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DISTRIBUTION PLANNING GUIDE
A GUIDE TO ASSIST PLANNING OF 11000 AND 400 VOLT OVERHEAR AND UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
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BANGLADESH POWER DEVELOPMENT BOARD SEPTEMBER 1985
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FOREWORED
There was a longstanding need of the Bangladesh Power Development Board to have its own “Distribution Planning Guide” for development of reliable & efficient distribution system. So long we have been following unwritten guides based on heterogeneous concepts, which gave rise to substandard system reticulations resulting in poor voltage and high loss. In this background this “Distribution Planning Guide” will fill up the vacuum and fulfill the requirement for proper planning and execution of distribution networks. All the concerned engineers of PDB are hereby directed to follow the “Distribution Planning Guide” strictly for implementation of 11kV and 400 volts distribution networks. I hope that this document will be kept up to date with timetotime revision as and when necessary.
(Brig. A. Muhith Chowdhury) (Retd.) Chairman Bangladesh Power Development Board
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INDEX 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2. 3. 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6. 6.1 6.2 7.
PROLOGUE General Firm Capacity of Substation Definition of Planning System Configuraiton11kV Urban Area Rural Area System Configuration  L.V. Earthing Practice Approach to Planning Design Parameters CONSTINUOUS CURRENT RATING LINE VOLTAGE REGULATION FAULT LEVELS Maximum Value Minimum Value Section Points Induction Motor Generator and Synchronous Motor Calculations MOTORS Continuous Rating Starting Current Starting Method Regulation Rating Limits Calculations PROTECTION General Distribution Substations CONSUMER SUPPLY VOLTAGE
PAGE 01 01 02 02 03 03 04 05 06 06 08 09 09 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 16
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INDEX 8. 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 9. 9.1 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 10. 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5
LOAD ESTIMATING Power Factor Residential & Commercial Industrial and Large Commercial Load Diversity Future Load CONSUMERS SERVICE Current Rating Insulated Aerial Conductors Down Load to Meter NonInsulated Service Conductors Underground Cables Service LimitsInsulated Aerial Conductors Service Equipment Calculation Examples Example – 1 Example  2 DRAWINGS General Geographic and Single Line Key Diagrams Topo Survey Electrical Symbols
PAGE 17 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 23
APPENDICES APPENDIX  I APPENDIX  II APPENDIX  III APPENDIX  IV APPENDIX  V APPENDIX  VI APPENDIX  VII
Line Voltage Regulation Limits Voltage Drop Calculations Examples in Determining Service Requirements Fault Calculations: Symmetrical Three Phase Fault Calculation: Earth Fault Determination of Motor Starting Current General Notes on Selection and Setting Protection Devices
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TABLES TABLE  A TABLE  B TABLE  C TABLE  D TABLE  E TABLE  F TABLE  G TABLE  H TABLE  I TABLE  J TABLE  K TABLE  L TABLE  M TABLE  N TABLE  O TABLE  P TABLE  Q TABLE  R TABLE  S TABLE  T TABLE  U
Overhead Line Constants Medium Voltage Insulated Conductors and Cable Constants 11kV Cable Constants. Volt Drop Factors – 230 volt Single Phase Volt Drop Factors – 400 volt Three Phase Volt Drop Factors – 11,000 volt Three Phase Overhead Lines – Percentage Resistance are Reactance per mile to a 10 MVA Base Cables – Percentage Resistance and Reactance per mile to a 10 MVA Base Transformers – Percentage Reactance to a 10 MVA Base. Equivalent 11kV Source Impedance Referred to 400 volt. Equivalent Impedance of 11,000 volt Overhead Lines Referred to 400 volt. Equivalent Impedance of 11,000 volt Cables Referred to 400 volt. Equivalent Impedance Distribution Transformers Referred to 400 volt. Load Assessment – Residential Load Assessment – Commercial Aerial services – Maximum Span Lengths and Erection Tensions. Service Equipment – Single Phase Service Equipment – Three Phase Application of H.T. Dropout Fuse and Molded Case Circuit Breaker. 11kV Overhead Line Constant (Zero Sequence) 11kV Cable Constant (Zero Sequence)
FIGURES Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.1a Fig.2a Fig.3a Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7
Time/Current Curve – 100 amp M.C.C.B. (Type XA Fuse) Time/Current Curve – 200 amp M.C.C.B. (Type XA Fuse) Time/Current Curve – 350 amp M.C.C.B. (Type XA Fuse) Time/Current Curve – 100 amp M.C.C.B. (Type K Fuse) Time/Current Curve – 200 amp M.C.C.B. (Type K Fuse) Time/Current Curve – 350 amp M.C.C.B. (Type K Fuse) Electrical Symbols Typical Key Diagram Characteristic – Time Lag Fuses Operating Characteristic and Outline Template for a Standard 3 Second I.D.M.T.
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Fig.8 Fig.9 Fig.10 Fig.11 DRAWING Drawing No.100 Maps Map  1 Map  2
Relay Setting Envelope for a Standard 3 Second Over Current Relay Example1 Example2 Example3
: 1200 Scale Sample Survey Map : 5000 Scale Sample Survey Map
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1. PROLOGUE 1.1 GENERAL This planning guide is for Engineers who have received specific training on distribution planning already. The objective of this guide is to serve as a means of standardizing the planning of 11kV and L.V. distribution systems throughout Bangladesh. The provisions of this guide must therefore be followed most strictly and deviations will only be allowed when authorized by the Chief Engineer (P&D), PDB. It is realized that there are differences in conditions between urban areas and rural areas, particularly caused by the higher density of load in urban areas. This will necessitate different methods of planning in the two areas as is detailed in these instructions. The task of a distribution planning engineer in Bangladesh is to plan 33kV, 11kV and 400V distribution system. His task is not concerned with the 132kV transmission system. His task is to take electricity from “bulk supply points” in the form of 132/33kV substations and distribute it at 33kV, 11kV and 400V to the consumers. Responsibility of distribution planning will generally lie with Superintending Engineer (P&D) under each Zonal Chief Engineer. Planning of 11kV and 400 volt distribution is to be done by the development divisions while 33kV by the Superintending Engineer (P&D). The steps involved are (a) load survey (b) conceptual layout on appropriate key maps (c) voltage drop studies (d) sectionalizing studies (e) preparation of detail layouts with detail mapping. Field planning and development offices under the Chief Engineers should be in direct communication with the Chief Engineer (P&D)’s offices in the headquarters for technical assistance as required from time to time. Limit of Development Division The divisional planning engineer will rarely be concerned with 33/11kV substation. He may be required to liaise with the Superintending Engineer (P&D) to ensure that 33/11kV substations are designed to suit the requirements of the distribution of his area. The divisional planning engineer may be involved in extensions to the main 11kV switchgear board in 33/11kV substations, if his planning shows that such extension is required. His other and most important involvement with 33/11kV substations will be to ensure that they do not go “outoffirm”. An “outoffirm” condition is said to exist when the maximum load on a 33/11kv substation is greater than “the total 33/11kV transformer capacity minus the rating of the largest transformer”. The reason for not letting these substations go outoffirm is to allow a substation to supply its maximum load demand while one transformer is out of commission through a fault. (The repair replacement of such a faulty transformer would take a considerable time and the alternative requirement of loadshedding for such a time would be unpalatable). 1.2 FIRM CAPACITY OF SUBSTATION
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At the time of writing this guide it is noted that many 33/11kV substations are outoffirm. This situation has arisen because of the lack of adequate planning activity, systematic approach and because of financial constraints visavis extremely rapid rate of load growth being experienced. This is a temporary situation, which will be rectified as soon as possible. Thereafter outoffirm situations will only be allowed to arise if such are authorized in writing by the respective Chief Engineer. Such authorizations will only be given when the outoffirm situation is clearly seen to be rectifiable within a short time by creation of new bulk sources. The standard 33/11kV substation now being installed contains 2× 10/13.3 MVA transformers and thus has a firm capacity of 13.3 MVA. All 33/11kV substation smaller than this will be uprated as and when required, circumstances permitting. There are also some 33/11kV substations with 3× 10/13.3 MVA transformers and thus the firm capacity is 26 MVA. 1.3 DEFINITION OF PLANNING
The term “planning” has a different meaning with respect to electrical distribution than with other engineering fields so it is worth defining the term here. The output of planning of distribution systems will identify the following things: 1) The route of all overhead lines and cables; 2) The required size or capacity of all overhead lines and cables; 3) The location and capacity of all transformers; 4) The location of sectionalizing points and specifying the type of all switch and fuse gear; 5) The settings or rating of all protective devices (in liaison with the protection engineer). Thus the term should not be confused with another word “Design”. “Design” with respect to electrical distribution systems consists of specifying the detail of the line materials and equipment of a distribution system, such as the height of poles, pole top details, conductors, hardware etc. and quantifying the same. 1.4 1.4.1 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION – 11KV Urban Area The most basic concept of 11kV system planning must be to give two sources of supply to as many substations as possible in order to reduce the outage time during inevitable faults to a minimum. The only exceptions to this concept which should be allowed are small loads (below 1 MVA) or where the provision of a second source of supply would be inordinately expensive difficult. However, supplies to persons or areas designated by management as very important shall always be given 2 sources of supply irrespective of the size of the load involved. The simplest and most preferred way of allowing the facility of duplicate supplies is to arrange the 11kV distribution system in the form of a ring which will be operated with one point of the ring normally open. This configuration is shown as type ‘A’ on the attached drawing No. 100.
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However, to allow for other geographical conditions and to more easily allow the incorporation of existing networks into new planning, the configurations shows as ‘B’ and ‘F’ may also be allowed. Both of these give 2 sources of supply. In some circumstances, in particular where there is a heavy concentration of load situated a large distance from a 33/11 kV substation, it cab be considered advisable to establish a small bulk distribution point in the form of a switching station as shown in the same drawing. This switching station shall be equipped with circuit breaker panels, one of which must be a bussection switch or C.B. It shall be fed by 2, 11kV feeders, preferably from the same 33/11kV substation or else from 2 different substations. From these switching stations simple open rings shall be arranged, as shown. Substation interconnections (type ‘G’) may be planned if the circumstances permit, one only per substation. Small loads may be catered for with short redial feeders of tees off overhead lines as shown in configuration types ‘C’ and ‘D’. Every effect must be made to avoid overcomplicating the 11kV system since this will make the work of operating and maintaining it unnecessarily difficult. Thus interconnections between rings, such as those shown as type ‘H’ shall be avoided. These also cause the necessity for additional switchgear, which is very expensive. Circuit breakers shall only be installed in 33/11kV substations and the type of switching station shown in drawing No.:100. The switchgear in ground mounted distribution substations (11kV/400V) shall consist of outdoor type ringmain units (RMUS). These shall consist of isolating switches controlling the incoming and outgoing cables and fuse switches controlling the transformer. Otherwise, ground mounted substations, if feed from and overhead line may consist of a consumersupplied 11kV C.B. or a PDB supplied fuse switch controlling the transformer. The substation shall be teed off the overhead line with a pole mounted 11kV switch controlling the cable. Polemounted substations shall consist of transformers teed off the overhead line, the transformers being controlled by fuseisolators. Overhead lines shall have switches installed in the line every 2 KM or at Teeoff points to assist with fault location and sectionalization. As far as is practical and possible each 11kV ring shall be either overhead or underground and not a mixture of the two. Overhead lines shall be sited so as to give at least 1 M clearance from buildings. Teejoints on underground 11kV cables will not be allowed. For the supply to very important consumers or areas underground systems shall, as far as possible, be installed in order to ensure a high reliability of supply. In all other areas, in order to reduce the cost of the installation, overhead systems shall be installed unless the actual site conditions make the construction of overhead lines impossible or impractical. All overhead 11kV distribution lines shall be planned to run roughly parallel to roads although not necessarily following every curve of a winding road. This is intended to make operation and maintenance easier.
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Main lines shall be kept as short as possible. It is much preferred to feed the various loads by tees off the main line rather than to deviate the main line in a zigzag manner from load to load. 1.4.2 Rural Areas. The situation regarding the rural areas of Bangladesh will be found to the different form the urban areas; in particular the distances involved will be greater, the load density will be less and the importance of the loads will be less. Thus the configuration of rural distribution systems will differ from those in urban areas. In general, REB standard of planning the distribution will be followed in rural areas. Rural 11kV distribution systems will be almost entirely overhead. The great majority of 11kV feeders will be the radial type ‘D’. Long main lines, especially if they have many teesoff shall have one or two autoreclosers installed in the line so as to divide the line into equal sections. Long teesoff may also control at or near the teeoff point by an autorecloser. Reclosers shall be sited in locations easily accessible from roads. It will generally be found necessary to build long main lines with Merlin conductor, other main lines and long tees with Dog conductor and all other tees with Rabbit conductor. Line routes shall be such as to avoid repeated crossing and recrossing of roads.
1.5 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION – L.V.
400 volt circuits will normally be supplied from one point only but, where practical, facilities for connecting to an adjacent 400 volt circuit may be provided. Distribution transformers should be sited as close as possible to the load centre of the system they are supplying. The source point for all L.V. networks is the 11kV/400V distribution transformers mentioned in paragraph 4. The transformers will be protected from faults on the L.V. networks by M.C.C.B’s (moldedcase circuitbreakers) installed adjacent to the transformers themselves. The M.C.C.B. rating shall be as mentioned in paragraph 6.2 of the main planning guide. No additional fuse or M.C.C.B protection shall be installed on L.V. lines at points remote from the transformer. Preference must be given to overhead lines rather than underground cable systems for economic reasons. Very important consumers or very important areas may be given an underground L.V. system however. From consumer substations the L.V. network will consist of cable from the transformer to the consumers L.V. switchgear. From all other substations the L.V. network shall consist of a number of networks lines (the minimum number being given in paragraph 6.2 of the main guide).
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The lines will be sited to run along the side of roads to give close access to house and other buildings. As many as necessary teesoff from these radial feeders may be installed. Closed rings of L.V. feeders shall not be used. The phase conductors of adjacent L.V. networks shall not be connected together to parallel the supplies from the 2 transformers. However, to ensure low earthing resistances, if is necessary to connect together the neutrals of adjacent networks. Thus the ends of adjacent networks should be terminated on the same pole. Overhead lines shall be sited so as to give 1 meter clearance from all buildings and other obstructions or else the conductors shall be insulated. 1.6 EARTHING PRACTICE
The electrical system at 400V, 11kV, 33kV and transmission voltage are solidly earthed, that is, the star points of 3 phase system is connected to earth to allow full short circuit current to pass in the event of a fault to earth, limited only by the resistance of the path to earth between the point of supply and point of fault (the entire system of BPDB however may not be effectively earthed particularly away from the S/S). In general BPDB system earthing is provided at supply S/S. Resistance of S/S earth is limited to maximum 1Ω (ohm), maximum earth circuit resistance, including the fault resistance should not exceed 40Ω (ohms) at 11kV/6.33kV for effective protection. No practical limit of earth circuit resistance can be specified for 400V system so as to actuate molded case circuit breakers without earth leakage feature, in case of earth fault. Therefore maximum 40Ω (ohms) may be considered for calculation of minimum earth fault current in the 11kV system. 1.7 APPROACH TO PLANNING
The initial planning step is to estimate the magnitude of the load to be supplied, including anticipated load development within the period under review, within the specified geographic area. a) Identifying the Area.
