AXIAL, BENDING, TORSION, COMBINED AND BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF A BEAM

Instructor: Professor James Sherwood Revised: Dimitri Soteropoulos Programs Utilized: ABAQUS CAE 6.9-EF1 Problem Description: In this tutorial, a finite element model of a beam will be constructed and analyzed using ABAQUS CAE. The analysis will look at stresses and displacements associated with multiple loading conditions for a steel I-beam. The beam will be “clamped” at one end and be loaded on the other end with prescribed displacements for axial, torsion and bending loads. A unit force will be applied to find the critical buckling load and the associated mode shape. The cross section of the beam is shown in Figure 1. The cross section dimensions are summarized in Table 1. The length of the beam is 90 cm.

Table 1. Cross Section Dimensions a b t1 t2 6 cm 7 cm 1 mm 2 mm

Figure 1. Beam Cross Section

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Creating the Model Geometry   Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus CAE You may be prompted with an Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box (Figure 1). Close this box by clicking the X in the top right hand corner.

Figure 1. Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box.

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Once the Extended Functionality box is exited, the ABAQUS CAE Viewport should look similar to Figure 2. (Please note the model tree is the series of functions listed on the left hand side of the viewport, while the module is the list of icons to the right of the model tree)

Model Tree

Figure 2. ABAQUS CAE Viewport   To create the model geometry of the steel I-beam, a sketch of the cross section must be generated. Using the left mouse button, double click Parts in the model tree and the Create Part (Figure 3a) dialog box appears. Enter a new name for the part (I-BEAM), and under the Base Feature tab choose Shell for shape and Extrusion for type. Change the approximate size option to 0.5. The Create Part dialog box should look identical to Figure 3b. Click Continue… and the graphics window will change to a set of gridlines.

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Figure 3a. Create Part Dialog Box

Figure 3b. Create Part Dialog Box (I-BEAM)

For the first step in generating the model geometry, a rectangular box must be created. Click the Create Lines: Rectangle (4 lines) icon in the module. (Remember, the module is the series of icons to the right of the model tree) In the viewport click once with the cursor, then drag the cursor to any other place in the viewport and click again. A yellow rectangle should be visible in the viewport. Click the Create Lines: Connected icon in the module, hover the cursor along the top horizontal line of the rectangle until a white circle appears (Figure 4). The circle should appear at the midpoint of that line.

 

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Figure 4. Midpoint of Horizontal Line  Once the white circle appears on the horizontal line, click with the cursor and draw a vertical line which connects to the bottom horizontal line. You will know that the line is vertical if there is a V located on the right side of the line (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Vertical Line

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The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension. a New dimension: box should appear (Figure 6). At the bottom of the viewport. Click the Add Dimension icon in the module and click the top horizontal line in the sketch. Enter a value of 0. Hit Enter. make sure to enter a value of 0. Dimensioned Sketch ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 6 REV 03.06 will appear when 0. Make sure to keep a consistent set of units when creating any model. Move the cursor away from the vertical line and click. Move the cursur away from the horizontal line and click. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension and look similar to that in Figure 7. (Please note: due to significant figures in the sketch mode a value of 0.059 is entered for the vertical height. New Dimension Box       Enter a value of 0.16.07 in the New Dimension box.  Figure 6. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear.2011 .059 for the vertical line) Figure 7. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear. At the bottom of the viewport.059 in the new dimension box and hit Enter. a New dimension: box should appear. Using the cursor click the middle vertical line. The dimension values are being input in units of meters. Since an arbitrary rectangle was drawn in the initial sketch. it will now be given the proper dimensions.

2011 . Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box (0. After this value has been entered the Edit Base Extrusion dialog box should look similar to Figure 9b. At the bottom of the viewport you will be prompted to Sketch the section for the shell extrusion. In the Depth: category enter a value of 0. Final I-Beam Cross Section    Press Escape on your keyboard to exit the Auto-Trim tool. This value will extrude the geometry 90 cm (0. Repeat the previous step but drag the cursor over the far right vertical line.16. Click and hold the left cursor button while dragging the cursor over the far left vertical line and then let go. If the process was done correctly the sketch should look similar to that in Figure 8. If this was done correctly the left vertical line should disappear. Click Done. Figure 9a. click the Auto-Trim icon in the module. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box Figure 9b.9. Figure 8. The Edit Base Extrusion dialog box will appear (Figure 9a).9m) in the Z direction.  To properly create the I-Beam cross section.9) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 7 REV 03.

