AXIAL, BENDING, TORSION, COMBINED AND BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF A BEAM

Instructor: Professor James Sherwood Revised: Dimitri Soteropoulos Programs Utilized: ABAQUS CAE 6.9-EF1 Problem Description: In this tutorial, a finite element model of a beam will be constructed and analyzed using ABAQUS CAE. The analysis will look at stresses and displacements associated with multiple loading conditions for a steel I-beam. The beam will be “clamped” at one end and be loaded on the other end with prescribed displacements for axial, torsion and bending loads. A unit force will be applied to find the critical buckling load and the associated mode shape. The cross section of the beam is shown in Figure 1. The cross section dimensions are summarized in Table 1. The length of the beam is 90 cm.

Table 1. Cross Section Dimensions a b t1 t2 6 cm 7 cm 1 mm 2 mm

Figure 1. Beam Cross Section

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Creating the Model Geometry   Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus CAE You may be prompted with an Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box (Figure 1). Close this box by clicking the X in the top right hand corner.

Figure 1. Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box.

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Once the Extended Functionality box is exited, the ABAQUS CAE Viewport should look similar to Figure 2. (Please note the model tree is the series of functions listed on the left hand side of the viewport, while the module is the list of icons to the right of the model tree)

Model Tree

Figure 2. ABAQUS CAE Viewport   To create the model geometry of the steel I-beam, a sketch of the cross section must be generated. Using the left mouse button, double click Parts in the model tree and the Create Part (Figure 3a) dialog box appears. Enter a new name for the part (I-BEAM), and under the Base Feature tab choose Shell for shape and Extrusion for type. Change the approximate size option to 0.5. The Create Part dialog box should look identical to Figure 3b. Click Continue… and the graphics window will change to a set of gridlines.

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Figure 3a. Create Part Dialog Box

Figure 3b. Create Part Dialog Box (I-BEAM)

For the first step in generating the model geometry, a rectangular box must be created. Click the Create Lines: Rectangle (4 lines) icon in the module. (Remember, the module is the series of icons to the right of the model tree) In the viewport click once with the cursor, then drag the cursor to any other place in the viewport and click again. A yellow rectangle should be visible in the viewport. Click the Create Lines: Connected icon in the module, hover the cursor along the top horizontal line of the rectangle until a white circle appears (Figure 4). The circle should appear at the midpoint of that line.

 

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Figure 4. Midpoint of Horizontal Line  Once the white circle appears on the horizontal line, click with the cursor and draw a vertical line which connects to the bottom horizontal line. You will know that the line is vertical if there is a V located on the right side of the line (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Vertical Line

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Click the Add Dimension icon in the module and click the top horizontal line in the sketch. a New dimension: box should appear (Figure 6).059 is entered for the vertical height. a New dimension: box should appear. At the bottom of the viewport.059 for the vertical line) Figure 7. make sure to enter a value of 0. it will now be given the proper dimensions. Using the cursor click the middle vertical line. Move the cursur away from the horizontal line and click. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear.16.059 in the new dimension box and hit Enter. Hit Enter. (Please note: due to significant figures in the sketch mode a value of 0. Make sure to keep a consistent set of units when creating any model. New Dimension Box       Enter a value of 0. Move the cursor away from the vertical line and click. Enter a value of 0.06 will appear when 0. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension and look similar to that in Figure 7. Since an arbitrary rectangle was drawn in the initial sketch. The dimension values are being input in units of meters. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear. Dimensioned Sketch ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 6 REV 03.07 in the New Dimension box.2011 . At the bottom of the viewport.  Figure 6.

If this was done correctly the left vertical line should disappear. click the Auto-Trim icon in the module.9) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 7 REV 03. This value will extrude the geometry 90 cm (0.16. Repeat the previous step but drag the cursor over the far right vertical line. At the bottom of the viewport you will be prompted to Sketch the section for the shell extrusion. Figure 9a.  To properly create the I-Beam cross section. After this value has been entered the Edit Base Extrusion dialog box should look similar to Figure 9b. The Edit Base Extrusion dialog box will appear (Figure 9a). Click Done. Click and hold the left cursor button while dragging the cursor over the far left vertical line and then let go.2011 . Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box Figure 9b.9.9m) in the Z direction. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box (0. Figure 8. Final I-Beam Cross Section    Press Escape on your keyboard to exit the Auto-Trim tool. If the process was done correctly the sketch should look similar to that in Figure 8. In the Depth: category enter a value of 0.