Identify the area to be supplied. The whole project area should be divided into zones, one supply zone per 33/11kV S/S or into subzones: one subzone per 11kV switching station. b) Mapping
Collect maps and/or mains records of the area to be supplied. 1:5000 and 1:1200 scale maps shall be used for all planning works. For small planning jobs where no proper maps are available, sketch maps (not to scale) may be used. For larger jobs the Surveyor General shall be requested to survey and map the project area. This procedure can take months or years depending on the size of the area involved so that suitable notice must be given. If time does not permit for long delay, this may be done through professional private survey companies after taking necessary approval. c) Recording existing system
Collect details of the existing system in the subject area. This should be assembled on the geographic main records maps of the area and on the relevant single line diagram. Due to the poor state of main record keeping in the past it should not be assumed that record drawings are up to date and correct. Records should always be checked physically on site and amend as necessary.
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d)
Survey existing Load
Collect as much detail as possible of the existing loading conditions in the subject area. This should comprise the maximum loads on all 11kV feeders and all distribution transformers. 11kV feeder loading are always available from substation records. In time a programmed of checking and recording the maximum load at peak time of the year on all distribution transformers on the system will be started. In the meantime, the data routinely available from the O&M Circles may be utilized. Alternatively, loads may be estimated by counting the number and type of services with their connected load and applying the diversity factors as mentioned in the planning guide. e) Forecasting the Demand
Estimates must be made for at least 5 years ahead of the load to be catered for a maximum of 7 years forecast must be made for sizing a 33/11 kV substation. This must be done by assuming an appropriate annual growth rate over the existing loads. Past records may be a guide line in this respect. In addition, all known and possible future large loads (200 kW and above) must be taken into consideration. This will take the form known of possible future developments such as office buildings, factories, residential areas etc. Location of all of those loads must be identified in order to plan the distribution feeders. f) Survey of Existing Facilities
The condition of all exiting installations must be assessed in order to decide whether any of them are in such poor condition as to require replacement. This may be done by studying the records kept in O&M files and by close physical inspection by the planning engineer himself. Alternatively, this information may be requested from O&M Circles although the planning engineer must himself verify that there is a valid justification for scraping such equipment. g) Planning the System
The position and size of all transformers shall be decided. However, there must also be taken into consideration the routes of cables and lines to be decided in ‘h’ hereafter. The two are interdependent. The location of all new and rehabilitated L.V. lines must then be decided. They should all run alongside roads close to the buildings they are to supply. h) Feeder Loads
i) From ‘e’ it should be possible to work out the maximum load to be fed from the subject
33/11kV substation divide this into subareas and draw up a system plan composed of the various configurations shown in figure 100. The maximum use of existing installation, in satisfactory condition, shall be made and new cables or overhead lines planned to complete the system. Each leg to a single ring, a 3legged ring and interconnected distributor shall be planned to carry a maximum load of 2.5 MVA in normal circumstances. In case, one leg is out of the near end of substation and sectionalizing switch will be closed, it would carry a maximum of 5 MVA. This is based on a 3c× 185mm2 (Al) cable or Dogconductored overhead line within both carry a maximum load of 5 MVA, approximately. The subsystem on a switching station can carry a maximum load of 7 MVA if the express feeders are 3c× 185mm2 Copper U.G.C. or Merlin O.H.L. and 5 MVA if the express feeders are 3c× 185mm2 (Al) to carrying a maximum of 50% of the current carrying capacity. Subject to voltage conditions they may carry up to 100% of their ratings. ii) Feeder Size In deciding the size of necessary conductors and cable voltage drop calculations must be done. However, in urban areas it will generally be found that because of the higher load
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density, voltage drop will rarely be a serious factor in deciding cable or line sizes. In rural areas voltage drop calculations are essential and it will frequently be found that a line loaded to its maximum current carrying capacity will result in excessive voltage drop. Power loss will be additionally opted. In deciding the size of lines and cables, certain problematic loads must also be taken into consideration, namely motors, arc furnaces, welding machines and equipment generation harmonics. These shall be handled in the manner described in the planning guide. iii) Sectionalizing Switches
For overhead line systems the position if all 11kV switches shall be fixed as mentioned in section 5. iv) System Configuration All equipment and the planned 11kV add L.V. networks must then be drawn up on the drawings mentioned in (b) and (c) and shown in sample map 1 and 2, 1:5000 scale shall be used for zonal 11kV system planning while 1:1200 scale shall be used for detail planning of 11kV and 400 volt system.
1.8
DESIGN PARAMETERS All data given herein is based on the following parameters: Maximum ambient air temperature Group temperature at one meter Group thermal resistivity Maximum Conductor temperature: PIL and PVC insulated cables ERP and XLPE insulated cables Overhead line conductors Minimum Wind Speed Solar intensity : : : : : 70˚C 80˚C 75˚C 1.6 km/hr 0.12W/sq.cm : : : 45˚C 30˚C 1.2˚C/m/W
Maximum three phase r.m.s. Symmetrical fault levels: 33,000 volt system 11,000 volt system 400 volt system : : : 1,000 MVA (17.5 kA) 250 MVA (13.1 kA) 29 MVA (41.9 kA)
Overhead line conductor spacing: 11,000 volt lines, equilateral formation 400 volt lines, vertical formation : : 930 mm 300 mm
Temperature coefficient of resistance at 200C (α ): Copper (annealed) Copper (hard drawn) Aluminum : : : 0.00393 per ˚C 0.00381 per ˚C 0.00403 per ˚C
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All planning shall be carried out in accordance with the latest issue of the Electricity Act, 1910 (Bangladesh), and any other Regulation made in pursuance thereof. 2. CONTINUOUS CURRENT RATING The maximum continuous current ratings for overhead lines and underground cables are listed in Tables AC. These ratings have been calculated on the basis of the parameters given in Section1.3. For other equipment, transformers, switchgear etc., the manufacturer’s quoted current rating will be used after applying any appropriate derating factor. For example, the information given on the rating plate may refer to its operation at a different ambient temperature than that in which it is installed. The load current should not exceed the derated current rating under normal operating conditions. The continuous maximum current ratings for consumer’s services are considered in section9. 3. LINE VOLTAGE REGULATION For planning and design purposes, and as shown in AppendixI, the following line regulation at the points farthest from the supply point, shall not be exceeded under normal operating conditions: a) b) c) 11,000 volt system 400/230 volt system Services : : : 3% 5% 1%
In calculating the line regulation the following power factors shall be assumed: a) b) 11,000 volt systems 400/230 volt system & services: i) Predominantly heating and lighting loads ii) All other combinations of load : : : 0.80 lag 0.95 lag 0.85 lag
For certain loads where a low power factor is inherent to the equipment the consumer is required to install power factor correction equipment to the extent that the power factor is improved to a value between unity and 0.85 lags. For individual circuit analysis for motors the manufacturer’s stated power factor and efficiency should be used. Where these are no available the following may be assumed: Motor Rating Up to 3 HP 3 to 10 HP Over 10 HP Single Phase Efficiency Power factor 75% 0.8 lag 80% 0.83lag 85% 0.87lag Three Phase Motor Efficiency Power factor 80% 0.8 lag 87% 0.87lag 90% 0.9lag
Conductor KWYard and KWMile voltage factors are given in Tables D, E & F and examples of volt drop calculations are given at AppendixII.
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4. 4.1
FAULT LEVELS Maximum Value
The maximum prospective three phase r.m.s. symmetrical fault levels must not exceed the following values:a) b) c) 33,000 volt system 11,000 volt system 400/230 volt system : : : 1,000 MVA (17.5 kA) r.m.s. symmetrical 250 MVA (13.1 kA) r.m.s. symmetrical 29 MVA (41.9 kA) r.m.s. symmetrical
These are the maximum values. The equipment must be checked and the manufacturers rated value used if lower. Calculations shall be carried out to determine the maximum fault level at points in the system where switchgear and fuse gear is installed, to show that the equipment rated fault capacity is adequate and that protective devices will operate satisfactorily. In the latter case it is also necessary to calculate the minimum fault level. The source impedance from the next higher voltage network shall initially be assumed to be the value corresponding to the prospective three phase r.m.s. symmetrical fault rating. If the calculated fault level does not then exceed 80% of the equipment rated capacity the system will be satisfactory. 4.2 Minimum Value
When calculating the minimum fault level, the source impedance shall be assumed to be 25% of the prospective three phase r.m.s. symmetrical fault rating. 4.3 Section Points
When making calculations for an interconnected system the points normally open must be clearly indicated. Open points, which if closed could cause the equipment rated capacity to be exceeded must be clearly indicated and noted to this effect. 4.4 Induction Motors Fault contribution from motors shall be neglected unless:a) b) 400 volt system 11,000 volt system : : The circuit aggregate motor capacity exceeds 250 kW. The circuit aggregate motor capacity at 11,000 volt and 400 volt exceeds 2,000 kW.
4.5
Generators and Synchronous Motors
Fault contributions from generators and synchronous motors, which can operate in parallel with the distribution systems, shall be determined by detailed analysis. 4.6 Calculations
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Reactance values for calculation purposes shall be those given in Tables A, B and C. Calculations and examples are given at AppendixIV. 5. 5.1 MOTORS Continuous Rating Motors may be rated in Kilowatts or Horse Power. The line current may be determined as follows:
a)
Single phase Motor I= Horse Power× 746 230 × Efficiency × Power factor Kilowatt × 1000 230 × Efficiency × Power factor Amp
Or b)
Amp
Three phase Motor I= Horse Power × 746 1.732 × 400 × Efficiency × Power factor Kilowatt × 1000 1.732 × 400 × Efficiency × Power factor Amp
Or
Amp
The manufacturer’s values for efficiency and power factor should be used. Where these are not available the values given in Section 3 should be adopted. 5.2 Starting Current When starting a motor the initial stating current is several times greater than the continuous rated current and this can cause excessive voltage dips on the system and be a nuisance to other consumers due to visible flicker in Tungsten lamps. It is therefore necessary to consider together with the size of the motor the following factors to determine if the motor can be connected as proposed: a) b) c) d) 5.3 The method of motor starting, The method of connection to the supply system, The frequency of motor starts and The voltage dips on starting.
Starting Method
Apart from direct online starting various methods are used to reduce the initial starting current to a more acceptable level. Depending on the type of motor one of the following methods of starting may be used: a) b) c) d) e) 5.4 StarDelta Auto Transformer Rotor Resistance Stator Resistance Capacitor Regulation (Approx. 60% of directonline starting current) (Approx. 4070% of directonline starting current)
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Starting regulation depends on the number of starts with respect to time. For motors which subject to infrequent starting, i.e. start intervals of two hours or more, the initial. Starting current should not normally cause a volt dip exceeding 3% in the phase to neutral voltage at the point of common coupling with other loads connected to the supply authority distribution system. For motors subject to frequent starting, i.e. start intervals of less than two hours, the corresponding value is 1%. 5.5 Rating limits
It is convenient for both the supply authority and the medium voltage consumer if range 400/230 volt motors can be accepted for directonline starting without the need for special study. The permissible rating of such a motor is dependant on the frequency of motor starts; the distribution transformer rating and its location within the high voltage system; and the point of common coupling, within the 400/230 volt distribution system, with other consumer’s loads. The point of common coupling is where the specific consumer service is connected to the 400/230 volt distribution main, and may be at any location between the terminals of the distribution substation and extremity of the distribution system. Based on the general conditions above, motors may normally be accepted for directonline starting up to the following ratings :a) With Common Coupling Occurring on the 400/230 Volt Distribution Main Motors subject to infrequent start up to the following ratings may be accepted for connection to the 400/230 volt distribution system without qualification as to the method of starting :Single Phase, Three Phase, 230 volts 400 volts 1.0 HP (0.75 kW) 3.0 HP (2.25 kW)
Motors subject to frequent start (including lift and hoist motors and other motors subject to similar duties) up to the following ratings may be accepted for connection to the 400/230 volt distribution system without qualification as to the method of stating. Single Phase, Three Phase, 230 volts 400 volts 0.33 HP (0.25 kW)
1.0 HP (0.75 kW)
b) With Common Coupling Occurring at 400/230 volt Terminal of the Distribution Transformer Motors up to the following ratings may be accepted for connection to the 400/230 volt terminals of distribution transformer without qualification as to the method of starting :Three Phase Transformer Rating 11/0.4kV KVA 25 50 100 200 MOTOR RATING – H.P. INFREQUENT START FREQUENT START Single phase Three phase Single phase Three phase 2 4 0.75 1.5 3 6 1 2 6 12 2 4 10 20 3.5 7
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315 500 800 1000
15 20 30 35
30 40 60 70
5 7.5 10 12
10 15 20 24
When the point of common coupling occurs on the 11,000 volt distribution system (i.e. a high voltage consumer) it must form the subject of a special study as illustrated at AppendixV. 5.6 Calculations Examples showing the method of determining the maximum directonline start motor are given at AppendixV. 6. Protection 6.1 General
Protection devices, i.e. relays, fuses, molded case circuit breakers (MCCB), miniature circuit breakers (MCB) are designed for two purposed:a) b) To protect equipment from prolonged or excessive current which may otherwise cause damage? To quickly and automatically isolate from the supply system any equipment that has been damage.
In order to provide protection against prolonged overloads the fuse or circuit breaker or current transformer operating into a circuit breaker relay must be rated as closely as possible to the circuit full load current. It is seldom practical to select a device with a rating equal to the circuit full load current. It is usually necessary to install a device with the next higher standard current rating. Current transformers to operate over current relays on 11kV circuit breakers may require more than one ratio. For example if a 400 amp circuit breaker is initially to control a load of 140 amp circuit breaker is initially to control a load of 140 amp it would be in order to use a 200/5 amp current transformer. In such a case it would be reasonable to install a 400/200/5 amp current transformer allow the circuit breaker to be utilized up to its rated capacity at some later date. Protection devices, characteristics and recommended setting values can be obtained from a separate report ‘Electrical Protection for the Greater Dacca Transmission and Distribution Systems'. The protective devices should be discriminative so that only the device nearest to the equipment affected operates thus isolating a minimum of the system from the supply. Where protective devices are installed in series it is essential that they be properly time/current graded to ensure their correct operation. For example, consider a radial 11kV overhead line from an 11kV switching station supplying a number of distribution transformers each with its own medium voltage distribution system. The protective devices installed may include a relay operated circuit breaker at the 11kV switching station, 11kV fuses at each of the distribution transformers, an MCCB on each medium voltage circuit from the transformers and a fuse or MCB at each consumer’s metering point. When correctly graded the protective devices should operate so that only the minimum of the system is isolated from the supply as follows :a) Overload or damage within the consumer’s premises – service, fuse or MCB only. b) Overload or damage on a distribution transformer – the MCCB controlling the medium voltage circuit only. c) Damage to the distribution substation  the 11kV fuses only.