  Click OK. Extruded I-Beam Model Defining Material Properties  To define material properties for this model. Enter values of Young’s Modulus = 200E09 Pa. Click OK. Sketch mode will automatically be exited and a grey I-Beam will appear (Figure 10). double click on Materials in the model tree and the Edit Material dialog box will appear (Figure 11a). the Edit Material dialog box should look similar to Figure 11b. highlight Elasticity and click Elastic.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 8 REV 03. The cross section sketch will be extruded into a three dimensional part. and Poisson’s Ratio = 0. After the material properties have been entered.2011 . and click the Mechanical tab. Enter a Name for the material (STEEL).16. Figure 10.3.

and choose Shell under the Category Tab. At this point in preprocessing. It may be of interest to save the file after each section of this tutorial. Click Continue…  Figure 12a. Click File then click Save. and Homogeneous under the Type tab.Figure 11a. Edit Material Dialog Box  Figure 11b. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 12b. Creating Sections  To create a shell section in ABAQUS.2011 . Enter a Name for the section (FLANGE). All of the dimensions have been input in meters. the model should be saved. Create Section Dialog Box (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 9 REV 03.cae*) file. The units chosen for the definition of the material properties should be consistent and dictate what units should be used for the dimensions of the structure. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 12b.16. Edit Material Dialog Box (Steel)  Please note there is no dropdown menu or feature in ABAQUS that sets specific units. Name the file I-Beam Tutorial. therefore the respective Young’s Modulus units should be entered in Pa (Pascals). double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 12a). The file will save as a Model Database (*.

Double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 14a). The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 13. If both the flanges and web had the same thickness only one section would need to be created. Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. Click OK. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section. Enter a Name for the section (WEB). and Homogeneous under the Type tab.001 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a thickness of 1 mm for both the top and bottom flanges).16. Under the basic tab enter 0. the Material is defaulted to STEEL. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3. Figure 13. and choose Shell under the Category Tab.   The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 14b. Click Continue… ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 10 REV 03. If multiple materials had been created. Because only one material has been created. Edit Section Dialog Box (FLANGE)    Since the flanges have a different specified thickness than the web.2011 . another section with the appropriate shell thickness for the web must be created.

Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. Under the basic tab enter 0. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section. Because only one material has been created. Edit Section Dialog Box (WEB) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 11 REV 03.16. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3.2011 . If multiple materials had been created. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 14b. Create Section Dialog Box (WEB)    The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 15. Figure 15. the Material is defaulted to STEEL.Figure 14a.002 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a 2 mm thickness for the web). Click OK.

further expanding the model tree (Figure 16). Model Tree Expansion (Parts)  After the model tree has been expanded. In the model tree. they can be assigned to the geometry. Figure 16.2011 .  2 Top Sections 2 Bottom Sections Figure 17. double click Section Assignments.16. click the + to the left of the part called I-BEAM. click the 2 sections of the top flange and the 2 sections of the bottom flange. Next. this will further expand the model tree’s options. While holding the shift key on the keyboard.Assigning Sections  Now that the shell sections have been created. If the sections have been chosen correctly they will change color from grey to red (Figure 17). Click Done. click the + to the left of the Parts icon. Selected Flange Sections ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 12 REV 03.

The top and bottom now should now turn to a blue color. Edit Section Assignment Figure 19b. the web must be assigned its respective section.2011 . Next. choose the WEB section that was created. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 18a). If the section has been chosen correctly it will change color from grey to red. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 18b. Double click Section Assignments. Figure 18a. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 19b. choose the FLANGE section that was created. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 19a). Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE)   Click OK. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. Figure 19a. Using the drop down menu under the Section option.16. Edit Section Assignment   Figure 18b. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 13 REV 03. using the cursor click the web of the I-beam. Click Done.