Figure 10. Enter a Name for the material (STEEL). double click on Materials in the model tree and the Edit Material dialog box will appear (Figure 11a). the Edit Material dialog box should look similar to Figure 11b. and click the Mechanical tab. highlight Elasticity and click Elastic. The cross section sketch will be extruded into a three dimensional part. Extruded I-Beam Model Defining Material Properties  To define material properties for this model. Click OK.  Click OK. After the material properties have been entered.3.16.2011 .  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 8 REV 03. Sketch mode will automatically be exited and a grey I-Beam will appear (Figure 10). and Poisson’s Ratio = 0. Enter values of Young’s Modulus = 200E09 Pa.

Click File then click Save. and Homogeneous under the Type tab. double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 12a). and choose Shell under the Category Tab. At this point in preprocessing. Enter a Name for the section (FLANGE).cae*) file. the model should be saved. All of the dimensions have been input in meters. Click Continue…  Figure 12a.Figure 11a. The file will save as a Model Database (*. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 12b.2011 . Edit Material Dialog Box  Figure 11b. Create Section Dialog Box (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 9 REV 03. therefore the respective Young’s Modulus units should be entered in Pa (Pascals). The units chosen for the definition of the material properties should be consistent and dictate what units should be used for the dimensions of the structure. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 12b.16. Name the file I-Beam Tutorial. It may be of interest to save the file after each section of this tutorial. Edit Material Dialog Box (Steel)  Please note there is no dropdown menu or feature in ABAQUS that sets specific units. Creating Sections  To create a shell section in ABAQUS.

   The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 14b. Click Continue… ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 10 REV 03. the Material is defaulted to STEEL.001 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a thickness of 1 mm for both the top and bottom flanges). If multiple materials had been created. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section. Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. If both the flanges and web had the same thickness only one section would need to be created. another section with the appropriate shell thickness for the web must be created. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 13. Figure 13. Under the basic tab enter 0. Edit Section Dialog Box (FLANGE)    Since the flanges have a different specified thickness than the web.16. and choose Shell under the Category Tab.2011 . Because only one material has been created. Enter a Name for the section (WEB). Double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 14a). Click OK. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. and Homogeneous under the Type tab.

2011 . If multiple materials had been created. Under the basic tab enter 0. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section.Figure 14a.16. Because only one material has been created. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 15. Click OK. Create Section Dialog Box (WEB)    The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 14b. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. the Material is defaulted to STEEL. Edit Section Dialog Box (WEB) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 11 REV 03. Figure 15.002 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a 2 mm thickness for the web). Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss.

double click Section Assignments. further expanding the model tree (Figure 16). While holding the shift key on the keyboard. they can be assigned to the geometry. Click Done.2011 . Selected Flange Sections ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 12 REV 03.Assigning Sections  Now that the shell sections have been created. Next. Figure 16. click the + to the left of the Parts icon.  2 Top Sections 2 Bottom Sections Figure 17. this will further expand the model tree’s options.16. click the 2 sections of the top flange and the 2 sections of the bottom flange. Model Tree Expansion (Parts)  After the model tree has been expanded. click the + to the left of the part called I-BEAM. In the model tree. If the sections have been chosen correctly they will change color from grey to red (Figure 17).

The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 19b. using the cursor click the web of the I-beam. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE)   Click OK. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 19a). The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 18a). the web must be assigned its respective section. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. Click Done. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 13 REV 03. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. The top and bottom now should now turn to a blue color. Edit Section Assignment Figure 19b. Figure 19a. choose the FLANGE section that was created.16. Next. Figure 18a.2011 . Double click Section Assignments. choose the WEB section that was created. Edit Section Assignment   Figure 18b. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 18b. If the section has been chosen correctly it will change color from grey to red. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. Using the drop down menu under the Section option.

