of the 1890s. By 1895 the leg of mutton sleeves swelled to gigantic proportions and were also used on décolleté evening dresses.
Edwardian tailored suits ideal for travel. but became straighter and less waisted toward the end of the Edwardian era. The pink tailor made shown left here has a short bolero effect jacket. more commercial workplace found it a useful all purpose outfit. Women seemed to be making a clear statement that they deserved and wanted more independence in the future. The Gibson Girl This particular image was a cartoon character drawn by the American artist Charles Dana Gibson. Describing female clothes as masculine was intended to be derogatory. The second green jacket is a longer line jacket that continued in popularity. 41 . Men objected to the tailor made female suit as they saw it representing a challenge to their authority. Lighter cloths were used in tailor made outfits suitable for weddings and heavier tweeds and rougher serge used for everyday or country wear suits. Tailor mades were always described as ideal for travelling. sporty and emancipated as well as beautiful.description usually used for a fairly plain garment. Right . For twenty years between 1890 and 1910 he satirised society with his image of 'The New Woman' who was competitive.The Gibson Girl. Women entering a changing. Fashion history clearly shows that by 1900 tailored suits were firmly established. Within a decade they became much more versatile with a distinction being made between the cloths used.
The corset was too tightly laced at the waist and so forced the hips back and the drooping monobosom was thrust forward in a pouter pigeon effect creating an S shape. The S-Bend corset and pouter pigeon effect. The S-bend health corset described fully in the section on Edwardian Corsetry set the line for fashion conscious women until 1905. fine embroidery. If you were wealthy like an Edwardian society hostess. faggoting. appliqué. insertions of lace. Home dressmakers did their best to emulate the fussy couture blouses and they used fine pin tucks. pleats and lace trim to get good effects. Another Gibson look was a shirt collar worn with either a tie. The bodice was heavily boned and was almost like a mini corset itself worn over the S-bend corset. Beautiful embellished ornate blouses took on a new importance and were worn by every class. During this time it was still usual to make dresses in two pieces. cascades of lace and ultra feminine clothes were available as labour was plentiful and sweated. 42 . tie neck cravat with stick pin bar brooch or crosscut ruffle jabot. The Edwardian Silhouette 1900-1907 The fashionable hour glass silhouette belonged to the mature woman of ample curves and full bosom. floppy artist bow. Blouses are detailed in the section on the Edwardian Seamstress.Her clothes were fashionable in both America and Britain and set a fashion for skirts worn with embroidered blouses.
It acted as a stay garment giving extra stability. No cleavage was visible as the bust was suppressed into a monobosom.Bodice pouched Edwardian day dresses At the front of the bodice. By 1905 press fasteners were used in Britain to hold the bodice or blouse to a skirt. The straight sleeves of the late 1890s developed into bloused effects gathered into wrist bands. High necks were usual by day. They were often kept in place with wire covered in silk that was twisted into a series of hooks and eyes from one piece of wire. simply flowing to more width at the hemline. Little wire or boning supports covered with buttonhole silk were sometimes dispersed every few inches of the collar to maintain the rigid effect. but by night exceptionally low sweetheart. The skirts were often gored and created an elongated trumpet bell shape like the gently opening head of a longiflorum lily. Above Left . 43 .A top bodice was usually mounted onto a lightly boned under bodice lining which fastened up with hooks and eyes very snugly. Right . square and round décolleté necklines allowed women to wear quantities of fine jewellery. contour and directional shape beneath the delicate top fabric. but America had dress fasteners as early as 1901. pouches of cascading lace or gathered fabric gave emphasis to the low bust line. Very deep high lace fabric collars that reached right under the chin elongated the neck. Modified versions were less extreme over the hips.High neck blouse 1906.
The Casaque was a deep close fitting basque jacket that buttoned to the neck. Paletots. A Paletot was a short jacket with set in sleeves and the Mantelet was a kind of half shawl. The new late Edwardian silhouette. wraps and jackets. To read more about the era of Orientalism and Paul Poiret's artist friends who put a stamp on the era go to Orientalism In Dress.The S-Bend Silhouette. Between 1906 an 1909 the silhouette began to show gradual changes and skirts lost fullness and the silhouette straightened. One of THE social events of 1908 was the London Olympic Games. S bend corset. Casaques and Mantelets Women wore the shawl for many years. Feet showed again.Right . All the items 44 . trained skirt and lavish hat all had an effect on the posture of an Edwardian lady and it gave her a certain swaying grandeur. So after 1907 fashion history looked toward a new fresh direction when a longer line corset became fashionable. Poiret's ideas were controversial and were directed at younger women. The high collar. The Edwardian Silhouette 1908-1913 The waistline was raised until it was a column like empire line or Directoire after the styles designed by fashion designer Paul Poiret. but gradually it was replaced by other outdoor items such as capes. The corset almost reaching the knees was intended to make the figure look slimmer.
Right . Edwardian Small Accessories Incredible Edwardian Hats After the slimmer silhouette arrived. The hats were named Merry Widow hats after the popular operetta of the era.had allowed for the cut of the bustles and pads of the era and the garments ranged from high hip to three quarter length. Parasols 45 . Fancy gloves were also made in suede and silk and covered with fine embroidery. Gloves Washable kid gloves were always worn with outdoor garments both winter and summer. velvet and fur trim on the oversized muff. hats developed much wider brims. Note the incredible feather hat and lavish gold metal embroidery. Aesthetes objected to the use of animal products. Lavish trims such as feathers often stuck out well beyond the brim. The fur skin of whole animals such as foxes and even two foxes were used as wraps about the shoulders.Martial and Armand Creation depicting the perfectly groomed directoire styled woman of 1912. Feathers Feathers were used excessively as decoration on hats and as boas.
Oil smuts could be a problem so women wore thick face veils with their hats and even goggles. or special motoring coats from Burberry or Aquascutum acted as protection from weather and cold. The first. the period of The French Revolution.Parasols were still used as decorative accessories and in summer they dripped with lace and added to the overall fussy prettiness. 1815-1825 is the late Neo-classical period that shows a gradual shift towards the Romantic style. but small decorative delicate bags with a dainty strap that hung from the wrist were sometimes used. and is a stable Neoclassical period. Loose topcoats in leather. The second 1800-1815 is the time of the French Consulate and Empire. Bags Handbags were not fashionable in the era. is a sharp transition period. Dress in The French Revolution 46 . Ladies carried little money as goods were charged to accounts and only minimal make up was usual so none was carried. Edwardian Motoring Outfits Open cars still created dusty dirty atmospheres and country roads were often unmade. French Revolution and Empire Periods This time frame from 1789-1825 is actually several different subperiods. 1789-1799.
Late 18th Century women's dress collapses from it's padded and puffed look to a thin. "Roman". As the French Revolution progressed. but when the Directory took over French fashion again went wild. There was a brief fashion for plain dresses in dark colors during the Terror of 1792. "Sauvage" and "Otaheti" (Tahitian) styles. for example. often translucent silhouette. trying out "Rousseauesque" fashions in "Greek". different women's styles were adopted that appeared to have reference to the revolutionary politics. In the early 1790's. the "English" or man-tailored style was favored as it hinted towards the leanings of constitutional monarchy.Dress during this period goes through massive shift. Dress a'la Greque (Hoey) The Psudo-"Greek" look proved most popular and was adopted as the standard style in Europe in the late 1790's 47 . social structure and philosophy of the time.
(Victoria and Albert Museum) French fashion Plate of 1792 Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century While Men's Costume in the 1790's also becomes thinner in line. it separates it's style from women's dress by beginning to lose nearly all forms of surface decoration. 1797. lace and 48 .Costume for a ball "a la sauvage". "Greek" style dress. (Quicherat) A dress of the male style in vogue between 1780-95. 1796. 2.
49 . This change is slow. Other major changes include the adoption of trousers from the dress of sailors and the urban proletariat of the French Revolution. as "irrational" and feminine effluvia. the passing of the fashions for wigs and hair powder. Bonnets from "Wiener Zeitschrift". a trend which continues through the 19th Century. and the (very temporary) demise of the corset. but it completely alters men's dress by the mid 19th Century into dull dark uniform dress. 1820 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century The Neoclassical Period 1800-1825 Probably due to post Revolutionary backlash against female influence in politics. and increasingly drab utilitarian dress on men. Vienna. The bonnet is invented as a hat that is meant to look like a Greek helmet. later reinforced by the German Philosopher Schopenhauer (who promoted the view that men were supposed to be rational and women emotional). but it quickly is altered in style out of all resemblance to the original. The direction of fashions towards Neo Classic dress for women.bright color. the sexual dichotomy in dress becomes more pronounced in this era. continue in a steady manner in this very stylistically stable period.
As the period proceeds. the skirts get puffed out with petticoats. 1928 Images from Fashion Plates 1790-1800 50 . until by 1825 it is hard to see how the style worn was ever imagined to look Greek. the waist lowers and tightens with corsets. which achieved an apex at the coronation of the Emperor Napoleon in 1804. 1822 Vienna from Max von Boehn's Das Beiwerk der Mode. high waisted with little puffed sleeves. and psudo-Greek hairstyles.1807 1809 Women's dress locks into a pattern of light colored muslin gowns. the originally simple lines of these gowns are increasingly decorated with ruffles and puffs.
1825 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century Men's dress also keeps on a fairly steady course towards increasing dullness. 51 . Fashion magazines continue to push men's dress towards foppish extremes. 1816 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century "Wiener Zeitschrift". Vienna. but men who actually count in the fashionable world tend to push for plainer styles.Fashions in Hamburg 1802 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century "Wiener Mode". Vienna.
as with trying to create any other period style in the present. The few outlets for male fashion expression (boots. Neck ties in this period were especially important. collars and neckties) therefore go to extremes. Men's clothing in this era becomes less and less adventurous in style. a marked departure from the style of the previous century. the leader of male sartorial fashion in England in this period was noted for wearing only black with a white shirt for formal evening wear. even with genuine period instructions for tying available . Tubular and fitted trousers also move from a radical fashion statement to everyday wear for most men of the upper classes. hats. [A better photo of the styles is at neckclothitania] Fashionable Frenchman of 1802 (Fresno) English man of 1810 from Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century 52 . Then go to Regency Neckcloths or The art of tying the cravat Demonstrated and try following the wonderfully vague and confusing period instructions for tying it round your (or someone else's) neck. However.Beau Brummell. Get a piece of light crisp cloth (muslin or taffeta will work best) about 70" x 10" in size. neckties require a leap of imagination & practical experimentation to get them to look like the images one sees in the past.
as its basis. Suit of King Ludwig I. Rococo forms in the decorative arts typically seem to float upwards in complex curvilinear patterns. music and furniture had. Rococo art . a lightness and fluidity which grew more pronounced as it progressed.Where every aspect of the fine and decorative arts of the Baroque period had at its core an extreme solidity and heaviness. defying both physical and emotional gravity. beginning of the 19th Century (Kohler) Journal des Dames 1823 (Boehn) Dress in 18th Century Europe till the French Revolution Style The Rococo period was marked stylistically by the same convoluted detail and elaborate decoration which characterized the Baroque period immediately preceding it. But despite this similarity Rococo style had. at its center a radical difference. The Dance by Lancret 53 .Men's dress of 1818.
is replete with what psychologists call "feminine forms. artists. the Rococo. becoming authors." At the Opera. The advent of the Enlightenment had suddenly changed the rules of Western society from one where brute force constituted power to one where intelligence and reason were the admired and powerful traits. Women's Dress The 18th Century woman was the most free and well respected member of her sex in history of Western Civilization until the 20th Century.Flowers. for the better portion of the 18th Century women discretely ruled society and made advances in it. birds. These forms were incorporated into all the visual arts. so that it is not surprising to find that shapes used in furniture are similar to the shapes used in costume. and that the style most associated with the 18th Century. It is little wonder that the arts and philosophy of the time glorified women. Since women had no trouble competing in this new way. both fine and decorative. and bows became dominant motifs in a style that highlighted a kind of idealized femininity. doctors and business women. 1770's The Cut of Women's Clothes 1700-1789 54 .
women began to expand vertically as well. raising their hair with pads and pomade to a height in the 1770's that only a man on stilts could hope to emulate. French Hairdress of the 1770's from Stibbert 55 . After 1760. decorated and expanded with hoops called panniers (Kohler) until. While the early 18th Century was a rather simple limp garment composed of two lengths of fabric pinch pleated at the waist over the stays with wide soft sleeves sewn in. the mantua was gradually stiffened.The style of Women’s garments in the 18th Century reflect the improving status of women in society. by mid/century it had been stylized into the Robe de Francaise a doll-cake-like structure that insured that a woman took up three times as much space as a man and always presented an imposing and ultra feminine spectacle.