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d) Overload or damage on the 11kV overhead line or cablethe circuit breaker at the 11kV switching station only. Where small motors, such as unit air conditioners, are not automatically disconnected from the supply in event of power failure, allowance must be made for this heavy, short time, current on restoration of supply. The selection of the MCCB should permit this short time excess current. 6.2 Distribution Substations
The following arrangements for the protection of distribution substations will normally be adopted in order to give discriminative operation of protective devices:a) Pole Mounted Transformers TRANSFORM ER RATING KVA 50 100, or 100 200, or 200 b) 11KV TYPE XA FUSE AMPS 15 30 30 50 50
∗
M.C.C.B. NO. OF CIRCUITS NO. 1 1 2 1 2 RATING AMPS 100 200 100 350 200 MAGNETIC SETTING NO. NO. 5 3 3 3 2
Ground Mounted Transformers TRANSFORM ER RATING KVA 300 500 800 1000 11kV H.R.C FUSE AMPS 40 50 80 90 M.C.C.B. NO. OF CIRCUITS No. 3 4 5 6 RATING AMPS 350 350 350 350 MAGNETIC SETTING NO. No. 5 5 4 4
The Time/current characteristic curves for the above M.C.C.B.’s and 11kV fuses are shown at Figures 1, 2 and 3. The magnetic current setting 1 refers to ‘HI’ and 5 to ‘LO’ on the M.C.C.B. (These settings refer to one manufacturer’s M.C.C.B.’s. Other manufacturer’s M.C.C.B.’s may require different settings). 7. CONSUMER SUPPLY VOLTAGE The voltage of supply and number of phases, to consumers shall normally be as follows: a) b) c) d) Note:
∗
Up to 10 kVA 10 to 30 kVA 30 to 175kVA Over 175 kVA
: : : :
230 volt, single phase, twowire from the distribution system. 400 volt, three phase, fourwire from the distribution system. 400 volt, three phase, fourwire direct from the terminals of an 11/0.4kV distribution system. 11,000 volt, three phase.
A 400 volt, three phase supply may be necessary because of the nature of the load although the maximum demand may be less than 10 kVA.
See also Table – s for NEMA standard 11kV Fuse.
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With commercial/industrial loads the effect of motor starting currents may necessitate the installation of a transformer, or a high voltage supply, solely for a single consumer. The above is considered a guide for use in all Electric Supplies and should be read in conjunction with B.P.D.B. tariff conditions ruling at the time. 8. 8.1 LOAD ESTIMATING Power Factor The values of power factor specified in Section 3 shall be applied as necessary. 8.2 Residential and Commercial The after diversity maximum demand (A.D.M.D.) of residential and commercial consumers may be assessed using the Tables N and O respectively. The following notes apply to these tables :a) b) c) d) e) f) All loads to be converted to watts using the appropriate power factor and efficiency. All indoor lighting points, including table and standard lamps supplied from socket outlets or adaptors, to be rated at 100 watts. All outdoor security lighting points, floodlighting, to be rated at 100 watts. All floodlight points to be rated in accordance with the equipment installed. All other equipment to be rated in accordance with manufacturer's rating plate. For commercial consumer’s standby plant need not be taken into account provided it cannot be used at the same time as the main plant. Industrial and Large Commercial The A.D.H.D. of all plant installed to be assessed on information obtained from the consumer (mode of operation), the manufacturer (plant ratings) and site inspection. Standby plant need not be taken into account provided it cannot be used at the same time as the main plant. 8.4 Load Diversity On any feeder, because the maximum demand of each individual consumer may not occur at the same time, a diversity factor may be applied to the total sum of each individual consumer’s maximum demand to the access the feeder maximum demand. No fixed diversity factor to be applied to a feeder can be given as any particular feeder may supply a variety of combinations of different types of consumers with their peak loads occurring at different times. It is also difficult to find out diversity factor. For example, a single distribution feeder may supply a number of commercial, industrial and residential consumers. One industrial consumer may work a single shift with peak load occurring at 11.00 to 13.00 hours, another may work twenty four hours with the peak load occurring at 01.00 to
8.3
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06.00 hours, commercial consumers may have peak load occurring 08.00 to 15.00 hours, and residential peak loads occurring 18.00 to 20.00 hours. In addition the peak load of any consumer may vary depending on the season of the year. In general each feeder must be examined individually to assess the diversity factor applicable to that particular feeder. With medium voltage feeders supplying predominantly residential consumers the situation is not so complicated as the majority of consumers are in the same category with their individual peak loads occurring at the same time and the same season of the year. This also applies to small commercial consumers (shops) within a residential area. The following diversity factors may be applied to the sum of the individual residential/shop consumer after diversity maximum demands, the consumers all being supplied from the same medium voltage distribution feeder :Up to 5 Consumers 6 to 10 consumers Over 10 Consumers 1.0 0.9 to total A.D.H.D. to total A.D.H.D. 0.85 to total A.D.H.D.
Any other consumer supplied from the same feeder, but not within the above category, must be assessed separately and the feeder maximum demand adjusted accordingly. It may be necessary, as experience is gained, to revise the above diversity factors. 8.5 Future Load When extending the distribution system to establish power supplies in a new area, the area should be investigated and a load study, to determine the probable development in the following 5 to 7 years should be carried out and the distribution system planned in accordance with the results or this study. It: should be understood that only those works with immediate economic benefit need be implemented in the short term, the balance of the works can be deferred until the development proceeds. The institution of medium term (5 year) planning will enable deficiencies in existing systems to be identified in adequate time to allow corrective steps to be taken. 9. 9.1 9.1.1 CONSUMERS SERVICES Current Ratings Insulated Aerial Conductors The current ratings for duplex and quadruplex cables for the various installation conditions are listed in Table B. It should be noted that for overhead services where the down leads to the meter are installed in conduit, this is the limiting conductor loading condition  See 9.1.2.
9.1.2
Down Leads to Meter
Where practical the service down leads to the meter shall aerial service conductors continued unbroken from the service, via the wall attachment and conduit, to the meter.
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In certain circumstances in order to utilize the full current rating of the aerial service, whether it be duplex, quadruplex or bare conductor, it may be advantageous to use conductors of larger cross sectional area in the conduit. The current ratings of PVC insulated and sheathed cables installed in conduit for this purpose are:6 mm2 Cu. PVC/PVC 16 mm2 Cu. PVC/PVC 25 mm2 Cu. PVC/PVC 20 amperes 40 amperes 55 amperes
For example a 16 mm2 cable in conduit (40 amps) will enable the full rating of a 10 mm 2 aerial service (40 amps) to be utilized. 9.1.3 NonInsulated Service Conductors
Occasionally it may be necessary to install bare (or PVC insulated) Gnat or Ant conductors as a service. Generally it is best to consider such lines as part of the distribution system rather than as services. The current ratings for these conductors are given in Table  A. 9.1.4 Underground Cables
Copper cables, PVC insulated, wire armoured and PVC sheathed shall be used for underground services. The current ratings given by Eastern Cables are for ground installation at 30˚C ambient and for air installation at 35˚C ambient. The following derating factors should be applied to these current ratings:For installation in air at 45˚C ambient For installation in ground at 30˚C ambient For installation in ground at 1 meter air at 45˚C ambient For installation in single way ducts The derated current ratings for underground cables are given in TableB. 9.2  P. These values have been adopted to simplify the installation of the aerial service and to ensure that the maximum sag at a conductor a temperature of 70˚C does not exceed 5 feet (1.52 mete). The erection tensions selected are suitable for all air temperatures in the range 1545˚C. Note: Owing to its low tensile strength 2× 4 mm2 duplex shall not be road crossings. 9.3 Service Equipment used at Service Limits  Insulated Aerial Conductors The maximum service span lengths for duplex and quadruplex conductors are given in Table 0.85 1.00 0.95 0.83
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The current ratings of standard metering equipment, the matching cable sizes for various service load requirements and the service length for 1% service volt drop are given in Tables Q and R. The following notes apply to these tables:
a)
b) c) d) e)
Duplex and quadruplex cable sizes are selected on the current ratings for conduit. Power Factor not less then 0.85 lag.
installation in
Underground cable sizes for services are selected on the current ratings for installation in air and exposed to solar radiation. Power factor not less than 0.85 lag. For three phase services a power factor of 0.85 lag and a load outofbalance of 20% have been assumed. The volt drop factors of Tables D and E should be used to determine the maximum service lengths for 1% volt drop. The maximum service lengths are based on the kW load given in column 1 of the cable. The maximum service length for an intermediate load not tabulated may be calculated as follows:next HIGHEST load (kW) in table × correspond ing service length (ft) required load (kW)
= maximum service length (ft) for required load. The MCB and meter ratings will remain as for the higher load. f) The effect of motor stating current has not been taken into account and where this is necessary larger cables than those selected in the tables may be required, or a separate substation for the consumer. See Appendices III and V. Calculation Examples Example  I A consumer requires supply for a heating and lighting load of 5kW. The total service length from the overhead line to the meter position is 115 feet. As a single phase service is suitable for this load use Table Q. Against the required load (5 kW) in column1, read off :a) b) c) 9.4.2 Under Column 2 the required MCB  30 amp. Under Column 3 the required meter  1040 amp.
9.4 9.4.1
Under Column 6 select the next highest service length (126 ft) and against this read off the duplex conductor size in Column 4  16 mm 2 (or if underground service is required use Columns 7 and 5). Example  2 Determine the service equipment and maximum service length using a 50 mm2 underground cable for a three phase load of 35 kW. As it is a 3phase load, TableR refers. The next highest load is 40KW in column l. Read off against this :
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a) b) c)
The required MCCB in column 2 The required meter in column 3 The service length in column 7 against the cable size (50 mm2) in column 5. 40 The maximum service length for a 33kW load is 212 × 35
=
100 mp 80 amp 212 feet 242 feet
10. 10.1
DRAWINGS General
In order to plan distribution systems, or extensions to them, and to carry out necessary design calculations, accurate Geographic Plans, Single Line and Key Diagrams must be prepared. 10.2 Geographic and Single Line
Separate drawings are normally prepared for each voltage and should contain the following information:Pole locations Line routes Cable routes Cable and Conductor sizes Cable and Conductor types Circuit route lengths All normally open points Isolators Feeder Pillars Ring Main Units Auto reclosers Switching Stations Substations Transformers Transformer kVA rating Drawing No. of Key Diagrams Cross reference of Drawing Numbers (Geographic/Single Line) Note: 10.3 GEOGRAPHIC YES (Note i) YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES SINGLE LINE YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
i) Required on all 1:1200 scale geographic maps, otherwise only if practical. ii) All symbols to be used are to be in accordance with Fig. 4. Key Diagrams
A Key Diagram is a single line drawing of installed equipment, e.g. a switching station, a 33/11kV substation. The drawing is to be fully detailed and to include, in addition to the switchgear and transformers, the following :For Power Transformers Vector Group Voltage ratio kVA rating % Impedance For Switchgear Current rating of circuit busbars Current rating of circuit breakers Fault rating in MVA Current transformers and ratios
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Earthing Current transformers and ratios
Voltage transformers Instrumentation Meters Relays
A typical Key Diagram showing the layout and information required, and the standard symbols to be used, is shown at Fig. 5. 10.4 Topo Survey
The negatives of this survey at a scale of 1:1200 will be considered the Master Negative. The only information to be inserted, and kept up to date, on the Master Negative are all Electric Supplies Poles and the pole numbers, plus revisions and extensions to the survey as area development progresses. Other negatives will be made from the Master Negative for permanent records as required, e.g.:a) b) 400 volt lines and cables 11000 volt lines and cables
In addition a reduced scale version, approximately 1:5000, are to be prepared primarily for the planning of the high voltage system but also to record the overall picture of the ‘as installed’ high voltage system for each 33/llkV supply area. 10.5 Electrical Symbols
The electrical symbols in most frequent use on Geographic, Single Line and Key Diagrams are shown at Fig. 4. For symbols not given in this drawing reference should be made to the Chief Engineer (P&D).
