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Topics What is SQL and where does it come from? What are the difference between DDL, DML and DCL commands? How does one escape characters when building SQL queries? How does one eliminate duplicate rows from a table? How does one generate primary key values for a table? How does one get the time difference between two date columns? How does one add a day/hour/minute/second to a date value? How does one count different data values in a column? How does one count/sum RANGES of data values in a column? Can one retrieve only the Nth row from a table? Can one retrieve only rows X to Y from a table? How does one select EVERY Nth row from a table? How does one select the TOP N rows from a table? How does one code a tree-structured query? How does one code a matrix report in SQL? How does one implement IF-THEN-ELSE in a select statement? How can one dump/ examine the exact content of a database column? Can one drop a column from a table? Can one rename a column in a table? How can I change my Oracle password? How does one find the next value of a sequence? Workaround for snapshots on tables with LONG columns Where can one get more info about SQL?
What are the difference between DDL, DML and DCL commands? DDL is Data Definition Language statements. Some examples: • • • • • • • CREATE - to create objects in the database ALTER - alters the structure of the database DROP - delete objects from the database TRUNCATE - remove all records from a table, including all spaces allocated for the records are removed COMMENT - add comments to the data dictionary GRANT - gives user's access privileges to database REVOKE - withdraw access privileges given with the GRANT command
DML is Data Manipulation Language statements. Some examples: • • SELECT - retrieve data from the a database INSERT - insert data into a table
• • • • •
UPDATE - updates existing data within a table DELETE - deletes all records from a table, the space for the records remain CALL - call a PL/SQL or Java subprogram EXPLAIN PLAN - explain access path to data LOCK TABLE - control concurrency
DCL is Data Control Language statements. Some examples: • • • • COMMIT - save work done SAVEPOINT - identify a point in a transaction to which you can later roll back ROLLBACK - restore database to original since the last COMMIT SET TRANSACTION - Change transaction options like what rollback segment to use
Back to top of file How does one escape special characters when building SQL queries? The LIKE keyword allows for string searches. The '_' wild card character is used to match exactly one character, '%' is used to match zero or more occurrences of any characters. These characters can be escaped in SQL. Example: SELECT name FROM emp WHERE id LIKE '%\_%' ESCAPE '\'; Use two quotes for every one displayed. Example: SELECT 'Franks''s Oracle site' FROM DUAL; SELECT 'A ''quoted'' word.' FROM DUAL; SELECT 'A ''''double quoted'''' word.' FROM DUAL; Back to top of file How does one eliminate duplicates rows from a table? Choose one of the following queries to identify or remove duplicate rows from a table leaving only unique records in the table: Method 1: SQL> DELETE FROM table_name A WHERE ROWID > ( 2 3 SELECT min(rowid) FROM table_name B WHERE A.key_values = B.key_values);
key_value1 = t1. Note: One can eliminate N^2 unnecessary operations by creating an index on the joined fields in the inner loop (no need to loop through the entire table on each pass by a record). SQL> drop table_name1. SQL> rename table_name2 to table_name1. or use a sequences generator: SQL> CREATE SEQUENCE sequence_name START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1. Note 2: If you are comparing NOT-NULL columns. Method 3: (thanks to Dennis Gurnick) SQL> delete from my_table t1 SQL> where exists (select 'x' from my_table t2 SQL> SQL> SQL> where t2.SQL> create table table_name2 as select distinct * from table_name1. create a unique index on this column. Finally. etc on table.Remember to recreate all indexes. This will speed-up the deletion process. This column can now be populated with unique values: SQL> UPDATE table_name SET seqno = ROWNUM. This should not be a problem as all key columns should be NOT NULL by definition.. constraints..key_value2 = t1. Back to top of file How does one generate primary key values for a table? Create your table with a NOT NULL column (say SEQNO). Remember that NULL is not equal to NULL. SQL> -.key_value1 and t2. Back to top of file How does one get the time difference between two date columns? Look at this example query: . SQL> UPDATE table_name SET seqno = sequence_name.key_value2 and t2. use the NVL function.rowid). triggers.NEXTVAL.rowid > t1.
