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Gravity dam design should be based on the most adverse load combination A, B, C, D, E, F or G given below using the safety factors prescribed. Depending on the scope and details of the various project components, site conditions and construction programme one or more of the following loading combinations may not be applicable ipso-facto and may need suitable modifications: • • • Load Combination A (Construction Condition) - Dam completed but no water in reservoir and no tailwater. Load Combination B (Normal Operating Condition) - Full reservoir elevation, normal dry weather tailwater, normal uplift; ice and silt (if applicable). Load Combination C (Flood Discharge Condition) - Reservoir at maximum flood pool elevation, all gates open, tailwater at flood elevation, normal uplift, and silt (if applicable ). Load Combination D - Combination A, with earthquake. Load Combination E - Combination B, with earthquake but no ice. Load Combination F - Combination C, but with extreme uplift (drains inoperative). Load Combination G - Combination E, but with extreme uplift (drains inoperative).
• • • •
Requirements for Stability
Following are the modes of failure of a gravity dam: 1. Overturning 2. Sliding 3. Compression or Crushing 4. Tension. Therefore, the design shall satisfy the hollowing requirements of stability: 1. The dam shall be safe against sliding on any plane or combination of planes within the dam, at the foundation or within the foundation; 2. The dam shall be safe against overturning at any plane within the dam, at the base, or at any plane below the base; and 3. The safe unit stresses in the concrete or masonry of the dam or in the foundation material shall not be exceeded. The shape of a dam and curvature in its layout are pertinent in regard to the stability and more favourable stress conditions. Wherever possible dam and foundation designs should take advantage of the favourable conditions accruing from curved shapes, gradual transitions and fillets. For consideration of stability the following assumptions are made: 1. That the dam is composed of individual transverse vertical elements each of which carries its load to the foundation without transfer of load from or to adjacent elements. (NOTE - However. in the stability analysis of a gravity dam, it becomes frequently necessary to make an analysis of the whole block, wherever special features of foundation and large openings so indicate); and 1
considered safe against overturning if the criteria of no tension on the upstream face. For overflow sections. A gravity dam is. In that case the resultant moment at the toe becomes clockwise (or -ve). and fissures which affect the resistance of the foundation also make the problem more complex. variations of foundation materials with depth. therefore. other types of failures may occur. Moreover. A dam will fail in sliding at its base. For the dam to be in static equilibrium the location of this force is such that the summation of moments is equal to zero. on the foundation or on horizontal or nearly horizontal seams in the foundation. or at any other level. the base width is generally determined by projecting the spillway slope to the foundation line and all concrete downstream from this line is disregarded. such as cracking of the upstream material due to tension. If a vertical longitudinal joint is not provided at this point. Internal stresses and foundation pressures should be computed both with and without uplift to determine the worst condition. cracks.2. Overturning The overturning of the dam section takes place when the resultant force at any section cuts the base of the dam downstream of the toe. For stability requirements. the mass of concrete downstream from the theoretical toe must be investigated for internal stresses. The problem of determining the actual distribution is complicated by the horizontal reaction. On the other hand. if any. with knowledge that the elastic and plastic properties of both the foundation material and the concrete do affect the actual distribution. 2 . The distribution of the vertical reaction is assumed as trapezoidal for convenience only. if the resultant cuts the base within the body of the dam. The factor of safety against overturning is defined as the ratio of the righting moment (+ ve MR) to the overturning moments (. the resistance against sliding as well as the quality and strength of concrete/masonry of the dam and its foundation is satisfied assuming the dam and foundation as a continuous body. if the horizontal forces causing sliding are more than the resistance available to it at that level. crushing of toe material and sliding. IS Code Recommendation . That the vertical stress varies linearly from upstream face to downstream face on any horizontal section. the dam must be safe against overturning. Reaction of Foundations The resultant of all horizontal and vertical forces including uplift should be balanced by an equal and opposite reaction at the foundation consisting of the total vertical reaction and the total horizontal shear and friction at the base and the resisting shear and friction of the passive wedge. there will be no overturning.Before a gravity dam overturns bodily.ve M0) about the toe FS = ΣM R ΣRighting Moments = ΣOverturning Moments ΣM 0 The factor of safety against overturning should not be less than 1. Sliding Resistance Many of the loads on the dam are horizontal or have horizontal components which are resisted by frictional or shearing forces along horizontal or nearly horizontal planes in the body of the dam. internal stress relations and other theoretical considerations. Shear strength develops at the base if benched foundations are provided and at other joints if the joints are carefully laid so that a good bond develops. increase in uplift.5. The resistance against sliding may be due to friction alone. Shear strength also comes into play because of the interlocking of stone in masonry dams. or due to friction and shear strength of the joint.