Creating a Mesh  When creating a finite element mesh with shell or plate elements. (Note: To rotate the beam click F3 on the keyboard then left click and drag the cursor to rotate the part. If this selection is done correctly. The first step in creating a mesh is to seed the part. In this model.  Click Ok. Click and hold the Seed Part icon in the mesh module and six icons will appear. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color (Figure 20). Hover the cursor over the Seed Edge: By Number icon and release the button on the cursor. it is best to make elements as square as possible. A total of eight lines should be selected since the part should be rotated and the four edges on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. the elements will be made with dimensions as close as possible to 1 cm by 1 cm. i. Click Done. then the geometry should change color to pink. double click Mesh (Empty) in the model tree.2011 . thus making the complete model blue. Selected Edges ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 14 REV 03. The web of the I-Beam should now turn a blue color. click the top and bottom edges of the flanges.e keep the aspect ratio of length to width to be as close to 1 as is possible.16. While holding the shift key on the keyboard. To create a mesh for the model geometry. To exit the rotate command press Escape on the keyboard) 2 Top Edges   Web Edge Side Edge 2 Bottom Edges Figure 20.

This will seed the selected edge to have ninety evenly spaced elements along its length. Click Done. Hit Enter on the keyboard. Next. Click Done. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 15 REV 03. click the web edge of the I-Beam (Figure 20). A total of four lines should be selected (Figure 20).16. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 3. Hit Enter on the keyboard Click Done.            Click Done. The edges will now appear to be seeded with evenly spaced pink points along their length. This will seed the selected edges to have six evenly spaced elements along their length.2011 . while holding the shift key on the keyboard. A total of two edges should be selected since the part should be rotated and the edge on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. click the four edges along the length of the I-Beam. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 90. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 6. This will seed the selected edges to have three evenly spaced elements along their length. Finally. Hit Enter on the keyboard. The edge should turn from a pink to a red color if it has been selected correctly.

Figure 22. At the Figure 21. To do this task. click the + to the left of Assembly in the model tree. .  The part is now ready to be meshed. If this procedure was done correctly. Model Tree Expansion (Assembly) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 16 REV 03.16. Meshed Geometry Creating an Instance  Now that the part has been meshed.2011 . it can be brought into the assembly. In the mesh module. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 22. the geometry will turn blue (Figure 21). click the Mesh Part icon bottom of the viewport you will be prompted if it is OK to mesh the part? Click Yes.

Figure 23.  Figure 24. This feature will allow multiple parts to be brought into the assembly. Click OK. If multiple parts had been created. then this step would allow them to be entered into the assembly.2011 . Double click on the Instances icon in the expanded model tree.16. Create Instance Dialog Box  The I-BEAM part is selected by default because only one part has been created for this tutorial. The Create Instance dialog box will appear (Figure 23). If this step was done correctly the model should turn a blue color (Figure 24). Create Instance ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 17 REV 03.

The Create Step dialog box will appear (Figure 25a). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 18 REV 03. In the model tree.2011 . The Create Step dialog box should look identical to Figure 25b. Create Step Dialog Box  Figure 25b. and the Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 26). Static or Dynamic.g. and defines the boundary conditions. support constraints and forces. Create a Name for the step called LOADING STEP.16. Figure 26. e. General. Create Step Dialog Box (LOADING STEP) Click Continue…. Figure 25a. double click the Steps icon. Edit Step Dialog Box  Click OK to accept the default values for the various options.Creating a Step   A Step is where the user defines the type of loading. Under Procedure type choose General > Static.g. e.

and under the type option make sure to choose Node.2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 19 REV 03. Double click Sets in the model tree. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard.Creating Sets  At this point 4 sets will be created to simplify the application of loads and boundary conditions in the upcoming steps. Create Set Dialog Box (FIXED END)  Click Continue… The model will to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Make sure to double click the Sets option that is underneath the I-BEAM part in the model tree (Figure 27). Figure 28a. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 28b. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 28b. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the right side of the beam were selected for the fixed end (Figure 29). click all of the nodes at one end of the beam. Figure 27. Create a Name for the set called FIXED END. A total of 19 nodes should be selected.16. Sets Option in Model Tree  The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 28a). To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color.

Double click Sets(1) in the model tree.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Figure 30a. Click Done.16. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the left side of the beam were selected for the load end. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 30b. 20 REV 03. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 30b. click all of the nodes at the opposite end of the beam that the FIXED END set was created. Create a Name for the set called LOAD END. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. Create Set Dialog Box (LOAD END)   Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Another set will be created for the loading end of the I-Beam. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 30a). Fixed End Set   Click Done.Figure 29.