. If you don't want to go through the floor and ceiling math. sysdate+1/24.. 'HH24:MI:SS') time_difference from . sysdate +1/1440. Back to top of file How does one add a day/hour/minute/second to a date value? The SYSDATE pseudo-column shows the current system date and time. Note that this query only uses the time portion of the date and ignores the date itself. Look at these examples: SQL> select sysdate. It will thus never return a value bigger than 23:59:59..-------------------.date2).'HH24:MI:SS') + (date1 . minutes or seconds to the date. try this method (contributed by Erik Wile): select to_char(to_date('00:00:00'.-------------------. Adding 1 to SYSDATE will advance the date by 1 day.select floor(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600) || ' HOURS ' || floor((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) floor(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60) || ' MINUTES ' || round((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) floor(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600 (floor((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) floor(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60)*60))) || ' SECS ' time_difference from .. Use fractions to add hours. sysdate + 1/86400 from dual.-------------------- . SYSDATE SYSDATE+1/86400 SYSDATE+1/24 SYSDATE+1/1440 -------------------.
'MONDAY') + 12/24 TRUNC(LAST_DAY(SYSDATE ) + 1) TRUNC(LAST_DAY(ADD_MONTHS(SYSDATE.NEXT_DAY(sysd Wednesday or Friday ate.m Back to top of file How does one count different data values in a column? . sysdate+30/(24*60*60) NOW_PLUS_30_SECS from dual.''WEDNESDAY'').-------------------03-JUL-2002 16:47:23 03-JUL-2002 16:47:53 Here are a couple of examples: Description Now Tomorow/ next day Seven days from now One hour from now Three hours from now An half hour from now SYSDATE SYSDATE + 1 SYSDATE + 7 SYSDATE + 1/24 SYSDATE + 3/24 SYSDATE + 1/48 Date Expression 10 minutes from now SYSDATE + 10/1440 30 seconds from now SYSDATE + 30/86400 Tomorrow at 12 midnight Tomorrow at 8 AM Next Monday at 12:00 noon First day of next month at 12 midnight First day of the current month TRUNC(SYSDATE + 1) TRUNC(SYSDATE + 1) + 8/24 NEXT_DAY(TRUNC(SYSDATE).''FRIDAY'' ))) + (9/24) at 9 a. NEXT_DAY(sysdate. NOW NOW_PLUS_30_SECS -------------------.''MONDAY'' ). TRUNC(LEAST(NEXT_DAY(sysdate.-1))) + 1 The next Monday.03-Jul-2002 08:32:12 03-Jul-2002 09:32:12 03-Jul-2002 08:33:12 03-Jul2002 08:32:13 The following format is frequently used with Oracle Replication: select sysdate NOW.
2. 1. 1. 59)... rate_1. 0.'F'.0. 0.. least(f1. 0).'M'. A more sophisticated example. Back to top of file How does one count/sum RANGES of data values in a column? A value x will be between values y and z if GREATEST(x.59). sum(decode(greatest(f1. sum( decode(sex. sal "Salary". 1. 0). For equal size ranges it might be easier to calculate it with DECODE(TRUNC(value/range). rate_0.100).1. 1.1. least(f1.30). y) = LEAST(x.0)) MALE.'M'.1. 1.1)) TOTAL from my_emp_table group by dept. Look at this example: select f2. 0)) "Range 00-29" from my_table group by f2. 0. sum(decode(greatest(f1. sum( decode(sex. . 0. Back to top of file . count(decode(sex. 2. sum(decode(greatest(f1.. 0.31) "Tax rate" from my_table. least(f1. 29).1.). Eg. select dept. select ename "Name". z). 0)) "Range 60-100".0)) FEMALE. 0)) "Range 30-59". 3. 0. count(*) from my_table group by my_table_column.'F'. decode( trunc(f2/1000.Use this simple query to count the number of data values in a column: select my_table_column.
