# AXIAL, BENDING, TORSION, COMBINED AND BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF A BEAM

Instructor: Professor James Sherwood Revised: Dimitri Soteropoulos Programs Utilized: ABAQUS CAE 6.9-EF1 Problem Description: In this tutorial, a finite element model of a beam will be constructed and analyzed using ABAQUS CAE. The analysis will look at stresses and displacements associated with multiple loading conditions for a steel I-beam. The beam will be “clamped” at one end and be loaded on the other end with prescribed displacements for axial, torsion and bending loads. A unit force will be applied to find the critical buckling load and the associated mode shape. The cross section of the beam is shown in Figure 1. The cross section dimensions are summarized in Table 1. The length of the beam is 90 cm.

Table 1. Cross Section Dimensions a b t1 t2 6 cm 7 cm 1 mm 2 mm

Figure 1. Beam Cross Section

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Creating the Model Geometry   Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus CAE You may be prompted with an Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box (Figure 1). Close this box by clicking the X in the top right hand corner.

Figure 1. Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box.

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Once the Extended Functionality box is exited, the ABAQUS CAE Viewport should look similar to Figure 2. (Please note the model tree is the series of functions listed on the left hand side of the viewport, while the module is the list of icons to the right of the model tree)

Model Tree

Figure 2. ABAQUS CAE Viewport   To create the model geometry of the steel I-beam, a sketch of the cross section must be generated. Using the left mouse button, double click Parts in the model tree and the Create Part (Figure 3a) dialog box appears. Enter a new name for the part (I-BEAM), and under the Base Feature tab choose Shell for shape and Extrusion for type. Change the approximate size option to 0.5. The Create Part dialog box should look identical to Figure 3b. Click Continue… and the graphics window will change to a set of gridlines.

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Figure 3a. Create Part Dialog Box

Figure 3b. Create Part Dialog Box (I-BEAM)

For the first step in generating the model geometry, a rectangular box must be created. Click the Create Lines: Rectangle (4 lines) icon in the module. (Remember, the module is the series of icons to the right of the model tree) In the viewport click once with the cursor, then drag the cursor to any other place in the viewport and click again. A yellow rectangle should be visible in the viewport. Click the Create Lines: Connected icon in the module, hover the cursor along the top horizontal line of the rectangle until a white circle appears (Figure 4). The circle should appear at the midpoint of that line.

 

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Figure 4. Midpoint of Horizontal Line  Once the white circle appears on the horizontal line, click with the cursor and draw a vertical line which connects to the bottom horizontal line. You will know that the line is vertical if there is a V located on the right side of the line (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Vertical Line

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Move the cursor away from the vertical line and click.06 will appear when 0. The dimension values are being input in units of meters. a New dimension: box should appear.  Figure 6. Click the Add Dimension icon in the module and click the top horizontal line in the sketch. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension. a New dimension: box should appear (Figure 6). (Please note: due to significant figures in the sketch mode a value of 0. Dimensioned Sketch ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 6 REV 03. make sure to enter a value of 0.059 in the new dimension box and hit Enter. Move the cursur away from the horizontal line and click.2011 .07 in the New Dimension box.059 for the vertical line) Figure 7. Since an arbitrary rectangle was drawn in the initial sketch.059 is entered for the vertical height. it will now be given the proper dimensions. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension and look similar to that in Figure 7. Using the cursor click the middle vertical line. Hit Enter. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear. Enter a value of 0. New Dimension Box       Enter a value of 0. At the bottom of the viewport. At the bottom of the viewport. Make sure to keep a consistent set of units when creating any model.16.

Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box Figure 9b. If the process was done correctly the sketch should look similar to that in Figure 8. Final I-Beam Cross Section    Press Escape on your keyboard to exit the Auto-Trim tool. Figure 8.9) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 7 REV 03. click the Auto-Trim icon in the module. Repeat the previous step but drag the cursor over the far right vertical line. This value will extrude the geometry 90 cm (0. In the Depth: category enter a value of 0. At the bottom of the viewport you will be prompted to Sketch the section for the shell extrusion. Click Done. Click and hold the left cursor button while dragging the cursor over the far left vertical line and then let go. The Edit Base Extrusion dialog box will appear (Figure 9a). If this was done correctly the left vertical line should disappear.2011 . After this value has been entered the Edit Base Extrusion dialog box should look similar to Figure 9b.9. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box (0.  To properly create the I-Beam cross section.16. Figure 9a.9m) in the Z direction.

double click on Materials in the model tree and the Edit Material dialog box will appear (Figure 11a).16. Click OK. and Poisson’s Ratio = 0. Enter values of Young’s Modulus = 200E09 Pa. highlight Elasticity and click Elastic. Extruded I-Beam Model Defining Material Properties  To define material properties for this model. Enter a Name for the material (STEEL).  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 8 REV 03. After the material properties have been entered. Figure 10. and click the Mechanical tab. The cross section sketch will be extruded into a three dimensional part.2011 .3. Sketch mode will automatically be exited and a grey I-Beam will appear (Figure 10).  Click OK. the Edit Material dialog box should look similar to Figure 11b.

Click File then click Save. Name the file I-Beam Tutorial. double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 12a). Edit Material Dialog Box  Figure 11b. and Homogeneous under the Type tab. Enter a Name for the section (FLANGE).cae*) file. and choose Shell under the Category Tab. All of the dimensions have been input in meters. the model should be saved. The units chosen for the definition of the material properties should be consistent and dictate what units should be used for the dimensions of the structure. It may be of interest to save the file after each section of this tutorial. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 12b. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 12b. Create Section Dialog Box (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 9 REV 03.16. Click Continue…  Figure 12a.2011 .Figure 11a. therefore the respective Young’s Modulus units should be entered in Pa (Pascals). The file will save as a Model Database (*. Creating Sections  To create a shell section in ABAQUS. Edit Material Dialog Box (Steel)  Please note there is no dropdown menu or feature in ABAQUS that sets specific units. At this point in preprocessing.

Enter a Name for the section (WEB). Double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 14a). Click Continue… ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 10 REV 03. and choose Shell under the Category Tab.   The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. Because only one material has been created. If multiple materials had been created. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section.2011 . the Material is defaulted to STEEL. Edit Section Dialog Box (FLANGE)    Since the flanges have a different specified thickness than the web. Click OK. Under the basic tab enter 0.001 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a thickness of 1 mm for both the top and bottom flanges). another section with the appropriate shell thickness for the web must be created. Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss.16. Figure 13. If both the flanges and web had the same thickness only one section would need to be created. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 13. and Homogeneous under the Type tab. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 14b.

the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section.Figure 14a. Click OK. Under the basic tab enter 0.002 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a 2 mm thickness for the web). If multiple materials had been created.2011 . The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 15. Figure 15.16. Create Section Dialog Box (WEB)    The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. Because only one material has been created. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 14b. Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. Edit Section Dialog Box (WEB) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 11 REV 03. the Material is defaulted to STEEL.

Model Tree Expansion (Parts)  After the model tree has been expanded. Click Done.  2 Top Sections 2 Bottom Sections Figure 17. click the 2 sections of the top flange and the 2 sections of the bottom flange.16. click the + to the left of the part called I-BEAM. Selected Flange Sections ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 12 REV 03. further expanding the model tree (Figure 16). click the + to the left of the Parts icon. Figure 16. they can be assigned to the geometry. While holding the shift key on the keyboard. double click Section Assignments. Next. If the sections have been chosen correctly they will change color from grey to red (Figure 17). In the model tree.2011 . this will further expand the model tree’s options.Assigning Sections  Now that the shell sections have been created.

choose the FLANGE section that was created. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 18b. Edit Section Assignment   Figure 18b. Double click Section Assignments. The top and bottom now should now turn to a blue color. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 18a). the web must be assigned its respective section. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 13 REV 03. Figure 18a. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 19b.2011 . Next. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 19a). Edit Section Assignment Figure 19b. Figure 19a. If the section has been chosen correctly it will change color from grey to red. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface.16. Click Done. choose the WEB section that was created. using the cursor click the web of the I-beam. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE)   Click OK.