Selected Edges ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 14 REV 03. Click Done.16. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color (Figure 20). Hover the cursor over the Seed Edge: By Number icon and release the button on the cursor. If this selection is done correctly.  Click Ok.e keep the aspect ratio of length to width to be as close to 1 as is possible.2011 . The first step in creating a mesh is to seed the part. In this model. While holding the shift key on the keyboard. i. Click and hold the Seed Part icon in the mesh module and six icons will appear. double click Mesh (Empty) in the model tree. then the geometry should change color to pink. Creating a Mesh  When creating a finite element mesh with shell or plate elements. it is best to make elements as square as possible. The web of the I-Beam should now turn a blue color. A total of eight lines should be selected since the part should be rotated and the four edges on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. click the top and bottom edges of the flanges. To create a mesh for the model geometry. (Note: To rotate the beam click F3 on the keyboard then left click and drag the cursor to rotate the part. the elements will be made with dimensions as close as possible to 1 cm by 1 cm. To exit the rotate command press Escape on the keyboard) 2 Top Edges   Web Edge Side Edge 2 Bottom Edges Figure 20. thus making the complete model blue.

Next. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 15 REV 03. A total of two edges should be selected since the part should be rotated and the edge on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. Finally. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 3. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 6. A total of four lines should be selected (Figure 20). The edge should turn from a pink to a red color if it has been selected correctly. Click Done. Hit Enter on the keyboard Click Done. click the web edge of the I-Beam (Figure 20). This will seed the selected edges to have six evenly spaced elements along their length. Click Done. while holding the shift key on the keyboard. This will seed the selected edge to have ninety evenly spaced elements along its length.            Click Done.2011 . Hit Enter on the keyboard.16. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 90. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color. The edges will now appear to be seeded with evenly spaced pink points along their length. This will seed the selected edges to have three evenly spaced elements along their length. click the four edges along the length of the I-Beam. Hit Enter on the keyboard.

In the mesh module. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 22. click the Mesh Part icon bottom of the viewport you will be prompted if it is OK to mesh the part? Click Yes. the geometry will turn blue (Figure 21). If this procedure was done correctly. To do this task. click the + to the left of Assembly in the model tree. . At the Figure 21. Model Tree Expansion (Assembly) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 16 REV 03. Figure 22.16.2011 . it can be brought into the assembly. Meshed Geometry Creating an Instance  Now that the part has been meshed.  The part is now ready to be meshed.

 Figure 24.16. This feature will allow multiple parts to be brought into the assembly.2011 . If this step was done correctly the model should turn a blue color (Figure 24). Create Instance Dialog Box  The I-BEAM part is selected by default because only one part has been created for this tutorial. Double click on the Instances icon in the expanded model tree. Click OK. then this step would allow them to be entered into the assembly. The Create Instance dialog box will appear (Figure 23). Figure 23. If multiple parts had been created. Create Instance ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 17 REV 03.

Create Step Dialog Box (LOADING STEP) Click Continue…. Figure 26. Figure 25a. and the Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 26). Create Step Dialog Box  Figure 25b. Under Procedure type choose General > Static. support constraints and forces.g. e.2011 . Edit Step Dialog Box  Click OK to accept the default values for the various options. e. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 18 REV 03. The Create Step dialog box should look identical to Figure 25b. and defines the boundary conditions.g. double click the Steps icon. Static or Dynamic. The Create Step dialog box will appear (Figure 25a). In the model tree.Creating a Step   A Step is where the user defines the type of loading. General.16. Create a Name for the step called LOADING STEP.

To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. Make sure to double click the Sets option that is underneath the I-BEAM part in the model tree (Figure 27). Create Set Dialog Box (FIXED END)  Click Continue… The model will to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Figure 28a. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the right side of the beam were selected for the fixed end (Figure 29).Creating Sets  At this point 4 sets will be created to simplify the application of loads and boundary conditions in the upcoming steps. click all of the nodes at one end of the beam. Double click Sets in the model tree. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 19 REV 03. and under the type option make sure to choose Node.16. Create a Name for the set called FIXED END. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 28b. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 28b.2011 . Sets Option in Model Tree  The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 28a). While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Figure 27.

2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Fixed End Set   Click Done. Create Set Dialog Box (LOAD END)   Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Click Done. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 30a).Figure 29. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 30b. Create a Name for the set called LOAD END. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the left side of the beam were selected for the load end. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. Another set will be created for the loading end of the I-Beam. Double click Sets(1) in the model tree.16. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. click all of the nodes at the opposite end of the beam that the FIXED END set was created. 20 REV 03. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 30b. Figure 30a. and under the type option make sure to choose Node.