1780-95. a fashion for Rousseauesque naturalism took over and women adopted more "natural" looking fashions which still took up a considerable amount of space. 1730-1740 from Color plates of original 18th Century costumes from Karl Kohler's "Kostumekunde" Full Toilette under Louis XV from Plates of 18th Century French Women's Dress by Hoey 56 . Ladies' Fashions of the reign of Louis XVI A simple dress of striped poplin with a quilted petticoat.After 1780. but emphasized the natural sexual characteristics of the female figure with padded busts and bottoms and riots of cascading hair under massive hats.
a mid-18th Century English Duke might wear laces. Intelligence and wit were prized about physical prowess of any kind and the army became a profession only resorted to by the poorer. younger sons of the gentry. Young man of the bourgeoisie in 1710 (Quicherat) The Enlightenment caused a number of changes in men’s values as well. Military dress played less of a part in the fashion inspiration for men’s clothes as a result. and Country clothing were turned to as sources of inspiration instead. and women’s dress. Court dress of 1750. Man in redingote 1729 (Quicherat) It should be noted that at this time period high fashion and everyday dress for the nobility became separated into two distinct entities.Men's Dress Gentleman in the fashion of 1693. Asiatic dress. for example. gilt embroidery and velvets at a formal occasion yet 57 .
and full-bottomed wigs. Man of 1739 from 18th Century Color Plates As women began to adopt the full skirted pannier style. almost indistinguishable from what a middle class shopkeeper might wear.wear simple dark Quaker built clothes during the day. 58 . expanding their skirts through the 1740's. The Dominant style in the the early part of the century was with the formal mode of dress which gradually phased out. Throughout the century the two styles existed side-by-side. By 1760 coats were being cut away from the front. and vest were cut at hip length. until in 1800. almost all that was left was the informal day dress. long hanging cravats. men’s dress did likewise. fabric and trimming The Cut of Men's Clothes 1700-1789 The predominant cut in 1700 was full skirted but soft with strong vertical lines introduced with rows of buttons. and coat skirts softened again and were cut less fully. till the trend reversed. usually cut along the same lines and only distinguished by color.
folding fans. compared to the turmoil of the preceding two centuries meant that there was a huge expansion in the production of luxury goods of all kinds. frivolous. General Notes The comparative stability and prosperity of this period. non essential items such as snuff boxes. man of 1779-80 The 1780’s are marked by shorter waistcoats.1760 formal dress The 1770’s introduced the small standing band collar and small flat collar. and fold over collars. fur muffs and cosmetics were popular with 59 . wigs. Expensive. late 1780's man from a print in Tara's collection.
fashionable persons of both genders. Fashion items were produced in more luxurious styles, both because of the economic good times for the rich and middle classes, but due to several technological innovations. Patterned fabrics for example were produced in larger quantities and more varied styles due to the adoption of the Jacquard loom (incidentally a very early ancestor of the computer). Faceted diamond and rhinestone jewelry became common due to the invention of the Brilliant cut for stones. Other items such as women's shoes and men's waistcoats simply became more delicately made and decorated with fine fabrics and embroidery. 18th Century Costumes from the Victoria and Albert Museum as seen in "Old English Costumes" c.1908 Religious conservatives continued to preach against the vanity of these fashions, but their sermons on dress were far more moderate than in the preceding century. The attitude is more one of coaxing through logic and sentiment rather than a berating the fashionable for their sins. "Plain dress" groups like the Quakers managed to design versions of "plain dress" that were so tasteful, well-made and refined looking that late in the Century many English and American men of style adopted their dress regardless of their religious views. The lower classes' dress continued to be ragged and wretched as the Agricultural Revolution continued to force peasants off of the farm and into city trades. This massive labor displacement, which continued into the 19th Century is what created the urban proletarian workforce that made the Industrial Revolution possible in the 1790's-to the present.
Milk Maid Lower class tennant farmers get dressed: All this stability in style was brought to an abrupt end in 1789 when the French Revolution pitched Europe into it's second sharp transition period.
About Fashion in the French Revolution
Fashion during the French Revolution (1789 to about 1793) saw a complete switch in the direction of costume for men and women. The overt glamor of the aristocrats was pushed out in favor of dress for all social classes. This change would move into the rest of Europe, modifying clothing to the Grecian-inspired ideal of the Regency era. History Clothing during the French Revolution evolved from the ornate to the simple. The larger silhouette supported by wide panniers and stiff stays gave way to a slim line with little or no corseting. The earliest part of the Revolution during the 1790s was a time of restriction; ostentatious dress or vivid coloring could mark
one as wealthy, which was a death sentence during "The Terror" of 1792. After this period, the simpler Grecian style took over again with the installation of the Directory. Significance The simplification in clothing marked a change in the role of women in revolutionary life and politics. Clothing was a mark of political belief and was a statement to others. People were rebelling against the elite classes' over-the-top clothing in a time of overwhelming poverty. The lower classes, in their push for equality and wealth redistribution in society, favored a cleaner look constructed from simple fabric comfortable for everyday labor. Features Ladies' clothing was made from fabrics like muslin, cotton and linen. Many dresses were nearly sheer. During the Terror, many favored dark, solid colors. The Grecian, empire-waisted dresses of the later era were white or pastel colored. Women wore chemises still, but dropped the corset; underpinnings ended up coming back as "short stays" later on. Hair was more natural, worn up in curls or chignons. The ornate cosmetics of the past were frowned upon as the domain of the elite. Men's fashion was inspired by military style. Taking after sailors, men abandoned fitted breeches for pants. The almost dandy-like colors and patterns soon settled into darker shades. Hair was worn natural, without powder; the wig was phased out. Considerations During the Revolution, people were incredibly poor, with high levels of discontent. The social structure of France changed
Sans-culotte blue carmagnole jacket striped tricolor pantaloons red sash gray or black felt hat with tricolor band and cockade hair in pigtail 63 . This is how they looked. women's dress became simplified out of necessity. Free to now have fun and become expressive once more. along with a new romanticism. Without the heavy and restrictive dress of the olden days. The simpler fashions were less expensive and more accessible to the general public. new rules of etiquette also made way into society. whose lively heroines are admired to this day. It was now possible to dress beautifully without breaking the bank. people started to dress to attract. After the Directory was established. The all-around return to natural behaviors and unaffected romanticism gave us authors like Jane Austen. Benefits The clothing of the French Revolution acted to change the dress of most of Europe. women were freer to move about and live life.practically overnight. Working harder than ever to feed their families.
buttons satin collar knee breeches with ribbon loops black jockey boots.Patriot redingote of brown cloth red cloth collar and lapels vest with striped band pantaloons black jockey boots. straps. straps. brown cuffs red woolen cap tassel tricolor baldric An elegant or muscadine frockcoat claw hammer tail fancy vest volded lace edged cravat fastened with jewel knee breeches with ribbon loops striped silk stockings black jockey boots. brown cuffs hair in Cadogan felt hat watch charm 64 . straps. brown cuffs felt hat silk cord tricolor rosette Muscadine redingote frockcoat claw hammer tail tabs.
Cloth redingote felt hat with ribbon and buckle hair in cadogan cotted cotten gown gauze fichu Gown of fine cloth double collars satin loops on jacket tail tulle and satin fichus straw hat with satin rosettes Striped cotten gown short jacket gauze fichu bowknot in back and at bosom bonnet of ribbon and ostrich plumes hair in cadogan 65 .
the new Directoire governed. In England.like gowns were 66 .but quite ineffectively. War with France was over. Louis XVI immediately summoned to order the Estates General and together they passed a decree to abolish feudalism and drafted the first written constitution in French history. yet the import of American cotton soared. almost transparent Grecian. England finally defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.Accessories Fashion dress/french revolution? fashion changes during the the time of 1790 thru 1825 "Brief Historical overview of the time period: In France. France ruled the women's fashion world. By 1804. a revolution broke out in 1789. but in 1815. and the opportunity was right for Napoleon to stage a coup in 1799. due to civil unrest. During the first revolutionary period. War with France dominated their resources and energies for most of this period. For 10 years. Effects on Women's Clothing: During the Regency Era. Napoleon crowned himself Emperor and waged wars all over Europe. Extravagant corsets and panniers were cast aside as thin. women's fashions began to change drastically. the loss of the American colonies in 1776 still waned in the minds of the English people.
adopted. "chemise a la reine" continued to be fashionable. In England.." However. since these white gowns were so thin." and ". gauze. White was the most favoured gown color and ornamentation was frowned upon... People grew tired of the simplicity of the "chemise a la reine" and epidemics of influenza had taken many a life. at all time.we totally disapprove. By the early 1820s. Sheer cotton fabrics such as muslin. the cold of winter required the adoption of cashmere shawls imported from India (left). all of fashionable Europe was wearing what is now referred to as the Empire style.. Flamboyant colors and decoration epitomized French fashion. .. and percale were the most popular gown materials. To quote a contemporary English source. the French silk industry had seriously declined and Napoleon tried to recover the nation's main economic industry by passing a decree that all court dress for both men and women be made of French silk. By 1810. Garments began to drape the female body rather than reshape it. all European skirts began to shorten and garments of silk and velvet regained prominence. Marie Antoinette was the first to wear this new style and is seen in her "chemise a la reine" as is seen in the portrait by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun (left).the finest rounded ankles are most effectual shown by wearing a silk stocking without any clock.. of the much ornamented stocking. This style quickly began to sweep across the country and by 1802. But by 1804. the Redingote (below left). the waistline had 67 . ".a diversity of colours bespeaks vulgarity of taste. In 1783... English tailors fashioned the Spencer jacket (below right) and later in the period. It was the idea of simplicity rather than decadence that changed the way female form was treated.
dropped considerably and women's fashion once again called for corsets and petticoats.. trousers. young boys were dressed in gowns and trousers (the male equivalent of pantalets). A lady also never called upon a gentleman.. Thus was the end of the Empire style. Etiquette for Women If unmarried and under the age of thirty. a woman was never seen accompanying a man without the presence of a chaperone. Whether acknowledging someone while crossing the street or making introductions at a ball or country dance.shirts. children were treated and expected to behave as young adults. jackets. While descending a flight of stairs.. After age 12. specific behavior was dictated for each situation. ankle length trousers.at no time ought she (meaning a lady) volunteer shaking hands with a male acquaintance. Up to age five. fashions for children mimicked that of adults. Effects on Children's Clothing: In both France and England. From the book entitled Regency Etiquette: The Mirror of Graces dating to 1811. From age six to eleven. and vests. a 68 . ". But the rules and codes of behavior for men and women were different." Etiquette for Men Gentleman were free to travel as they pleased and call upon young ladies of the house. boys were dressed much the same as men. boys wore loose shirts buttoned to high-waisted.Dresses for little girls and young adolescents were cut shorter and included pantalets under their shortened gowns. Below are just a few examples. Thus. While ascending a flight of stairs.. Etiquette of the period: Impeccable manners and spotless reputations were the order of the day during the Regency Era. a gentleman would precede a woman.
your dress should correspond with the station you hold in society. of course. Other musing from the book.. Regency Etiquette: The Mirror of Graces: ".only tolerated.the occasional use of rouge may be tolerated." and." " 69 .gentleman would follow her... This allowed for a ladies ankles to always be hidden from a gentleman's eye." ". "Excess is always bad.