APPENDIX – l
LINE VOLTAGE REGULATION LIMITS 1. Regulations require that at medium voltage the voltage: at the consumer’s terminals be kept within the limits of 5% of the declared voltage of supply of 400/230 volts, i.e. 420/380 volts three phase and 24l.5/218.5 volts single phase. For planning purposes the following are the normal maximum voltage regulation limits for 11,000 volt and 400/230 volt distribution systems, after allowing for load development, and these limits should not normally be exceeded :100% 11.22kV 3% 2.75% 10.88 kV 409.4 Volt 4% 1% 393 volt
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11kV BUSBARS AT 2 % TAP Substation
1 2
CONSUMERS
10.725/0.415
389 volt
at 33/11 kV
TERMINAL
a)
b)
A primary 11kV bus bar voltage at a 33/11kV substation or 11.22 kV. An 11kV distribution line drop of 3%, i.e. 10.88kV at the distribution transformer high voltage terminals. With the distribution transformer tap change set at
1 2 % 2
c)
(10.725/0.415kV) and allowing 2.75% transformer internal regulation towards full load, an output voltage at the transformer medium voltage terminals of 409.5/235.5 volts. d) A medium voltage distribution line drop of 4% (this is equivalent to a uniformly distributed load of 70 kW along 350 yards of Wasp conductor) giving an end of mains voltage of 393/226 volts. A consumer's service volt drop of 1% giving a voltage at the consumers terminals of 389/224 volts
e)
By planning to these limits the voltage at the consumer's supply terminals will be within statutory limits. 2. In a new system, or a reinforced system, where the initial load may be small compared to that for which it is designed, it may be necessary to set the tap change on the distribution transformer to its nominal ratio or possibly 11kV plus 2.5% tapping to compensate for the lower line voltage regulation and to reduce the voltage of supply to those consumers near to the transformer. Not withstanding the general case described, variation in the consumer voltage beyond the statutory limits may be experienced following a change to the system. Where permanent change is made to the network the voltage can be adjusted by use of the manual tap changing switch of the 11/0.415kV distribution transformers. Four tap positions are provided to give variations of ± 2.5% and ± 5% on the high voltage winding. 3. The 11kV primary bus bar at the 33/11kV substation will normally be by means of automatic tap changing equipment. maintained at 11.22 kV
APPENDIX – II
LINE VOLTAGE REGULATION LIMITS VO LT DROP CALCULATIONS 1. General
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1.1 The above vector diagram applies to a three phase system where ES and ER are the phase to neutral voltages sending and receiving respectively, I is the line current of a three phase load, R and X are the line resistance and reactance and Cosφ is the load power factor. The values for R (at the temperature corresponding to the maximum current conductor) and X, in ohms per mile are given in Tables A, B and C. The voltage drop is given by the equation ES  ER 1.2.1 For a medium voltage system with nominal voltage of 400 volts phase to phase:
ES = 400 = 230.94 volts 1.732
rating of the
= =
RI Cos φ + XI Sin φ I (Cos φ + X Sin φ ) ….... (1)
The line current for a balanced threephase load is obtained from the equation: KW =
I=
1.732 EI Cos φ Where E is the Phase to phase voltage (400 volts) 1000
KW ×1000 KW = Amps 1.732 E Cos φ 0.6928 Cos φ
Substituting for I in (1) :ES  ER =
KW (R Cos φ + X Sin φ) volts/mile ….... (2) 0.6928 Cos φ
For 1% volt drop ES  ER =
E S 230.94 = = 2.309 volts 100 100
Substituting for ES  ER in (2) :2.309 =
KW (R Cos φ + X Sin φ) 0.6928 Cos φ
Assuming a unit length of one mile of line
1.6 Cos φ KWMile = R Cos φ + X Sin φ for 1% volt drop Or,
2815 Cos φ KWYard = R Cos φ + X Sin φ for 1% volt drop
For medium voltage at a power factor of 0.95 the volt drop factor for 1% volt 2675 0.95R + 0.3122 X KWYARDS (Three phase)
drop is:
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And for a power factor of 0.85:2675 0.85R + 0.5268 X KWYARDS (Three phase)
1.2.2 Similarly for a high voltage system with nominal voltage of 11,000 volts phase power factor of 0.8 the volt drop factor for 1% volt drop is:968 0.8R + 0.6 X 1.2.3 Considering a medium voltage single phase system, of nominal voltage of 230 neutral, assuming phase and neutral conductors are identical, for 1% volt drop:ES – ER = 2.30 = = 2 (RI Cosφ + XI Sinφ ) 2I (R Cosφ + X Sinφ ) ...... (3) = KW 0.23 Cosφ volts phase to KWMILE (Three phase) to phase, and a
I=
KW × 1000 230 Cosφ
Substituting for I in (3) and assuming a unit route length of one mile : 2.3 = KW × 2 (R Cosφ + X Sinφ ) x 0.23 Cosφ = × 1 MILE
Or,
KWMILE
2.3 × 0.23 Cosφ 2 (R Cosφ + X Sinφ ) 0.529 Cosφ 2 (R Cosφ + X Sinφ ) 0.931 Cosφ 2 (R Cosφ + X Sinφ ) for 1% volt drop drop is :
=
Or,
KWYARD
=
For medium voltage at a power factor of 0.95 the volt drop factor for 1% volt 884 1.9 R + 0.6245X and for a power factor of 0.85 791 1.7 R + 1.0536X 1.3 KW – YARDS (Single phase) KW – YARDS (Single phase)
Single and threephase volt drop factors for various sizes of conductors and cables are listed in Tables D, E and F. The singlephase factors assume identical phase and neutral conductors. In using the tables the following power factors should be assumed :
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a) b) c) 1.4
11,000 volt loads 400 and 230 loads, predominantly All other 400 and 230 volt loads
: 0.80 lag : 0.95 lag (heating and lighting) : 0.85 lag
As shown in the examples that follow, calculations are made to determine the KWYard (KWMile) loadings of each circuit section between load tapping points. This value is divided by the appropriate factor to give the percentage volt drop at the end of the section.
2.
2.1
EXAMPLES
Examples 1 RABBIT 3 MILES BUSBAR 11.22kV 500 kVA 3ph
For the system shown determine the voltage at the high voltage terminals when is on full load. a) b) c) d) e) f) High voltage power factor (see Para 1.3) Load = KVA × 0.8 = 500 × 0.8 Line Loading = 400 × 3 miles From Table F the volt drop factor for Rabbit conductor at 11,000 volts is Volt drop = = = = 0.80 lag 400 kW 1,200 kWMile 790 = 1.52%
the transformer
1200 790
790 The voltage at the transformer H.V. (100 −1.52) × 11.22 terminals is 100
=
11.05kV
2.2
Example 2 transferred with a volt
For the above example what is the maximum through load that can be drop of 3%. a) Maximum line loading =
3 (%) × Volt Drop Factor = 3 × 790 = 2370 kWMile
kW Miles = Line Length
b)
Maximum line loading =
2370 = 790 kW 3
Or
=
790 = 987 kVA 0.8
2.3
Example 3
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50 kVA F A DOG 0.75 MILE BUSBAR 11.22kV 500 kVA 300 kVA B DOG 0.45 MILE C 0.95 MILE GNAT DOG D 0.65 MILE 0.55 MILE ANT E 750 kVA
For the system shown determine the percentage volt drop to the high voltage terminals of each transformer assuming each transformer at full rating with a power factor of 0.8 lag. All distances are in miles. a) Converting all loads to KW the loading diagram is:A 1280 kW 0.75 MILE 400 kW B 880 kW 0.45 MILE 240 kW E b) C 640kW D 0.65 MILE 600kW 0.55 MILE 600 F 40 40kW 0.95 MILE
By calculating the KWMiles for each section and dividing by the appropriate volt drop factor from the tables, the percentage volt drops are obtained for each section. Volt drop factors:Dog Ant Gnat 1180 810 470 (Table F) (Table F) (Table F) = 0.81%. + 0.81 +1.15 + 1. 50 + 1. 50 = 1.15% = 1. 5 0% = 1.91% = 1.58%
Volt drop at B = Volt drop at C = Volt drop at D = Volt drop at E = Volt drop at F =
1280 × 0.75 1180 880 x 0.45 1180 640 x 0.65 1180 600 x 0.55 810 40 x 0.95 470
2.4
Example 4 As example 3 but with an additional load of 1,000kVA for connection at point D. What line reinforcement over section A  D, in order that the maximum volt drop at E, does not exceed 2.5% ?
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a) b) c) d) e)
Volt drop over section D  E is
600 × 0.55 810
= 0.41% = 2.09% = 800 kW = 1772 kWMiles
Maximum permissible volt drop over section A  D will be 2.5  0.41 Additional load = 1000 kVA = 1000 × 0.8 Existing line loading section AD is (1280 × O.75) + (880 × O.45) + (640 × O.65) Additional line loading section AD in respect of the new 800kW load is 800 × (0.75 + 0.45 + 0.65) Miles Total new line loading section AD is 1772 + 1480
= 1480kW = 3252 kWMiles
f) g)
To restrict the volt drop over, section conductor with a volt drop factor not less than
3252 = 1556 will be required. 2.09
h) i) From Table F the conductor with the next larger volt drop factor, i.e. 1600 for 0.15 in2 copper, will be required. Section AD should be reconductor to 0.15 in2 copper (or aluminium equivalent) giving a volt drop at D of j)
3252 = 2.03%. 1600
New volt drop at E (maxm) in 2.03 + 0.41 = 2.44%
APPENDIX – III
EXAMPLES IN DETERMINING SERVICE REQUIREMENTS Example  1 A single phase overhead line service is required to supply a heating and lighting load of 3.5KW. The service length, including the down lead to the meter in conduit, is 45 feet. Using Table  Q a) Select next highest kilowatt load in column 1 (4kW) b) The corresponding figure in Column 2 is the MCB rating  30 amps. c) The corresponding figure in column 3 is the required meter rating – 10(40) amp. d) In column 6, corresponding to 4kW in column 1, select the next higher service length to 45 feet, i.e. 97 feet. Corresponding to this value read of the service size in column 4, i.e. 10 mm2 Duplex. The service requirements are:M.C.B. rating Meter rating Duplex service The actual service volt drop is :30 amps 10(40) amp 10 mm2
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Actual load (KW) Maximum load (KW = 3.5 45 × = 0.40% 4 97
×
Actual Service length (ft.) Maximum service length (ft)
Alternatively using Table  D a) b) 45 = 52.5 kW − Yd. 3 Using Table  D select the size of duplex and it volt drop factor corresponding to the next higher kilowatt rating, i.e. 10 mm2 duplex with a volt drop factor of 130 KWYds and a rating of 6 KW. Kilowatt  Yard loading = 3.5 × The load current corresponding to a load of, 3.5 KW at 0.95 power factor
c) is :
3.5 = 16.02 amps 0.23 × 0.95 The next highest standard M.C.B. rating is 30 amps The standard meter corresponding to this current is 1040 amps The duplex service size is 10 mm2 The service volt drop is kW − Yd loading 52.5 = = 0.40% volt drop factor 130
Example – 2 An existing consumer has a maximum demand of 3.5kW. An additional load of 3.5kW small cooker is to be connected. Details of the existing service are : 4 mm2 duplex Total length of service is 75 ft. 15 amps M.C.B. 10(40) amp. single phase meter. a) Total estimated maximum demand is 3.5 + 3.5 = 7kW. As this is only just within the limit of a single phase service (7.5KW) it should be confirmed with the consumer that no additional load will be added. b) Using Table  Q as in example 1, Corresponding to 7.5KW in Column 1:M.C.B. rating required is Meter rating required is Next higher service length is 84 feet Corresponding to a duplex size of Actual service volt drop is = for a

60 amp 1040 amp 16 mm2
c) d)
7 75 × = 0.83% 7.5 84 The following service alterations are required: Change M.C.B. to 60 ampere. Replace entire existing service with 16 mm2 duplex. No change to meter.
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Example 3 A residential consumer with an existing load of 13KW requires an additional 10KW for air conditioning. The existing service is 16 mm2 quadruplex of length 115 ft. with a 30 amp MCB and a 25 amp meter. a) Total new load is 13 + 10 = 23 KW corresponding column 7 is
b) Using Table  R the next highest load in column 1 is 25 KW with a MCCB rating of 60 amps and a meter rating of 50 amps. c) Corresponding to 25 KW in column 1 the next longer service length in 122 ft. in respect of a 16 mm2` underground cable in column 5. d) The complete service should therefore be changed to :60 amp M.C.C.B.  Three Phase 50 amp Meter  Three Phase· 16 mm2 underground cable.
Example 4 A small inqustria1 consumer requests s supply of 45 kVA at 400 volts and 0.85 power factor by underground cable from an overhead line pole. The motor with the highest starting current is 7.5 KW at 0.8 power factor and 0.9 efficiency. Motor starting will be infrequent, and only one motor will be started, at a time. The length of service cable from the nearest pole is 25 yards and to nearest substation 100 yards. A ducted road crossing is involved. a)
7.5 = 11.17 HP which is 0.746 × 0.9 equivalent to 15.04 amps at 0.8 power factor or (0.8 × 15.04) + j (0.6 × 15.04) = 12.032 + j 9.024 amp
Rating of motor is
b) With reference to section 5.5 the motor cannot be supplied from the overhead line but may be supplied direct from the substation provided the distribution transformer is of 100 kVA or higher rating. c) Total load = = = 45 kVA or 64.95 amp at 0.85 power factor (64.95 × 0.85) + j (64.95 × 0.5268) 55.208 + j 34.216 (c)  (a) = (55.208 + j 34.216) – (12.032 + j 9.024) = 43.176 + j 25.192 amps factor of 0.3
d)
Load current less motor =
e) lag,
Assuming a starting current of five times full load current at a power starting current = 15.04 × 5 = 75.2 amp at 0.3 power factor = (75.2 × 0.3) + j (75.2 × 0.9539) = 22.56 + j 71.733 = (d) + (e) (43.176 + j 25.192) + (22.56 + j 71.733) 65.736 + j 96.925 117.11 amp at 0.56 power factor.
f)
Total current at motor start = = =
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g) The cable selected should have a current rating of 117 amps under worst conditions of installation (air, ground or duct). From Table  B suitable cables are 4 × 95 mm2 aluminium and 4 × 50 mm2 copper. h) i) j) Total running load is 45 kVA at 0.85 power factor = 38.25 KW KW × cable length = 38.25 × 100 = 3825 KWYard. From TableE, volt drop factors are:4 × 95 mm2 aluminium cable 4 × 50 mm2 copper cable And the service volt drop will be:aluminium cable Copper cable 4030 KWYard 3400 KWYard
3825 = 0.95% 4030 3825 = 1.13% 3400
In this case, as the connection is made direct from the distribution transformer terminals, the service volt drop limit of 1% does not apply, but the voltage at the consumer’s terminals must be kept within 400/230 ± 5% at all times.
The service involving the least capital expenditure may therefore be installed. (Note: For cables in ducts, the ducted rating should be adopted (a) where any duct length exceeds 10 meters, or (b) the total ducted length, considering only individual lengths in excess of 2 meters, is greater than 50% of the total route. It should be appreciated that where the induct rating is neglected, the heat conduction along a cable is negligible at distance of approximately 2 meters from the point under consideration. A cable in a duct of say 4 meters or more in length may have its life reduced due to operation at excessive temperatures. This is significant with PVC insulation.
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APPENDIX – IV
FAULT CALCULATIONS: 1. General Then consideration new or projected extensions to supply systems, it is usually necessary to consider the prospective symmetrical three phase fault values at particular points in the system. This appendix shows how symmetrical fault levels may be estimated. In these approximate methods often the reactance only are taken into account. Discounting the resistances results in the calculated fault level being higher then the actual value. Resistances should be taken into account when matching to the rating of equipment and when calculating the minimum fault level. 2. Method of Calculation The usual methods of approach to this problem are baaed on :a) b) Percentage values Ohmic values SYMMETRICAL THREE PHASES
Both methods give the same result. Choice of method normally depends upon the form in which the circuit data is given. 3. Formula
Definitions Rating MVA The rating of the equipment in MVA. Base MVA The normal MVA on the basis of which calculations are made.
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Fault current
The abnormal magnitude of current created due to fault on the system expressed in absolute MVA or in per unit. Fault MVA The abnormal apparent power created due to fault expressed in absolute MVA or in per unit. E The phasetophase voltage expressed in kilovolt. EB The normal voltage on the basis of which calculations are made. ZP The impedance expressed us a percentage at s rated MVA. Z The impedance expressed in ohms at a voltage. Z1 The positive sequence impedance expressed in ohm at a stated voltage. Z2 The negative sequence expressed in ohm at a stated voltage. Z0 The zero sequence impedance expressed in ohm at a stated voltage.
stated
Formula for percentage method for 3 phase symmetrical Fault MVA =
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
...
(1)
ZP
=
100 × (Rated MVA) Fault MVA Base MVA × (Zp at rated MVA) Rated MVA
...
(2)
ZP = at Base MVA =
...
(3)
Formula for Ohmic Method 2 Fault value in MVA= E = E ×E Z Z Z =
E2 Fault
...
(4)
M A V
value
...
(5)
Z at Base KV
=
(Z at rated voltage) 2 2 × EB (Rated voltage)
...
(6)
Relation between percentage and ohmic value ZP =
100 × (Rated MVA) MVA Fault
100 × (Rated MVA) E ×E = Z
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=
100 × (Rated MVA) × Z E2
×E2 P 1 0 × R te 0 a d MA V Z
...
(7)
Z
=
...
(8)
4.