rowid >= b.emp a GROUP BY rownum. SELECT rownum. Its far better than using a MINUS operation.empno FROM scott.Can one retrieve only the Nth row from a table? Rupak Mohan provided this solution to select the Nth row from a table: SELECT * FROM t1 a WHERE n = (SELECT COUNT(rowid) FROM t1 b WHERE a.empno HAVING rownum = 4. Note: In this first query we select one more than the required row number. then we select the required one. Shaik Khaleel provided this solution: SELECT * FROM ( SELECT ENAME. .rowid). Alternatively.ROWNUM RN FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 101 ) WHERE RN = 100.. SELECT * FROM emp WHERE rownum=1 AND rowid NOT IN (SELECT rowid FROM emp WHERE rownum < 10).. Ravi Pachalla provided these solutions: SELECT f1 FROM t1 WHERE rowid = ( SELECT rowid FROM t1 WHERE rownum <= 10 MINUS SELECT rowid FROM t1 WHERE rownum < 10).
odd. However. f1 HAVING rownum BETWEEN 2 AND 4. f1 FROM t1 GROUP BY rownum. However. this query is quite fun and may even help in the odd situation.Please note. Back to top of file Can one retrieve only rows X to Y from a table? Shaik Khaleel provided this solution to the problem: SELECT * FROM ( SELECT ENAME. Note: the 101 is just one greater than the maximum row of the required rows (means x= 90.ROWNUM RN FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 101 ) WHERE RN between 91 and 100 . there is no explicit row order in a relational database. For example. Another solution is to use the MINUS operation. construct a query like this: SELECT * FROM tableX WHERE rowid in ( SELECT rowid FROM tableX WHERE rownum <= 7 MINUS SELECT rowid FROM tableX WHERE rownum < 5). this query is quite fun and may even help in the odd situation. Back to top of file How does one select EVERY Nth row from a table? One can easily select all even. Ravi Pachalla provided this solution: SELECT rownum. so the inner values is y+1). Please note. y=100. there is no explicit row order in a relational database. or Nth rows from a table using SQL queries like this: . to display rows 5 to 7.
f1 HAVING MOD(rownum.provided by Ravi Pachalla SELECT rownum.0) IN (SELECT ROWID.Method 1: Using a subquery SELECT * FROM emp WHERE (ROWID. there is no explicit row order in a relational database. Method 2: Use dynamic views (available from Oracle7. Look at this example: SELECT * FROM (SELECT * FROM my_table ORDER BY col_name_1 DESC) WHERE ROWNUM < 10. empno.4) FROM emp). f1 FROM t1 GROUP BY rownum.ROWNUM. MOD(ROWNUM.n) = 0 OR rownum = 2-n Please note.4) = 0. ename FROM emp ) temp WHERE MOD(temp. Method 3: Using GROUP BY and HAVING . these queries are quite fun and may even help in the odd situation. However. Back to top of file How does one select the TOP N rows from a table? Form Oracle8i one can have an inner-query with an ORDER BY clause.2): SELECT * FROM ( SELECT rownum rn. Use this workaround with prior releases: SELECT * FROM my_table a WHERE 10 >= (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT maxcol) .