Fashion illustration FIRST DECADE OF 20CENTURY. Expressionism 70 . Beginning of Edwardian epoch. Jean Paquin. Mariano Fortuny ART: Fauvism . Art Nouveau incarnated in in Vienna Austria as the Secession and in Germany as Jugendstil. Analytical Cubism. 1900-1910 . STYLE : Continuation of aesthetics of Art Nouveau style and development of "Arts and crafts&" movement . FASHION DESIGNERS: Paul Poiret.
George Lepape ART: Fauvism . Futurism 71 .SECOND DECADE OF 20CENTURY. Jackues Doucet Inspiration : Ballets Russes FASHION ILLUSTRATORS: George Barbier. Leon Bakst(mostly costume designer for Ballets Russes). Analytical Cubism. Paquin. Lanvin. 1910-1920. STYLE :Art Nouveau style evolved in Art Deco . First World War. Dadaism( after 1914 ). FASHION DESIGNERS: Coco Chanel ( as an emerging designer she open her first shop in 1913). Development of more practical women’s fashion. Development of Edwardian epoch.
Jean Patau. Lubov Popova FASHION DESIGNERS: Coco Channel . Cubism. Madeleine Vionnet. sport . social revolution. Futurism. Russian constructivists: Varvara Stepanova. Constructivism 72 .Roaring Twenties STYLE : formation of Art Deco style.THIRD DECADE OF 20CENTURY. Sonia Delauney. Erte . Bauhaus. 1920-1930 . new technology. Edward Molynex ART: Non Figurative abstraction . INFLUENCES AND INSPIRATION: cinematograph. Lanvin.
1930-1940. FASHION ILLUSTRATOR: Drian ART: Surrealism. Elsa Schiaparelli .FORTH DECADE OF 20CENTURY. Constructivism 73 . Style : development of Art Deco beginning of "ready to wear" fashion FASHION DESIGNERS: Coco Channel.
Jacques Fath. cut outs of Matisse. Pierre Balman . Style : decline of Art Deco Second World War.Christobal Balensiaga. Transition from masculine women's fashion of the beginning of the decade to extremely feminine ( New Look by Dior) by the end of the decade FASHION DESIGNERS: Lucien Lelong. individual style of Arshile Gorky. 1940-1950. Fernan Leger 74 . Christian Dior . Development of "ready to wear" fashion in the USA Art: deepening of non representational abstraction in the USA with input of Hans Hoffman.FIFTH DECADE OF 20CENTURY.
emerging of Teenage styles and fashion FASHION ILLUSTRATOR: Rene Gruau ART: Abstract expressionism 75 . Pierre Balman. Style : Influences and inspiration: Neo Realism Cinema FASHION DESIGNERS: Christian Dior . Christobal Balensiaga Channel (came back at 1954). Emilio Pucci • • Spreading of "ready to wear" concept ( pr&t o porter in French interpretation) to Europe (Marx & Spenser ) Origination of alternative style.SIXTH DECADE OF 20CENTURY. Beat generation . Jack Patu. 1950-1960.
Christian Bailly Street styles and alternative fashion : Hippy. end of monolith stylistic trend 76 . Ted Lapidus. Decline of fashion illustration. youth culture. Op Art. new technologies FASHION DESIGNERS: Yves Saint Laurent. Emanuel Ungaro (from late 60s) • • • • • Ready to were lines in haute couture Rive Goche by Yves Saint Laurent Ready to were Brands emerged : Gap (1969). Pop Art Stylistic diversity . Rockers Rise of Fashion photography. Pierre Cardin. Mary Quant. rock music. INFLUENCES AND INSPIRATIONS: street styles.SEVENTH DECADE OF 20CENTURY. Emanuel Khan. space exploration. ART: Abstract expressionism . Gerard Pipard. Paco Rabanne. Andre Courreges . 1960-1970. Benetton (1965) Generation of "ready to wear" stylists (evolved from late sixties) Sonia Rykiel. Modes.
Versace (1978) Ready to were Brands expanded: Gap : Sales reach $2 million. Richard Avedon and Helmut Newton FASHION DESIGNERS: • • • • • France :Yves Saint Laurent. Armani (established his own men's wear label in 1974). Kenzo ( moved from Japan in Paris in 1964) UK: Vivienne Westwood USA : Calvin Klein (launched his own clothing company in 1968. Benetton (1965) ART: Conceptualism. jeans brand in 70s) Italian High fashion : Valentino. Arte Povera . emerging of Body Art and Performance Art..EIGHT DECADE OF 20CENTURY. 1970-1980. Calif. Fashion photography replaces fashion illustration. Gap's second store opens in San Jose. Emergence of Installation Art 77 .
Walter Van Beirendonck. Christian Lacroix Japanese expansion : Ray Kawakoobo. . Ann Demeulemeester. Dirk Bikkembergs en Marina Yee Sport brands evolved as fashion brands Nike. Ready to were Brands go global and became a global fashion phenomena :Benetton is known all over the world. Adidas and Reebok fashion phenomena USA: triumph of Donna Karan ( started 1985) and expansion of Calvin Klein into the underwear market. Dirk Van Saene. 78 . 1980-1990. Emerging Belgian designers : The Six of Antwerp. Claude Montana . Dries Van Noten. Alaia. Thierry Mugler. Stylistic diversity expanded Influences and inspiration: pop Music FASHION DESIGNERS: • • • • • • • Karl Lagerfeld. Issey Miyake . Yohji Yamamoto UK: Vivienne Westwood established her priority in development of new inspired by alternative fashion style.NINTH DECADE OF 20CENTURY.
Media Art . new era of electronic communication. Installation Art 79 . Marc Ecko represents new trend in the 90s fashion. Martin MARGIELA and Ann Demeulemeester expanded into the fashion industry. ART: Conceptualism. Digital Art.1987 The first Gap store outside the United States opens in London. Photorealism. STYLE : personal expression dominates the stylistic mode INFLUENCES AND INSPIRATION: end of cold war and collapse of USSR . Alexander McQueen. development of Installation Art TENTH DECADE OF 20CENTURY. on George Street. Trance Avant-Garde. PC FASHION DESIGNERS: Galliano ( rediscovery of Dior) . 1990-2000. Tom Ford ( revival of Gucci) Hussein Chalayan. internet. England. Art: Conceptual Art .
That’s the time of sophistication.Hairstyle How long does it usually take you to make a hairstyle? I doubt that’s more than 10 minutes in the morning. simplicity and unimaginable complex coiffures at the same time. actually it takes me around two minutes to make something on my head since my hear is really short. 80 . but if you were in the court in the earlier days you would have to keep to the strong rules of the court etiquette. The history of the coiffures of the XVIII century is amazing. The XVIII century is considered to be “a century of women”. And can you imagine that all the other women around have the same hairstyle? Same length of the hair? Same color of the hair? Sounds like hell right. Can you imagine yourself or your friend making you a hairdo from the early morning till very evening before going to the club? Believe me or not. Hair has always been a reflection of general trends in fashion and Rococo style defines the accents in the XVIII century. mannerism. but there were times when this was a reality.
jewelry.including most popular belts. Her personal hairdresser Léonard was bringing all her fantasies into life. at a ceremonial reception at Versailles. fruit. Joint work of a hairdresser and the Queen gave the world such masterpieces as «explosion sensitivity». flowers.The history of the women hairstyle of the 18th century can be divided into several stages. virtuous Maria Theresia or young Fike of Tserbsta. «secret passion» (just compare with pale «mollycoddle» or modest «butterfly»). no matter whether this is a luxury marquise de Pompadour. «sentimental». Till 1713 the aristocratic ladies were still wearing the fontage which form and look by itself was a piece of art. Patera. Chardin of this time have simple and modest yet graceful coiffures. This seeming simplicity became a major fashion tendency of Rococo century. However somewhere from mid 70-ies the hairstyle started “growing up” again. Louis liked that. It emerged into a complex structure and was as high and unimaginable as ever before. de Troyes. fabrics. and since he was the leader of European fashion at that time it was a command for the court to follow this new trend in hairstyles. when a Duchess of Shrewsbury appeared before Louis XIV without a fontage with the smooth and slightly curly hair decorated with lace and flowers. their own hair was not enough to make such a piece of art and they used the hair of their servants and even the horse’s mane After becoming a Queen Marie Antoinette spent most of the time inventing new hairstyles and clothes. Boucher. The new era in headdresses began in 1713. All the ladies from the paintings by Watteau. Ingenious women used almost everything they could find to make their headdress . «mollycoddle». Of course. 81 . Just listen to the names of the hair cuts: «Butterfly». «concupiscent». «secret».
Let's not forget the infamous Oscar Wilde and Lord Byron. So let's raise our bowler hats to our foppish forefathers who paved the road to Visual Kei and Harajuku boys.think Japan's Goth Aristocrats and New York's Dances of Vice (above) -. FROM ROCOCO WIGS TO NEW ROMANTIC ROCKERS Male flamboyance: a centuries-old tradition that has evolved but never gone out of fashion.are but the modern incarnation of the European dandy. though the hair models still look pompous. Not speaking about the fact that it was impossible to sleep.live up to the decadence of your predecessors!) In mid-18th century Britain and America. The well known and beloved A-la Belle Poule hair model with the famous frigate also belongs to this time. Such a design could take the whole day and coiffure itself could be weared for several days and sometimes even a week.The most stylish womеn managed to wear stuffed birds. Today's ruffled riff-raff -. "Laconically witty clothes-horse" Beau Brummell and "Dandy King" Joachim Murat set the stage for the slightly eccentric but always stylish gentleman. The male peacock bared his tail-feathers in 18th and 19th century Europe. the ornate man "stuck a feather in his hat and called it maccaroni. The fashion for the «sails» and «vases» disappears. Over time in the beginning of the 80-ies the bulky and fussy hair models become much more modest. fellow contemporary writers -. HISTORY OF THE DANDY: FLAMBOYANT FLANEUR MALE FASHION. such hairdresses were homes for lots of insects and it was allowed to scratch the head with a special stick. (Come on." These caricatures 82 . Only tape and muslin fabric are now being used by fashion-mongers. statues and even a mini-gardens with tiny artificial tree on their heads.