4.1
Application of Formulae
Percentage Reactance Method Normally the reactance of transformers, generators etc. is expressed as a percentage reactance at the nominal voltampere rating of the equipment. Before any calculations can be made the various percentages reactance must all be converted to the same MVA base using formula (3). The percentage source reactance is obtained by using formula (2). The reactance of overhead lines and cables is usually stated in ohms and these must be converted to percentage values at the selected MVA base by using formula (7). When all reactance have been converted to percentage values at a common MVA base formula (9) and (10) must be applied to determine the total reactance from the supply point to the point at which the fault value is required. The reactance of the supply unit (source reactance) must be included. Formula (1) is now applied to determine the fault value in MVA.
4.2
Ohmic Reactance Method All the reactance must be expressed in ohms by being converted at the selected voltage by using formula (8). Reactance’s expressed in ohms at different voltages must all be converted to the equivalent reactances at the selected voltage by using formula (6). The total reactance in now obtained by using formulae (9) and (10) and the fault value in MVA determined by applying formula (4).
5.
5.1
Resistance and Reactance
Ohmic Values of Resistance and Reactance Ohmic values of resistance and reactance are listed 1n Tables A, B and C.
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5.2
Percentage Values of Resistance and Reactance to a 10 MVA Base Percentage values of resistance and reactance to a 10 MVA Base are listed in Tables  G and H. Table  I lists typical reactance and percentage reactance to a 10 MVA base for transformers. Wherever possible the manufacturer’s value should be used.
5.3
Calculation of Percentage Resistance and Reactance to a 10 MVA Base For calculations the following formulae have been used:
5.3.1
Resistance  Copper R (at t˚ C) = R (at 20°C) {1 + α (t  20)} Where, α = 0.00393 per ˚C at 20˚C for cables, and 0.00381 per ˚C at 20˚C for overhead lines. : R (at 70°C) = 1.1965R (at 20°C) : R (at 75°C) = 1.20955R (at 20°C) : R (at 80°C) = 1.2358R (at 20°C)
For cables (P.I.L and P.V.C) Overhead lines Cables (EPR & XLPE) 5.3.2 Resistance  Aluminium
R (at t˚ C) = R (at 20°C) {1 + α (t  20)} Where, α = 0.00403 per ˚C at 20˚C : R (at 75°C) = 1.22165R (at 20°C) : R (at 80°C) = 1.2418R (at 20°C) : R (at 70°C) = 1.2015R (at 20°C)
For Overhead lines Cables (EPR & XLPE) Cables (PIL & PVC) 5.3.3
Equivalent Conductor Spacing of Overhead Lines (G.M.D.)
The equivalent conductor spacing is defined as the cube root of the product of the conductor spacing Red to Yellow, Yellow to Blue, and Blue to Red. For 400 volt are arranged lines the conductor spacing is equal at 300mm and they are arrange vertically or horizontally. G.M.D. = (300 × 300 × 600)
1 3
= 378mm Or 1.24 feet
For 11,000 volt lines the conductor spacing is equilateral at 930 mm spacing. G.M.D. = (930 × 930 × 930)
1 3
= 930 mm Or 3.05 feet
5.3.4
Resistance and Reactance
The formulae of 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 have been applied resistance values published by the manufacturers, or by the Electrical Research Association, to obtain the values at maximum working temperature.
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The reactance of cables has been obtained from manufacturer's publications. The reactance of overhead lines has been obtained from the Electrical Research Association publications. 5.3.5 Percentage Resistance and Reactance to a 10 MVA Base At 400 volt using formula (7) : ZP =
100 × (Rated MVA) 100 ×10 × Z × Z = = 6.250 Z 2 0.4 × 0.4 E
At 11,000 volt using formula (7) : ZP =
100 × (Rated MVA) 100 ×10 × Z × Z = = 8.264 Z 2 11 ×11 E
Transformers using formula (3) : ZP =
10 × (Zp of transformer) Base MVA × (Zp at rated MVA) = Transformer rating in MVA Rated MVA
6.
Calculation of Fault Values
The following examples illustrate the use of the above formula calculating prospective symmetrical three phase fault values. 6.1 Example 1 11kV 1.5 mile 25 MVA 15% P.S. 3 × 185 mm2 Al. cable S/S 11kV
For the system shown determine the 11kV fault values (F.V.) at the power station (PS) and substation (S/S) bus bars. FORMULA (F) OR TABLE (T) (a) Fault Value at P.S. =
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
= (b)
100 × 25 = 166.67 MVA 15
F1
Using Ohmic Reactance Method Reactance of F.V. at P.S. at 11kV
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E2 Fau lt
Z = =
M A V
value
F5
11 ×11 166.67 = 0.726 ohms
Reactance of 185 mm2 AL. 11kV cable is 0.147 ohms per mile. Reactance of cable from P.S to S/S = 1.5 × 0.147 = 0.2205 ohm. Total reactance generator to S/S = (0.726 + 0.2205) = 0.9465 ohms 11 ×11 11kV F.V. at S/S = E ×E = = 127.84 MVA 0.9465 Z Or alternatively (c) Using Percentage Reactance Method % Reactance of the generator to a 10 MVA base: Base MVA × (Zp at rated MVA) ZP = Rated MVA =
100 ×15 25
TC
F4
F3
= 6% % reactance of 185 mm2 AL 11kV cable to a 10 MVA base = 1.215% per mile, % reactance of cable from P.S to S/S = 1.5 × 1.215 = 1.8225% Total % reactance generator to S/S = (6% + 1.8225%) = 7.8225% 11kV F.V. at S/S =
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
TH
F1
=
100 ×10 7.8225
= 127.84 MVA (d) Taking Circuit Resistances into Consideration Reactance of F.V. at P.S. at 11kV Z= =
×E2 P 1 0 × R te 0 a d MA V Z
F8
15 × (11 ×11) 100 × 25 = 0.726 ohms = 0 + j 0. 726
Impedance of 11kV Cables = 1.5 × (0.326 + j0.147) = 0.489 + j0.2205
TC
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Total Impedance = (0.489 + j0.9465) = 1.0654 ohms. 11 ×11 11kV F.V. at Substation = E ×E = = 113.57 MVA 1.0654 Z This is less than the value (127.84) obtained above.
F4
6.2 Example 2 DOG 1.5 11kV 250 MVA DOG A 3.2 D D. The system 1.3 95mm2 AL Cable B RABBIT 0.5 C
For the 11kV system shown determine the fault values at substations B, C and is operated as a closed ring. All distances are given in miles. Solution: The percentage source reactance at A to a 10 MVA base is 100 × (Rated MVA) ZP = Fault MVA = = 4% The circuit % reactances to a 10 MVA base are :Line A to B Line B to C Line C to D Line D to A F. V. at Substation B % reactance from A to B direct = 7.029 % reactance from A to B via D and C = (14.995 + 1.730 + 2.492) = 19.217 These two reactance are in parallel, hence % reactance A to B is =
7.029 ×19.217 = 5.147 7.029 + 19.217 100 ×10 250
...
F2
= = = =
4.686 × 4.983 × 1.331 × 4.686 ×
1.5 0.5 1.3 3.2
= = = =
7.029 2.429 1.730 14.995
T–G TG TH TG
Total % reactance to B is 5.147 plus the % source reactance 4% = 5.147 + 4.0
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= 9.147 F.V. at B =
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
F1
100 ×10 9.147 = MVA
=
F. V. at Substation C % reactance from A to C through B = (7.029 + 2.492) = 9.521 % reactance from A to C through D = (14.995 + 1.730) = 16.725 Hence % reactance A to C is 9.521 and 16.725 is parallel, i.e. =
9.521 ×16.725 = 9.521 + 16.725
Total % reactance to C is 6.067 plus the % source reactance 4% = 6.067 + 4.0 = 10.067 F.V. at C =
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
F1
100 ×10 10.067 = MVA
=
F. V. at Substation D % reactance from A to D through B and C = (7.029 + 2.492 + 1. 730) = 11.251 % reactance from A to D direct = 14.995 Hence % reactance A to D is 11.251 and 14.995 in parallel, i.e. =
11.251 ×14.995 = 11.251 + 14.995
Total % reactance to D is 6.428 plus the % source reactance 4% = 6.428 + 4.0 = 10.428 F.V. at D =
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
F1
=
100 ×10 10.428
= MVA 6.3 Example 3 33kV 11kV 15MVA WASP 1.5 400V 12.5% 15 MVA 12.5% 185 Al Cable ANT 2.75 C D 200 kVA 4.5%
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B A For the system shown determines the 11kV fault values at A, B and C, and the 400 volt fault value at D. Distance are in miles. Solution: % source reactance to a 10 MVA base is 100 × (Rated MVA) ZP = Fault MVA 100 ×10 = 1000 = 1% % reactance of each transformer (33/11 kV) to a 10 MVA base is Base MVA × (Zp at rated MVA) ZP = Rated MVA 10 ×12.5 = 15 = % reactance of the two transformers in parallel 8.33 × 8.33 = = 8.33 + 8.33 Total % reactance to A is (1.0 + 4.165) = 5.165 F.V. at A is
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
...
F2
F3
F–1
100 ×10 5.165 = MVA
=
% circuit reactances to a 10 MVA base are : Line A to B = 4.338 × 1.5 Cable A to B = 1.215 × 1.5 % reactance of line and cable in parallel =
6.582 ×1.823 = 6.582 + 1.823
= =
6.582 1.823
Total % reactance A to B is 1.427 plus total % reactance to A is 5.17 = (1.427 + 5.17) = F.V. at B is
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
F–1
100 ×10 6.597 = MVA
=
% circuit reactance for line B to C is (4.686 × 2.75) = 12.886 Total % reactance to C is 12.886 plus total % reactance to B is 6.597 = (12.886 + 6.597) = F.V. at C is
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
T–G
F–1
100 ×10 19.483 = MVA
=
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% reactance of 200 kVA transformer to a 10 MVA base is Base MVA × (Zp at rated MVA) ZP = Rated MVA =
10 × 4.5 0.2
F – 3 or T – I
=% Total % reactance to D is 225 plus total % reactance to C is 19.483 = (225 + 19.483) = F.V. at D is
100 × (Rated MVA) Zp
F–1
=
100 ×10 244.483
= MVA
Appendix – V
Fault Calculation: 1. General
Earth Fault
(To be circulated Later)
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APPENDIX – VI DETERMINATION OF MOTOR STARTING CURRENT 1. General The starting Current taken by an electric motor depends upon the size and type of motor and the method of starting. When the starting Current is drawn from the distribution system there is a dip in voltage which must be kept within certain limits in order to avoid annoyance to consumers. Whether or not there is annoyance depends on the magnitude of the voltage variation and the frequency of its occurrence. The method recommended to avoid annoyance is to specify levels of voltage dip at the point of common coupling with other consumers' loads that must not be exceeded when the motor under consideration is started. Two levels voltage dip are considered according to the frequency of the motor starts. These are:Infrequent motor starting Frequent motor starting 2. System Data. Table  J lists the equivalent impedance between the supply source and the lower voltage bus bars of a primacy substation. Referring to AppendixIV and substituting formula 5 in formula 6 the equivalent impedance is determined as XO =
E2 MA V

3% phase to neutral 1% phase to neutral
, where E = 0.4kV
Tables  K and L list the equivalent impedance per phase in a 400 volt system corresponding to one mile of 11,000 volt overhead line or cable. These values have been determined using formula 6 of Appendix IV and the ohmic resistance and reactance values of Tables  A and C. Table  M lists the equivalent impedance per phase in a 400 volt system corresponding to a distribution transformer of stated rating. The values have been determined using formula 8 of Appendix IV and the manufacturers' values of percentage resistance and percentage reactance. The values listed in Table  M in respect of the single phase transformers and the 25, 75, 315 and 750 kVA transformers are typical only as no manufacturer’s values were available. 3. Examples The following examples illustrate the use of Tables  J, K, L and M in determining the magnitude of motor starting currents.
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Having determined the maximum permissible motor starting current, it can be ascertained from the manufacturer’s data whether a particular motor can be accepted, and whether it is necessary to stipulate a particular method of starting to retain the starting current within the desired limit. 3.1 Example 1  Three Phase 400 Volt Motor a) Fault level at primary 11kV bus bars (33/11 kV substation) 100 MVA
b) From the primary substation to the distribution substation there are 2 miles of 185 mm2 EPR Al. cable, 1.5 miles of 100 mm2 Al and one mile of 50 mm2 Al of 11,000 volt lines/cables. c) The distribution substation is a 50 kVA, 11/0.4 kV transformer
d) From the distribution transformer to the point of common coupling (i.e. Point of attachment of the consumer's service) there is 300 yards of 50 mm2 Al 400 volt overhead line. Table J L K K M A Section of System Source to 11 kV bus bars at the primary substation 185 mm2 11kV cable 100 mm2 11kV line 50 mm2 11kV line 50 KVA transformer 50 mm2 400 volt line (300 yds) TOTALS => 0 0.000862 0.001058 0.001416 0.0755 0.182557 0.261393 ≈ 0.2614 Equivalent Resistance Ohms Equivalent Resistance Ohms 0.00160 0.000388 0.001053 0.000750 0.1165 0.08131 0.201601 ≈ 0.2016
Assuming a motor starting current power factor of 0.3 lag the volt drop per ampere of starting current will be R Cosφ + X Sinφ = (0.2614 × 0.3) + (0.2016 × 0.9539) = volt per ampere of starting current Assuming the direct online starting current to be five times the full load current:Case 1  Frequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 1% of 230 volt = 2.3 volt 2.3 Maximum starting current is = ≈ 8.496 amp 0.2707 Assuming a motor efficiency of 80% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum rating of a direct online motor is: Starting Current × 3 × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 8.496 = × 1.732 × 0.4 × 0.8 × 0.8 kW 5 = kW 0.753 Or, = ≈ 1.01 H.P. 0.746
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Case 2  Infrequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 3% of 230 volt = 6.9 volt 6.9 Maximum starting current is = ≈ 25.489 amp 0.2707 Assuming a motor efficiency of 80% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum rating of a direct online motor is: Starting Current × 3 × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 25.489 = × 1.732 × 0.4 × 0.8 × 0.8 kW 5 = kW 2.26 Or, = ≈ 3.03 H.P. 0.746 3.2 Example 2  Three Phase 400 volt Motor a) Fault level at primary 11 kV busbars  75 MVA b) From the primary substation to the distribution substation there are 3 miles of 100 mm2 and one mile of 50 mm2 Al overhead lines. c) At the distribution substation a 50 kVA transformer d) From the distribution transformer to the point of common coupling there is 400 yards of 50 mm2 Al 400 volt overhead line. Table J K K M A Section of System Source to 11 kV busbars at the primary substation 100 mm2 11kV line (3 miles) 50 mm2 11kV line (1 miles) 50 KVA transformer 50 mm2 400 volt line (400 yds) TOTALS => 0 0.002115 0.001416 0.0755 0.243409 0.32244 ≈ 0.3224 Equivalent Resistance Ohms Equivalent Resistance Ohms 0.00320 0.002106 0.00075 0.1165 0.108409 0.230965 ≈ 0.2310 of 0.3 lag,
Assuming a starting current of five times full load current at a power factor The volt drop per ampere of starting current is R Cosφ + X Sinφ = (0.3224 × 0.3) + (0.2310 × 0.9539) = volt Case 1  Frequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 1% of 230 volt = 2.3 volt 2.3 Maximum starting current is = amp 0.317
Assuming a motor efficiency of 80% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum rating of direct online motor is: Starting Current × 3 × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5
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7.255 × 1.732 × 0.4 × 0.8 × 0.8 kW 5 = kW 0.643 Or, = ≈ 0.86 H.P. 0.746
=
Case 2  Infrequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 3% of 230 volt = 6.9 volt 6.9 Maximum starting current is = ≈ 21.766 amp 0.317 Assuming a motor efficiency of 80% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum rating of a direct online motor is: Starting Current × 3 × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 21.766 = × 1.732 × 0.4 × 0.8 × 0.8 kW 5 = kW 1.93 Or, = ≈ 2.59 H.P. 0.746 3.3 Example 3: Single Phase 230 Volt Motor (from three phase supply) (a) Fault level at primary 11kV basbars (33/11kV substation) 100 MVA. (b) From the primary substation to the distribution substation there are 3 miles of 100 mm2 and one mile of 50 mm2 Al overhead line. (c) At the distribution substation a 50 kVA three phase transformer. (d) From the distribution transformer to the point of common coupling there is 400 yards of 2 50 mm Al. distribution line. In this example it is necessary to use voltage factor to convert the equivalent impedance per phase in a 400 volt system to equivalent impedance per phase in a 230 volt system. The voltage factor is
230 = 400
BASIC EQUIV. REACTANCE Ohms 0.00160 0.002106 0.002106 0.00075 0.00075 0.1165 0.1165 EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE Ohms EQUIVALENT REACTANCE Ohms 0.000528 0.00071 0.00071 0.000467 0.000467 0.024915 0.024915 0.24341 0.24341 0.539004 ≈ 0.5390 0.000695 0.000695 0.000248 0.000248 0.038445 0.038445 0.10841 0.10841 0.296124 ≈ 0.2961
2
The return path of the single phase load current must also be taken into account.