Double click Sets(2) in the model tree. Finally two more sets will be created. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 21 REV 03. Created Sets Model Tree  Click the FIXED END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes which are included in that set will turn red.16. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 31.2011 . The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 32b. Create Set Dialog Box (TOP FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Create a Name for the set called TOP FLANGE. click the + to the left of Sets (2) in the model tree. click the LOAD END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes included in that set will turn red in the viewport. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 32a). Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 32b. These sets will be created to apply the torsional load to the model. one for the TOP FLANGE and the other for the BOTTOM FLANGE. Likewise. Figure 31.   Figure 32a. To verify that the sets were not created on the same end of the beam.

To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 33).2011 . Double click Sets(3) in the model tree. Now a set will be created for the BOTTOM FLANGE. click the nodes at the end of the top flange where the LOAD END set was created. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. Create Set Dialog Box (BOTTOM FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Figure 33. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 34b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 22 REV 03. Node Selection Top Flange Set   Click Done. Create a Name for the set called BOTTOM FLANGE. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Figure 34a. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 34a). Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 34b.16. and under the type option make sure to choose Node.

and choose Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre under the Types for Selected Step option. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose Initial. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 35). Figure 35. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Under the Category option choose Mechanical.16.2011 . Create a Name for the boundary condition called FIXED. click the nodes at the end of the bottom flange where the LOAD END set was created. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 23 REV 03. Double click BCs in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 36a). Node Selection Bottom Flange Set  Click Done. Apply Constraint Boundary Conditions   Boundary conditions will be defined which will simulate a fixed (also known as “clamped”) beam at one end with a tip load. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 36b.

click Sets… at the bottom right side of the viewport. Figure 37. Region Selection Dialog Box   Using the cursor.FIXED END. Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear. click I-BEAM-1.Figure 36a. Create Boundary Condition (FIXED)    Click Continue… Using the cursor. If this selection is done correctly you will be immediately prompted by the Region Selection dialog box (Figure 37). Click ENCASTRE (U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0).2011 . Create Boundary Condition Figure 36b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 24 REV 03.16. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 38.

01% axial strain will be applied to the end of the beam as a prescribed displacement. Create Boundary Condition  Click Continue… Figure 39b.2011 . Figure 39a.Figure 38. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Edit Boundary Condition Dialog Box  Click OK. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 39b. Create a Name for the boundary condition called AXIAL. Double click BCs(1) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 39a).16. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Applying an Axial Load to the Beam   A 0. Create Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 25 REV 03.

Figure 40.00009. Using the cursor click I-BEAM-1. Check the box to the left of U3 and enter a value of 0. Since the I-Beam cross section was sketched in the X Y plane. The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 40). Edit Boundary Condition Figure 41b.LOAD END. Figure 41a. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 41b.16. Edit Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 26 REV 03. a displacement will be added in the Z direction. Region Selection Dialog Box   Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 41a).2011 .

Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Click OK. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 27 REV 03.00258 m. If the prescribed displacement has been applied correctly small orange arrows will be visible at the nodes (Figure 42). and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP.16. Figure 42. The load is to be a 5° twist at the end of the beam. To find the required displacement in the x-direction to achieve the 5° twist use:   Where x is the prescribed displacement and is equal to 0. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION TOP.059/2). Applied Axial Load Applying a Torsional Load to the Beam  An equal and opposite displacement will be imposed on opposite sides of the beam to simulate a torque on the beam. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. The y-distance from the center of the beam to the top or bottom flange is 0.2011 . Double click BCs(2) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 43a). The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 43b.0295 m (0.

Figure 43a. Since this displacement will be applied to the top flange in the +X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of 0. Create Boundary Condition Figure 43b. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 45a).TOP FLANGE. Create Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. Click I-BEAM-1. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 28 REV 03. Figure 44.16.2011 . the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 44. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 45b.00258.

Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP) Click OK.Figure 45a. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 46b. Edit Boundary Condition   Figure 45b. An equal and opposite displacement will be prescribed to the bottom flange. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the +X direction at the end of the top flange.16. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION BOTTOM.2011 . Create Boundary Condition Figure 46b. Figure 46a. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Double click BCs(3) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 46a). Create Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 29 REV 03. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP.

00258.BOTTOM FLANGE. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 30 REV 03. Click I-BEAM-1. Figure 47. Edit Boundary Condition Figure 48b.2011 . Since this displacement will be applied to the bottom flange in the -X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of -0. Figure 48a. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 48a).16. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 47.  Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 48b.