One disadvantage of having a "connect by prior" clause is that you cannot perform a join to other tables.. This table is perfect for tesing and demonstrating tree-structured queries as the MGR column contains the employee number of the "current" employee's boss. LEVEL * 2) || ENAME .. More than one record can match the starting condition.maxcol) ORDER BY maxcol DESC. this feature is not often found in other database offerings.. Back to top of file How does one code a matrix report in SQL? . Look at this example: select lpad(' '. Also. The "connect by prior" clause is rarely implemented in the other database offerings. MGR from EMP connect by prior EMPNO = MGR start with MGR is NULL. One can produce an indented report by using the level number to substring or lpad() a series of spaces. Trying to do this programmatically is difficult as one has to do the top level query first. EMPNO. and concatenate that to the string. and the select matching records from other tables on a row-by-row basis. The SCOTT/TIGER database schema contains a table EMP with a self-referencing relation (EMPNO and MGR columns). open the driving cursor with the "connect by prior" statement. inserting the results into a temporary table for later retrieval..maxcol >= a.FROM my_table b WHERE b. Oracle can handle queries with a depth of up to 255 levels. Back to top of file How does one code a tree-structured query? Tree-structured queries are definitely non-relational (enough to kill Codd and make him roll in his grave). Look at this example: select LEVEL... then. One uses the "start with" clause to specify the start of the tree. The LEVEL pseudo-column is an indication of how deep in the tree one is.. One way of working around this is to use PL/SQL. ENAME. for each of the records open a cursor to look for child nodes.
sum(decode(deptno.---------. 1300 2450 5000 5600 6000 1900 2975 950 2850 select a.Look at this example query with sample output: SELECT * FROM (SELECT job.sal)) DEPT10. 'M'.---------.---------. 'a > b'.30.10. a-b. b.20. .sal)) DEPT40 FROM scott. 'a = b'. 0.40. 'Male'.sal)) DEPT20.sal)) DEPT30. 'Female'.emp GROUP BY job) ORDER BY 1. 'Unknown') from employees. decode( abs(a-b). 'F'. JOB DEPT10 DEPT20 DEPT30 DEPT40 --------. sum(decode(deptno. sum(decode(deptno.---------ANALYST CLERK MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN Back to top of file How does one implement IF-THEN-ELSE in a select statement? The Oracle decode function acts like a procedural statement inside an SQL statement to return different values or columns based on the values of other columns in the select statement. Some examples: select decode(sex. sum(decode(deptno.
B). B.B). Back to top of file Can one drop a column from a table? . select decode( GREATEST(A. 'A is greater OR EQUAL than B'. CASE WHEN sal>1000 THEN 'Over paid' ELSE 'Under paid' END FROM emp. From Oracle 8i one can also use CASE statements in SQL. select decode( GREATEST(A. but use it sparingly if portability is required. 'A GREATER THAN B'). and the last byte in the column is 32. It is one of the good things about Oracle. A.32 For this example the type is 96..66.. indicating CHAR. Back to top of file How can one dump/ examine the exact content of a database column? SELECT DUMP(col1) FROM tab1 WHERE cond1 = val1. 'A NOT GREATER THAN B').. Note: The decode function is not ANSI SQL and is rarely implemented in other RDBMS offerings. Look at this example: SELECT ename. decode(A. A..67. This tells us that this column is blankpadded. which is the ASCII code for a space.'a < b') from tableX. 'B is greater than A'). 'A NOT GREATER THAN B'. DUMP(COL1) ------------------------------------Typ=96 Len=4: 65.
rename t2 to t1. Other workarounds: 1.Use a view with correct column names. SQL> create view t1 as select <specific columns> from t1_base. Back to top of file Can one rename a column in a table? From Oracle9i one can RENAME a column from a table. -.. rename t1 to t1_base.From Oracle8i one can DROP a column from a table. SQL> create table t2 as select <specific columns> from t1. 2. command. . SQL> update t1 set column_to_drop = NULL. Look at this example: ALTER TABLE tablename RENAME COLUMN oldcolumn TO newcolumn. demonstrating the ALTER TABLE table_name DROP COLUMN column_name.. update t1 set newcolname=oldcolname. SQL> rename t2 to t1.. 2. create table t2 <column list with new name> as select * from t1. create view t1 <column list with new name> as select * from t1_base. Look at this sample script. drop table t1.. SQL> drop table t1. -. alter table t1 add ( newcolame datatype ).Add a column with a new name and drop an old column. -. Other workarounds: 1.. 3.Recreate the table with correct column names.. SQL> rename t1 to t1_base.