and ΣFH = total horizontal force. Fc = partial factor of safety in respect of cohesion. which is equal to b 2 − x wherex is the distance of the resultant force R from the toe given by x = (∑ M R − ∑ M o ) ∑ FV The normal stress at any point on the base will be the sum of the direct stress and the bending stress. special efforts are made to avoid this condition. In fact. along that plane or combination of planes which mobilizes the least resistance to sliding) to the total magnitude of the forces tending to induce sliding. be some lower plane in the foundation where sliding is resisted by friction alone especially if the rock is markedly stratified and horizontally bedded. Compression or Crushing In order to calculate the normal stress distribution at the base. however.). FS = µ (ΣW − ΣPU ) Fφ + τ c A Fc ΣFH where FS = factor of safety against sliding. or at any section. For final designs. ΣW = dead load of the dam. The value of cohesion and internal friction may be estimated for the purpose of preliminary designs on the basis of available data on similar or comparable materials. The factor of safety against sliding shall be computed from the following equation and shall not be less than 1. however. the value of cohesion and internal friction shall be determined by actual laboratory and field tests. A = area under consideration for cohesion.The stability of a dam against sliding is evaluated by comparing the minimum total available resistance along the critical path of sliding (that is. direct stress σcc is 3 . ΣPU = total uplift force. let ΣFH be the total horizontal force.4 N/mm2 for concrete).75 for concrete). Fφ = partial factor of safety in respect of friction. τc = cohesion of the material or permissible shear stress at the plane considered (=1. Sliding resistance is a function of the cohesion inherent in the materials and at their contact and the angle of internal friction of the material at the surface of sliding. µ = tan φ = coefficient of internal friction of the material (varies from 0. There may. The partial factor of safety in respect of friction and partial factor of safety in respect of cohesion are given in Table 1. Thus.0. The junction plane between the dam and rock is rarely smooth.65 to 0. ΣFV be the total vertical force and R be the resultant force cutting the base at an eccentricity e from the centre of the base of width b (Fig.
When the eccentricity e is equal to b/6 we get p n . since the bending stress will be compressive there.Toe pn.toe = 2ΣFV .heel = .ve lc e > b/6 and the normal stress at the heel is p n . shows the normal stress distributions for a general case when the pressure at both toe and heel are compressive. the maximum compressive stress occurs at the toe and for safety.toe = ΣFV b ΣFV b 6e 1 + b 6e 1 − b pn. and negative sign will be used for calculating normal stress at the heel. the normal stress at the heel will be -ve or tensile as shown in Fig. Evidently.Toe The positive sign will be used for calculating normal stress at the toe.heel = 0 Fig. and y = b 2 for extreme fibre at toe or heel.heel = 0 e = b/6 pn. When the eccentricity e is greater than b/6 a crack of length lc will develop due to tension which can be calculated as σ cc = σ cbc ⇒ lc = ΣF ΣFV ΣM y 12ΣFV e b = ⇒ V = − lc 3 b ×1 I b ×1 b 2 b b 1 − 2 6e No tension should be permitted at any point of the dam under any circumstance for 4 . shows the pressure distribution for this case as well. Thus.heel ̅x Toe e < b/6 pn. I = 1 × b 12 rectangular section of 1 m wide and b m deep. b p n .Toe Fig.heel = pn. this should not be greater than the allowable compressive stresses both for the dam and foundation materials.σ cc = ΣFV b ×1 and bending stress σcbc at any fibre at distance y from Neutral Axis is σ cbc = ± ΣM y I 3 ∑FH ∑Fv for Since ΣM = ΣFV e . Tension From equation for the normal stress at the heel it is evident that if e > b/6. hence the total normal stress pn is given by p n = σ cc + σ cbc ΣF 6ΣFV e ΣFV 6e = V ± = 1 ± b ×1 b b b2 R e b/2 Heel b/2 pn. the normal stress at the toe is p n .