An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 49. Double click BCs(4) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 50a). If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -X direction at the end of the bottom flange. Figure 49. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Click OK. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Axial and Torsional Loads Beam in Bending  Finally. a prescribed displacement in the –Y direction will be imposed on the tip of the beam.2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 31 REV 03.16. Both the axial and torsional loads are applied in this view. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 50b. Create a Name for the boundary condition called BENDING.

006. Click I-BEAM-1. Create Boundary Condition (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 32 REV 03.Figure 50a. Create Boundary Condition Figure 50b.LOAD END.16. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 52a). Since this displacement will be applied to the load end in the -Y direction click the box to the left of U2: and enter a number of -0. Figure 51. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 51. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 52b.

2011 . Torsion and Bending Loads. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 33 REV 03. Edit Boundary Condition  Figure 52b. All three loading conditions are applied in this view (Axial.Figure 52a. Edit Boundary Condition (BENDING) Click OK. Axial. Figure 53.16. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -Y direction on the loading end of the beam. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 53. Torsion. and Bending).

the others can be suppressed. Since this tutorial calls for multiple loading conditions. and TORSION BOTTOM boundary conditions. An analysis for the bending loading condition will be completed. Figure 54. At this point the selected boundary conditions should be highlighted blue.   Figure 55. If this is done correctly a red X will appear to the left of the boundary conditions in the model tree. Note: Suppressed BCs will not write to the inp file. To do so click the + to the left of BCs (5) in the model tree. Pop Up Menu (Suppress)  Click Suppress. 34 REV 03. Since only the BENDING boundary condition is of interest for this analysis. suppressing the loads is helpful rather than deleting the loads when they are unwanted for the analysis.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . The pop up menu should look similar to that in Figure 55. Model Tree Expansion (BCs)  Once the model tree has been expanded all off the created boundary conditions can be viewed. Release the Ctrl button on the keyboard and right mouse click one of the selected boundary conditions. TORSION TOP. While holding Ctrl on the keyboard click the AXIAL.16. This will expand the model tree and should look similar to Figure 54. Please note that the FIXED boundary condition should not be suppressed for any analysis since is needed to clamp the end of the beam and is not considered a loading condition.

create a Name for this job called BENDING.16. perform the analysis. A job will take the input file created by the preprocessor and process the model.2011 . Up to this point. In the Create Job dialog box. double click the Jobs icon in the model tree. Create Job Dialog Box (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Edit Job dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 57). i. Blank spaces are not allowed in a job name.Creating a Job  To create a job for this model.e. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 35 REV 03. The Create Job dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 56. you have been preprocessing the model. Figure 57. Figure 56. Thus the use of the underline in the name. Edit Job Dialog Box (BENDING)  Accept the default values and click OK.

Click OK. setting the work directory must be accomplished. At the top of the screen. Click Select… and use standard Windows practice to select (and possibly create) a subdirectory.16.Setting the Work Directory  To ensure that the input files write to the correct folder.2011 . click File and in the dropdown menu click Set Work Directory… (Figure 58). Figure 58. Set Work Directory (FOLDERS)   Click OK. Figure 59. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 36 REV 03. Set Work Directory  The Set Work Directory screen will immediately appear (Figure 59).

To access a specific directory within that drive type cd followed by the specific folder name in that directory (e.Writing the Input File (.inp)    To write the input file of the job that was created. Right click the job called BENDING and click the Write Input option.16. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 37 REV 03.A) then hit Enter.g. It may be helpful to go to the folder on the computer to which the work directory is set to ensure that the input file was written there. If the job has completed successfully the Abaqus prompt should look similar to Figure 60. cd APPLIED STRENGTHS T. This choice will write an input file (. Now that the correct directory has been sourced in the command window type abaqus inter j=BENDING and then hit enter.2011 .inp) of this model to the work directory. first click the + next to the Jobs(1) icon in the model tree.. Model Analysis (ABAQUS Command) Method #1      Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus Command ABAQUS is set to a default directory (Example E:\>). Figure 60. To change directories in the Abaqus Command type the directory of choice followed by a colon (D:) then hit Enter.

inp file for processing by ABAQUS can be accomplished with ABAQUS CAE Right click the job called BENDING and click the Submit option. The intent of this warning is to prevent the user from accidentally overwriting a previously completed analysis with the same name. If you see a warning:  Click OK. Right click the BENDING job and then click Results. the model should turn to a green color and the truss will have rotated to an isometric view (Figure 61). Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. The model will now be submitted for analysis by ABAQUS and the progress can be viewed in the status window at the bottom of the screen.Method #2    An alternative method for submitting an *.  Figure 61.2011 . the BENDING job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree. If this selection was done correctly.16. return to view the ABAQUS CAE viewport. Postprocessing using ABAQUS CAE   After the analysis has successfully completed in the Abaqus Command window using Method #1 or using Method #2. Analysis Results Isometric View ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 38 REV 03.