SECTION OF SYSTEM Source to 11 kV Busbar Table  J 11kV O/H Line Table – K TRANSFORMER Table – M 230 Volt Line Table  A BASIC EQUIV. RESISTANCE Ohms 0 0.002115 0.002115 0.001416 0.001416 0.0755 0.0755 VOLTAGE FACTOR × 0.33 × × × × × × 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33
TOTAL
Assuming a starting current of 5 times full load current at a power factor of 0.3 The volt drop per ampere of starting current is
lag,
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R Cosφ + X Sinφ = (0.5390 × 0.3) + (0.2961 × 0.9539) = volt Case 1  Frequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 1% of 230 volt = 2.3 volt 2.3 Maximum starting current is = amp 0.444 Assuming a motor efficiency of 75% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum size of direct online motor is: Starting Current × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 5.1802 = × 0.23 × 0.75 × 0.8 kW 5 = kW 0.143 Or, = ≈ 0.192 H.P. 0.746 Case 2  Infrequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 3% of 230 volt = 6.9 volt 6.9 Maximum starting current is = amp 0.444 Assuming a motor efficiency of 75% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum size of direct online motor is: Starting Current × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 15.5405 = × 0.23 × 0.75 × 0.8 kW 5 = ≈ 0.429 kW 0.429 Or, = ≈ 0.575 H.P. 0.746 3.4 Example 4: Single phase motor (from Single Phase transformer) As example 3 but with a 15 kVA single phase distribution transformer, The equivalent resistances and reactance remain the example 3 except for the transformer. From Table – M the transformer resistance is 0.11 and the reactance is 0.13. Note that these values are not multiplied by two in this case. Total equivalent resistance is now 0.5992 Total equivalent reactance is now 0.3492 The volt drop per ampere of starting current is R Cosφ + X Sinφ = (0.5992 × 0.3) + (0.3492 × 0.9539) = ≈ 0.513 volt Case 1  Frequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 1% of 230 volt = 2.3 volt
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Maximum starting current is
2.3 = amp 0.513
Assuming a motor efficiency of 75% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum size of direct online motor is: Starting Current × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 4.483 = × 0.23 × 0.75 × 0.8 kW 5 = kW 0.124 Or, = ≈ 0.166 H.P. 0.746 Case 2  Infrequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 3% of 230 volt = 6.9 volt 6.9 Maximum starting current is = amp 0.513 Assuming a motor efficiency of 75% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum size of direct online motor is: Starting Current × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 13.4503 = × 0.23 × 0.75 × 0.8 kW 5 = ≈ 0.371 kW 0.3712 Or, = ≈ 0.498 H.P. 0.746 3.5 Example 5: Three Phase 400 volt Motor direct from transformer terminals a) Fault level at primary 11kV busbars  100 MVA miles of 100
b) From the primary substation to the distribution transformer there are 3 mm2 and one mile of 50 mm2 Al overhead line. c)
TABLE J K K M
At the distribution substation there is a 50 kVA 3Phase transformer.
SECTION OF SYSTEM Source to 11 kV Busbars 100 mm2 Al. 11kV line (3 miles) 50 mm2 Al. 11kV line (1 mile) 50 KVA Transformer TOTAL EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE Ohms 0 0.002115 0.001416 0.0755 0.079031 ≈ 0.0790 EQUIVALENT REACTANCE Ohms 0.0016 0.002106 0.00075 0.1165 0.120956 ≈ 0.1210
Assuming a starting current of 5 times full load current at a power factor of 0.3 The volt drop per ampere of starting current is R Cosφ + X Sinφ = (0.079 × 0.3) + (0.121 × 0.9539) = volt Case 1  Frequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 1% of 230 volt = 2.3 volt
lag,
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Maximum starting current is
2.3 = ≈ 16.547 amp 0.139
Assuming a motor efficiency of 80% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum size of direct online motor is: Starting Current × 3 × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 16.547 = × 1.732 × 0.4 × 0.8 × 0.8 kW 5 = kW 1.467 Or, = ≈ 1.97 H.P. 0.746 Case 2  Infrequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 3% of 230 volt = 6.9 volt 6.9 Maximum starting current is = ≈ 49.64 amp 0.139 Assuming a motor efficiency of 87% and power factor of 0.87 lag, the maximum rating of a direct online motor is: Starting Current × 3 × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 49.64 = × 1.732 × 0.4 × 0.87 × 0.87 kW 5 = kW 5.206 Or, = ≈ 6.98 H.P. 0.746 3.6 Example 6: Single Phase 230 volt Motor direct from 3phase transformer terminals a) Fault level at primary 11kV busbars  100 MVA. miles of 100
b) From the primary substation to the distribution substation there are 3 mm2 and one mile of 50 mm2 Al overhead 11kV line. c) At the distribution substation there is a 25 kVA, 3Phase transformer.
SECTION OF SYSTEM Source to 11 kV Busbar Table  J 11kV O/H Line Table – K TRANSFORMER Table – M
BASIC EQUIV. RESISTANCE Ohms 0 0.002115 0.002115 0.001416 0.001416 0.17 0.17 TOTAL
BASIC EQUIV. REACTANCE Ohms 0.00160 0.002106 0.002106 0.00075 0.00075 0.21 0.21
VOLTAGE FACTOR × 0.33 × × × × × × 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33
EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE Ohms 0 0.00071 0.00071 0.000467 0.000467 0.0561 0.0561 0.114554 ≈ 0.1146
EQUIVALENT REACTANCE Ohms 0.000528 0.000695 0.000695 0.000248 0.000248 0.0693 0.0693 0.141014 ≈ 0.1410
Assuming a starting current of 5 times full load current at a power factor of 0.3 The volt drop per ampere of starting current is R Cosφ + X Sinφ = (0.1146 × 0.3) + (0.1410 × 0.9539)
lag,
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= volt Case 1  Frequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 1% of 230 volt = 2.3 volt 2.3 Maximum starting current is = ≈ 13.62 amp 0.1689 Assuming a motor efficiency of 75% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum size of direct online motor is: Starting Current × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 13.62 = × 0.23 × 0.75 × 0.8 kW 5 = kW 0.38 Or, = ≈ 0.50 H.P. 0.746 Case 2  Infrequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 3% of 230 volt = 6.9 volt 6.9 Maximum starting current is = ≈ 40.853 amp 0.1689 Assuming a motor efficiency of 75% and power factor of 0.8 lag, the maximum size of direct online motor is: Starting Current × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 40.853 = × 0.23 × 0.75 × 0.8 kW 5 = ≈ 1.13 kW 1.13 Or, = ≈ 1.51 H.P. 0.746 Example 7: High Voltage Consumer (11000 volts) 3Phase Motor a) b) Fault level at primary 11kV busbars (at 33/11kV substation) is 100 MVA From the primary substation to the point of common coupling on the 11000 volts distribution system there are 800 yards of 185 mm2 Aluminium cable and 2400 yards of WAPS three phase line. EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE OHMS 0 0.000196 0.000961 0.001157 EQUIVALENT REACTANCE OHMS 0.001600 0.000088 0.000957 0.002645
3.7
TABLE J L K
SECTION OF SYSTEM Source to 11 kV Bus bars at the primary substation 185 mm2 11kV cable (800 yards) 100 mm2 11kV line (2400 yards) TOTAL
Assuming a motor starting current power factor of 0.3 lag, The volt drop per ampere of starting current will be: R Cosφ + X Sinφ = (0.001157 × 0.3) + (0.002645 × 0.9539) = volt per ampere of starting current
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Assuming the directonline starting current to be 5 times the full load current Case 1  Frequent Start Permissible voltage dip is 1% of 6350 volt = 0.0635 kV 0.0635 Maximum starting current is = ≈ 22.13 amp (at 11kV) 0.00287 Assuming a motor efficiency of 90% and power factor of 0.9 lag, the maximum rating of a direct online motor is: Starting Current × 3 × Volts × Efficiency × Power Factor (kW) 5 22.13 = × 1.732 × 11 × 0.9 × 0.9 kW 5 = kW 68.303 Or, = ≈ 91.56 H.P. 0.746
APPENDIX VII
GENERAL NOTES ON SELECTION AND SETTING PROTECTION DEVICES
1.
INTRODUCTION
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The notes in this Appendix are intended to provide general guide to the selection and setting of protection devices in order to provide discriminate operation under fault conditions. The notes are not intended to provide a definitive guide, for which reference should be made to technical guides and text published by manufacturers. 2. 2.1 General PROTECTION DEVICE:
There are two types of device common in distribution networks. Firstly the fuse, which is breaks to interrupt the current. Secondly the circuit breaker which is controlled by an external device, e.g. a relay designed to automatically open the circuit breaker if the current exceeds a present value (both devices can provide protection against overload and faults). 2.2 Fuses
Fuses are available in a wide range of voltages, ratings and operating characteristics. Depending upon the duty, i.e., speed of operation, prospective peak current etc. selection should be made in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. Within the distribution networks 11KV fuses are used to protect 11/0.4 KV transformers, for which rating are shown in Section 6 of the Guide. Operating characteristics for these fuses are shown in Figs.1, 2 and 3, which also show the characteristics for some 400 V MCCB’S.
2.3
Molded Case Circuit Breakers (400V)
MCCB's are used in the networks to control 400V supplies out of 11/0.4 KV transformers. These have two control systems, a thermal element to operate during prolonged overloads and an instantaneous element to operate during a fault. The elements are sometimes adjustable. Application Consideration: Rating must be compatible with expected load. Interrupting capacity should be commensurate with duty to be concountered. For 200 KVA transformers no less than 14 KA interrupting rating should be selected to be on safe side. Molded case circuit breakers may be erratic from continued exposure to current beyond its rating. High ambient, particularly in enclosure would derate it. Sources of heat are loose terminal connections, poor contact, undersized wires, corroded terminals and eroded contacts. A molded case circuit breaker should not be loaded beyond 80% of its continuous rating when applied in a panel board where such load is to continue for 3 hours or more. Breakers which are calibrated at 25°C should be further derated by about 20% when applied at shed temperature of about 40°C. A derating @ 20% is expected with MCCB’s and accordingly, application should be planned not be exceed 80% rating for continuous duty.
2.4
Oil Circuit Breakers (11000V)
OCB’s are usually controlled through on Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) relay or in order switchgear through a Time Lag Fuse. Operating characteristics for the fuses is given in Fig.6.
2.5
IDMT (Inverse Definite Minimum Time) Relays
The operating characteristic for a Standard 3 second IDMT relays shown is in Fig 7. The following method can be used to locate the characteristic on a Figure. First plot the operating curve onto a page of log/log graph paper, using points determined from the manufacturers data (3 inch decade log/log scale is used through the Figures in the Guide).
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Extend the operating curve to a practical limit, as shown in Fig.7. Stick the template to a piece of cardboard or preferably plastic and cut this out to provide a working template. By definition, the Standard relay operates in 3 seconds at 10 times setting. The setting is calculated by multiplying the primary turns of the CT supplying the relay by the percent current plug on the relay, which is generally arranged in an over current relay in seven equal steps from 50% to 200%. The relay incorporates also a time multiplier graded from 10% to 100%. At 10× setting the multiplier can shorten the operating time from 3 second (100% multiplier) to 0.3 seconds (10% multiplier). Fig.8 shows an example of the IDMT over current relay setting envelope, obtained when the relay is supplied from a 100A primary turns CT (the CT secondary turns must be equal to the relay rated current, normally 5A). The Figure also shows the simple calculations required to enable the relay curve to be correctly marked onto the Figure, with respect to time and current scales. When using vertical and horizontal units shown in the Figure, it can be seen that changing the relay plug on the primary turns on the CT, causes the relay template to move horizontally across the page. Changing the time multiplier causes the relay template to move vertically. This method of graphical illustration will be used in subsequent examples to estimate settings for IDMT relays. (Note, depending upon the manufacturer, the plugs may be marked in percentage values or alternatively in Amperes, i.e. 0.25A to 10A. The time multiplier may be marked in perunit values from 1.0 to 0.l). Due to scalar markings it is usually necessary to set a time multiplier to a value rounded off to the nearest 5%. 3. 3.1 General Discrimination is the ability of the protection devices to operate in a timed sequence, such that the device nearest to the fault is first to operate and the devices towards the source operate progressively slower until the device at the source is last to operate. Experience shows that devices are having an extreme inverse operating curve, e.g. a fuse which will have an operating curve tending to be a vertical line in the Figures, should be located at the load end of a feeder. IDMT relays should be used towards the source end. If this pattern is not maintained device operating times are unlikely to discriminate. DISCRIMINATION
3.2
Fuse Fault current discrimination times between fuses will depend upon make and type as well as current rating. It is important to note that if a marker's range incorporates fuses rated from 10 A to 100A in 10A steps, this dies not imply a 40A fuse will discriminate under fault conditions with a 50A fuse. In practice it could require 80A fuse or even higher rating to discriminate with the 40A fuse. Fuse selection should be made in accordance with the maker’s recommendations.