The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 32a). and under the type option make sure to choose Node.   Figure 32a. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 32b. Double click Sets(2) in the model tree. click the + to the left of Sets (2) in the model tree. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 32b. Create Set Dialog Box (TOP FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. These sets will be created to apply the torsional load to the model. Finally two more sets will be created. To verify that the sets were not created on the same end of the beam. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 31. click the LOAD END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes included in that set will turn red in the viewport.2011 .16. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 21 REV 03. Likewise. one for the TOP FLANGE and the other for the BOTTOM FLANGE. Figure 31. Created Sets Model Tree  Click the FIXED END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes which are included in that set will turn red. Create a Name for the set called TOP FLANGE.

Create Set Dialog Box (BOTTOM FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh.2011 . Now a set will be created for the BOTTOM FLANGE. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. click the nodes at the end of the top flange where the LOAD END set was created. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 34b. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 22 REV 03. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 34a). To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 33). Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 34b. Figure 34a. Create a Name for the set called BOTTOM FLANGE. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. Figure 33. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. Double click Sets(3) in the model tree.16. Node Selection Top Flange Set   Click Done.

 While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. click the nodes at the end of the bottom flange where the LOAD END set was created.2011 . The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 36b. Create a Name for the boundary condition called FIXED.16. Double click BCs in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 36a). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 23 REV 03. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. Apply Constraint Boundary Conditions   Boundary conditions will be defined which will simulate a fixed (also known as “clamped”) beam at one end with a tip load. and choose Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre under the Types for Selected Step option. Node Selection Bottom Flange Set  Click Done. Figure 35. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose Initial. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 35). Under the Category option choose Mechanical.

The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 38. click Sets… at the bottom right side of the viewport. click I-BEAM-1.2011 . Region Selection Dialog Box   Using the cursor. Create Boundary Condition Figure 36b. Create Boundary Condition (FIXED)    Click Continue… Using the cursor. If this selection is done correctly you will be immediately prompted by the Region Selection dialog box (Figure 37). Figure 37.16. Click ENCASTRE (U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0).FIXED END.Figure 36a. Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 24 REV 03.

The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 39b.Figure 38.2011 .16. Double click BCs(1) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 39a). Figure 39a. Create Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 25 REV 03. Create a Name for the boundary condition called AXIAL. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option.01% axial strain will be applied to the end of the beam as a prescribed displacement. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Edit Boundary Condition Dialog Box  Click OK. Create Boundary Condition  Click Continue… Figure 39b. Applying an Axial Load to the Beam   A 0.

Region Selection Dialog Box   Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 41a).2011 . Since the I-Beam cross section was sketched in the X Y plane. Figure 40.00009. a displacement will be added in the Z direction. Edit Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 26 REV 03. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 41b.LOAD END. Edit Boundary Condition Figure 41b.16. Figure 41a. The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 40). Using the cursor click I-BEAM-1. Check the box to the left of U3 and enter a value of 0.

Double click BCs(2) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 43a).0295 m (0. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 43b. To find the required displacement in the x-direction to achieve the 5° twist use:   Where x is the prescribed displacement and is equal to 0. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 27 REV 03.059/2). Click OK. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION TOP. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP.2011 . Applied Axial Load Applying a Torsional Load to the Beam  An equal and opposite displacement will be imposed on opposite sides of the beam to simulate a torque on the beam. The y-distance from the center of the beam to the top or bottom flange is 0. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option.16. The load is to be a 5° twist at the end of the beam. Figure 42. If the prescribed displacement has been applied correctly small orange arrows will be visible at the nodes (Figure 42).00258 m.

the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 44. Figure 44. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 45b. Create Boundary Condition Figure 43b.2011 . Create Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 45a).16.Figure 43a.00258. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 28 REV 03. Since this displacement will be applied to the top flange in the +X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of 0. Click I-BEAM-1.TOP FLANGE.

2011 . Create Boundary Condition Figure 46b. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP) Click OK. Figure 46a.16. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. An equal and opposite displacement will be prescribed to the bottom flange. Edit Boundary Condition   Figure 45b. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the +X direction at the end of the top flange. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 46b.Figure 45a. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION BOTTOM. Double click BCs(3) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 46a). Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Create Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 29 REV 03.