Afterwards. convert your LONGs to LOBs. you will see the correct high water mark value that would be returned for the next NEXTVALL call. Back to top of file How can I change my Oracle password? Issue the following SQL command: ALTER USER <username> IDENTIFIED BY <new_password> / From Oracle8 you can just type "password" from SQL*Plus. Eg: COPY TO SCOTT/TIGER@REMOTE CREATE IMAGE_TABLE USING SELECT IMAGE_NO. You can use the above technique to prevent sequence number loss before a SHUTDOWN ABORT. Back to top of file How does one find the next value of a sequence? Perform an "ALTER SEQUENCE . - Note: If you run Oracle8.. type "password user_name". NOCACHE" to unload the unused cached sequence numbers from the Oracle library cache. no cached numbers will be lost. If you then select from the USER_SEQUENCES dictionary view. or if you need to change another user's password. or any other operation that would cause gaps in sequence values..alter table t1 drop column oldcolname. CACHE" to restore caching. Back to top of file Workaround for snapshots on tables with LONG columns You can use the SQL*Plus COPY command instead of snapshots if you need to copy LONG and LONG RAW variables from one location to another. Contents of this Page Can I Update From Another Table ? Can I Remove Duplicate Rows ? What is ROWID good for ? . This way.. IMAGE FROM IMAGES. as it can be replicated.. perform an "ALTER SEQUENCE .
Back to Top of File Can I remove duplicate rows ? Yes.ROWID = ( . The ROWID is guaranteed unique. SYSTEM and SYS ? How do I avoid blowing rollback segments ? How can I restore passwords ? Not Formatted Yet Can I Update From Another Table ? Yes. we could update the number of employees field as follows: update DEPT_SUMMARY s set NUM_EMPS = ( select count(1) from EMP E where E. For example. if we had a table DEPT_SUMMARY. delete from EMP E where not E. columns. What is ROWNUM good for ? Views Questions on views have moved to another page. etc are there ? How can I rename a column ? Is there a formatter for SQL or PL/SQL ? How come records for the date I want are missing ? How can I interpret a two digit year after 2000 ? What is a cluster ? How do I control which rollback segment I use ? How do order a union ? Who are SCOTT.DEPTNO = S.DEPTNO ). Can I implement Tree Structured Queries ? How can I get information on the row based on group information ? How can I get a name for a temporary table that will not clash ? How can I discover what tables. using the ROWID field. There are many variations on this theme. but the logic is to delete all but one record for each key value.
You can get an "indented" report by using the level number to substring or lpad a series of spaces and concatenate that to the string. select lpad(' '.. soon you blow the cursor limit for your installation.. and the select matching records from other tables on a row-by-row basis. LEVEL.. You use the start with clause to specify the start of the tree(s). select LEVEL. This is definitely non-relational (enough to kill Codd and then make him roll in his grave) and is a feature I have not seen in the competition. LEVEL * 2) || ENAME . You have available an extra pseudo-column. open the driving cursor with the "connect by prior" statement. The way around this is to use PL/SQL. EMPNO.. One disadvantage of a "connect by prior" is that you cannot perform a join to other tables. The MGR column contains the employee number of the "current" employee's boss. Oracle can handle queries with a depth up to 255. Even trying to doing this programmatically in embedded SQL is difficult as you have to do the top level query.EMP_ID ).select min(F.. The definitive example is in the example SCOTT/TIGER database. for each of them open a cursor to look for lower level rows. Back to Top of File Can I implement Tree Structured Queries ? Yes! This is commonly asked by those migrating from non-RDBMS apps. that says how deep in the tree you are. for each of these.. . inserting the results into a temporary table for later retrieval... when looking at the EMP table (EMPNO and MGR columns).ROWID) from EMP F where F. Still.. I have not managed to see anything else like the "connect by prior" in the other vendor offerings and I like trees.. More than one record can match the starting condition. ENAME... MGR from EMP connect by prior EMPNO = MGR start with MGR is NULL.EMP_ID = E..