Creating a Mesh  When creating a finite element mesh with shell or plate elements.16. Click Done. In this model. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color (Figure 20). Selected Edges ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 14 REV 03. Hover the cursor over the Seed Edge: By Number icon and release the button on the cursor. then the geometry should change color to pink. i. Click and hold the Seed Part icon in the mesh module and six icons will appear.  Click Ok. The first step in creating a mesh is to seed the part. If this selection is done correctly.e keep the aspect ratio of length to width to be as close to 1 as is possible. To exit the rotate command press Escape on the keyboard) 2 Top Edges   Web Edge Side Edge 2 Bottom Edges Figure 20. (Note: To rotate the beam click F3 on the keyboard then left click and drag the cursor to rotate the part. A total of eight lines should be selected since the part should be rotated and the four edges on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. thus making the complete model blue. To create a mesh for the model geometry. double click Mesh (Empty) in the model tree. click the top and bottom edges of the flanges. it is best to make elements as square as possible. The web of the I-Beam should now turn a blue color. the elements will be made with dimensions as close as possible to 1 cm by 1 cm. While holding the shift key on the keyboard.2011 .

In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 6. A total of two edges should be selected since the part should be rotated and the edge on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. Click Done. This will seed the selected edges to have three evenly spaced elements along their length.            Click Done.16. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 15 REV 03. This will seed the selected edges to have six evenly spaced elements along their length. while holding the shift key on the keyboard. Next. This will seed the selected edge to have ninety evenly spaced elements along its length. Hit Enter on the keyboard. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 3. Click Done. click the web edge of the I-Beam (Figure 20). A total of four lines should be selected (Figure 20). If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color.2011 . The edges will now appear to be seeded with evenly spaced pink points along their length. The edge should turn from a pink to a red color if it has been selected correctly. Finally. Hit Enter on the keyboard. click the four edges along the length of the I-Beam. Hit Enter on the keyboard Click Done. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 90.

Model Tree Expansion (Assembly) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 16 REV 03.  The part is now ready to be meshed. it can be brought into the assembly. Meshed Geometry Creating an Instance  Now that the part has been meshed.16. click the Mesh Part icon bottom of the viewport you will be prompted if it is OK to mesh the part? Click Yes. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 22. click the + to the left of Assembly in the model tree. In the mesh module. Figure 22. the geometry will turn blue (Figure 21). . At the Figure 21.2011 . To do this task. If this procedure was done correctly.

 Figure 24. Figure 23.16. This feature will allow multiple parts to be brought into the assembly. Create Instance ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 17 REV 03. Create Instance Dialog Box  The I-BEAM part is selected by default because only one part has been created for this tutorial. Click OK. Double click on the Instances icon in the expanded model tree. If this step was done correctly the model should turn a blue color (Figure 24).2011 . The Create Instance dialog box will appear (Figure 23). If multiple parts had been created. then this step would allow them to be entered into the assembly.

Create Step Dialog Box (LOADING STEP) Click Continue…. e. Figure 26. Figure 25a. Under Procedure type choose General > Static. and the Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 26). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 18 REV 03. General.2011 . Create Step Dialog Box  Figure 25b. In the model tree. support constraints and forces.Creating a Step   A Step is where the user defines the type of loading. The Create Step dialog box should look identical to Figure 25b. The Create Step dialog box will appear (Figure 25a).16. Create a Name for the step called LOADING STEP. e.g.g. Static or Dynamic. double click the Steps icon. and defines the boundary conditions. Edit Step Dialog Box  Click OK to accept the default values for the various options.

Create a Name for the set called FIXED END. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 28b. click all of the nodes at one end of the beam. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 28b. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. Make sure to double click the Sets option that is underneath the I-BEAM part in the model tree (Figure 27).2011 . Sets Option in Model Tree  The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 28a). Figure 28a. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color.Creating Sets  At this point 4 sets will be created to simplify the application of loads and boundary conditions in the upcoming steps. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 19 REV 03. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the right side of the beam were selected for the fixed end (Figure 29). Figure 27. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard.16. Double click Sets in the model tree. Create Set Dialog Box (FIXED END)  Click Continue… The model will to a turquoise color with a visible mesh.