Since this displacement will be applied to the bottom flange in the -X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of -0. Figure 48a. Edit Boundary Condition Figure 48b.00258. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 48a). The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 48b.BOTTOM FLANGE. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 30 REV 03. Click I-BEAM-1. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 47. Figure 47.2011 .  Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.16.

and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -X direction at the end of the bottom flange. a prescribed displacement in the –Y direction will be imposed on the tip of the beam.2011 . Double click BCs(4) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 50a). Both the axial and torsional loads are applied in this view.16. Click OK. Figure 49. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 49. Axial and Torsional Loads Beam in Bending  Finally. Create a Name for the boundary condition called BENDING. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 31 REV 03. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 50b.

Figure 51. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 52a). The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 52b. Create Boundary Condition Figure 50b. Create Boundary Condition (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.Figure 50a.16. Click I-BEAM-1.LOAD END. Since this displacement will be applied to the load end in the -Y direction click the box to the left of U2: and enter a number of -0. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 32 REV 03. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 51.006.2011 .

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 33 REV 03. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 53.Figure 52a. Axial. Torsion and Bending Loads.16. Figure 53. All three loading conditions are applied in this view (Axial. Torsion. Edit Boundary Condition (BENDING) Click OK.2011 . Edit Boundary Condition  Figure 52b. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -Y direction on the loading end of the beam. and Bending).

Pop Up Menu (Suppress)  Click Suppress. An analysis for the bending loading condition will be completed. Model Tree Expansion (BCs)  Once the model tree has been expanded all off the created boundary conditions can be viewed. TORSION TOP. If this is done correctly a red X will appear to the left of the boundary conditions in the model tree. the others can be suppressed.16. Since this tutorial calls for multiple loading conditions. Note: Suppressed BCs will not write to the inp file. This will expand the model tree and should look similar to Figure 54. Release the Ctrl button on the keyboard and right mouse click one of the selected boundary conditions. Since only the BENDING boundary condition is of interest for this analysis. At this point the selected boundary conditions should be highlighted blue. Please note that the FIXED boundary condition should not be suppressed for any analysis since is needed to clamp the end of the beam and is not considered a loading condition. Figure 54.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . and TORSION BOTTOM boundary conditions. To do so click the + to the left of BCs (5) in the model tree.   Figure 55. suppressing the loads is helpful rather than deleting the loads when they are unwanted for the analysis. 34 REV 03. While holding Ctrl on the keyboard click the AXIAL. The pop up menu should look similar to that in Figure 55.

Figure 56. Create Job Dialog Box (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Edit Job dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 57). The Create Job dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 56.Creating a Job  To create a job for this model. perform the analysis. Blank spaces are not allowed in a job name.e.2011 . i. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 35 REV 03. Up to this point.16. Figure 57. Thus the use of the underline in the name. In the Create Job dialog box. you have been preprocessing the model. A job will take the input file created by the preprocessor and process the model. Edit Job Dialog Box (BENDING)  Accept the default values and click OK. create a Name for this job called BENDING. double click the Jobs icon in the model tree.

Figure 59. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 36 REV 03. Click Select… and use standard Windows practice to select (and possibly create) a subdirectory. setting the work directory must be accomplished. click File and in the dropdown menu click Set Work Directory… (Figure 58). Set Work Directory  The Set Work Directory screen will immediately appear (Figure 59). At the top of the screen. Click OK. Set Work Directory (FOLDERS)   Click OK.16.Setting the Work Directory  To ensure that the input files write to the correct folder.2011 . Figure 58.

inp) of this model to the work directory. Now that the correct directory has been sourced in the command window type abaqus inter j=BENDING and then hit enter. first click the + next to the Jobs(1) icon in the model tree.Writing the Input File (. Model Analysis (ABAQUS Command) Method #1      Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus Command ABAQUS is set to a default directory (Example E:\>).inp)    To write the input file of the job that was created. Right click the job called BENDING and click the Write Input option. To access a specific directory within that drive type cd followed by the specific folder name in that directory (e. cd APPLIED STRENGTHS T. It may be helpful to go to the folder on the computer to which the work directory is set to ensure that the input file was written there. If the job has completed successfully the Abaqus prompt should look similar to Figure 60.16. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 37 REV 03.A) then hit Enter. This choice will write an input file (..g.2011 . To change directories in the Abaqus Command type the directory of choice followed by a colon (D:) then hit Enter. Figure 60.