moderately high dams. the kind of cement and other ingredients and their proportions in the work can be determined only by experiment. The maximum compressive stresses occur at the heel or toe and on planes normal to the faces of the dam. Due to tension crack. in case of extra high dams. weathering resistance. small tension within the permissible limit is generally permitted for comparatively small periods of loading such as heavy flood or earthquake as listed in Table 2. In other words. a crack develops at the heel. Quality and Strength of Concrete/Masonry The strength of concrete/masonry shall exceed the stresses anticipated in the structure by a safe margin. The base width thus goes on reducing and the compressive stresses on toe goes on increasing. The compressive strength of concrete should satisfy early load and construction requirements and at the age of one year it should be four times the maximum computed stress in the dam or 14 N/mm2. the resultant should always lie within the middle third. the uplift pressure increases in magnitude and net downward vertical force or the stabilizing force reduces. as illustrated in Fig. The strength of concrete and masonry varies with age. Effect of Tension Cracks: Since concrete cannot resist the tension. For no tension to develop. The allowable working stress in any part of the structure shall not also exceed 7 N/mm2. impermeability and resistance to alkali-aggregate attack.5 N/mm2 whichever is more. The proportions are selected to produce concrete/masonry of sufficient strength to meet the design requirements multiplied by an appropriate safety factor. The compressive strength of masonry should satisfy early load and construction requirements and at one year it should be five times the maximum computed stress on the dam or 12. till the toe fails in compression or sliding. which modifies the uplift pressure diagram. The resultant force thereby gets further shifted towards the toe and this leads to further lengthening of the crack. Mix proportions are determined from the results of laboratory tests made with the materials that will be used in the structures. However. In addition to meeting the requirements of strength the concrete/masonry/mortar should be adequate in regard to placing characteristics. No tensile stress shall be permitted at the upstream face of the clam for load 5 . 230 to 260 m. the eccentricity should be less than b/6. whichever is more.