SAL) from EMP e2 where e2.SAL from EMP e where e. Note that SQL-92 is developing specific constructs for using temporary tables. e. and use the number to help you build the temporary table name.SAL in ( select max (e2. You could get similar info on employees with the highest salary in their departments as follows select e. e.DEPTNO ). You need to use a subquery.DEPTNO.ENAME.SAL) from EMP e2 ).ENAME. e.SAL from EMP e where e. Back to Top of File How can I get a name for a temporary table that will not clash ? Use a sequence. Back to Top of File .DEPTNO = e.EMPNO.Note that you can't trick Oracle by using CONNECT BY PRIOR on a view that does the join. Back to Top of File How can I get information on the row based on group information ? Imagine we have the EMP table and want details on the employee who has the highest salary. e.SAL = ( select max (e2. select e.
sql in your account. etc are there ? Oracle maintains a live set of views that you can query to tell you what you have available. maybe someone could base a reformatter based on the grammar.How can I discover what tables.sql to do this. If you can't figure out how to use it from the source you definitely should not run it. Do backup the database first unless you feel brave. (I have successfully done it in V4 thru V7). columns. If you are a DBA you should also create private DBA synonyms by running $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/dba_syn. Back to Top of File Is there a formatter for SQL or PL/SQL ? There are a number of "beautifiers" for various program languages. The cb and indent programs for the C language spring to mind (although they have slightly different conventions). It is a good idea to be familiar with these. Given that there are PD general SQL parsers and that the SQL standards are drafted in something close to BNF. As far as I know there is no PD formatter for SQL available. You can use a similar dirty trick for changing ownership of tables if storage space is limited. the first two to look at are DICT and DICT_COLUMNS which act as a directory of the other dictionary views. In V6. Note that you CANNOT use cb and indent with Pro*C as both these programs will screw up the embedded SQL code. Not all of these views are accessible by all users. I have recently heard that Kumaran Systems (see Vendor list) have a Forms PL/SQL and SQL formatter. It can be done carefully by the DBA playing around with internal SYS dictionary tables and bouncing the database. but I do not now if they have unbundled it. Back to Top of File . I've written a quick and dirty script rncol. but this is not supported. Back to Top of File How can I rename a column ? There is no way a column can be renamed using normal SQL.
If you have any code depending on these (and the widely used tools supplied by Oracle but unsupported are in this category) then you need to verify that everything works each time you upgrade your database.but none of them are coming back to you...How come records for the date I want are missing ? You are trying to retrieve data based on something like: SELECT fld1. the picture format "RR" will be interpreted as the year based on a guess that that date is between 1950 and 2049.4 dummies up the files in the /proc or /dev/proc directories.. Back to Top of File How can I interpret a two digit year after 2000 ? When converting to dates from characters when you only have two characters for the year. And when a major revision changes. 'HH24:. which can be a bad move regarding SQL performance. all bets are off. These are not guaranteed to be stable from minor release to minor release and are for DBAs only.. What has happened is that your records are not set to midnight (which is the default value if time of day not specified). There are usually no real underlying tables (unlike SYS.OBJ$) and are dummied up by the RDBMS kernel software in much the same way that UNIX System V. fld2 FROM tbl WHERE date_field = '18-jun-60' You *know* there are records for that day ..YY') . or you can say WHERE date_field >= '18-jun-60' AND date_field < '19-jun-60' An alternative could be something like WHERE date_field between '18-jun-1960' AND to_date('23:59:59 18-jun-60'. . Back to Top of File What are these V$ tables? There are a number of tables/views beginning with V$ that hold gory details for performance monitoring. You can either use to_char and to_date functions.