Spandau Ballet. that never gets old! Edwardian Fashion looked like this: 83 . Human League. The Incroyables and their female counterparts. well. And ding-a-linging your young boytoy. Duran Duran. hasn't it? Frilly shirts and powdered visages came back to life in the 1980s New Romantics. there's a place for long gloves and ostrich feathers. After suffering through the French Revolution and Reign of Terror. the male dandy lives on in Japanese Gothic Aristocrats. Today. The Blitz Kids' club fashion influenced some of my favorite 80s synth-poppers: Visage. Visual Kei J-rockers.capture the maccaroni's outlandish tailed jackets and towering powdered wigs. ornamented themselves in floppy collars and bows. Steampunks and other Neo-Victorian/Goth sartorialists... Long hair on men has always been a mark of bad boy hedonism. the Merveilleuses. the bourgeoisie just wanted to have fun. As for their female counterparts: no matter what era you're living in. Adam and the Ants. Ultravox.
Winterhalter. Nastassia kinski's costumes in Polanski's "Tess" are some gorgeous examples of late nineteenth century dress. These include Millais. while not an absolute rule. Some films are classic sources of costume inspiration: see "Shakespeare in Love".was the most usual colour for wedding dress from the eighteenth century onwards. "The Age of Innocence". "The Buccaneers"(BBC). in a more 21st century wedding gown? Also look at "Jefferson in Paris". and "Bram Stoker's Dracula". "Wings of the Dove". You love "Dangerous Liaisons" but is it actually a sack-backed ("Watteau") gown you would like for your wedding dress? Or is it the combination of yards of sumptuous satins and taffetas with a boned bodice? Do you like the ornamentation or would you like the "feel" of the eighteenth century period. Painters of the 18th and 19th centuries provide great inspiration.Rossetti Costumes . Contrasts in texture and decoration provided the interest within 89 . Design source material is plentiful . Burne-Jones and Blair-Leighton.Design Sources A painting or antique fashion plate can provide inspiration for your wedding gown or period costume. "Sleepy Hollow" and the BBC's "Aristocrats" for both daywear and court gowns of the 18th century. Many classic texts have been made into films . If late Victorian bustle gowns are your thing also look at "Moulin Rouge" (Baz Luhrmann). Fragonard. "Titanic". Fortescue-Brickdale. Virginal white. "A Room with a View" and "Orlando". "Pirates of the Caribbean".from costume postcards available in most galleries and museums to books on the history and construction of period costume and dress. Tissot. but investigate DVDs with a fresh eye.you might already have a favourite. Waterhouse.
It was worn over a decorated petticoat and with a stomacher (often richly decorated) covering the bust to waist .a style which flattened and lifted the 90 . 18th Century In the late eighteenth century England looked to France as a leader of fashion.there are so many to choose from that it can often be a good idea to consider your favoured colours prior to a consultation . but you may still wish to stay with a pastel colour.often ornamented with silver during the eighteenth century. Gown shapes include the "sackback" or "Watteau" gown .this combined a fitted bodice. Very few people actually look at their best in white.those which predominate in your wardrobe or your home are usually the major clues! 16th Century Elizabethan and Renaissance dress and costume can be very inspirational for wedding gown design.this restricted palette . Inevitably this led to the absorbtion of foreign styles. especially Spanish and was also influenced by the availability of silks and lace from Italy. I can obtain virtually any colour within some fabric form . (More contemporary variations on this style can utilise small panniers. moulded to the figure with large pleats falling from the shoulders to the ground in sumptuous folds. Gowns were supported by panniers which evolved from a bell shape to a distinctly two-sided unweildy frame. Boned bodices were quite severe and often elaborately decorated. petticoats and bum-rolls to achieve a comparable. "The Merchant of Venice and and "La Reine Margot". See the films "Elizabeth". The court of Versailles was a major influence patterned dress fabrics were invented in France. Fashions were established at court by Henry VIII and then Elizabeth I who is said to have engendered an atmosphere of rivalry among her courtiers to be the first with new fashions. yet practical shape).
19th Century A combination of the Empress Eugénie and the couturier Charles Frederick Worth had a tremendous influence on fashion of the middle to late nineteenth century. "Frankenstein". complete with red velvet court train (see the painting by JaquesLouis David). 91 . Early 19th Century / Jane Austen Neo-classical dress arose as a dramatic fashion change after the French Revolution. "We squeezed the essence of the period. For fabrics think of sheer chiffons and georgette. it was a more simplistic style in comparison to the decorative rococo styles which went before and is very adaptable to modern wedding gowns. dividing it into three parts: the "Polonaise" gown. Gowns of this century can vary from the romance of a classic Empire Style "Jane Austen" costume in light cotton and muslin to the opulence of Empress Joséphine's coronation dress. "The Madness of King George". Sophia Coppola is said to have given the costume designer a box of pastel-coloured macaroons to base the costume palette on. For "Marie Antoinette". Sheer practicality led to another fashion evolution: firstly the gown was pulled up at the sides throught pocket slits to enable ease of walking around town or in the countryside. and pictures of Madame de Pompadour by Francois Boucher. See the films "Marie Antoinette".bust. the painting "Girl on a Swing" by Fragonard. Styles were rich and opulent. paintings by Jean-Antoine Watteau. Abandoning corsets and panniers. then the gown was pulled up by cords. without reproducing it" -a perfect attitude to apply when considering a period-style wedding dress. muslin and gauzes.
"Legend". "The Age of Innocence". petticoats and bustle frames and decorated with flowers. Rossetti and Waterhouse. I have in the past designed a gown to an "Odette" theme. Gowns can be totally unadorned. For Victorian dress see the movies: "Gangs of new York". Several alternative wedding gowns on a ballet theme are held here in the studio (they 92 . Burne-Jones. "Maverick". Frederick Leighton. Films using this theme have an inevitable fantasy basis: "The Lord of the Rings" trilogy. "Onegin". Manet Winterhalter and Ingres Pre-Raphaelite / Mediaeval Pre-Raphaelite paintings provide wonderful inspiration for mediaeval-style wedding gowns . complete with "swan" feathers and silk tulle skirts. Look at paintings by Elanor Fortescue-Brickdale. this is though. hem or as a girdled belt at the hips.either bias-cut soft slimline gowns in crepe or velvet. Or it might show you are drawn to elaborate and dramatic ornamentation. "Portrait of a "Lady". "First Knight". If you find it irresistible as an overall style it could indicate a sweetheart-necklined boned bodice with tulle skirts (nylon or silk) might be an ideal starting point for you. a style which lends itself to dramatic trimmings at the neckline. "Dragonheart". "The Lion in Winter". Celtic embroidery is very popular as a trimming.built over crinolines. "A Knight's Tale". Ballet and Musicals Ballet costume can provide many clues to a wedding gown design which might be appropriate for you. "Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves". paintings by Tissot. foliage lace and beadwork. or corseted bodices combined with flowing bell-shaped sleeves and skirts in chiffons and georgette.
lace and zibelene. for herself. few brides can resist planning a colour scheme. iris and many other spring flowers. Hence such classic combinations as pink with green . bridesmaids and even the reception. shot and plain chiffon. And both work extemely well together. purple and lilac can be seen in sweetpeas. purple and peacock blue and "Titania" a glittering gown in irridescent blues and pale greens. lilac combined with the palest cowslip yellow is found in crocus. "Odile" . start to think colour! Fabrics A vast range of fabrics are available including dupions in hundreds of shades: plain and embroidered. taffetas. Absolute colour choices are only usually made when we start to look at fabrics at the consultation stage (and sometimes not then!). Flowers If you are in any doubt about the colours which go well together whether as a highlight for your own gown or to harmonise bridesmaids . They include "Sugar-Plum Fairy" in shades of pale pink and champagne.are yet to be displayed on the web-site). Basically the same colours.a dramatic gown in black. 93 . It is an ideal place to start even if you have no idea of the style of wedding gown you will eventually wear. freesia. organza. Likewise. groom. but at different extremes of intensity. Also available are duchesse satins. whether you are considering pastels or vibrant shades. crushed and smooth velvets. However.then always resort to the natural world. Take these pale shades to their greatest intensity and you have purple combined with gold. This is a reliable system of colour-theory! Please do not feel you need to have settled on your chosen colours before we meet.in all shades and tones. Stunning combinations of blue with pink. delphiniums and penstemmons.
shot and plain chiffons. Costumes are never required. before the French Revolution. The human body became the focus. Who can forget the direct proportion of mini-skirts to high inflation? Stepping back in time.A vast range of fabrics are available including dupions in hundreds of shades. the human body was merely a frame to support and display the opulent fashions of the day. However. panniered gowns of Marie Antoinette and the courtly attire worn by the lace draped men posing through the halls of Versailles. 94 . is most often politically motivated. Consider the elaborate. crushed and smooth velvets. post revolution experienced a drastic change of fashion. but they add to the ambiance and enhance the experience of a Regency Ball. taffetas. the idea was to highlight the human form in all of its natural beauty and glory the fluid line of Greek statues was the ultimate in style and grace. to be displayed and framed by the clothing. throughout the ages. The change of fashion. duchesse satins.
The flowing drapery of neo-classical dress quickly became 'de-rigueur' in women's fashion. wore thin muslin frocks with only light stays and a chemise underneath. with heaving bosom. and cinched just under the breast. Many women wore red ribbons tied around their throats. So thin were these garments. as the natural look emerged. The look was innocent and girlish. the gown defined a high waist. ladies. the women. 95 . as most frocks were white. Buttoned down the back.