that for the upstream face σ1 will always be less than p. Small values of tension on the downstream face may be permitted since it is very improbable that a fully constructed dam is kept empty and downstream cracks which are not extensive and for limited depths from the surface may not be detrimental to the safety of the structure. The face of the dam will be a principal plane as water pressure acts on it in the perpendicular direction. pn dy and p ds. τ = shear stress. the normal forces on the planes AB. with no accompanying shear stress. σ1 = principal stress on plane AB. The forces acting on the elementary section are shown in Fig. and will be the other principal plane.combination B. we get p n dy = pds sin φ + σ 1 dr cos φ But dr = dy cos φ and ds = dy sin φ . Let ds. However. then the principal stress is given by σ 1 = p n sec 2 φ − ( p + pe ) tan 2 φ This equation is known as the principal stress relationship. p = intensity of water pressure. For the downstream face σ1 will always be greater than p. and is applicable to both upstream and downstream faces. for the downstream side. dr and dy be the lengths of AC. the plane AB. and pn = normal stress. so σ1 is the major principal stress and p is the minor principal stress. Principal and Shear Stresses Principal Stress: Consider an elementary triangular section at either the heel or the toe of the dam section such that stress intensities may be assumed to be uniform on its faces. therefore p n dy = pdy sin 2 φ + σ 1 dy cos 2 φ Hence ⇒ p n = p sin 2 φ + σ 1 cos 2 φ σ 1 = ( p n − p sin 2 φ ) cos 2 φ ⇒ σ 1 = p n sec 2 φ − p tan 2 φ If pe is the intensity of hydrodynamic pressure due to an earthquake. may be permitted in other load combinations and their permissible values shall not exceed the values given in Table 2. Since the principal planes are mutually at right angle. BC and CA are respectively σ1 dr. however. AB and BC. and hence p will be zero and σ1 will be maximum. Resolving all the forces in the vertical direction. It should be noted. Nominal tensile stresses. well also have only a normal stress on it. If pe’ is the intensity of hydrodynamic pressure of tailwater due to an earthquake the principal stress at the downstream becomes 6 . considered at right angles to the face AC. however. Hence σ1 is the minor principal stress and p is the major principal stress for the upstream face. Considering unit length of the dam. the worst condition will be when there is no tailwater.
and (2) No Sliding Criterion. we get τ dy = σ 1dr sin φ − pds cos φ ⇒ Substituting the value of σ1 we get τ dy = σ 1 dy cos φ sin φ − pdy sin φ cos φ ⇒ τ = ( p n sec 2 φ − p tan 2 φ − p )cos φ sin φ τ = ( p n − p ) tan φ The above equation is applicable for downstream side only. For the reservoir full 7 . where water pressure is zero. If any triangular profile. its weight will act still closer to the upstream face to provide a higher stabilising force. an elementary profile will be triangular in section. and a maximum base width b. where the maximum water pressure acts. This is so because the weight of the dam acts at distance b/3 from the upstream face and is closer to it. is provided. water pressure. other than the right angled one. Thus. the section of the elementary profile is of the same shape as the hydrostatic pressure distribution diagram. For reservoir empty condition. for no tension to develop.σ 1 = p n sec 2 φ − ( p − p e' ) tan 2 φ Shear Stress: Resolving all the forces in the horizontal direction. We shall consider main three forces (weight of the dam. will provide the maximum possible stabilising force against overturning. the shear stress for the upstream side is given by τ = −( p n − ( p + p e' )) tan φ Elementary Profile of a Gravity Dam In the absence of any force other than the forces due to water. the resultant should act at the inner third point. the shear stress at the downstream side will be maximum. and uplift pressure) acting on the elementary profile of a gravity dam viz W = bHγ c 2 . a right angled triangular profile as shown in Fig. the shear stress at downstream is given by τ = ( p n − ( p − pe' )) tan φ Similarly.. Base width of the elementary profile The base width of the elementary profile can be found under two criteria: (1) No Tensile Stress Criterion. the magnitude of τ will be the same but its direction will be reversed. without causing tension in the base. PH = γ w H 2 2 . Considering the hydrodynamic pressure due to earthquake. No Tensile Stress Criterion: We have already seen that when reservoir is empty. PU = CbHγ w 2 where C = uplift pressure intensity factor. For the upstream side. but tension will be developed at the toe when the dam is empty. having zero width at the water level. If tailwater is neglected (p = zero).