for n in 1. . cursor c1 is select SAL from EMP order BY SAL desc. I do not believe that straight SQL is the way to go for such problems when you have PL/SQL available.other_stuff from table_name a where 10 > ( select count(1) from table_name b where b. a.ordered_column ) order by a. One elegant SQL-only approach (although it will be a bitch on a large table) was suggested by Stowe@aol. begin open c1.ordered_column.ordered_columnl.ordered_column < a.Back to Top of File How do I get a top ten ? This question often gets the response WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 but this will not work (except accidentally) because the ROWNUM pseudocolumn is generated before the ORDER or WHERE clauses come into effect.10 loop fetch c1 into :tenthsal. My approach is to use PL/SQL instead (in SQL*Plus): variable tenthsal number declare n number.com select a..
etc. On a related note. Both these statements must be the first statement of the transaction. Use the column number. Back to Top of File How do I order a union ? (Governments around the world have been trying to figure this one out). using both EMP and DEPT tables: .end loop. if all you are doing are SELECTS. you may need to control the rollback segment used as the default rollback segment may be too small for the required transaction. Say we are getting a list of names and codes and want it ordered by the name. or you may want to ensure that your transaction runs in a special rollback segment. end: / select * from EMP where SAL <= :tenthsal order by SAL desc. unaffected by others. Needs V7. Late news: index descending hint to SQL works if you use a dummy restriction to force use of the index. The statement is as follows: SET TRANSACTION USE ROLLBACK SEGMENT segment_name. close c1. Back to Top of File How do control which rollback segment I use ? In SQL. it is worth telling the database of this using the following: SET TRANSACTION READ ONLY.
This is OK except for where you are doing your work in a single statement rather than using PL/SQL and a loop construct. Imagine you have a HUGE table and need to update it. possibly updating the key.causing you to visit records more than once. SCOTT and SYS. If you are writing in Pro*C and use MODE=ORACLE. SYSTEM and SYS ? These three users are common in many databases. but not if you are using MODE=ANSI. This was very easy to program and also was quite fast in execution. because usually the cursor will close.select DEPTNO. You cannot update it in one go because your rollback segments are too small. ENAME from EMP order by 2. Back to Top of File Who are SCOTT. The solution I have used was to have one process select ROWID from the appropriate rows and pump these (via standard I/O) to another process that looped around reading ROWIDs from standard input. The number of locks and size of rollback segments required was minimal. Back to Top of File How can I avoid blowing rollback segments ? The simple answer is make sure you have them big enough and keep your transactions small. Another common user/password is PLSQL/SUPERSECRET used for PL/SQL demo stuff. but that is being a smartarse. You cannot have a number of updates of a few records each because the keys may change . Back to Top of File . DNAME from DEPT union select EMPNO. updating the appropriate record and committing every 10 records or so. You cannot open a cursor and commit every n records. More recent versions of Oracle have an option for the session that you can set that commits every so many DML statements. there are ways around it too. See the glossary entries under SCOTT.
It looks like gobbledygook because it is an encrypted password.--------------NLSRTL 184.108.40.206.15) status from product_component_version PRODUCT VERSION STATUS --------------. BANNER ---------------------------------------------------------------Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release 8.Production Question: What Applications/Versions/Patch Levels are loaded on my machine ? this query gives more details than the one below select substr(a. Note especially the S on the end of PASSWORDS.4) "Version" . First stash the gobbledygook password away somewhere. Say you want to impersonate a user in a batch run overnight.0 Production also.APPLICATION_NAME.1.1. grant connect to SCOTT identified by passwords GOBBLEDYGOOK.0. To restore the password to what it was use the following syntax (which I think is undocumented).3.0 . First. grant connect to the user identified by some password you know and then run your batches using the new known password.60) "Application Name" . substr(i.How can I restore passwords ? OK. look at the PASSWORD column in DBA_USERS.3.0 Production Oracle8i Enterp 8. SQL> select * from v$version where banner like 'Oracle%'.1. Question: What versions are loaded on my machine ? SQL> select substr(product.7.15) product.--------------.15) version.0 Production PL/SQL 8.7.4.substr(status. so this is really a DBA question.1.1.7. However you can use this if you have saved it somewhere else.1. but it is worth putting in here because it involves SQL regardless of interface.PRODUCT_VERSION.3.0 Production TNS for 32-bit 220.127.116.11.substr(version.