Figure 30a.Figure 29. Fixed End Set   Click Done. Click Done. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 30b. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 30b.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Double click Sets(1) in the model tree. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the left side of the beam were selected for the load end. Create Set Dialog Box (LOAD END)   Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. 20 REV 03.16. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 30a). To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. click all of the nodes at the opposite end of the beam that the FIXED END set was created. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. Create a Name for the set called LOAD END. Another set will be created for the loading end of the I-Beam.

These sets will be created to apply the torsional load to the model. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 32a).2011 .16. Figure 31. one for the TOP FLANGE and the other for the BOTTOM FLANGE. Likewise. To verify that the sets were not created on the same end of the beam. Create Set Dialog Box (TOP FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 32b. Created Sets Model Tree  Click the FIXED END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes which are included in that set will turn red. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 21 REV 03. Create a Name for the set called TOP FLANGE. Double click Sets(2) in the model tree. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 31. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 32b. click the LOAD END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes included in that set will turn red in the viewport.   Figure 32a. Finally two more sets will be created. click the + to the left of Sets (2) in the model tree.

A total of 7 nodes should be selected.16. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. click the nodes at the end of the top flange where the LOAD END set was created. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 33).2011 . Figure 33. Figure 34a. Now a set will be created for the BOTTOM FLANGE. Node Selection Top Flange Set   Click Done. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 34b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 22 REV 03. Double click Sets(3) in the model tree. Create a Name for the set called BOTTOM FLANGE. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 34b. Create Set Dialog Box (BOTTOM FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 34a). While holding the Shift key on the keyboard.

Node Selection Bottom Flange Set  Click Done. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 36b. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 35). and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose Initial. Create a Name for the boundary condition called FIXED. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 23 REV 03.16.2011 . Apply Constraint Boundary Conditions   Boundary conditions will be defined which will simulate a fixed (also known as “clamped”) beam at one end with a tip load. Figure 35. click the nodes at the end of the bottom flange where the LOAD END set was created. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. and choose Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre under the Types for Selected Step option. Double click BCs in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 36a).

If this selection is done correctly you will be immediately prompted by the Region Selection dialog box (Figure 37).2011 . click Sets… at the bottom right side of the viewport. Figure 37.16.Figure 36a. Region Selection Dialog Box   Using the cursor. Create Boundary Condition Figure 36b. Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 38.FIXED END. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 24 REV 03. click I-BEAM-1. Create Boundary Condition (FIXED)    Click Continue… Using the cursor. Click ENCASTRE (U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0).

16. Edit Boundary Condition Dialog Box  Click OK.2011 . Create Boundary Condition  Click Continue… Figure 39b. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 39b. Double click BCs(1) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 39a).Figure 38.01% axial strain will be applied to the end of the beam as a prescribed displacement. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Create Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 25 REV 03. Create a Name for the boundary condition called AXIAL. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Figure 39a. Applying an Axial Load to the Beam   A 0. Under the Category option choose Mechanical.

 The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 40). Using the cursor click I-BEAM-1. Figure 40.16. Since the I-Beam cross section was sketched in the X Y plane. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 41b. Figure 41a.LOAD END.00009. Check the box to the left of U3 and enter a value of 0. Region Selection Dialog Box   Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 41a). Edit Boundary Condition Figure 41b.2011 . a displacement will be added in the Z direction. Edit Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 26 REV 03.

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 27 REV 03.16. To find the required displacement in the x-direction to achieve the 5° twist use:   Where x is the prescribed displacement and is equal to 0. If the prescribed displacement has been applied correctly small orange arrows will be visible at the nodes (Figure 42). The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 43b.2011 . The load is to be a 5° twist at the end of the beam. Click OK. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. The y-distance from the center of the beam to the top or bottom flange is 0. Under the Category option choose Mechanical.0295 m (0.059/2).00258 m. Double click BCs(2) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 43a). Applied Axial Load Applying a Torsional Load to the Beam  An equal and opposite displacement will be imposed on opposite sides of the beam to simulate a torque on the beam. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Figure 42. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION TOP.

the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 44. Since this displacement will be applied to the top flange in the +X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of 0. Create Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.TOP FLANGE.00258. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 28 REV 03. Click I-BEAM-1.Figure 43a. Create Boundary Condition Figure 43b. Figure 44.16. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 45b. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 45a).2011 .