condition. for no tension to develop.heel = 0 Corresponding principal stress at the toe (tan φ = b/H and no tailwater or p = 0) will be σ 1 = p n sec 2 φ = Hγ w (S c − C ) (b H )2 + 1 Using b from stress criteria ( ) 8 .toe = 2ΣFV = Hγ w (S c − C ). then b = H µS c The width provided for the elementary profile should be greater of the width given by the both criteria. the resultant R must pass through the outer third point. horizontal force causing sliding should be balanced by the frictional forces opposing the same. b p n . we get W b H b − PH − PU = 0 3 3 3 ⇒ bHγ c b γ w H 2 H CbHγ w b − − =0 2 3 2 3 2 3 Using γ c = S c γ w (where Sc = specific gravity of dam material) and simplifying S c b 2 − H 2 − Cb 2 = 0 ⇒ b=H Sc − C If uplift is considered as per IS Code then C = 1 so b=H Sc −1 and if it is not considered then C = 0 thus b=H Sc No Sliding Criterion: For no sliding to occur. Taking the moment of all forces about M2 and equating it to zero (since the moment of R about M2 is zero). Stresses developed in the elementary profile Case 1: Base width from No Tension Criterion Principal Stress: For full reservoir condition in elementary profile e = b/6 and ΣFv = W − PU = bHγ c 2 − CbHγ w 2 = bHγ w (S c − C ) 2 Hence. the normal stresses at the toe and heel are p n . Hence PH = µ (W − PU ) ⇒ γ w H 2 2 = µ (bHγ c 2 − CbHγ w 2) From which b = H µ (S c − C ) As per IS Code then C = 1 so b = H µ (S c − 1) If uplift is neglected.
toe = p n . Case 2: Base width from No Sliding Criterion Principal Stress: For full reservoir condition in elementary profile the eccentricity is e= Since 1 b b b H2 − x = − ∑ M toe ∑ FV = 2 b (S − C ) − 2 2 2 3 c ∑ M toe = W 2b H 2b b 2 H3 − PH − PU = Hγ w (S c − C ) − γw 3 3 3 3 6 ΣFv = W − PU = bHγ w (S c − C ) 2 Hence. using b = H µ (S c − C ) . are p n . shear stress at the toe will be τ = ( p n − p ) tan φ = Hγ w (µ ( S c − C ) )2 b H and from no sliding criteria τ = Hγ w µ (S c − C ) Following a similar procedure. the principal stress and shear stress will be zero at heel. 9 . the principal stress and shear stress at the heel can be computed. the normal stresses at the toe and heel.σ 1 = Hγ w (S c − C ) 1 + 1 = Hγ w (S c − C + 1) Sc − C Shear Stress: Following similar procedure.heel = ΣFV 6e H2 2 = Hγ w (µ ( S c − C ) ) 1 + = Hγ w (S c − C ) 2 b b b (S c − C ) ΣFV 6e 2 1 − = Hγ w (S c − C ) 1 − µ ( S c − C ) b b ( ) Corresponding principal stress at the toe (tan φ = b/H and no tailwater or p = 0) will be σ 1 = p n sec 2 φ = Hγ w (µ ( S c − C ) )2 (b H )2 + 1 and from no sliding criteria b = H µ (S c − C ) so ( ) ( ) σ 1 = Hγ w (µ ( S c − C ) )2 (1 µ (S c − C ))2 + 1 = Hγ w µ 2 (S c − C )2 + 1 ( ) Respective equation can be deduced. shear stress at the toe will be τ = ( p n − p ) tan φ = Hγ w (S c − C ) b H Using b from stress criteria τ = Hγ w (S c − C ) S c − C = Hγ w S c − C Since the normal stress at the heel is zero. Shear Stress: Following similar procedure. if uplift is considered as per IS Code (C = 1) and if it is not considered (C = 0).