Postprocessing using ABAQUS CAE   After the analysis has successfully completed in the Abaqus Command window using Method #1 or using Method #2. If you see a warning:  Click OK. The model will now be submitted for analysis by ABAQUS and the progress can be viewed in the status window at the bottom of the screen. Right click the BENDING job and then click Results. Analysis Results Isometric View ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 38 REV 03. the BENDING job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree.  Figure 61. The intent of this warning is to prevent the user from accidentally overwriting a previously completed analysis with the same name. If this selection was done correctly.Method #2    An alternative method for submitting an *.16. return to view the ABAQUS CAE viewport. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file.2011 .inp file for processing by ABAQUS can be accomplished with ABAQUS CAE Right click the job called BENDING and click the Submit option. the model should turn to a green color and the truss will have rotated to an isometric view (Figure 61).

The Views toolbar will appear (Figure 62). then click it. Figure 62.  To rotate the truss back into the X Y plane for viewing. Next. click View in the toolbar at the top of the screen. The model should look similar to that in Figure 63. and the Apply Front View button can be clicked to view the model in the X Y plane. Figure 63.2011 .16. Click Toolbars and make sure the option Views has a check mark to the left of it. click the Plot Contours on Deformed Shape icon in the Visualization module. Views Toolbar  To view the deformed shape of the model. If not. Deformed Shape (BENDING) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 39 REV 03.

Figure 65. this will change the contour color to represent the third invariant stress levels. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu Mises (Figure 64).16. The I-Beam model should look similar to that in Figure 65. Figure 64. Third Invariant Stress Contour ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 40 REV 03. Mises Dropdown  Using the cursor click Third Invariant.2011 .Obtaining Stress Values in Elements  To obtain the stresses in an element first the appropriate type of stress must be viewed.

Query Dialog Box Figure 67b. and then click Query… Figure 66. Query Dialog Box (ELEMENT) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 41 REV 03.16. output stress values will be obtained for different elements. Now that the appropriate stress contour is being viewed. Figure 67a. The Query dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 67b. At the top toolbar click Tools (Figure 66). Toolbar Tools  The Query dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 67a). Click Element under the General Queries option.2011 .

To complete the analysis using the TORSIONAL load. Stress Value Figure 68. At this point click the element on the model for which the stress value is desired.   ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 42 REV 03. Suppress both the BENDING and AXIAL boundary conditions and Resume both of the TORSION boundary conditions.2011 . Earlier in the tutorial the AXIAL & TORSIONAL boundary conditions were suppressed. Recall that the elastic modulus was prescribed to be 200x109 Pa and all dimensions were input in meters therefore the output stress values are in units of Pa. Please note: the stress value listed corresponds to the element outlined with a red box in the viewport. (To resume the torsion condition right click TORSION TOP & BOTTOM in the model tree and click resume). Create a new Job called TORSION and complete the post processing as needed.16. The value of the stress will then appear at the bottom of the viewport (Figure 68). Stress Value in Viewport  Without exiting the Query dialog box click another element to view the stress value. Modeling Different Loading Conditions  This tutorial completes the post processing for the BENDING loading condition of the project. Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges. To complete both the AXIAL and TORSION loading return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left of the screen.

Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges. If a combination of loading conditions is desired. the AXIAL job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree.  Likewise. resume the respective boundary conditions and complete the post processing as needed. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. Choose the ODB field output option (Figure 70b). Right click the AXIAL and then click Results. S Dropdown  Using the cursor click RF. To obtain the reactions at the nodes click the Create XY Data icon in the Visualization module. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu S (Figure 69). this will change the contour from viewing stresses to the magnitude of reaction forces. For the best analysis.2011 . Since the reaction force in the Z direction is desired click the Magnitude dropdown menu directly to the right of the RF dropdown and then click RF3.   Figure 69. suppress the TORSION and BENDING conditions and create a new Job called AXIAL and complete the post processing as needed. the amount of force to apply to each node is a function of the beam width of the element and the number elements connected to a node. The reaction forces at the nodes at the end of the beam are to be determined.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 43 REV 03. The Create XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 70a).16. Beam Buckling  For the beam buckling analysis. However. a unit axial load will be applied to the tip of the beam. this unit load should be distributed amongst all of the nodes at the tip of the beam.