2011 . If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the +X direction at the end of the top flange. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. An equal and opposite displacement will be prescribed to the bottom flange. Under the Category option choose Mechanical.Figure 45a. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP) Click OK. Double click BCs(3) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 46a). Create Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 29 REV 03. Create Boundary Condition Figure 46b. Edit Boundary Condition   Figure 45b. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION BOTTOM. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 46b. Figure 46a.16.

2011 . Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 48a).BOTTOM FLANGE. Figure 47.00258.16. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 48b. Edit Boundary Condition Figure 48b.  Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. Figure 48a. Click I-BEAM-1. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 47. Since this displacement will be applied to the bottom flange in the -X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of -0. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 30 REV 03.

and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -X direction at the end of the bottom flange. a prescribed displacement in the –Y direction will be imposed on the tip of the beam. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 49. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 50b. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Click OK.16. Create a Name for the boundary condition called BENDING.2011 . Axial and Torsional Loads Beam in Bending  Finally. Figure 49. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 31 REV 03. Both the axial and torsional loads are applied in this view. Double click BCs(4) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 50a).

Figure 50a. Click I-BEAM-1. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 52a).006.16. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 52b.LOAD END.2011 . the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 51. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 32 REV 03. Figure 51. Create Boundary Condition (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. Create Boundary Condition Figure 50b. Since this displacement will be applied to the load end in the -Y direction click the box to the left of U2: and enter a number of -0.

Axial. All three loading conditions are applied in this view (Axial. Figure 53.Figure 52a. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 33 REV 03. and Bending).2011 . Edit Boundary Condition (BENDING) Click OK.16. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 53. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -Y direction on the loading end of the beam. Torsion. Torsion and Bending Loads. Edit Boundary Condition  Figure 52b.

16. perform the analysis. Create Job Dialog Box (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Edit Job dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 57). double click the Jobs icon in the model tree. i. In the Create Job dialog box. Figure 56. create a Name for this job called BENDING.2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 35 REV 03. Thus the use of the underline in the name. Edit Job Dialog Box (BENDING)  Accept the default values and click OK. Figure 57.e. Up to this point.Creating a Job  To create a job for this model. you have been preprocessing the model. The Create Job dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 56. A job will take the input file created by the preprocessor and process the model. Blank spaces are not allowed in a job name.

2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 36 REV 03. Figure 59. Set Work Directory (FOLDERS)   Click OK. At the top of the screen.16. Figure 58. setting the work directory must be accomplished. Click Select… and use standard Windows practice to select (and possibly create) a subdirectory. Click OK. Set Work Directory  The Set Work Directory screen will immediately appear (Figure 59). click File and in the dropdown menu click Set Work Directory… (Figure 58).Setting the Work Directory  To ensure that the input files write to the correct folder.

Writing the Input File (. It may be helpful to go to the folder on the computer to which the work directory is set to ensure that the input file was written there.16. This choice will write an input file (. Right click the job called BENDING and click the Write Input option.inp) of this model to the work directory..2011 .A) then hit Enter.inp)    To write the input file of the job that was created. To change directories in the Abaqus Command type the directory of choice followed by a colon (D:) then hit Enter. Figure 60. If the job has completed successfully the Abaqus prompt should look similar to Figure 60. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 37 REV 03. Now that the correct directory has been sourced in the command window type abaqus inter j=BENDING and then hit enter. To access a specific directory within that drive type cd followed by the specific folder name in that directory (e. cd APPLIED STRENGTHS T. first click the + next to the Jobs(1) icon in the model tree.g. Model Analysis (ABAQUS Command) Method #1      Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus Command ABAQUS is set to a default directory (Example E:\>).