2011 .16. and the Apply Front View button can be clicked to view the model in the X Y plane. Figure 63. click View in the toolbar at the top of the screen. Views Toolbar  To view the deformed shape of the model. The Views toolbar will appear (Figure 62). Next.  To rotate the truss back into the X Y plane for viewing. click the Plot Contours on Deformed Shape icon in the Visualization module. The model should look similar to that in Figure 63. Figure 62. then click it. Deformed Shape (BENDING) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 39 REV 03. If not. Click Toolbars and make sure the option Views has a check mark to the left of it.

Third Invariant Stress Contour ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 40 REV 03. this will change the contour color to represent the third invariant stress levels. Figure 64.16. The I-Beam model should look similar to that in Figure 65. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu Mises (Figure 64). Figure 65.Obtaining Stress Values in Elements  To obtain the stresses in an element first the appropriate type of stress must be viewed. Mises Dropdown  Using the cursor click Third Invariant.2011 .

Query Dialog Box (ELEMENT) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 41 REV 03.2011 . At the top toolbar click Tools (Figure 66). Figure 67a. Query Dialog Box Figure 67b.16. The Query dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 67b. Click Element under the General Queries option. output stress values will be obtained for different elements. and then click Query… Figure 66. Toolbar Tools  The Query dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 67a). Now that the appropriate stress contour is being viewed.

Stress Value in Viewport  Without exiting the Query dialog box click another element to view the stress value. Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges. To complete both the AXIAL and TORSION loading return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left of the screen. Recall that the elastic modulus was prescribed to be 200x109 Pa and all dimensions were input in meters therefore the output stress values are in units of Pa. The value of the stress will then appear at the bottom of the viewport (Figure 68). Stress Value Figure 68. Please note: the stress value listed corresponds to the element outlined with a red box in the viewport. Suppress both the BENDING and AXIAL boundary conditions and Resume both of the TORSION boundary conditions. Modeling Different Loading Conditions  This tutorial completes the post processing for the BENDING loading condition of the project.16. Earlier in the tutorial the AXIAL & TORSIONAL boundary conditions were suppressed. At this point click the element on the model for which the stress value is desired. Create a new Job called TORSION and complete the post processing as needed.2011 . To complete the analysis using the TORSIONAL load.   ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 42 REV 03. (To resume the torsion condition right click TORSION TOP & BOTTOM in the model tree and click resume).

Since the reaction force in the Z direction is desired click the Magnitude dropdown menu directly to the right of the RF dropdown and then click RF3.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 43 REV 03. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu S (Figure 69). Choose the ODB field output option (Figure 70b). For the best analysis. Right click the AXIAL and then click Results. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. Beam Buckling  For the beam buckling analysis. a unit axial load will be applied to the tip of the beam.  Likewise. However. The Create XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 70a). The reaction forces at the nodes at the end of the beam are to be determined.16. Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges.   Figure 69. S Dropdown  Using the cursor click RF. resume the respective boundary conditions and complete the post processing as needed.2011 . this unit load should be distributed amongst all of the nodes at the tip of the beam. this will change the contour from viewing stresses to the magnitude of reaction forces. the AXIAL job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree. If a combination of loading conditions is desired. suppress the TORSION and BENDING conditions and create a new Job called AXIAL and complete the post processing as needed. the amount of force to apply to each node is a function of the beam width of the element and the number elements connected to a node. To obtain the reactions at the nodes click the Create XY Data icon in the Visualization module.