. Older women wore turbans. Find an old prom or bridesmaid's dress. preferably with high waist or no waist A-line. Caps were worn indoors. Try to keep all gathers to the back of the dress. which creates a more fluid and flattering line. Fortunately.feathers. evocative of marble Greek goddesses. ready to assist with the dampening of the alluring chemise. Thrift stores are gold mines for costume creation. Attach a ribbon under the bust. ribbons and jewels bedecked the ringlets and chignons for balls and formal occasions. and tie a bow in the back with long streamers. Truly. it being called muslin fever. discovery and conquest The daring young ladies in white frequently dampened their chemises underneath their frocks for a more revealing effect. there were attendant 'sprayers' in the ladies retiring rooms. and bind with silk ribbon or lace. the muslins were worn without protection from the elements. or fuller with 96 . reflecting the mood of exploration. today we have breathable fabrics. air conditioned rooms and laws addressing public decency Creating a Regency ball gown. a sleeveless pelisse or short spencer jacket added.. Scoop out a high neckline. Sleeves can be slim and straight to the elbow. Many women died during a flu epidemic of the early 1800's. Thus. bonnets outside .that during the cold winter and freezing rain.
or simply cut away a good portion of the front to create a straight line from the side of the neck down to the bottom of the garment. in fact. Long gloves. a necklace.shoulder gathers. his influence on masculine fashion is still apparent today. and pairs well with a turban. The Regency Beau. urbane and a vision of pure masculinity. a Regency icon. Your own body sense should dictate the height of your waist. it merely flows as an open tunic. and anything can be trimmed with ribbons or lace. dangling earrings and fan complete the look. the English Nation ought in justice to do something for the man who invented cravats" Prince Puckler-Markam said in 1820. the fashion police as it were. courtly mannered clothing was rejected and replaced 97 . Buck or Dandy was elegant. dramatically lower the neckline. The pelisse need not close in the front. the cut of your neckline and your sleeve style. A pelisse is easily made from a large A-line dress: first remove the sleeves. "Surely.The 'Beaux' set the style and tone of society. The ultimate dandy. he was a perfect Romantic Hero. was the grandson of a valet. Beau Brummel. The artificial. and puffed by an elastic band mid bicep area.
and cravat. A full sleeved peasant style shirt. can be tucked into tall boots. If the jacket front is short.. accentuated the beauty and form of the figure. though timing is everything. Neoclassicism strongly influenced all aspects of art. Though it seems that 'real' Englishmen did not wear togas! Creating a man's Regency outfit. linen shirt. worn over tight pants. which. Thrift stores do have tux and tails. Men's hairstyles were modeled after Greco-Roman sculpture: the wind-blown Brutus look.with a natural style. worn with a silk vest and a white tie cravat. could be topped with a long tailed coat. culture and fashion. sporting large lapels and long tails. or cut and banded at the knee. stock neckband. and worn with long white athletic socks and black dress shoes. binding the edge with matching silk or satin ribbon. fashioned after the riding costume. To easily and inexpensively create male Regency attire. tall boots.. beige or black slim trousers. waistcoat and high cut. be sure to trim the vest to the waist. Hat and gloves completed the ensemble. Check your local tuxedo rental shop for old garments they may sell for a few dollars. as in the ladies' garments. 98 . double-breasted riding coat.
feathers and raffia tassels. 99 . before a long-simmering movement toward simplicity and democratization of dress under the influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the American Revolution led to an entirely new mode and the triumph of British tailoring following the French Revolution. 1775–1780. Women's fashion French silk sack-back gown with closed bodice and panniers. chenille blonde lace. especially among the aristocracy of France. trimmed with padded bands of blue satin.1750–1795 in fashion Fashion in the period 1750–1795 in European and Europeaninfluenced countries reached heights of fantasy and abundant ornamentation. flowers of gathered ribbon.
Her petticoat has pocket slits to access the free-hanging pocket beneath. or Fashion Before Ease". The hoop-skirts of the 1740s were left behind. "Tight Lacing. but wide panniers (holding the skirts out at the side) came into style several 100 . 1785 The lady wears strapless stays over a pink chemise. 1770–75 Women's clothing styles retained an emphasis toward a conical shape of the torso while the shape of the skirts changed throughout the period.Portrait of Mr and Mrs William Hallett by Thomas Gainsborough.
above full skirts remained. The "pouter-pigeon" front came into style (many layers of cloth pinned over the bodice). Most gowns had skirts that opened in front to show the petticoat worn beneath. the opening was filled in with a decorative stomacher. worn over a petticoat.times. achieved with boned stays. and from neo-classicism. By the 1780s. and the aesthetic of a narrow inverted cone. and separate under-ruffles called engageantes of lace or fine linen were tacked to the smock or chemise sleeves. preparing the way for the development of the empire silhouette and unabashed neo-classicism of late 1790s fashions. waistlines were somewhat raised. and false rumps (bum-pads or hippads) were worn for a time. skirts were still somewhat full. but they were no longer obviously pushed out in any particular direction (though a slight bustle pad might still be worn). Gowns The usual fashion of the years 1750-1780 was a low-necked gown (usually called in French a robe). Tight elbow-length sleeves were trimmed with frills or ruffles. but in other respects women's fashions were starting to be simplified by influences from Englishwomen's country outdoors wear (thus the "redingote" was the French pronunciation of an English "riding coat"). The neckline was 101 . pinned to the gown over the laces or to the corset beneath. If the bodice of the gown was open in front. Mrs. By 1795. By 1790. panniers had for the most part disappeared (with the exception of court functions). ruffled sleeves of the mid-18th century and the natural waist and long sleeves typical of the 1790s. Hallett captures the exact transition between the tight bodice and elbow-length.
tight lower sleeves) and a hood. A fitted bodice held the front of the gown closely to the figure. Front-wrapping thigh-length shortgowns or bedgowns of lightweight printed cotton fabric were fashionable at-home morning wear.trimmed with a fabric or lace ruffle. caracos had full-length. featuring backs of the gowns' skirts rucked up either through loops or through the pocket slits of the gown. By the 1790s. worn with petticoats. tight sleeves. As in previous periods. bedgowns became the staple upper garment of British and American female workingclass street wear. The caraco was a jacket-like bodice worn with a petticoat. and then released into the skirt which would be draped in various ways. with elbow-length sleeves. The robe à l'anglaise featured back pleats sewn in place to fit closely to the body. It was popular for traveling. Over time. a 102 . Elaborate draping "a la polonaise" became fashionable by the mid 1770s. worn with a matching petticoat. Jackets and redingotes Toward the 1770s. The robe à la française or sack-back gown featured back pleats hanging loosely from the neckline. or a neckerchief called a fichu could be tucked into the low neckline. an informal alternative to the gown was a costume of a jacket and petticoat. The Brunswick gown was two-piece costume of German origin consisting of a hip-length jacket with "split sleeves" (flounced elbow-length sleeves and long. based on working class fashion but executed in finer fabrics with a tighter fit. the traditional riding habit consisted of a tailored jacket like a man's coat. worn with a high-necked shirt.
with large hips. Panniers or side-hoops remained an essential of court fashion but disappeared everywhere else in favor of a few petticoats. tight sleeves and a broad collar with lapels or revers. 103 . country fashion took hold in France. The fashionable shape was a rather conical torso. Stays were usually laced snugly. As the relaxed. wide front. with full-length. a fashionable posture. Another alternative to the traditional habit was a coat-dress called a joseph or riding coat (borrowed in French as redingote). or smock. The long-waisted. They offered back support for heavy lifting. The redingote was later worn as an overcoat with the light-weight chemise dress. Drawers were not worn in this period. chemise (in France). usually of unadorned or simply trimmed woolen fabric. stays were sometimes replaced by a lightly boned garment called "un corset. and shoulder straps gave way by the 1760s to strapless stays which still were cut high at the armpit.waistcoat. but comfortably. and poor and middle class women were able to work comfortably in them. the jacket and a false waistcoat-front might be a made as a single garment. had a low neckline and elbow-length sleeves which were full early in the period and became increasingly narrow as the century progressed. and later in the period a simpler riding jacket and petticoat (without waiscoat) could be worn. Underwear The shift." though this style did not achieve popularity in England. and a hat. only those interested in extreme fashions laced tightly. to encourage a woman to stand with her shoulders slightly back. Alternatively. a petticoat. where stays remained standard through the end of the period. heavily boned stays of the early 1740s with their narrow back. The waist was not particularly small.
It was particularly common for shoe buckles to be worn as an "ornament" to the foot in high society. especially in the cold climates of Northern Europe and America. Shoes Shoes had high. Woolen or quilted waistcoats were worn over the stays or corset and under the gown for warmth. curved heels (the origin of modern "louis heels") and were made of fabric or leather. principally at balls and parties. or with paste stones. as were petticoats quilted with wool batting. These buckles were often ludicrously large and one of the worlds largest collections can be seen at Kenwood House. and made an important feature of the "dandy" image. usually in silver (sometimes with the metal cut into false stones in the Paris style). although there were other type. Hairstyles and headgear 104 . These were either polished metal.Free-hanging pockets were tied around the waist and were accessed through pocket slits in the side-seams of the gown or petticoat.
but the new country fashion required natural colored hair. elaborate hats replaced the former elaborate hairstyles. as in the case of the famous engraving depicting a lady wearing a large ship in her hair with masts and sails—called the "Coiffure à l'Indépendance ou le Triomphe de la liberté"—to celebrate naval victory in the American war of independence). The 1770s in fashion were notable for extreme hairstyles and wigs which were built up very high. broad-brimmed and low-crowned straw "shepherdess" hats tied on with ribbons were worn with the new rustic styles. and often incorporated decorative objects (sometimes symbolic. Flat.Marie Antoinette was one of the most influential figures in fashion during the 1770s and 1780s. Mob caps and other "country" styles were worn indoors. Men's fashion 105 . often dressed simply in a mass of curls. By the 1780s. Hair was powdered into the early 1780s. especially when it came to hairstyles. These coiffures were parodied in several famous satirical caricatures of the period.
Under new enthusiasms for outdoor sports and country pursuits.Elijah Boardman wears a cutaway tailored coat over a waistlength satin waistcoat and dark breeches. waiscoat. What changed significantly was the fabric. the adoption of plain undress styles was a conscious reaction to the excesses of European court dress. waistcoat and breeches of the previous period. Throughout the period. His shirt has a sheer frill down the front. 1789. 106 . 1792. In Boston and Philadelphia in the decades around the American Revolution. America. Benjamin Franklin caused a sensation by appearing at the French court in his own hair (rather than a wig) and the plain costume of Quaker Philadelphia. and breeches. Coat and waistcoat have covered buttons. the elaborately embroidered silks and velvets characteristic of "full dress" or formal attire earlier in the century gradually gave way to carefully tailored woolen "undress" garments for all occasions except the most formal. Charles Pettit wears a matching coat. America. men continued to wear the coat. those on the coat are much larger.
Coats The skirts of the coat narrowed from the gored styles of the previous period. T-shaped silk. shoes. As in the previous period. The cravat reappeared at the end of the period. was worn for hunting and other country pursuits in both Britain and America. A small turnover collar returned to fashion. derived from a traditional working-class coat. Breeches. a loose. Waistcoats extended to mid-thigh to the 1770s. Shirt and stock Shirt sleeves were full. gathered at the wrist and dropped shoulder. and toward the 1780s began to be cutaway in a curve from the front waist. and stockings As coats became cutaway. cotton or linen gown called a banyan was worn at home as a sort of dressing gown over the shirt. A coat with a wide collar called a frock. and gradually shortened until they were waist-length and cut straight across. Breeches fitted snugly and had a fall-front opening.At the other extreme was the "maccaroni". waistcoat. Waistcoats could be made with or without sleeves. Men of an intellectual or philosophical bent were painted wearing banyans. more attention was paid to the cut and fit of the breeches. Full-dress shirts had ruffles of fine fabric or lace. worn with the stock. with their own hair or a soft cap rather than a wig. and breeches. 107 . while undress shirts ended in plain wrist bands.