Analysis Results Isometric View ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 38 REV 03. Postprocessing using ABAQUS CAE   After the analysis has successfully completed in the Abaqus Command window using Method #1 or using Method #2. The intent of this warning is to prevent the user from accidentally overwriting a previously completed analysis with the same name.Method #2    An alternative method for submitting an *. If you see a warning:  Click OK.16.  Figure 61. If this selection was done correctly. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file.inp file for processing by ABAQUS can be accomplished with ABAQUS CAE Right click the job called BENDING and click the Submit option. Right click the BENDING job and then click Results. the BENDING job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree.2011 . The model will now be submitted for analysis by ABAQUS and the progress can be viewed in the status window at the bottom of the screen. return to view the ABAQUS CAE viewport. the model should turn to a green color and the truss will have rotated to an isometric view (Figure 61).

16. The model should look similar to that in Figure 63.2011 . and the Apply Front View button can be clicked to view the model in the X Y plane. If not. The Views toolbar will appear (Figure 62). Views Toolbar  To view the deformed shape of the model.  To rotate the truss back into the X Y plane for viewing. Figure 63. Click Toolbars and make sure the option Views has a check mark to the left of it. Deformed Shape (BENDING) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 39 REV 03. click View in the toolbar at the top of the screen. click the Plot Contours on Deformed Shape icon in the Visualization module. then click it. Figure 62. Next.

At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu Mises (Figure 64). Figure 65. The I-Beam model should look similar to that in Figure 65. Third Invariant Stress Contour ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 40 REV 03.16.2011 . Mises Dropdown  Using the cursor click Third Invariant. Figure 64.Obtaining Stress Values in Elements  To obtain the stresses in an element first the appropriate type of stress must be viewed. this will change the contour color to represent the third invariant stress levels.

2011 .16. Figure 67a. The Query dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 67b. At the top toolbar click Tools (Figure 66). Toolbar Tools  The Query dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 67a). Query Dialog Box Figure 67b. Query Dialog Box (ELEMENT) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 41 REV 03. Click Element under the General Queries option. and then click Query… Figure 66. Now that the appropriate stress contour is being viewed. output stress values will be obtained for different elements.

The reaction forces at the nodes at the end of the beam are to be determined. To obtain the reactions at the nodes click the Create XY Data icon in the Visualization module. The Create XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 70a).2011 . For the best analysis. S Dropdown  Using the cursor click RF. Beam Buckling  For the beam buckling analysis. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. Since the reaction force in the Z direction is desired click the Magnitude dropdown menu directly to the right of the RF dropdown and then click RF3.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 43 REV 03.16. Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges. the amount of force to apply to each node is a function of the beam width of the element and the number elements connected to a node.  Likewise. If a combination of loading conditions is desired. resume the respective boundary conditions and complete the post processing as needed. a unit axial load will be applied to the tip of the beam. this will change the contour from viewing stresses to the magnitude of reaction forces. the AXIAL job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree.   Figure 69. Choose the ODB field output option (Figure 70b). At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu S (Figure 69). Right click the AXIAL and then click Results. this unit load should be distributed amongst all of the nodes at the tip of the beam. However. suppress the TORSION and BENDING conditions and create a new Job called AXIAL and complete the post processing as needed.

While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. When the elements have been selected they will turn a red color. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 44 REV 03. Scroll down and click the black arrowhead next to RF: Reaction force . Scroll down and check the box next to RF3. Figure 71a. Under the Variables tab click the Positions: drop down menu and change the selection to Unique Nodal.Figure 70a. All other reaction components should be left unchecked (Figure 71b). Create XY Data Dialog Box (FIELD) Click Continue… The XY Data from ODB Field Output dialog box will appear (Figure 71a). Make sure that Pick from viewport is selected in the Method section. click the nodes on the model at the end of the beam which the load was applied. XY Data from ODB Field Output  Next click the Elements/Nodes tab. and click Edit Selection. Create XY Data Dialog Box   Figure 70b.16.This click will expand the selection for more options. XY Data from ODB Field Output   Figure 71b. A total of 19 nodes should be selected.2011 . Click Plot.