3.3
Consumer’s Devices At 400V, the discrimination between consumer's fuse of MCB and the MCCB at the 11/0.4 KV transformer, is unlikely to create any practical problems, which can be checked as shown in the later examples.
3.4
400V MCCB's and 11 kV Fuses
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Discrimination between 400V MCCB's and 11KV fuses on the 11/0.4KV substation is determined largely by experience. The recommendations in this Guide will provide satisfactory operation (Table S) and Fig. 1a, 2a, 3a. 3.5 11 KV Fuses and IDMT Relays Discrimination can be varied according to the fault current value at relatively high current, say more then 20 times the fuse rated current. The IDMT relay should operate in not less then 0.15 seconds. At lower fault current discrimination for most practical cases will be obtained by setting the relay operating characteristic close to, but not touching or cutting the fuse character1etic. 3.6 IDMT Relays Discrimination between relays will vary according to the age and type of switchgear and relay. In Bangladesh where there is variety in both type and age, a time interval of 0.5 seconds at the maximum fault current is recommended. This interval will allow for CT and relay error, relay overshoot and breaker opening time. 4. 4.1 General The object in the examples which follow will be to set devices to levels which provide the minimum discrimination intervals as given in the previous Section 3. Establishing longer intervals serves no practical purpose and enforces a slower fault clearance action throughout the networks. Fault currents in the examples have been chosen for illustration purposes. In practical cases these need to be calculated. 4.2 Example No. I Calculate the setting for the 11kV IDMTL over current relay for the circuit shown in Fig. 9. Assume the fault current is 8000A maximum and the minimum current is unspecified. As the first step, mark scales on the current and time axes. Now examine the loadend protection and select the fuse with the longest operating time. In this example the three fuses are of the same type and rating. Draw the fuse operating curve onto the Figure. Calculate the circuit maximum load at 3 × 1000 kVA or 158A at 11kV. Plugging the relay to 75% of 200A gives 150A, which is marginally too low for the load current. The minimum relay plug must be 100%, 200A. Since the relay is to discriminate with a fuse, assume the time multiplier (TMS) at 0.1 will be satisfactory. Place template on the page such that the 10 × setting line corresponds with 200A × 10 = 2000A. Move the template vertically until the time marker at 10 × setting on the template is at 0.3 seconds. This curve is shown dotted in the Figure. Inspect the relationship between the fuse and relay curves. Note the relay cuts the fuse curve at 450A, below which value the relay will operate before the fuse. Since the minimum fault current is not known this may or may not be acceptable. To obtain complete discrimination move the template to the right hand side until the relay curves does not cut the fuse curve and continue until a standard plug point is achieved, at 150%. Check the relay operating time at maximum fault current, which is 0.2 seconds. This is satisfactory in that is exceeds the minimum recommended time of 0.15 seconds. EXAMPLES
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The setting for the IDMT relay to provide completed discrimination with the 90A fuse is a plug at 150%, and a TMS of 0.1. 4.3 Example 2 Extending the previous example, assume the 11kV bus bar is now supplied through an 11kV feeder from a second 11kV bus and the fault current remains unchanged at 8000A as shown in Fig. 10. Calculate the setting for the two IDMT relays on the 11kV feeder to maintain discrimination. Draw the curve to show operation of relay ‘A'. On the vertical line equal to the maximum fault current, 8000A, mark the time equal to that in which relay 'A' operates plus 0.5 second, equal to 0.7 second. Place the template on the graph with the 10 × setting point to coincide with this mark. This is clearly beyond the maximum current setting of the CT at 300 × 200% × 10A. Move the template to the left, keeping the curve touching the 0.7 second marker until the 10 × setting marker coincides with 6000A. (The template will be forced to move up the page to achieve this). A setting of 200% will not provide overload protection in the 300A feeder. Assume this is required, move the template further left until the 10 × setting lies on the 3000A line again moving the template up the page until a practical time multiplier is reached, at 0.35, equal to 1.05 seconds. In order to set relay 'C' add 0.5 second to relay 'B' operating time and follow the same procedure used for relay 'B', except relay 'C' does not need provide overload protection and a plug at 150% has been selected with a time multiplier at 0.5. The relay could be set at 200% plug with a time multiplier at 0.45 to achieve a similar result. 4.4 Comment Example 2 has illustrated the possibility of varying relay plug and time multipliers to achieve the same end result, allowing for different network operating needs which influence the current setting. If relays C and B are in unattended substations and if the maximum demand on the feeder is expected to approach 300A, there is justification in setting one relay to protect against overloading. If overload protection is, not critical, relay 'B' could equally be set at plug 150% with TMS 0.3 and relay 'A' at plug 200% and TMS 0.45 without significant difference to the end result. The specific setting of a relay, providing the discriminatory time interval is obtained, is somewhat arbitrary and can be varied according to the network operating needs, subject to one qualification. The IDMT relay will operate accurately between the 2 and 10× setting points. At current values above 10 times the accuracy is not guaranteed. Therefore, the closer the 10 times limit can be placed to the actual fault current, the more reliable the practical result. It should be noted that the template operating characteristic continues in a uniform operating mode for currents in excess of 10 × setting. This may not be true in practice, where saturation and disc inertia may cause the operating time to reach a constant minimum time. Where timing is considered to be critical, data on the relay and CT performance should be obtained from the manufacturer. 4.5 Example 3 The earlier examples considered a series of devices operating at a comment fault current. The example shown in Fig. 11 considers a 33/11kV substation having two transformers operating normally in parallel, when a phase fault occurs on an outgoing 11kV feeder. In this example the maximum fault current with two transformers in service is assumed to be 8000A, equal to 4000A through each transformer. With one transformer in service the current is assumed to be 5000A.
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Plot the curve for the feeder relay, assumed as that shown in Fig. 10 relay C. This relay must discriminate with the relays on the 11kV side of the incoming transformers at conditions:(a) 4000A through relay B and 8000A through relay A. (b) 5000A through relay B and relay A. Place a mark on the Figure on the 5000A line 0.5 second above relay A operating time. Draw a curve for relay B to cut this mark, establish the resultant setting for relay B at 100% plug, 0.5 TMS. Check the interval between relays A and B for condition (a) above. Relay A operates in 1.2 sec approximately at 8000A and relay B in 2.4 seconds at 4000A, providing adequate discrimination. Proceed to set relay C to operate 0.5 second slower than relay B at 5000A, remembering to refer to the 33kV CT primary turns to 11kV, multiplying the turns by the voltage ratio, 3. This example illustrates the important necessity of understanding how the network can be operated before undertaking any protection grading, as well as the need to identify the value of the fault current which can flow in each branch.
TABLE – A OVERHEAD LINE CONSTANTS OHMS PER MILE CONDUCTOR TYPE AND SIZE A.C.S.R. Bare or PVC GOPHER (25 mm2) RABBIT (50 mm2) DOG (100 mm2) Aluminium Bare or PVC GNAT (25 mm2) ANT (50 mm2) FLY (60 mm2) EARWIG (75 mm2) WASP (100 mm2) Copper:No. 8 s.w.g. 6 s.w.g. 4 s.w.g. 3 s.w.g. 2 s.w.g. 1/0 s.w.g. 2/0 s.w.g. 3/0 s.w.g. 7/10 s.w.g. 7/8 s.w.g. 7/0.136 (0.1 sq. in)
A.C. RESISTANCE 400 VOLT REACTANCE 11KV REACTANCE
X1 = X2 0.504 0.477 0.466 0.450 0.442 0.554 0.535 0.516 0.508 0.501 0.482 0.477 0.470 0.480 0.458 0.466
X1 = X2 0.625 0.603 0.567 0.594 0.567 0.557 0.547 0.531 0.645 0.627 0.609 0.599 0.590 0.572 0.566 0.558 0.572 0.549 0.556
MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS CURRENT AMPS
2.161 1.092 0.601 2.139 1.071 0.888 0.718 0.533 2.659 1. 845 1.263 1. 070 0.891 0.646 0.560 0.490 0.599 0.384 0.531
110 165 240 110 165 180 195 240 80 120 150 165 185 225 240 255 220 270 240
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7/0.166 (0.15 sq. in) Note:
0.356
0.445
0.538
300 400V system.
400V reactance is based on equivalent spacing (1.24 feet) as normally used for
11KV reactance is based on equivalent spacing (3.05 feet) as normally used for 11KV system.
TABLE  B
MEDIUM VOLTAG INSULATED CONDUCTOR AND CABLE CONSTANTS I MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS CURRENT AMPS
AIR GROUND DUCT
CABLE TYPE AND SIZE Aluminium PVC/SWA 2 × 16 mm2 4 × 16 mm2 4 × 35 mm2 4 × 50 mm2 4 × 95 mm2 4 × 185 mm2 Copper PVC/SWA 2 × 6 mm2 2 × 10 mm2 2 × 16 mm2 2 × 25 mm2 2 × 35 mm2 4 × 16 mm2 4 × 25 mm2 4 × 35 mm2 4 × 50 mm2 4 × 95 mm2 4 × 185 mm2
Copper Dup1ex/Quadp1ex
OHMS PER MILE
A.C. RESISTANCE 400 VOLT REACTANCE
3.655 3.655 1. 679 1.241 0.620 0.319 5.932 3.524 2.216 1.400 1.011 2.216 1.400 1.011 0.747 0.373 0.195
0.138 0.138 0.132 0.131 0.127 0.124 0.150 0.149 0.142 0.140 0.131 0.142 0.140 0.131 0.130 0.126 0.122
50 45 72 85 135 205 40 55 70 95 115 60 80 95 125 180 270
AIR
70 60 95 115 160 240 50 70 90 120 150 80 105 125 150 210 310
ATTACHED TO WALL
60 50 80 95 140 200 45 60 75 100 120 65 85 100 120 175 260
CONDUIT
4 mm2 10 mm2 16 mm2
8.877 3.524 2.216
0.159 0.149 0.142
20 40 55
20 40 50 circuit
15 30 40 is
The above current ratings are for a single cable circuit only. If more than one installed additional derating for cable and duct arrangements will be necessary.
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TABLE  C
11 kV CABLE CONSTANTS CABLE TYPE AND SIZE Aluminium EPR/SWA 3 × 95 mm2 3 × 185 mm2 Aluminium XLPE/SWA 3× 3/0 awg (83 mm2) 3× 350 MCM (174 mm2) Copper PVC/SWA 3× 0.5 sq. in. Copper PIL/SWA 3× 0.04 sq.in. 3× 0.10 sq.in. 3× 0.15 sq.in. 3× 0.20 sq.in. 3× 0.25 sq. in. 3× 0.30 sq.in. 3× 0.40 sq. in. 3× 0.50 sq.in. OHMS PER MILE
A.C. RESISTANCE 11000 VOLT REACTANCE
MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS CURRENT AMPS
AIR GROUND DUCT
0.629 0.326 0.676 0.324 0.103 1.300 0.510 0.348 0.262 0.209 0.170 0.127 0.103
0.161 0.147 0.164 0.148 0.123. 0.172 0.148 0.140 0.137 0.134 0.130 0.126 0.122
150 225 130 210 380 85 150 185 225 260 295 350 395
185 280 160 260 420 100 145 200 240 275 305 350 385 circuit
170 240 145 220 370 85 150 185 225 260 295 350 395 is
The above currentratings are for a single cable circuit only. If more than one installed additional derating for cable and duct arrangements will be necessary:
TABLE D
VOLT DROP FACTORS : 230 VOLT SINGLE PHASE FACTORS FOR 1% VOLT DROP IN KWYARDS COS φ = 0.85 COS φ = 0.95 FACTOR KW FACTOR KW 190 20 200 25
CONDUCTOR/CABLE SIZE/TYPE Aluminium Conductor GNAT (25 mm2)
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ANT (50 mm2) WASP (100 mm2) Aluminium Cable PVC/SWA 16 mm2 Copper Conductor 8 s.w.g. 6 s.w.g. 4 s.w.g. 2 s.w.g. 1/0 s.w.g. 7/0.064 (14 mm2) 3/0.104 (16 mm2) Copper Cable PVC/SWA 6 mm2 10 mm2 16 mm2 25 mm2 35 mm2 Copper Duplex 6 mm2 10 mm2 16 mm2
340 580 125 155 215 295 390 490 290 330 70 130 200 320 440 50 130 210
30 45 10 15 20 30 35 45 15 20 8 12 15 20 30 3 6 7.5
380 680 125 165 230 325 440 580 320 360 80 130 210 330 450 50 130 210
35 50 15 15 25 30 40 50 20 25 10 13 20 25 30 3 6 7.5 for cables and
KW ratings are based on air installation for overhead lines, ground installation conduit installation for Duplex cables.
TABLE  E
VOLT DROP FACTORS  400 VOLT THREE PHASE FACTORS FOR 1% VOLT DROP IN KWYARDS COSφ = 0.85 COSφ = 0.95 FACTOR KW FACTOR KW 1150 2060 2390 2820 3490 940 1290 1780 2030 2340 2980 3290 3600 3140 65 95 105 115 140 45 70 85 95 105 130 140 150 130 1220 2290 2700 3250 4150 990 1390 1970 2280 2670 3500 3930 4370 3720 70 105 115 125 155 50 80 100 110 120 145 155 165 145
CONDUCTOR CABLE SIZE/ TYPE Aluminium Conductor GNAT 25 mm2 ANT 50 mm2 FLY 60 mm2 EARWIG 75 mm2 WASP 100 mm2 Copper Conductor 8 s.w.g. 6 s.w.g. 4 s.w.g. 3 s.w.g. 2 s.w.g. 1/0 s.w.g. 2/0 s.w.g. 3/0 s.w.g. 7/10 s.w.g.
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7/8 s.w.g. 7/0.136 (65 mm2) 7/0.166 (100 mm2) Aluminium Cable PVC/SWA 16 mm2 35 mm2 50 mm2 95 mm2 185 mm2 Copper Cable PVC/SWA 16 mm2 35 mm2 50 mm2 95 mm2 185 mm2 Copper Quadruplex 4 mm2 10 mm2 16 mm2
4220 3430 4460 750 1600 2130 4030 7110 1220 2580 3400 6240 10400 310 780 1220
160 140 175 35 55 70 95 140 45 75 90 125 180 8.5 17 23
5270 4120 5610 760 1630 2190 4260 7830 1240 2670 3570 6790 11980 320 790 1240
175 155 195 40 60 75 105 155 50 80 100 140 205 9.5 19 26
KW ratings are based on air installation for overhead lines, ground installation for cables, and conduit installation for Quaduplex cables.