whichever gives the higher crest elevation for the dam. ΣFV = W. below the limiting height. High Gravity Dam Zone This equation for the limiting height defines the distinction between a low and a high gravity dam. to bring the compressive stress within the permissible limits. The freeboard adopted shall be one and a half times the corresponding wave height hw above normal pool elevation or maximum reservoir level. τ toe = τ heel = 0 b Limiting Height of a Gravity Dam The only variable in the expression for the principal stress σ1 at the toe is H. For such a dam. the limiting height is about 88 m. p n .0 N/mm2) is used then the limiting height would be more. it is usual not to consider the uplift. The elementary profile of the gravity dam is only a theoretical profile. The freeboard above maximum reservoir level shall.40 and σper = 3. Hence.9 m. however. we get. Wind velocities of 120 km/h over water in the case of full pool condition and 80 km/h over water in case of 10 . having zero width at the top. (ii) additional loads due to the roadway. A low gravity dam is the one in which the height H is less than Hlim so that maximum compressive stress is not greater than the allowable stress. the section will have to be given extra slopes to the upstream and downstream sides. and (iii) freeboard. acting through the first third point M1.heel = σ 1 = 2W = HS c γ w . However such a profile is not possible in practice because of the provision of (i) top width or roadway at the top.Reservoir empty condition: When the reservoir is empty. Hence. and e = -b/6 so shear stress is zero and the maximum compressive normal stress equal to principal stress at the heel or toe thus p n . If higher grade concrete (σper ≥= 3. be in no case less than 0. In the limiting case σ 1 = Hγ w (S c − C + 1) = σ per From which. the limiting height Hlim is given by H lim = σ per γ w (S c − C + 1) Hlim Limit of Low Gravity Dam For finding the limiting height Hlim. the only force acting on the elementary profile will be its weight. Practical Profile of a Gravity Dam We have already seen that the elementary profile of a gravity dam is triangular in shape. in the reservoir to prevent the splashing of the waves over the non-overflow section. Freeboard: Freeboard is the margin provided between the top of dam and H. However. the maximum compressive stress will exceed the permissible stress and that condition is undesirable. putting C = 0. H lim = σ per γ w (S c + 1) If the height of the dam is more than Hlim. The maximum value of this principal stress should not exceed the allowable stress σper for the material ie σ1 ≤ σper.L. a truly triangular section is not practical nor is it necessarily the most economical section. the dam is known as high gravity dam.toe = σ 1 = 0. as illustrated in Fig. It incidentally also takes care of any unforeseen floods in the reservoir.F. For a concrete dam (Sc = 2.0 N/mm2). If the height of the dam to be constructed is more than that Hlim .
causing tension at the down stream face when the reservoir is empty. However. the masonry added for the provision of top width decreases. It can be seen that as the top width is increased. such as provision of roadway on the top etc. bringing it from EB to position EB1. u/s batter will have to be provided. the top width provided on the basis of economy (ie. Thus. the resultant of all sections below the plane KJE is shifted to the u/s side. Thus due to provisions of freeboard and top width. be shifted to the left of line AM1. is found to be about 14 % of the height of dam. considering earthquake effects. due to the provision of some top width T. However. require the provision of u/s batter FC1 below the plane FHG. Hence. the total masonry volume in the dam. for the sake of economy. the net economical section will be ADEB1C1F as shown in Fig. the slope of d/s face may be flattened. modern practice is to provide a maximum free board equal to 3 to 4 % of the dam height. AM1 is the inner third point line. the u/s batter is increased while the d/s slope is decreased. without. the most economical top width is the function of height of dam. when the reservoir is full. and MI is the line passing through the centroid of the added triangle ADE. rather than increases. Both these lines intersect at point H. for dams of low height. that within limits. some masonry is to be provided to 11 . we have 2 FH = AM = T 3 But h ' = AF = FG S c − C = 2T S c − C ⇒ FG = 3FH = 2T Thus for heights greater than h’. Top width: If some top width T = AD is provided for the elementary section ABC. therefore. This will. In order to bring the resultant back to the outer third point line. For all sections below plane FHG. the resultant of the dam section will be shifted to the u/s when the reservoir is empty. In order to find the depth h' of the plane FHG below which u/s batter is required. though free board equal to 5 % or more might prove economical. It can be shown. Creager has shown that the most economical top width. However. therefore. The increase in masonry volume due to provision of top width is counter-balanced by the reduction in the d/s slope at lower levels. the resultant will. The centroidal line MIJ intersects with the outer-third point line AM2 at J.maximum reservoir condition are generally assumed for calculation of wave heights.14 % of height) may have to be increased from other practical considerations.