XY Data Manager Dialog Box ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 45 REV 03. A plot should appear similar to that in Figure 72.16. The XY Data Manager dialog box will appear (Figure 73). Field Output Plot  To view the numerical values of the reactions at the nodes. This option is located directly to the right of the Create XY Data option.  Click Dismiss.  Figure 73. Figure 72.2011 . click the XY Data Manager icon in the Visualization module.

2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . To view the value. At this point click start on the computer and open Microsoft Excel. Edit XY Data Dialog Box    In this dialog box the value of the reaction force at the respective node is listed. Figure 75. Figure 74. Click OK. Import Node Numbers (Excel)  Double click each entry and enter the reaction force value in column B of the same Excel workbook (Figure 76). In column A of a new Excel workbook enter the node numbers of the 19 nodes found in the XY Data Manager dialog box (Figure 75).16. double click each selection and an Edit XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 74). 46 REV 03.

In this case the sum is 5164.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Color Coded Unit Loads (Excel)  Now that the nodal forces are known return to Abaqus CAE and close the Edit XY Data and XY Data Manager dialog boxes. Return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left 47 REV 03.Figure 76. Dividing each Reaction Force value by this total gives the respective force to apply to each node so as to have a net unit force on the end of the beam (Figure 77).16. Import Reaction Forces (Excel)  Use the SUM function in Excel to add all the forces in column B. Many of the nodes have the same respective reaction force and it may be beneficial to color code the nodes with the same reaction forces (Figure 77).9. Figure 77.

Suppress the AXIAL boundary condition (Right click -> Suppress). Double click Steps (2) and you will be prompted by the Create Step dialog box (Figure 78a). Under the Procedure type: drop down menu choose Linear perturbation and click Buckle. Create Step Dialog Box Figure 78b. The Edit Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 79.  hand side of the viewport. The only boundary condition that should still be resumed is the FIXED boundary condition.2011 . Under the Number of eigenvalues requested: option enter a value of 5 in the box. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 48 REV 03.16. Right click LOADING STEP and left click Suppress. Create a Name: for the step called BUCKLE. The Create Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 78b. Create Step Dialog Box (BUCLKE)  Click Continue… The Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear. Figure 78a. Expand Steps (2) in the model tree if it is not already expanded by clicking the + to the left of the Steps(2) listing.

The Create Set dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 80. Rather than individually load 19 nodes with its respective unit load value.557. Create a Name for the set called Nodes_3_6_10_11 and ensure that Node is selected under the type option.2011 . Create Set Dialog Box (NODES_3_6_10_11)   Click Continue… At the top toolbar click View then click Part Display Options… and the Part Display Options dialog box will immediately appear. Figure 80. Similar to creating sets in the first part of the tutorial. Edit Step Dialog Box (5 Eigenvalues)    Click OK.16.779. we will create 4 sets since there are repeated unit load values of 116. and 430.711. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 49 REV 03. Next click In all partrelated modules and check the box next to Show node labels (Figure 81). 393.Figure 79. double click Sets (4) in the model tree and the Create Set dialog box will immediately appear.412. In the dialog box click the Mesh tab. 233.

6. 10. This was done so that the appropriate unit load could be placed on the correct nodes. Figure 82. Set Creation (Nodes 3. At this point small purple node labels will appear on the model.16. 6. When the nodes are selected they will turn a red color (Figure 82). 10. and 11. Part Display Options Dialog Box   Click OK. While holding Shift on the keyboard click nodes 3.Figure 81. 11) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 50 REV 03.2011 .

New Sets Figure 83. Double click Loads in the model tree and the Create Load dialog box will appear (Figure 84a). 572.  Click Done. Create Load Dialog Box Figure 84b. 476] Nodes [569. 473. Ensure Mechanical is selected under Category and Concentrated force under Types for Selected Step. 474. 104.2011 . The Create Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 84b. 571. Figure 84a. 289. 573] Nodes [2. 290. the appropriate loads can be applied to the nodes. Create Load Dialog Box (NODES) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 51 REV 03. 7]  If all of the sets have been created correctly the model tree should have a total of 8 sets and look similar to Figure 83.16. Create a Name: for the load called NODES_3_6_10_11. 570. All Created Sets  Now that the sets have been created. 475. Repeat the same method to create sets for: Nodes [103.