TABLE  F
VOLT DROP FACTORS  11000 VOLT THREE PHASE
CONDUCTOR/CABLE SIZE/TYPE FACTOR FOR 1% VOLT DROP KW  MILES CONTINU0US KW
A.C.S.R. Conductor GOPHER (25 mm2) RABBIT (50 mm2) DOG (100 mm2) Aluminium Conductor GNAT (25 mm2) ANT (50 mm2) FLY (60 mm2) EARWIG (75 mm2) WASP (100 mm2) Copper Conductor 6 s.w.g. 4 s.w.g. 3 s.w.g. 2 s.w.g. 1/0 s.w.g. 2/0 s.w.g. 3/0 s.w.g. 7/10 s.w.g. 7/8 s.w.g. 7/0.136 (0.1 sq. in) 7/0.166 (0.15 sq. in) Aluminium Cable EPR/SWA 95 mm2 185 mm2
460 790 1180 470 810 930 1070 1300 520 710 800 910 1130 1230 1330 1180 1520 1280 1600 1620 2780
I680 2510 3660 1680 2510 2740 2970 3660 1830 2290 2510 2820 3430 3660 3890 3350 4120 3660 4570 2820 4270
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3/0 AWG 350 MCM Copper Cable PVC/SWA 0.5 sq.in. Copper Cable PIL/SWA 0.04 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50
1520 2780 6200 850 1950 2670 3320 3910 4530 5460 6220
2440 3960 6,400 1520 2510 3050 3660 4190 4650 5330 5870 for cables.
Ratings are based on air installation for overhead lines and ground installation
TABLE – G
OVERHEAD LINES PERCENTAGE RESISTANCE AND REACTANCE PER MILE TO A 10 MVA BASE CONDUCTOR TYPE AND SIZE A.C.S.R GOPHER (25 mm2) RABBIT (50 mm2) DOG (100 mm2) For DOG %X/KM = 2.911 Aluminium GNAT (25 mm2) ANT (50 mm2) FLY (60 mm2) EARWIG (75 mm2) WASP (100 mm2) Copper No. 8 s.w.g. 6 s.w.g. 4 s.w.g. 3 s.w.g. 2 s.w.g. 1/0 s.w.g. 2/0 s.w.g. 3/0 s.w.g. 7/10 s.w.g. 7/8 s.w.g. 7/0.136 (0.1 sq. in) 7/0.166 (0.15 sq. in) 1 Mile = 1.609344 Km 1 Km = 0.621371192 Mile 400V – 10 MVA BASE
% R/MILE % X/MILE
11,000 – 10 MVA BASE
% R/MILE % X/MILE


17.860 9.024 4.967
5.165 4.983 4.686
13370 6690 5550 4460 3330 16620 11530 7890 6690 5570 4040 3500 3060 3740 2400 3320 2230
3150 2980 2910 2810 2760 3460 3340 3230 3180 3130 3010 2980 2940 3000 2860 2910 2780
17.677 8.851 7.338 5.892 4.405 21. 974 15.274 10.437 8.842 7.363 5.339 4.628 4.049 4.950 3.173 4.388 2.942
4.909 4.686 4.603 4.520 4.388 5.330 5.182 5.033 4.950 4.876 4.727 4.677 4.611 4.727 4.537 4.595 4.446
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TABLE – H
CABLES PERCENTAGE RESISTANCE AND REACTANCE PER MILE TO A 10 MVA BASE CABLE TYPE AND SIZE Aluminium – EPR or XLPE/SWA 95 mm2 185 mm2 3/0 AWG 350 MCM Aluminium – PVC/SWA 16 mm2 35 mm2 50 mm2 95 mm2 185 mm2 Copper – PIL/SWA 0.04 sq.in 0.10 sq.in 0.15 sq.in 0.20 sq.in 0.25 sq.in 0.30 sq.in 0.40 sq.in 0.50 sq.in Copper PVC/SWA 16 mm2 25 mm2 35 mm2 50 mm2 95 mm2 185 mm2 0.50 sq.in
400V – 10 MVA BASE % R/MILE % X/MILE 11000V – 10 MVA BASE % R/MILE % X/MILE
22840 10490 7760 3880 1990 13850 8750 6320 4670 2330 1220
863 825 819 788 775 888 875 819 813 788 763
5.198 2.694 5.586 2.678 10.743 4.215 2.876 2.165 1.727 1.405 1.050 0.851 0.851
1.331 1.215 1.355 1.223 1.421 1.223 1. 157 1.132 1.107 1.074 1.041 1.008 1.016
TABLE – I TRANSFORMERS PERCENTAGE REACTANCE TO A 10MVA BASE VOLTAGE RATIO RATING REACTANCE % REACTANCE TO
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kV 11/0.415
MVA 0.050 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.315 0.500 0.750 1.000 0.100 0.200 0.500 5.0 15.0
% 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.75 5.0 4.5 5.0 5.0 10.0 12.5
10 MVA BASE 900 450 225 150 143 90 63.3 50 450 250 100 20 8.33
33/0.415 33/11
The transformer reactance’s given above are typical values. Wherever possible the manufacturer’s value should be used.
TABLE – J
EOUIVALENT 11KV SOURCE IMPEDANCE REFERRED TO 400 VOLT.
FAULT LEVEL AT 11 kV BUSBARS OF PRIMARY SUBSTATION MVA 250 225 200 175
EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE PER PHASE IN 400 VOLT SYSTEM CORRESPONDING TO STATED FAULT LEVEL AT 11 kV BUSBARS ROhms XOhms 0 0 0 0 0.00064 0.00071 0.00080 0.00091
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150 125 100 75 5O 25
0 0 0 0 0 0
0.00107 0.00128 0.00160 0.00213 0.00320 0.00640
TABLE – K EOUIVALENT IMPEDANCE OF 11000 VOLT OVERHEAD LINES REFERRED TO 400 VOLT EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE PER PHASE IN 400 VOLT SYSTEM CORRESPONDING TO ONE MILE OF 11000 VOLT LINE ROhms ROhms
CONDUCTOR TYPE AND SIZE A.C.S.R GOPHER RABBIT DOG Aluminium GNAT ANT FLY (25 mm2) (50 mm2) (60 mm2) (25 mm2) (50 mm2) (100 mm2)
0.002858 0.001444 0.000795
0.000826 0.000797 0.000750
0.002828 0.001416 0.001174
0.000785 0.000750 0.000737
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EARWIG WASP Copper
(75 mm2) (100 mm2)
0.000944 0.000705
0.000723 0.000702
8 s.w.g. 6 s.w.g. 4 s.w.g. 3 s.w.g. 2 s.w.g. 1/0 s.w.g. 2/0 s.w.g. 3/0 s.w.g. 7/10 s.w.g. 7/8 s.w.g. 7/0.136 (0.1 sq. in) 7/0.166 (0.15 sq. in)
0.003516 0.002440 0.001670 0.001415 0.001178 0.000854 0.00740 0.00648 0.00792 0.000508 0.000702 0.000471
0.000853 0.000829 0.000805 0.000792 0.000780 0.000756 0.000748 0.000738 0.000756 0.000726 0.000735 0.000711
TABLE – L
EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE OF 11000 VOLT CABLES REFERRED TO 400 VOLT
CABLE TYPE AND SIZE
EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE PER PHASE IN 400 VOLT SYSTEM CORRESPONDING TO ONE MILE OF 11000 VOLT LINE ROhms XOhms 0.000213 0.000194 0.000217 0.000196 0.000227 0.000196 0.000185 0.000181 0.000177 0.000172 0.000167 0.000161 0.000163
Aluminium – EPR or XLPE/SWA 95 mm2 185 mm2 3/0 AWG 350MCM Aluminium – PVC/SWA 0.04 sq.in 0.10 sq.in 0.15 sq.in 0.20 sq.in 0.25 sq.in 0.30 sq.in 0.40 sq.in 0.50 sq. in Copper – PIL/SWA 0.04 sq.in
0.000832 0.000431 0.000894 0.000428 0.001719 0.000614 0.000460 0.000346 O. 000276 0.000225 0.000168 0.000136 0.000136
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TABLE  M EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS REFERRED TO 400 VOLT
TRANSFORMER TYPE MVA RATING 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.315 0.500 0.750 0.800 1.000
EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE PER PHASE IN 400 VOLT SYSTEM CORRESPONDING TO A DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER OF STATED RATING ROhms 0.40 0.18 0.11 0.1700 0.0755 0.0500 0.0320 0.0135 0.0085 0.0079 0.0045 0.0030 0.0027 0.0020 XOhms 0.32 0.18 0.13 0.2100 0.1165 0.0800 0.0659 0.0334 0.0260 0.0250 0.0148 0.0100 0.0097 0.0072
SINGLE PHASE 230 VOLT THREE PHASE 400 VOLT
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TABLE – N LOAD ASSESSMENT  RESIDENTIAL (NOTE: READ IN CONJUNCTION WITH SECTION 8.2)
1 2 WATTS EACH 3 DIVERSITY FACTOR 4=1× 2× 3 MAXIMUM DEMAND WATTS
EQUPMENT INDOOR LIGHTS First 10 Units Additional Units Normal Floodlights First Two Units Additional Units WATER HEATERS* Largest Unit Additional Units COOKERS* Less than 3.5 kW Over 3.5 kW HOT PLATE DRIER* AIR CONDITIONERS* First Two Units Additional Units REFRIGERATORS DEEP FREEZERS WASHING MACHINE* WATER PUMP PORTABLE APPLIANCES SUNDRIES Kettle Iron (TV, Radio, cleaner, etc)
NO. UNITS
100 100 100
0.8 0.25 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
OUTSIDE LIGHTS
FANS
OTHERS TOTAL = A.D.M.D IF LESS THAN 5 MAJOR APPLIANCES = * A.D.M.D. IF MORE THAN 5 MAJOR APPLIANCES = TOTAL × 0.85 =
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TABLE – O LOAD ASSESSMENT – COMMERCIAL (NOTE: READ IN CONJUNCTION WITH SECTION 8.2)
EQUIPMENT
INDOOR LIGHTS OUTDOOR LIGHTS FLOODLIGHTS FANS WATER HEATERS∗ COOKERS∗ HOT PLATE DRIVERS AIR CONDITIONERS∗ AIR CONDITIONERS REFRIGERATORS FREEZERS/COOLERS COLD STORAGE ROOM WASHING MACHINE∗ WATER PUMP GRINDERSMILLERS PORTABLE APPLIANCES All Units All Units All Units All Units Largest Unit Additional Units Less than 3.5 kW Over 3.5 kW First Two Units Additiona1 Units First Two Units Additiona1 Units First Four Units Additiona1 Units Central Plant First Two Units Additiona1 Units All Units All Units First Two Units Additiona1 Units All Units All Units Kettles Irons Cleaners TV, Radio, etc.
1
NO. UNITS
2
WATTS EACH
3
DIVERSITY FACTOR
4 = 1× 2 × 3
MAXIMUM DEMAND WATTS
100 100
SUNDRIES OTHERS TOTAL = A.D.M.D. IF LESS THAN 8 MAJOR ITEMS = * A.D.M.D. IF MORE THAN 5 MAJOR ITEMS = TOTAL × 0.8 =
0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
TABLE – P AERIAL SERVICES
MAXIMUM SPAN LENGTHS AND ERECTION TENSIONS
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(NOTE: READ IN CONJUNCTION WITH SECTION 9.2)
SERVICE CONDUCTOR DUPLEX/QUADRUPLEX 2 × 4 mm2 2 × 10 mm2 2 × 16 mm2 4 × 4 mm2 4 × 10 mm2 4 × 16 mm2
MAXIMUM SPAN FEET METRES 65 80 100 65 80 100 20 25 30 20 25 30
ERECTION TENSION Lbf. Kgf. 11 40 77 18 65 118 5 18 35 8 30 53
U.T.S. Lbf. 370 940 1480 370 940 1480
NOTE: Owing to its low tensile strength 2 × 4 mm2 Duplex may not be used at road crossings.
TABLE – Q SERVICE EQUIPMENT – SINGLE PHASE (NOTE: READ IN CONJUNCTION WITH SECTION 9.3) 1 MAX. 2 M.C.B. 3 METER 4 5 COPPER SERVICE CABLE 6 7 MAXIMUM SERVICE
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LOAD kW
RATING Amp.
RATING Amp. AERIAL DUPLEX mm2 4 10 4 10 4 10 16 10 16 10 16 10 16 16 UNDERGROUND PVC/SWA/PVC mm2 6 10 6 10 6 10 16 6 10 16 25 10 16 25 10 16 25 10 16 25 35
LENGTH FOR 1% VOLT DROP FEET UNDERGROU AERIAL ND DUPLEX CABLE 150 390 75 195 50 130 210 97 157 78 126 65 105 84 240 390 120 195 80 130 210 60 97 157 247 78 126 198 65 105 165 52 84 132 I80
1
5
010
2
15
010
3
15
1040
4
30
1040
5
30
1040
6
30
1040
7.5
60
1040
TABLE – R SERVICE EQUIPMENT – SINGLE PHASE (NOTE: READ IN CONJUNCTION WITH SECTION 9.3) 1 MAX. LOAD kW 7.5 2 M.C.B. RATING Amp. 15 3 METER RATING Amp. 25 4 5 6 7
COPPER SERVICE CABLE AERIAL QUDUPLEX mm2 4 10 UNDERGROUND PVC/SWA/PVC mm2 
MAXIMUM SERVICE LENGTH FOR 1% VOLT DROP  FEET AERIAL DUPLEX 103 260 UNDERGROUND CABLE 
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16 10 30 25 10 16 15 30 50 10 16 20 60 50 16 25 60 50 30 60 80 40 100 80 50 100 100 
16 16 16 35 16 35 50 16 35 50 35 50 95 35 50 90 50 90
406 195 305 130 203 152 
406 305 203 430 152 322 425 122 258 340 215 283 520 161 212 390 170 312
TABLE – S APPLICATION OF H.T. DROP CUT FUSE AND MULDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER FOR PROTECTION OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS (11KV/400V)
Transformer Capacity 3Phase KVA. 250 200 Fig. 1 2 Amp. 350 280 Amp. 400 400 Amp. 1Fdr. a) 350 a) b) 2Fdr. 350 200 75100% 75100% 65 K 65 K Current rating 3phase MCCB (400 volt) Frame Size Thermal Trip rating Magnetic Adjustment 11kV Fuse Rating
75/75 100 50 1Phase 25 50 25 15 3 4 5 6 7 8 140 70 315 210 105 65 225250 225250 400 400 225250 225250 b) c) d) e) f) g) 200 100 350 250 140 75 c) 100 200 140 75 75100% 75100% 75100% 75100% 75100% No adjustment 40 K 15 K 65 K 65 K 40 K 15 K
d) e) f)
Thermal trip calibrated for 40˚C ambient K stands for NEMA size 3Phase 250 KVA 200 KVA 100 KVA 60 KVA
a
a
a
b
b
b
c
c
c
Fig1 1Phase 75 KVA
Fig2
Fig3
Fig4
50 KVA
25 KVA
60 KVA
e
f
f
g
h
h
h
i
i
i
Fig5
Fig6
Fig7
Fig8
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