Scroll down and check the box next to RF3. click the nodes on the model at the end of the beam which the load was applied.2011 . Click Plot. Under the Variables tab click the Positions: drop down menu and change the selection to Unique Nodal. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. Scroll down and click the black arrowhead next to RF: Reaction force .Figure 70a. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Figure 71a.16. All other reaction components should be left unchecked (Figure 71b). XY Data from ODB Field Output  Next click the Elements/Nodes tab. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 44 REV 03. Create XY Data Dialog Box (FIELD) Click Continue… The XY Data from ODB Field Output dialog box will appear (Figure 71a). Make sure that Pick from viewport is selected in the Method section.This click will expand the selection for more options. When the elements have been selected they will turn a red color. Create XY Data Dialog Box   Figure 70b. and click Edit Selection. XY Data from ODB Field Output   Figure 71b.

Field Output Plot  To view the numerical values of the reactions at the nodes.  Click Dismiss. click the XY Data Manager icon in the Visualization module. Figure 72. XY Data Manager Dialog Box ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 45 REV 03.  Figure 73. The XY Data Manager dialog box will appear (Figure 73). A plot should appear similar to that in Figure 72.2011 .16. This option is located directly to the right of the Create XY Data option.

2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . To view the value. Figure 74. At this point click start on the computer and open Microsoft Excel.16. 46 REV 03. double click each selection and an Edit XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 74). Figure 75. Import Node Numbers (Excel)  Double click each entry and enter the reaction force value in column B of the same Excel workbook (Figure 76). Edit XY Data Dialog Box    In this dialog box the value of the reaction force at the respective node is listed. In column A of a new Excel workbook enter the node numbers of the 19 nodes found in the XY Data Manager dialog box (Figure 75). Click OK.

Return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left 47 REV 03. Dividing each Reaction Force value by this total gives the respective force to apply to each node so as to have a net unit force on the end of the beam (Figure 77).Figure 76.16.9.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . In this case the sum is 5164. Import Reaction Forces (Excel)  Use the SUM function in Excel to add all the forces in column B. Color Coded Unit Loads (Excel)  Now that the nodal forces are known return to Abaqus CAE and close the Edit XY Data and XY Data Manager dialog boxes. Figure 77. Many of the nodes have the same respective reaction force and it may be beneficial to color code the nodes with the same reaction forces (Figure 77).

Create Step Dialog Box (BUCLKE)  Click Continue… The Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear. Suppress the AXIAL boundary condition (Right click -> Suppress). Double click Steps (2) and you will be prompted by the Create Step dialog box (Figure 78a). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 48 REV 03. Under the Number of eigenvalues requested: option enter a value of 5 in the box. Expand Steps (2) in the model tree if it is not already expanded by clicking the + to the left of the Steps(2) listing. The Create Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 78b. The only boundary condition that should still be resumed is the FIXED boundary condition. Under the Procedure type: drop down menu choose Linear perturbation and click Buckle. Figure 78a.  hand side of the viewport.2011 . The Edit Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 79. Create Step Dialog Box Figure 78b.16. Create a Name: for the step called BUCKLE. Right click LOADING STEP and left click Suppress.

Rather than individually load 19 nodes with its respective unit load value.Figure 79.16. double click Sets (4) in the model tree and the Create Set dialog box will immediately appear. Create a Name for the set called Nodes_3_6_10_11 and ensure that Node is selected under the type option.779.557.412. 393. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 49 REV 03.2011 . Similar to creating sets in the first part of the tutorial. Next click In all partrelated modules and check the box next to Show node labels (Figure 81). Edit Step Dialog Box (5 Eigenvalues)    Click OK. In the dialog box click the Mesh tab. Create Set Dialog Box (NODES_3_6_10_11)   Click Continue… At the top toolbar click View then click Part Display Options… and the Part Display Options dialog box will immediately appear. The Create Set dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 80. and 430.711. 233. we will create 4 sets since there are repeated unit load values of 116. Figure 80.

Figure 81. 10. At this point small purple node labels will appear on the model. When the nodes are selected they will turn a red color (Figure 82). Part Display Options Dialog Box   Click OK. Set Creation (Nodes 3. 10.2011 . While holding Shift on the keyboard click nodes 3. 11) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 50 REV 03. This was done so that the appropriate unit load could be placed on the correct nodes.16. 6. and 11. Figure 82. 6.