For the first layer immediately on the rock. In solid gravity dams.75 m height is adopted as the lift. One of the measures used to control cracks parallel to the length of the dam in the case of relatively high dams is to subdivide the monolith into several blocks by longitudinal contraction joints and subsequently grout these joints to ensure monolithic action. such as water stops or keyways etc. A spacing of -15 to 25 m may be adopted for concrete dams.5 m. of haphazard ragged cracks. 0. Construction Issues Construction Joints: Construction joints. shows the dimensions of the practical profile of a gravity dam. etc. Fig. A spacing of 20-30 m is generally adopted. A contraction joint is formed vertical or inclined surface between masses of concrete/ masonry placed at different times. owing to volume changes that cannot be prevented. The concreting is. the height between horizontal joints is usually limited to about 1. Evidently. are made in the horizontal joints. If the stream bed is wide and flat. though provided for different purpose. also serve as construction joints Contraction Joints: Contraction joints are mainly provided to avoid cracks caused due to shrinkage of concrete due to temperature. by post-cooling and avoid longitudinal contraction joints altogether.. It is now being increasingly accepted that better alternative is to achieve necessary temperature control by precooling of the concrete supplemented where necessary. Modern treatment of the surface and good concrete create automatic water-tight horizontal joints. The general requirement is that each joint extends entirely through the structure. The contraction joints. The characteristics of a dam and its profile determine the magnitude of the load transferred horizontally through the joints to the abutments. it is recognized that the practice of dividing a monolith into two or more blocks buy introducing joints parallel to the axis is basically unsound unless a high degree of perfection is accomplished in ensuring monolithicity by provision of suitable shear keys and successfully grouting at the appropriate time. this height is· limited to the necessity of providing sufficient cooling between pours. i. They divide the dam into convenient sized monoliths to permit convenient and systematic construction and to prevent the formation. done in various stages. the vertical cantilever blocks from the centre of the dam towards end canyon walls 12 . larger spacing may be adopted for masonry dams. The spacing of transverse contraction joints shall be such as to suit the methods of construction materials of the dam. However. as of now. The spacing of the joints is largely dictated by convenience of construction and the foundation conditions. There is also now a school of thought which believes that the longitudinal joints need to be at very close spacing (about 15 m) if they are to achieve their purpose. usually called horizontal joints are necessary since the entire work of concreting the whole dam cannot be completed in one stretch. therefore. and as such no provisions.the upstream side and some masonry is removed from the downstream side to eliminate tension and/or to economize. the foundation conditions and the convenience of the location of control gates outlet. :even in case of high dams. half this amount.e. This height between two successive construction joints or horizontal joints is known as lift. No longitudinal joints are considered necessary in dams built of rubble masonry with the construction methods in vogue in India.