and upperclass children older than toddlers (especially by girls) continued to be uncomfortable-looking miniature copies of the clothes worn by adults. 108 . However. these hats were turned up front and back or on the sides to form bicornes. These buckles were often ludicrously large and one of the world's largest collections can be seen at Kenwood House. The buckles were either polished metal. slightly conical hat with a narrower brim became fashionable (this would evolve into the top hat in the next period Children's fashion During most of this period. with the exception that girls wore back-fastening bodices and petticoats rather than open-fronted robes (see the illustration of the 1778 young French girl below).Low-heeled leather shoes fastened with buckles were worn with silk or woolen stockings. Wide-brimmed hats turned up on three sides called tricornes were worn in mid-century. brushed back from the forehead and clubbed (tied back at the nape of the neck) with a black ribbon. the clothes worn by middle. waistcoats. or the hair was worn long and powdered. usually in silver (sometimes with the metal cut into false stones in the Paris style). Hairstyles and headgear Wigs were worn for formal occasions. Boots were worn for riding. there was a change to styles that were more practical for children's play —skeleton suits with long trousers for boys. or with paste stones. although there were other types. Working class clothing Working-class people in 18th century England and America often wore the same garments as fashionable people—shirts. towards the end of the period. and loose ankle-length skirts for girls. Later. Toward the end of the period a tall.
and dark colors and cheaper materials. Smock-frocks were a regional style for men. Men and women wore shoes with shoe buckles (when they could afford them). especially cotton. the Parisians made open display of their demands in the streets oftheir city and gave the signal for the fall of a whole social system by their attack on the Bastile.coats and breeches for men. through 109 . were taking the place of the silks. Men's felt hats were worn with the brims flat rather than cocked or turned up. Materials.One of the first acts of the General Assembly was the abolition by solemn decree of all distinction in dresses of the classes. and laces of the former reigns. Titles were dropped by all of the upper class who survived the guillotine.costume and mode of living at its height. willingly or unwillingly. Fashion still mirrored the events of the times. and a period ofthe strictest simplicity was to follow. most often red. the whole theory of it was based on the assumption of equality in dress. both in the names of materials and the articles of apparel. velvets. we find many changes in France. and men and woman were addressedas citizen and citizeness. "all classes were mingling. and gowns or jackets for women—but they owned fewer clothes and what they did own was made of cheaper and sturdier fabrics. Country women wore short hooded cloaks. and shifts. Working class men also wore short jackets. Both sexes wore handkerchiefs or neckerchiefs. all this was to be done away with.—The manner of living was also simplified. Simplicity was the key-note in costume. but this unfortunately lasted but a short time. 1789. and some (especially sailors) wore trousers rather than breeches. Men who worked with horses wore boots. ribbons. furniture. especially shepherds. On 14th of July . Extravagance in architecture. petticoats. and their influence was felt through many countries. Notes With the rise of the people against the house of Bourbon.
and blue stripes. the skirt hung plain and straight from the high waistline. or the national cockade. and a bunch of tricolored flowers placed at the left side above the heart showed the wearer's patriotism. and for the first time in years the hair showed its 110 . The cotton materials were printed with the national trophies and revolutionary symbols. appeared on every costume. or with red. Little or no trimming was used. and many wealthy persons rigidly adopted the simple attire. except an occasional ruffle at the edge of the skirt. so we find little or no change taking place between 1789 and 1793. Teillard. The best known of these were run by Quenin. and instead of the huge piles that had been in vogue a short time before. Now women were looking for comfort as well as simplicity.—Women were too busy or too poor to take the trouble to change fashions as often as had been the case in former years. 1790. Printed lists of prices were sent out by both of these shops. and Mme. the neck was low and still finished with the fichu. white.—The style of hair-dressing also under went a change. and had given up the stiff stays that were necessary when wearing the pointed waist and the pannier. who supplied the men. Women's Dress. Gowns were made with bodices cut short in the waist and with sleeves to the elbow . the hoop or vertugadine having gone the way of the pannier.love or fear. who catered to the wants of the women. borrowed from the English. and a masculine type of dress. Straight lines had taken the place of panniers a few years before. the hair was worn low in front and hung in clusters of curls behind." ' The tricolor. In 1791 shops were established in Paris where ready-to-wear clothing might be purchased. Powder had gone with Costume of the period of the French Revolution. Head-dresses. The other symbols of aristocracy. as it was exceedingly dangerous to be seen without it in the days when one government succeeded another in such rapid succession. had been the result.
laces. overtrimmed hats of the time of Louis XVI. they were remnants of the huge. and ribbons had disappeared. familiar to the readers of Italian comedies of the seventeenth century. They were cut away in front at a rather high waistline. and were worn by the early Asiatics and the Persians. The name pantaloon was first used as a term of derision or ridicule. All furbelows. the most popular of these being the mob-cap. were worn. Men's Dress. or pantaloons. or. Straw bonnets with high crowns and large flaring brims were used for a while. as they were called.natural color. they being considered aristocratic and not suitable to the dress of a democratic citizen.—The Revolution brought about the greatest change in the costume of the men. a style borrowed from the English sailors. it came from the character of Pantaloon. invented by Beau Brummel for common wear. and were generally buttoned above the ankle. for while the knee-breeches returned for formal dress and are still worn in England for court dress. They were considered a mark of the barbarian by the Romans. of course. This. to be followed by lace and muslin caps. For many years after the introduction of pantaloons they fitted very snugly to the figure. and cloth and leather took the place of silk and velvet. but they now became the forerunner of the modern plain dress for men . a clown. as Calthrop declares. with a deep lace ruffle around the face and neck. The breeches lengthened until they reached the ankle. The style of coats had not changed except in the material and color. and soon disappeared. and had a narrow tail at the back with the plaits pressed flat from the 111 . is not the first time that long trousers. this was ornamented with the tricolored cockade or rosette. were in evidence. generally black. now known as the "Charlotte Corday " . the long trouser was used for informal dress and went through many changes until it finally reached its present style. Dark colors. ruffles.
Foot-gear. they closed in front with four or five large buttons. Head-dresses. and the toes square. the heels were rather low.—High leather boots with close turn-over tops. and shaved the back of their hair.—In England the powdered wig was still worn. but France seems to have discarded it with the rest of her aristocratic paraphernalia. it was held at the Hotel Richelieu. The cuff had gone and several small buttons closed the sleeve at the wrist. A waistcoat of fancy material. came up over the long. to distinguish the victims of the Revolution. also buttoned and a trifle longer than the coat in front. and could be attended only by those who had lost a relation by the guillotine. when the men cut their hair short. Even the women took this up. of high and low estate. and this style was soon known as "coiffure a la Titus. At the Elysee National. generally made of a different colored leather. and sometimes long and tied behind in a queue. was open at the neck. turned up in the front. Black felt hats.—As a protest against the simple life that had been forced upon them during the first horrible years of the Revolution.waist. where it showed the white stock collar and small cravat of lace. and hair in the natural color prevailed. The Directory. once the Elysee Bourbon. the Parisians started a whirl of gaiety and pleasure as soon as the government became a trifle more stable. and open-air pavilions were much in evidence. They danced and danced. and turned over squarely where it met the large revers. sometimes short. the music was led by a negro. A new style of hair-dressing originated here. One of the most aristocratic of these dance-halls was called the "Bal des Victimes". The collar was high. were worn by all men. and ornamented with the tricolor cockade. tight pantaloons. young and old. Julien. to simulate the fashion that had been designed by Sampson." It was a time of 112 .
women set aside all edicts for the regulation of "virtue and morality. Trains became so exaggerated "six yards for ordinary wear" and "fourteen yards for dress occasions" that they had to be wound around the figure several times and then held by the end. or long and tight. They even went so far as to wear rings on their bare toes and bracelets on their ankles. and were well-nigh transparent in texture. The under-clothing consisted in most cases of flesh-colored silk tights. they aimed at concealing nothing. short puffs. and this showed in the adoption of classic dress. with the short sleeves were worn long gloves of kid. reaching to the wrist.great license. and flowers. and followed the harmonious lines of Grecian beauty. the neck was low and round and the sleeves were small.—Women began to dress to charm. as they vied with each other in discarding garments and reducing the weight of those retained." and as a result very little politeness or consideration was shown them by the men. This style might well be called undress. Jewels were much sought after. and several women appeared in public with nothing but a chemise in order to win a wager. Women's Dress. including shoes and ornaments. and light-weight cottons. was often as low as eight ounces. Some of the gowns had no sleeves and were caught together at the shoulders with cameo brooches. Often the skirt was slit to the waist on one side and showed the lower limb. followed its outlines. and women spent ruinous sums on diamonds. like the Corinthian chiton of the Greeks." The skirt was scant and hung from a high waistline trailing at the back. "In the beginning these garments left the body free. The weight of a woman's costume. jewelry. The materials used were sheer embroidered India muslin. lace. painted gauze. there had been a return to nature. and when not split were draped on the left side to show the limb to the knee. or they 113 . they drew their inspiration from nature and pagan mythology.
Laces were highly prized. one of pink tulle at 4. a diamond crescent being a favorite ornament.500 francs. and those belonging to Marie Antoinette were owned by Mlle. The most popular of these fitted close to the head like an infant's first cap. The cost of these costumes was enormous. and a craze for wigs of all sorts and colors had developed. and one of blonde lace at 6. "gowns of Indian calico cost 2. Tallien had "thirty. from a velvet in green. as paper money had taken the place of gold and was much lower in value." The trousseau of Marie Louise included a gown embroidered in silver and gold tinsel which cost 7.000 francs. like those of the men. were worn with white stockings. Mme. black." The hair was curled and banded with ribbons or jewels.000 to 60. Lange.000 francs.400 francs. 114 .000 francs. a la Grec. were trimmed with flame-colored ribbons.—Hair was being powdered. or of Small bonnets similar to an infant's cap.000 if embroidered and with a train. with the seams covered with a flat galloon.were thrown over the shoulder of the man when dancing. Heelless slippers. or soles were strapped to the foot by crossed ribbons. This style was finally supplanted by the "Titus" described before. A little later caps of all descriptions replaced the hats and bonnets. or Grecian sandals. and were valued at from 40. the mistress of the Deputy Mandrin. or cerise. and was made of lawn and trimmed with lace.' Part of this expense was due to the low state of the currency.000 to 8. Head-dresses. and toques made of light-colored silks and satins were ornamented with white aigrettes. Close straw bonnets with high square crowns were decorated with flowers and ribbons and tied under the chin. violet. Felt hats. or 6. of every shade of light hair. The most valuable of these laces finally came into the possession of the Empress Josephine.
For outer garments over these very thin gowns a scarf of cashmere. and mother-of-pearl was considered very chic. The physicians were loud in their demands for more clothing. this was concealed by a huge muslin cravat. giving a goitre-like appearance to the neck. and opulent of charm. a padded silk cushion was first adjusted. Needless to say that the women of that time had very delicate constitutions. The dandies. Delsarte declared that he had seen more young girls die of nakedness and gauze during the reign of this style of dress than during the forty years before. silk.—Very little change took place in the costume of the men during the years of the Directory." of France." Men's Dress. and sometimes their coat-tails were so long that they had to pick them up as the lady did her train. and many died of pneumonia and other lung troubles. He describes the women as being "buxom. which was necessary in order to prevent the chest attacks which were so prevalent. healthy. although Uzanne asserts that they had very healthy appetites in private. A jabot of lace filled in the opening of the vest. and that in turn was covered by a figured silk handkerchief which came up over the chin. this is especially true of the vest or waistcoat. similar to the Greek himation." These vests had high turn-over collars. each of a different color. or other light-weight material was used. The coats fitted very snug at the 115 . were carried. broad in their talk. which showed inside the neck of the coat. like great barrels. green. or "Incroyables. Huge muffs. and ate heartily. yellow. "in 1791.' It was the fashion for women to eat very little while in public. and one below the other. masculine in their ways. The Incroyables exaggerated the size of the revers and the collars of their coats. The stocks were built out about the neck . often had three layers at the lower edge of the vest. nearly a yard long. loud-voiced beings. except in the size and style of the neck-cloth and the color and materials used in their clothing.