Figure 70a. Make sure that Pick from viewport is selected in the Method section. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Scroll down and click the black arrowhead next to RF: Reaction force . Create XY Data Dialog Box   Figure 70b. click the nodes on the model at the end of the beam which the load was applied. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. All other reaction components should be left unchecked (Figure 71b). Figure 71a. Create XY Data Dialog Box (FIELD) Click Continue… The XY Data from ODB Field Output dialog box will appear (Figure 71a).16. XY Data from ODB Field Output  Next click the Elements/Nodes tab. Scroll down and check the box next to RF3. XY Data from ODB Field Output   Figure 71b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 44 REV 03. Click Plot. and click Edit Selection. When the elements have been selected they will turn a red color. Under the Variables tab click the Positions: drop down menu and change the selection to Unique Nodal.This click will expand the selection for more options.2011 .

Field Output Plot  To view the numerical values of the reactions at the nodes.  Figure 73. Figure 72.2011 . XY Data Manager Dialog Box ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 45 REV 03.16. This option is located directly to the right of the Create XY Data option.  Click Dismiss. click the XY Data Manager icon in the Visualization module. The XY Data Manager dialog box will appear (Figure 73). A plot should appear similar to that in Figure 72.

Edit XY Data Dialog Box    In this dialog box the value of the reaction force at the respective node is listed. In column A of a new Excel workbook enter the node numbers of the 19 nodes found in the XY Data Manager dialog box (Figure 75). Figure 75.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Click OK. Figure 74. To view the value. double click each selection and an Edit XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 74). At this point click start on the computer and open Microsoft Excel.16. 46 REV 03. Import Node Numbers (Excel)  Double click each entry and enter the reaction force value in column B of the same Excel workbook (Figure 76).

Figure 77. Color Coded Unit Loads (Excel)  Now that the nodal forces are known return to Abaqus CAE and close the Edit XY Data and XY Data Manager dialog boxes.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left 47 REV 03. Many of the nodes have the same respective reaction force and it may be beneficial to color code the nodes with the same reaction forces (Figure 77). In this case the sum is 5164.9.Figure 76.16. Import Reaction Forces (Excel)  Use the SUM function in Excel to add all the forces in column B. Dividing each Reaction Force value by this total gives the respective force to apply to each node so as to have a net unit force on the end of the beam (Figure 77).

The only boundary condition that should still be resumed is the FIXED boundary condition. Suppress the AXIAL boundary condition (Right click -> Suppress). Create Step Dialog Box (BUCLKE)  Click Continue… The Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear.16. Under the Procedure type: drop down menu choose Linear perturbation and click Buckle. Under the Number of eigenvalues requested: option enter a value of 5 in the box.  hand side of the viewport. The Create Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 78b. Double click Steps (2) and you will be prompted by the Create Step dialog box (Figure 78a).2011 . Figure 78a. The Edit Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 79. Expand Steps (2) in the model tree if it is not already expanded by clicking the + to the left of the Steps(2) listing. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 48 REV 03. Create Step Dialog Box Figure 78b. Create a Name: for the step called BUCKLE. Right click LOADING STEP and left click Suppress.

16.711. The Create Set dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 80.2011 . we will create 4 sets since there are repeated unit load values of 116. Figure 80. 233.779. 393.Figure 79.557. Rather than individually load 19 nodes with its respective unit load value. Similar to creating sets in the first part of the tutorial. Create Set Dialog Box (NODES_3_6_10_11)   Click Continue… At the top toolbar click View then click Part Display Options… and the Part Display Options dialog box will immediately appear. Create a Name for the set called Nodes_3_6_10_11 and ensure that Node is selected under the type option. In the dialog box click the Mesh tab. double click Sets (4) in the model tree and the Create Set dialog box will immediately appear.412. Edit Step Dialog Box (5 Eigenvalues)    Click OK. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 49 REV 03. and 430. Next click In all partrelated modules and check the box next to Show node labels (Figure 81).

11) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 50 REV 03. Figure 82. Part Display Options Dialog Box   Click OK. 10. 6.2011 . At this point small purple node labels will appear on the model. and 11.Figure 81. This was done so that the appropriate unit load could be placed on the correct nodes. 6. While holding Shift on the keyboard click nodes 3. When the nodes are selected they will turn a red color (Figure 82).16. 10. Set Creation (Nodes 3.