The Edit Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 86b.02261 in the CF3: option.2011 . Region Selection Dialog Box (NODES)  Click Continue… The Edit Load dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 86a). The model should look similar to that in Figure 87. Enter a value of -0. Edit Load Dialog Box (-0. Click Continue… In the bottom right hand side of the viewport click Sets… and the Region Selection dialog box will appear. the Region Selection dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 85.02261) Click OK. Figure 86a.NODES_3_6_10_11. Click I-BEAM-1. Edit Load Dialog Box  Figure 86b. Small yellow arrows will be visible pointing in the –Z direction if the procedure has been completed correctly.16. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 52 REV 03. Figure 85.

02261)  Using the same approach. 573] = -0. 289. 290. create loads for the three other sets that were generated in the previous steps.076227 Nodes [2. 476] = -0. 473. Loads of: Nodes [103. 570.04522 Nodes [569. 571. Model Load (-0.2011 . 474.Figure 87. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 53 REV 03.16. 7] = -0. 572.083333  If this procedure has been completed correctly there will be small yellow arrows located ALL the nodes on the loading end of the beam (Figure 88). 104. 475.

Also.16. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 30200 Hz. Write the input file and post process the job the same way as in the first part of this tutorial. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 89. Unit Load   Double click Jobs (1) in the model tree and create a job named BUCLKE.2011 .Figure 88. Buckle Load Figure 89. Deformed Shape (Localized Buckle) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 54 REV 03. When viewing the results.

inp file should look similar to that in Figure 90. Open the BUCKLE.inp file using Notepad. This will open the Find dialog box. The . Open the folder on the computer that the working directory is set to.inp)  While holding Ctrl on the keyboard press the letter F. Figure 90.  The buckled shape shown in Figure 89 is distorted and appears to be localized buckling of the thin flanges and webs and not overall Euler buckling of the column.16. Shell Section Input File ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 55 REV 03. Input File (. The model will now be edited to increase the thickness of the flanges from 1 mm to 5 mm and the web from 2 mm to 4 mm. Enter Shell and then click Find Next.inp files that are generated in the working directory. Figure 91. This part of the .2011 . These changes will be made by editing the .inp file should look similar to that shown in Figure 91.

If the analysis completed successfully the command window will look similar to that in Figure 93.001 to 0.2011 .inp (Note: the .004. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED)   Return to the Abaqus CAE viewport and click the Results tab located at the top of the model tree. Figure 93.002 to 0. Figure 92. This is where we will change the thickness values of the flanges and web. Enter the command abaqus inter j=BUCKLE_EULER and hit Enter. Source to the BUCKLE_EULER. Double click the first item in the Results tab called Output Databases. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 56 REV 03.005 and change 0. Change 0. Shell Section Input File (Increased)    Click File then click Save As… Enter a File name: for this input file called BUCKLE_EULER.odb and click OK. This section of the input file should look similar to Figure 92.16.inp extension MUST be entered in the file name) Go to the Abaqus Command window and source to the directory if it is not already sourced. The Open Database dialog box will appear.

However. That force distribution may not be the same as we did not increase the size of the web and flanges by the same scale factor.2011 . the buckling load may be slightly incorrect for this second buckling analysis. the important lesson is that the finite element method can find critical buckling loads be they local or overall Euler buckling. Deformed Shape (Euler Buckle)  The buckled shape is shown in Figure 94. Note the buckling force that was applied was based on the force distribution over the nodes resulting from an axial pull on the thinner sections. Thus.  Conclusion  Save the file by doing either File > Save or clicking the disk icon   Close ABAQUS CAE: File > Exit or Ctrl+Q This completes the Finite Element Analysis of an I-Beam tutorial.16. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 168712 Hz. Also. Buckle Load Figure 94. When viewing the results. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 57 REV 03. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 94. The localized buckling is not present in this view and the overall buckling looks to be Euler buckling and notice that the deflection is about the smaller area moment of inertia.

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