This industry was introduced into France by Louis Ternaux.waistline. gradually this was lengthened until it formed an 116 . St. and the styles for top-boots and even top-hats were borrowed from there. and the silk industry in France. Napoleon was as fond of pomp and show as Louis XIV had been. more precious an hundredfold than any rights political. which had been practically ruined during the Reign of Terror. Cashmere shawls were the rage. The Empire.—If all that was Greek dominated dress during the Directory. "he brought the licentious freedom in which the population had run riot under control. silks. which flourished under the First Empire. laces. The government." Fashion became less frivolous as the everyday life became more stable. and embroideries came into their own. Rome had the same influence during the Empire. Women's Dress. and. and clothed nearly all the women of France. and the first noticeable change came when they added a short tunic to the Greek dress. Velvets. and Tarare.—The day of the diaphanous gown was over. many of these were brought into France from Egypt in 1792-1802. as Uzanne says. and dress assumed much of the gorgeousness that had been discarded a few years before. and many other industries were started. who imported goats from Thibet. England was still the criterion for men's fashions. Sequin. The little Corsican general was making order out of chaos. were made by a clever chemist and botanist. was resumed. Artificial flowers. Quentin. and silver flowers made by him took a prize at the Industrial Exposition of 1802. and endowed the nation with its civil rights. set up factories at Rouen. the materials had. and while the style of dress had not changed to any great extent. and corsets were often worn to make their waists smaller. then much in demand. Women began to tire of the plain skirt. realizing that there was much revenue from the manufacture of cot-ton.
or simply lined with lighter-colored material. a short jacket.000 francs to be spent on her costume. and either lined and trimmed with fur.000 francs. white being the favorite for the under-dress. cape-like collars. and long and tight for the street or at home. Napoleon was a dictator in fashion." after Queen Elizabeth. the spencer. made by Leroy and Mme. and the skirt had grown shorter. and Oriental 117 . one over the other. For outer wear. As Napoleon returned from his different campaigns. besides shawls. Recamier attended a ball in a very splendid velvet dress. Color and heavier texture were introduced through this means. and much art was shown in the way these were draped . The red velvet court train of Josephine and the cape-like robe of Napoleon were lined with ermine and embroidered all over with gold bees. the coronation robes of Napoleon and Josephine. Often more than one gown was worn at a time. For outer covering shawls were in great demand. The waist was still very short. styles felt the influence of the countries where he had been. showing the feet. The neck was cut very low or very high.overskirt which was open in the front. ladies even went so far as to take lessons in the art of draping and posing. The sleeves were wide and turned back at the hand. which she removed when the dancing began. Raimbaud. as in everything else. cost 650. Mme. and no lady dared to appear in his presence wearing a gown more than once. The longer pelisse was also made in color and of heavier material. was much liked. with sleeves reaching to the wrist and made of colored silk or cashmere. large sums of money were paid for these shawls. the latter finished with a ruff made of lace and called a "Betsy. and appeared in a ball-gown of embroidered white silk. and the coats had round. Sleeves were short puffs for ceremonial costumes. The cost of these gowns was still very great . Each of the ladies in attendance received 1.
It is reported that Louis XIV never washed himself.—By 1806 the style of dressing the hair had become very conservative. although even then the French were not as clean as the English. and the Empress Josephine. and the trousseau of Mlle. and many from famous Italian 118 . Another form of cleanliness for which France is indebted to Napoleon was the frequent changing of underlinen. Classic coiffures. and Mme. Sir Thomas Lawrence. The use of powder and rouge had almost disappeared. are shown in many of the portraits of the day. braids of hair were also used. such as cameos of ancient design. These were painted by the celebrated painters. banded with fillets or broad ribbons. a gift of the empress. and covered with a veil. Josephine made three changes a day. a niece of Josephine. and these were kept in place by a net. while Napoleon made one. Vigee Lebrun. but kept flat to show the contour of the head. contained underclothing worth 25. Italian. By 1800 soap had become an article in general use in Paris. the brims rather straight and very deep. such as Mme. and English followed in rather quick succession. Head-gear and Accessories. Napoleon and Josephine had started a crusade for cleanliness. Hats had given place almost entirely to bonnets of the coal-scuttle type. Tacher de la Pajerie.fashions. David. and Queen Margaret only once a week. and then only her hands. almost hiding the face. Spanish. Turkish. Before this time the bath seems to have been considered as superfluous. were chosen to wear with the classical dress. The Empire style is so familiar to all that it is unnecessary to go into many particulars. Gerard. Valuable jewels. a few straw hats and turban-like toques were worn when Turkish fashions prevailed.000 francs. it was held close to the head in flat curls. Vigee Lebrun. Mme. This necessitated a much more bountiful supply than had been needed before. these were trimmed with highstanding feathers or flowers. Recamier.
The ladies. and had long curled locks in front.collections found their way to France to grace the fair ladies of the Empire. Men had found that plain dress was much more comfortable and more suited to the affairs of everyday life than the elaborate velvets. This craze for jewels was at its height from 1806 to 1809. called reticules. of course. The value of these collections was almost unbelievable. and very few jewels appeared at the court functions. adopted the fashion of carrying bags. which hung over the forehead and eyes.—Although Napoleon made an effort to bring back the elaborate dress for men that had been given up at the time of the Revolution. and they were made of cardboard or lacquered tin in the shape of Etruscan vases. girdles and jewelled combs and earrings with three pendants all these and many more were worn. and embroideries. chains so long that they might be wound around the neck five or six times and still almost reach the floor.' 119 . Pearls were not considered fashionable. this was called "au coup de vent". gave the wearer the least trouble and was not disarranged by the hat.000.000 francs. Rings on the hands and feet. At one ball in Paris the value of the jewels worn was estimated at about 20. but amethysts were held in high favor. having no pockets in their dresses. Perhaps the greatest change took place in the way of wearing the hair. finally these gave place to the short hair-cut. followed the lead of the emperor. The dandies and exquisites.them. in order to have their small personal belongings with them. These were supposed to be a revival of the bag carried by the Greek women.' Men's Costume. and they refused to go back to . in 1806 it was cut short in the back. in 1809 it was curled and called "en cherube". he made little headway except in the matter of ceremonial dress and military uniforms. as the gems were mostly diamonds. when a reaction set in. that. bracelets and anklets. silks.
Fashions were changing rapidly in minute details. dark-blue. Frenchmen were still using the cocked hat made familiar by the pictures of Napoleon. Fashion papers were published every five days to keep pace with the changing styles. the pad and the silk handkerchief had gone. they were short in the waist. The skirts of the ladies of the royalist party were decorated with eighteen tucks.A change was also seen in the stock. it had developed from the sailor-hat. Colors were used for the coats. Over-coats of fur or cloth had long. dark-green. England had adopted the top-hat. full skirts. with this costume were worn dark prunella boots. and a small cashmere shawl with a vermilion border. and had two or three capes. to show their loyalty to Louis XVIII. Uzanne states that between 1805 and 1814 Paris fashions were never the same for more than a week. and were buttoned with two rows of buttons. brown. Dress was still showing the influence of political upheavals. and of course her word was law for a time at least. as during the one hundred days after Napoleon's return from Elba no Imperialist lady appeared without her bunch of violets. and a plain black silk stock wrapped twice about a standing linen collar. and wine-colored broadcloth were favorites. bellshaped. Perhaps this was due to the fact the Empress Josephine spent most of her time with her dressmakers trying different effects. and the brim had become narrower and turned up at the side. and tied in a small bow in the front. had taken their place. 120 . Breeches were long and tight. the crown had grown much higher and broader at the top. and high boots were still worn.' They also wore small bonnets made of white silk striped with straw. the lace cravat had become a frill attached to the front of the linen shirt.
George reigned 1820-1830.That’s all for French revolution!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Fashion Eras 1800-2000 • • • • • • • • 1800-1837 1837-1913 1913-1947 1947-1970 1970-1985 1985-2000 2000A Final Word on Subcultural Styles Fashion. and George's brother after him as William IV. It was based on classical principles and ornamentation according to the latest fashion. George III was insane after 1811. but alive until 1820. His already Regent serving son Prince of Wales. Costume and Design Era Terminology 1800-1837 Late Georgian The period 1800-1837 is really part of the Georgian era. Classical Greek Dress 121 . After his death Queen Victoria acceded the throne in 1837 Regency Dress Dress during the period 1800-1820 is known as Regency Fashion.
Spanish Ornament After 1808 Spanish ornament was used on classical dress Gothic Influence By 1811 Gothic influence crept in debasing the classical lines gradually up until 1820 when the dress lost all classical form and took on a Gothic line. refer regency fashion 1837-1913 The Victorian era lasts 64 years so in fashion history terms has to be subdivided beyond the length of reign. This era has a chocolate box image about it. This era was inspired by items brought from the east by Napoleon's expeditions . The romantic spirit in clothes lingered on until 1850 running parallel to the early Victorian Era.refer Regency Fashion.Between 1800 and 1803 dress was classical and had classical ornament usually with Greek key borders. Early Victorian Era 122 . but with geometric Etruscan and more exotic Egyptian and oriental ornament. as military male dress can look very romantic next to female dress. Etruscan and Egyptian Ornament Between 1804 and 1807 it still had classical lines. Romantic Era The Gothic influence remained during the Romantic Era between 1820 and 1837.
cultural. Naughty Nineties Within the late Victorian time frame are secondary periods such as the Naughty Nineties. La Belle Époque 123 . Metaphysical thought implies that the last 25 years of a century heralds a new energy. It culminated in Art Nouveau linear curves in dress. Dress styles between 1837 and 1856 are known as Early Victorian. social and political changes. Sometimes it is also called the Crinoline Era which came about at the time when Charles Worth was making a name for himself as the first modern Couturier. Art Nouveau embraced new ideas in changing technology. It should not be taken literally as the end of the century. decorative arts and design. It heralded the mood of change from an old world to a modern era. urbanization and a lingering nostalgia for the old and valued. the final decade of the 19th Century. Sometimes it is called the First Bustle Era. Gibson Girls and tailor made suits. Late Victorian Dress Late Victorian Dress spans the period 1883 to 1901 and covers the Second Bustle Era. Mid Victorian Dress lasts from 1860 to 1882.When Queen Victoria was crowned in 1837 the Romantic Era drew to a close. Fin de Siècle The last decades of the 19th century from 1870 to 1914 the French called Fin de Siècle. Refer The Aesthetics and Jewellery.