Create Load Dialog Box Figure 84b. 476] Nodes [569. New Sets Figure 83. Figure 84a. 289. 573] Nodes [2. 571. All Created Sets  Now that the sets have been created.16.  Click Done.2011 . 290. 475. Ensure Mechanical is selected under Category and Concentrated force under Types for Selected Step. Repeat the same method to create sets for: Nodes [103. 570. the appropriate loads can be applied to the nodes. Create Load Dialog Box (NODES) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 51 REV 03. 7]  If all of the sets have been created correctly the model tree should have a total of 8 sets and look similar to Figure 83. 473. 474. The Create Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 84b. 572. Create a Name: for the load called NODES_3_6_10_11. Double click Loads in the model tree and the Create Load dialog box will appear (Figure 84a). 104.

Edit Load Dialog Box (-0.NODES_3_6_10_11.2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 52 REV 03. Region Selection Dialog Box (NODES)  Click Continue… The Edit Load dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 86a).02261 in the CF3: option.16. The model should look similar to that in Figure 87. Figure 85. Click I-BEAM-1.02261) Click OK. Click Continue… In the bottom right hand side of the viewport click Sets… and the Region Selection dialog box will appear. the Region Selection dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 85. The Edit Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 86b. Small yellow arrows will be visible pointing in the –Z direction if the procedure has been completed correctly. Edit Load Dialog Box  Figure 86b. Figure 86a. Enter a value of -0.

04522 Nodes [569. 290. 7] = -0.083333  If this procedure has been completed correctly there will be small yellow arrows located ALL the nodes on the loading end of the beam (Figure 88).2011 .02261)  Using the same approach. create loads for the three other sets that were generated in the previous steps. 104. 571.Figure 87. 572. 475. 473. Loads of: Nodes [103.076227 Nodes [2. 573] = -0. 289. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 53 REV 03. 476] = -0.16. Model Load (-0. 474. 570.

Unit Load   Double click Jobs (1) in the model tree and create a job named BUCLKE. Deformed Shape (Localized Buckle) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 54 REV 03. When viewing the results. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 89.16.Figure 88. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 30200 Hz. Also. Buckle Load Figure 89.2011 . Write the input file and post process the job the same way as in the first part of this tutorial.

These changes will be made by editing the .inp file should look similar to that shown in Figure 91.inp file should look similar to that in Figure 90. Enter Shell and then click Find Next.2011 . Open the BUCKLE. Input File (. The model will now be edited to increase the thickness of the flanges from 1 mm to 5 mm and the web from 2 mm to 4 mm.inp file using Notepad. Figure 91. Shell Section Input File ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 55 REV 03. The .  The buckled shape shown in Figure 89 is distorted and appears to be localized buckling of the thin flanges and webs and not overall Euler buckling of the column. Figure 90. Open the folder on the computer that the working directory is set to.inp files that are generated in the working directory.inp)  While holding Ctrl on the keyboard press the letter F. This part of the .16. This will open the Find dialog box.

inp extension MUST be entered in the file name) Go to the Abaqus Command window and source to the directory if it is not already sourced. Source to the BUCKLE_EULER.004.2011 . Double click the first item in the Results tab called Output Databases. Enter the command abaqus inter j=BUCKLE_EULER and hit Enter. If the analysis completed successfully the command window will look similar to that in Figure 93.16. Figure 93.001 to 0.005 and change 0.odb and click OK. This section of the input file should look similar to Figure 92. Change 0.inp (Note: the . Shell Section Input File (Increased)    Click File then click Save As… Enter a File name: for this input file called BUCKLE_EULER. This is where we will change the thickness values of the flanges and web. The Open Database dialog box will appear. Figure 92. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 56 REV 03. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED)   Return to the Abaqus CAE viewport and click the Results tab located at the top of the model tree.002 to 0.

2011 . Note the buckling force that was applied was based on the force distribution over the nodes resulting from an axial pull on the thinner sections. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 57 REV 03. The localized buckling is not present in this view and the overall buckling looks to be Euler buckling and notice that the deflection is about the smaller area moment of inertia. Buckle Load Figure 94. the buckling load may be slightly incorrect for this second buckling analysis. the important lesson is that the finite element method can find critical buckling loads be they local or overall Euler buckling.  Conclusion  Save the file by doing either File > Save or clicking the disk icon   Close ABAQUS CAE: File > Exit or Ctrl+Q This completes the Finite Element Analysis of an I-Beam tutorial. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 94. That force distribution may not be the same as we did not increase the size of the web and flanges by the same scale factor. Thus. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 168712 Hz. Also.16. However. When viewing the results. Deformed Shape (Euler Buckle)  The buckled shape is shown in Figure 94.