APPLICATION_ID -.segment2.1.'185') order by a.1.LAST_UPDATE_DATE "Last Update" from APPS. .PATCH_LEVEL like '11i%' -. patch_type.count(gl_date) from ra_cust_trx_line_gl_dist_All where account_class = 'REV' group by gl_date Question: What is my current GL SET OF BOOKS select SET_OF_BOOKS_ID.APPLICATION_ID = a. NAME.SHORT_NAME. substr(gl.8) Account.5) Auth.and i.not all applications update the next field correctly -. substr(gl..'275'. maint_pack_level from ad_applied_patches where patch_name like '%' order by 1 How do I obtain CCID / Chart of Account data for General Ledger select substr(gl. CURRENCY_CODE.gl_code_combinations gl order by code_combination_id Question: How many transactions exist by GL DATE (period) ? select gl_date.'222'.APPLICATION_ID "Application ID" . rapid_installed_flag.code_combination_id.5) ccid.segment4.'101'.1. i. i.APPLICATION_NAME Question: What patches are loaded on my machine ? select patch_name. PERIOD_SET_NAME.FND_PRODUCT_INSTALLATIONS i .FND_APPLICATION_ALL_VIEW a where i. CHART_OF_ACCOUNTS_ID.'200'.1.1.segment5.'140'. substr(gl.5) Job FROM gl. substr(gl.'201'.segment3.these are the applications that concern me most -. APPS. ACCOUNTED_PERIOD_TYPE. i. applied_patch_id.1.'260'.PATCH_LEVEL "Patch Level" .APPLICATION_ID in ('0'.5) RC.5) Func.and i. substr(gl.segment1.
0 SQL> PRINT COMPATIBILITY COMPATIBILITY ---------------------------------------8.30) description from gl_sets_of_books Question: What DB version is on my machine ? SQL> VARIABLE VERSION VARCHAR2(50) SQL> VARIABLE COMPATIBILITY VARCHAR2(50) SQL> EXEC DBMS_UTILITY.0.'DB_NAME') AS instance from dual. substr(DESCRIPTION.LATEST_OPENED_PERIOD_NAME.:COMPATIBILITY) PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. NAME --------ARGP also you can use this: SQL> select sys_context('USERENV'. SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV'.DB_VERSION(:VERSION.'TERMINAL') -------------------------------------------------------------AR0669 Question: How can I retrieve a random number ? SQL> select dbms_random.0 Question: What machine or instance am I using ?? SQL> Select name from v$database.1.random from dual.4.0. SQL> PRINT VERSION VERSION ---------------------------------------8.'TERMINAL') from dual. RANDOM . INSTANCE --------------------------------------------------------------------ARGP This variation will give you the machine name you are running on: SQL> Select sys_context('USERENV'.0.
---------495129087 Question: What patches are loaded on our machine ? SQL> select * from AD_APPLIED_PATCHES Question: Am I setup for Multi-Org ? select multi_org_flag from fnd_product_groups.'yymmddhh24mi') from dual TO_CHAR(SY ---------0409141005 select to_char(sysdate. Useful DATE output SQL This format is yymmdd = year month day | hh24mi = 24 hour clock and minutes select to_char(sysdate.'hh24:mi:ss') from dual TO_CHAR( -------10:11:14 .
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