La Belle Époque captures the mood in that indefinable time of beautiful dress and luxury living for the few in the two decades immediately before the outbreak and devastation created by World War One. but since the the repercussions of Sept 11th 2001 have caused waves across the world various phrases have been applied such as the freedom age. It primarily covered interiors. architecture. or simply after nine eleven. Although mainly covering the Edwardian Era it puts La Belle Époque into a time capsule. Priestley called the 'Lost Golden Age'. The embellishment captured the graceful Art Nouveau forms. B. Their skirts belled out and flowed like blossoming opening floral forms. carpe diem age. But its importance filtered through into fashion and fabrics. The 20th Century We began the year 2000 by calling the new era the millennium era.This period from the mid 1890s to 1914 was the era the French called La Belle Époque and J. These fashions in textiles were revived in the 1960s by the House of Liberty. Now we are more happily referring to it as the double meaning term the noughties. The long stylised flowers and flowing embroidered borders with trails of organic forms of Art Nouveau are all reflected in the clothes of the Edwardian Hostess. jewellery and furniture design. It spread throughout Europe and was a dominant art form in 1900 at the Paris Exhibition. 1913-1947 124 . Art Nouveau Era Art Nouveau was a decorative art form which followed on from the Arts and Crafts Movement.
The style was most popular in the Stylish Thirties as well as between 1920 and 1940 by which time it had refined itself. It is a time of female emancipation when skirts first shortened to show calves and more practical clothing emerged as women did war work.The Flappers and Bright Young Things A flapper was initially a derogatory term. The dress designers Paul Poiret and Paquin were very influenced by the ballet and separately created garments with oriental influences. bobbed her hair and favoured shorter skirts whilst she shimmied the night away dancing the Charleston.Oriental Era Orientalism has appeared in and out of fashion history several times. It is a period of great change internationally in Europe in particular. 125 . First World War Era This is the era between 1914 and 1918. but it is particularly associated with the movement in dress inspired by artist Léon Bakst the costumer and set designer of Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russes in 1909. Poiret's designs of 1910-1911 were thought scandalous. The exhibition was called The Great Exposition Des Arts Modernes Decoratifs Et Industriels. 1920s . Art Deco and the Roaring Twenties Art Deco originated in Europe and became known after the correct name of the 1925 Paris Exhibition. The same mixed partying set was sometimes called Bright Young Things. but soon was used to describe any young woman of the mid 1920s who wore cloche hats.
1947-1970 The New Look Era After Dior launched his new fashion designs in 1947 Life magazine dubbed it 'The New Look'. The New Look remained fashionable for about 10 years well into the late 1950s. Hollywood glamour helped define the groomed consistently glamorous look of the 1950s. In the 1950s colour films helped fuel the fascination for filmgoers. make up and clothes in the thirties and 1940s. Christian Dior would have been 100 in 2005. The Era of Utility Clothing . Basically this can be seen as a modern use of the old idea of sumptuary laws. The sets and costumes for stage and film that he designed influenced other fashion designers between 1915 and 1936. The stars lived and breathed glamour on and off set. After World War II .The artist Erté was a master of Art Deco. Although dated from the 1940s.World War II . it is quite a separate look from the austere military influenced garments of wartime. The period extends beyond the war's end and it is only in the 1950s that austere garments were replaced en masse by more lavish use of fabrics and full skirted dresses.1939-1945 This period covers rationed clothes under the Civilian Clothing Utility Scheme particularly in Great Britain during the 19391945 World War. It is a look that few film stars still 126 . Hollywood Glamour Girls Hollywood Glamour is a style associated with about 30 years of film from the early 1930s to the late 1950s when the great female stars and studio starlets set the trend in hair.
The clothing separates that were popular were inspired by American university campus fashions young people wore when jiving and rock and roll dancing. in particular that of the Beatles was also so fashionable worldwide. Because British pop music. Britain was seen as having its finger on the pulse and the new mini fashion was all part of that. Elvis Presley and James Dean typified the angry young man in the teen uniform of jeans. In London strings of individual retail outlets followed her.Prêt-à-Porter Mass production improved so much between 1945 and 2000 that the period ever since has been one primarily of ready to wear rather than Haute Couture. The best survivor of the starlet era for glamour in the 21st century is the actress Joan Collins.manage to pull off continuously. 1950s . producing clothes for the new teenage mass market.Era of Rock and Roll and Teenagers For the first time ever during the 1950s. The mini era of the 1960s was born and taken up by the generation of baby boomers. Op Art Era 127 . fashion was specifically designed for young women and men. In France ready to wear is known as Prêt-à-Porter. Mary Quant exported her youthful short mini dresses to America. Era of Ready to Wear . Era of the Mini in Swinging Sixties London In 1966 Britain earned the label 'Swinging London' from Time magazine. It was the first time the word teenager was coined.
flower power took hold of hippies or flower children. Romanian and Indian peasant embroidery. but they never had the authenticity of the looks individuals produced by fashioning their own ideas. Laurent and reached the mass market. From Afghan coats. posing and dancing. Many garments were split into sections with colour contrasts after the paintings of Mondrian and this was an important fashion look in the 1960s. Flower Power Era and Ethnic Folkloric 1960s. sequin boob tubes and stretch catsuits sum up an era that was set alight by the film 'Saturday Night Fever' and the Bee Gees singers. music and freedom protests established an era. safari and Nehru jackets to Art Nouveau. cheesecloth. 128 . but for a weekend of fun.Early 1970s In the USA. Silver and shimmering Lycra. Watered down versions were adapted by Yves St. by the mid 1960s flowers. Trousers that flared. Elements of the ethnic look are also know as the 'Hippy Era'.Op Art was a term coined in 1964. Bridget Riley popularised this with optically distorted geometric patterns in black and white produced a whole range of movements on a surface. When applied to fabric it created a new bold look in fashion and accessories. Garments from far flung parts of the middle and far east became the adopted uniform of a generation. This look in various new formats was regurgitated through 2005 as the eclectic ethnic bohemian look. clothing. figure hugging shaped sharply cut jackets in pastel colours that glowed in the disco light were elevated to new heights by platform shoes. 1970-1985 Disco Fever Mid 1970s Disco clothes were never for work.
New Romantics Era 1980s The New Romantics chose themes from Hollywood. simply because the star Linda Evans had naturally wide shoulders. even taking it into wearing structured brocade evening suits rather than flimsy chiffon dresses. echoed these power dressing ideas in her structured suits. The feminine look soon moved into mainstream fashion. A watered down pretty pretty New Romantic look. was worn by Diana the Princess of Wales in her early years and she became a fashion leader. Margaret Thatcher seen on TV news daily. The wearers appeared to have made an effort to look sartorially interesting using frills and fabrics associated with historical periods. The television series 'Dynasty' also emphasised the shoulder. 129 . fiction or history and then adapted it to make a personal look. The recently updated book is now a huge success again. The look was dramatic. He advised women to at all costs abandon cardigans which he maintained was a secretarial look. Whilst women don't wear power shoulders as such today many do adopt the formality of the suit for business power dressing. The then UK Prime Minister. Power Dressing and Yuppies Era 1980s In the late 1970s. fashion designers showed garments with oversized shoulders and oversized clothes on slender women. The very influential 'Dynasty' was watched primarily for its fashions by a global audience of over 250 million viewers. flamboyant. The wedding dress of Diana Princess of Wales in 1981 sported huge puffed beret sleeves last seen in the 19th century. To make her shoulders appear normal every other actor had their garments shoulder padded and designed to appear wider. colourful and very dressed up with great attention paid to detail. John Molloy's 'Dress For Success' book advised women to dress for success by wearing suits.
In the 1980s the combination of all these factors led to women wearing clothes with ever widening shoulders. Wide easy fit shoulder padded clothes were seen for over ten years and graced everything from the suit to the T-shirt to knitwear. Only those under 21 could get away with this look and Grunge died within a year. The point was to look tousled. as if not too much effort had been made. Deconstructionism Deconstructionism questions the rules and breaks conventions in fashion. Many consumers thought it pointless. It is frequently used now to describe unattractive fashion features or unkempt individuals. uncombed and unkempt. It recycles old fashion and makes the undesirable part of dress such as a laddered stocking a desirable feature. but left the fashion term. dressing in the way a man had in order to ascend the corporate promotion ladder. Hussein Chalayan. Minimalism 130 . Martin Margiela and Comme des Garçons are all deconstructionists. but Zandra Rhodes first did this 25 years ago when she put huge pinked sig zag seams on the outside of wool coats. 1985-2000 Grunge Grunge was based on fashion started by a youth cult in the Pacific North West region of America in the early 1990s. nothing was coordinated and an item was preferable if old and worn. It includes putting seams and zips on the outside of a garment showing the inner construction workings of tailoring that in the past were the hidden features. Actresses like Julia Roberts who adopted the look were heavily criticised for their lack of glamour. The key to the look was that nothing matched.
grey and beige. It uses virtually no jewellery to accessorize the look. The designers Jil Sander. crunchy toning lace. with minimal detailing were first seen as a reaction to the glitz and glamour of 1980's styles. Giorgio Armani and Calvin Klein all strive to produce modern classics within the framework of pure functional natural simplicity. It is easy to wear and never feels out of place because it consists of simple functional items that are reduced to the basic elements of elegantly cut modern classics. fringe.Minimalism describes pared down clothes in neutral tones in clean and sculptural shapes Quality fabrics in solid neutrals. It became more popular in the 1990s. It is an expensive. The early look mainly started by Ghost used lots of chiffon. beaded and embroidered items. 131 . It lacks superfluous embellishment in its pure uncluttered simplicity. Purism Purism uses the neutral tints and shades associated with white. bias cut cowl dresses. unobtrusive uncomplicated look based on good cut. urban subdued understated clothing which is never out of date. patchwork and animal prints. Fashion Designers such as Ghost and Tom Ford have developed variations of the look putting together dreamy velvet trimmed. Ford's later versions used lots of braids. quiet. fur. Bo Ho Hippy Bo Ho Hippy emerged in the 1990s and is a pretty millennium version of the hippy look of the 1960s and 70s. beads and embroidery. It is functional. soft floating fabrics often teamed with little velvet trimmed cashmere cardigans. Donna Karan.
Caribbean. Northern Soul. Ragga. One interesting point is how some of the styles have been picked up by designers. Rave. It is in total contrast to the minimal style. Fetish. adapted and invaded the catwalks so that we now see many of these once original and styles as high fashion innovations in mainstream clothing. Preppy. HeadBangers. Casuals. Techno. By 2002 it was featured heavily by many other designers on most catwalks east and west. Old Skool. Punk. New Age. Rasta. Cowboy. Beatnik. Rude Boy. Mod. Indie. Teddy Boys (Teds). Travellers. Grunge. with photography by Daniel McGrath. Yardies. Eco. 2005 was the summer of the Boho gypsy tiered peasant skirt! This fashion look was global and by autumn 2005 elements had morphed into the Russian look modifying Boho into eclectic ethnic. Subcultural styles were identified in a book called Surfers Soulies Skinheads and Skaters . Bhangra. Glam rock. Jungle. Workwear Rockabilly. 132 . Soulies. Skater. Cyberpunk. Psychobilly. Hippy. Hipsters. Young British Radicals and Zoots. Subcultural streetstyles include Afrocentric. Psychedelic. Streestyle. B-Boy.Subcultural Style From the Forties to the Nineties written by Amy de la Haye and Cathie Dingwall. Surfer. Two Tones. Gay style. Greasers. The book was written as a supporting document for a Victoria and Albert Museum fashion exhibition called Streetstyle Exhibition shown in November 1994. A Final Word on Subcultural Styles Subcultural styles first developed around the 1940's. Madchester. Funk. Skinhead.Embroidery especially is often an embellishment on garments from peasant style to glamorous evening dress.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.