Water stops are also sometimes known as water bars. The adjoining surfaces of each side of the joint are given such a shape as to be interlocked together for the transfer of stresses. High pressure grouting and required drilling for it is generally carried out after the completion of dam. 5. which materially affect the way in which the loads are distributed to the foundation and abutments. In 13 . Water stops are provided in both the types of joints. steel. 2. To provide access to observe and measure the behaviour of the structure after its completion by fixing thermocouples and examining development of cracks etc. Fig. In a narrow canyon with steep sloping walls. Metal water stops are provided only in the case of non-yielding foundations. Galleries: A gallery is a formed opening left in a dam. Water stops may be either of metal. Keys are invariably provided in longitudinal joints to permit the transfer of shearing stresses from one block to the other. For other cases of yielding foundation. monel. Keyways give a measure of shearing strength required at times when the dam is only partly full and the lines of first principal stress are not parallel to the joints. or keyed and ungrouted the intervening cantilever block will be affected by adjacent ones. their provision in the transverse joints in optional.are approximately of the same length. If the joints are keyed and grouted. to prevent leakage of water. However. The shape and size varies from dam to dam and is generally governed by the functions it has to perform. If the joints are neither keyed nor grouted. To provide space for header and return pipes for post cooling of concrete and grouting the longitudinal joints after completion of dam. 1. part of the load will be transferred horizontally to the abutments by both bending and shear in the horizontal beam elements. each cantilever block from the centre of the dam towards the canyon wall will be shorter than the preceding one. such as annealed copper. be negligible except near the abutment. To provide facilities for drilling and grouting operations for foundations etc. In this case the load will cause each succeeding block to deflect less than the preceding one and more than the succeeding one. This may run in transverse or longitudinal direction and may run horizontally or on a slope. rubber water bars are preferred. therefore. shows two typical shapes of galleries. the -entire load on the dam is transferred to the foundation independently by each block. Some amount of water constantly seeps through the upstream face of the dam which is drained off through galleries. If the joints are keyed but ungrouted. Under load each will deflect downstream very nearly the same amount and the load transferred horizontally across the joints (provided it is capable of transferring the load) to the abutments will. 3. metal or sheet lead. the load will be transferred horizontally to the abutments by shear across the keys. or twist in the blocks. If the transverse joints are keyed and grouted. This interaction between blocks causes torsional moments. Drillings for drain is generally resorted to clean them if they are clogged. Following are the purposes for which a gallery is formed in the dams. This can be best done through galleries. 4. or of natural or synthetic rubbers and plastics such as polyvinyl chloride. To provide drainage' of the dam section. To provide an access of mechanical contrivances needed for the operation of outlet gates and spillway gates.
14 . These large blocks of concrete are subject to deep as well as surface cracking. This is accomplished by cooling the aggregate by refrigerated water. Control of Cracking in Concrete Dams: If proper temperature control is not exercised. cooling of sand and using refrigerated water for the manufacture of concrete. 5. Using low heat cement in the concrete. Post cooling of concrete: The post cooling is achieved by circulating refrigerated water through pipes embedded in concrete in each lift. 4. Plumber shaft is provided to measure the deflections of dam by suspending a plumb bob in it. all the corners should be rounded so that stress concentration is minimum. All this involves high cost of preparing the concrete. since the disintegration starts through them by wedge action. Shafts: Vertical openings in the dam are called shafts. The cooling is begun immediately after a block is laid and is continued till the mass temperature falls to the mean annual temperature of the locality. 7. though shape d is preferred. a rectangular trough such as at c is necessary. The surface cracks may appear due to daily variations of the temperature at surface. In oval shaped gallery to provide walkway. 2.the rectangular gallery. The usual time is about 4 days. blowing air through them. thin walled tubings are placed in the middle of each lift. the large concrete block between the joints may crack due to high temperature gradient between the interior and the surface. Shafts are provided to connect galleries a (various levels.5 m 6.5 to 2 m and the velocity of flow is kept more than 60 cm per second. Water enters these surface cracks. The cracks in the interior of the blocks are produced due to beat of hydration liberated by cement thus giving rise to high temperature gradient. The ice so formed begins to expand at 4°C. Restricting the height of lift. accumulates there and then solidifies. Where drainage trough is required. Allowing considerable time between laying of two successive vertical lifts. Using lower percentage of cement in the concrete for the interior of the blocks. say about 80 % of that for the exterior. Providing contraction joints at suitable spacings. to say 1. The horizontal spacing of these tubings may be between 0. resulting in widening and deepening of cracks. The surface cracks are more harmful. Pre-cooling of concrete: The concrete is precooled before it is placed in the dam. Resistance thermometers are embedded in the concrete to ascertain the temperature. 3. the semi-circular bottom is filled in with an unbounded slab. For the purposes of circulating cool water. Following are some of the methods employed to check or minimize the development of the cracks in mass concrete: 1.
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