All Created Sets  Now that the sets have been created. 573] Nodes [2. The Create Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 84b. Create Load Dialog Box (NODES) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 51 REV 03. 572. 571. New Sets Figure 83.16. 474.2011 . Ensure Mechanical is selected under Category and Concentrated force under Types for Selected Step. 289. 570. 7]  If all of the sets have been created correctly the model tree should have a total of 8 sets and look similar to Figure 83. 475.  Click Done. 290. Create Load Dialog Box Figure 84b. 473. Figure 84a. the appropriate loads can be applied to the nodes. Repeat the same method to create sets for: Nodes [103. 104. 476] Nodes [569. Create a Name: for the load called NODES_3_6_10_11. Double click Loads in the model tree and the Create Load dialog box will appear (Figure 84a).

ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 52 REV 03.NODES_3_6_10_11.2011 . Edit Load Dialog Box  Figure 86b. Region Selection Dialog Box (NODES)  Click Continue… The Edit Load dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 86a). The Edit Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 86b. Enter a value of -0. Small yellow arrows will be visible pointing in the –Z direction if the procedure has been completed correctly. Figure 86a. the Region Selection dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 85. Edit Load Dialog Box (-0.02261 in the CF3: option. Click I-BEAM-1. The model should look similar to that in Figure 87.16. Figure 85. Click Continue… In the bottom right hand side of the viewport click Sets… and the Region Selection dialog box will appear.02261) Click OK.

571.04522 Nodes [569. 104.076227 Nodes [2. 473. 570.16.02261)  Using the same approach. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 53 REV 03. 474. 573] = -0.083333  If this procedure has been completed correctly there will be small yellow arrows located ALL the nodes on the loading end of the beam (Figure 88). 476] = -0. 289. 475.2011 . Loads of: Nodes [103. 7] = -0.Figure 87. 572. create loads for the three other sets that were generated in the previous steps. Model Load (-0. 290.

the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 89. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 30200 Hz.2011 . Write the input file and post process the job the same way as in the first part of this tutorial. When viewing the results. Buckle Load Figure 89. Deformed Shape (Localized Buckle) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 54 REV 03. Unit Load   Double click Jobs (1) in the model tree and create a job named BUCLKE. Also.16.Figure 88.

inp)  While holding Ctrl on the keyboard press the letter F. This will open the Find dialog box.2011 .inp file using Notepad.  The buckled shape shown in Figure 89 is distorted and appears to be localized buckling of the thin flanges and webs and not overall Euler buckling of the column. Enter Shell and then click Find Next. Open the BUCKLE. Input File (. Open the folder on the computer that the working directory is set to. Figure 91. Shell Section Input File ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 55 REV 03.inp file should look similar to that in Figure 90. This part of the . The . Figure 90.inp file should look similar to that shown in Figure 91. These changes will be made by editing the .inp files that are generated in the working directory.16. The model will now be edited to increase the thickness of the flanges from 1 mm to 5 mm and the web from 2 mm to 4 mm.

inp extension MUST be entered in the file name) Go to the Abaqus Command window and source to the directory if it is not already sourced. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED)   Return to the Abaqus CAE viewport and click the Results tab located at the top of the model tree.odb and click OK. Double click the first item in the Results tab called Output Databases. Source to the BUCKLE_EULER. Figure 92. Change 0.005 and change 0.2011 .002 to 0. Figure 93. Shell Section Input File (Increased)    Click File then click Save As… Enter a File name: for this input file called BUCKLE_EULER. If the analysis completed successfully the command window will look similar to that in Figure 93.004.001 to 0. This is where we will change the thickness values of the flanges and web. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 56 REV 03. Enter the command abaqus inter j=BUCKLE_EULER and hit Enter.inp (Note: the . The Open Database dialog box will appear.16. This section of the input file should look similar to Figure 92.

The localized buckling is not present in this view and the overall buckling looks to be Euler buckling and notice that the deflection is about the smaller area moment of inertia.16. Deformed Shape (Euler Buckle)  The buckled shape is shown in Figure 94. Also. Note the buckling force that was applied was based on the force distribution over the nodes resulting from an axial pull on the thinner sections.2011 . the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 168712 Hz. the buckling load may be slightly incorrect for this second buckling analysis. the important lesson is that the finite element method can find critical buckling loads be they local or overall Euler buckling. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 94. Buckle Load Figure 94.  Conclusion  Save the file by doing either File > Save or clicking the disk icon   Close ABAQUS CAE: File > Exit or Ctrl+Q This completes the Finite Element Analysis of an I-Beam tutorial. Thus. That force distribution may not be the same as we did not increase the size of the web and flanges by the same scale factor. When viewing the results. However. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 57 REV 03.

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