# AXIAL, BENDING, TORSION, COMBINED AND BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF A BEAM

Instructor: Professor James Sherwood Revised: Dimitri Soteropoulos Programs Utilized: ABAQUS CAE 6.9-EF1 Problem Description: In this tutorial, a finite element model of a beam will be constructed and analyzed using ABAQUS CAE. The analysis will look at stresses and displacements associated with multiple loading conditions for a steel I-beam. The beam will be “clamped” at one end and be loaded on the other end with prescribed displacements for axial, torsion and bending loads. A unit force will be applied to find the critical buckling load and the associated mode shape. The cross section of the beam is shown in Figure 1. The cross section dimensions are summarized in Table 1. The length of the beam is 90 cm.

Table 1. Cross Section Dimensions a b t1 t2 6 cm 7 cm 1 mm 2 mm

Figure 1. Beam Cross Section

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Creating the Model Geometry   Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus CAE You may be prompted with an Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box (Figure 1). Close this box by clicking the X in the top right hand corner.

Figure 1. Abaqus/CAE 6.9 Extended Functionality box.

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Once the Extended Functionality box is exited, the ABAQUS CAE Viewport should look similar to Figure 2. (Please note the model tree is the series of functions listed on the left hand side of the viewport, while the module is the list of icons to the right of the model tree)

Model Tree

Figure 2. ABAQUS CAE Viewport   To create the model geometry of the steel I-beam, a sketch of the cross section must be generated. Using the left mouse button, double click Parts in the model tree and the Create Part (Figure 3a) dialog box appears. Enter a new name for the part (I-BEAM), and under the Base Feature tab choose Shell for shape and Extrusion for type. Change the approximate size option to 0.5. The Create Part dialog box should look identical to Figure 3b. Click Continue… and the graphics window will change to a set of gridlines.

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Figure 3a. Create Part Dialog Box

Figure 3b. Create Part Dialog Box (I-BEAM)

For the first step in generating the model geometry, a rectangular box must be created. Click the Create Lines: Rectangle (4 lines) icon in the module. (Remember, the module is the series of icons to the right of the model tree) In the viewport click once with the cursor, then drag the cursor to any other place in the viewport and click again. A yellow rectangle should be visible in the viewport. Click the Create Lines: Connected icon in the module, hover the cursor along the top horizontal line of the rectangle until a white circle appears (Figure 4). The circle should appear at the midpoint of that line.

 

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Figure 4. Midpoint of Horizontal Line  Once the white circle appears on the horizontal line, click with the cursor and draw a vertical line which connects to the bottom horizontal line. You will know that the line is vertical if there is a V located on the right side of the line (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Vertical Line

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06 will appear when 0. Dimensioned Sketch ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 6 REV 03.  Figure 6. (Please note: due to significant figures in the sketch mode a value of 0. Hit Enter. The dimension values are being input in units of meters. The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension. Using the cursor click the middle vertical line.16. Move the cursor away from the vertical line and click. At the bottom of the viewport. Enter a value of 0.059 in the new dimension box and hit Enter. At the bottom of the viewport. Since an arbitrary rectangle was drawn in the initial sketch. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear.2011 . The sketch should resize to the appropriate dimension and look similar to that in Figure 7. Make sure to keep a consistent set of units when creating any model. At this point the line should turn red and its corresponding dimension should appear. it will now be given the proper dimensions. New Dimension Box       Enter a value of 0. Click the Add Dimension icon in the module and click the top horizontal line in the sketch. make sure to enter a value of 0.059 for the vertical line) Figure 7. a New dimension: box should appear.07 in the New Dimension box.059 is entered for the vertical height. Move the cursur away from the horizontal line and click. a New dimension: box should appear (Figure 6).

If the process was done correctly the sketch should look similar to that in Figure 8. The Edit Base Extrusion dialog box will appear (Figure 9a). Repeat the previous step but drag the cursor over the far right vertical line.9m) in the Z direction. Click and hold the left cursor button while dragging the cursor over the far left vertical line and then let go. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box (0. In the Depth: category enter a value of 0. Click Done.  To properly create the I-Beam cross section. Final I-Beam Cross Section    Press Escape on your keyboard to exit the Auto-Trim tool. If this was done correctly the left vertical line should disappear. Figure 9a.2011 .9) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 7 REV 03. Figure 8. This value will extrude the geometry 90 cm (0. After this value has been entered the Edit Base Extrusion dialog box should look similar to Figure 9b. Edit Base Extrusion Dialog Box Figure 9b. click the Auto-Trim icon in the module.16. At the bottom of the viewport you will be prompted to Sketch the section for the shell extrusion.9.

Extruded I-Beam Model Defining Material Properties  To define material properties for this model. Enter values of Young’s Modulus = 200E09 Pa.3. Click OK.  Click OK. highlight Elasticity and click Elastic. The cross section sketch will be extruded into a three dimensional part. and Poisson’s Ratio = 0. Sketch mode will automatically be exited and a grey I-Beam will appear (Figure 10).16. After the material properties have been entered. and click the Mechanical tab. Figure 10. Enter a Name for the material (STEEL).  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 8 REV 03.2011 . double click on Materials in the model tree and the Edit Material dialog box will appear (Figure 11a). the Edit Material dialog box should look similar to Figure 11b.

Creating Sections  To create a shell section in ABAQUS.16. Click Continue…  Figure 12a. and Homogeneous under the Type tab.cae*) file. Name the file I-Beam Tutorial. and choose Shell under the Category Tab. Click File then click Save. Edit Material Dialog Box (Steel)  Please note there is no dropdown menu or feature in ABAQUS that sets specific units. It may be of interest to save the file after each section of this tutorial.2011 . Enter a Name for the section (FLANGE). The file will save as a Model Database (*. All of the dimensions have been input in meters. double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 12a).Figure 11a. Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 12b. At this point in preprocessing. The units chosen for the definition of the material properties should be consistent and dictate what units should be used for the dimensions of the structure. the model should be saved. Edit Material Dialog Box  Figure 11b. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 12b. therefore the respective Young’s Modulus units should be entered in Pa (Pascals). Create Section Dialog Box (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 9 REV 03.

   The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section.16. the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section.2011 . Click Continue… ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 10 REV 03. Under the basic tab enter 0. Edit Section Dialog Box (FLANGE)    Since the flanges have a different specified thickness than the web. Enter a Name for the section (WEB). Your Create Section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 14b. and choose Shell under the Category Tab. Double click Sections in the model tree and the Create Section dialog box will appear (Figure 14a). If multiple materials had been created. the Material is defaulted to STEEL. Figure 13. If both the flanges and web had the same thickness only one section would need to be created.001 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a thickness of 1 mm for both the top and bottom flanges). Click OK. Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. and Homogeneous under the Type tab. another section with the appropriate shell thickness for the web must be created. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 13. Because only one material has been created. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3.

Under the basic tab enter 0. Click OK.002 for the Shell thickness (This value will be used to define a 2 mm thickness for the web). Edit Section Dialog Box (WEB) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 11 REV 03. Create Section Dialog Box (WEB)    The Edit Section dialog box will then appear where a value for the respective Shell thickness can be prescribed for this section. the Material is defaulted to STEEL.16. Because only one material has been created. Figure 15. Change the Thickness integration rule: to Gauss. The Edit section dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 15. When this is done the number of Thickness integration points will default to 3.Figure 14a.2011 . the dropdown menu could be used to prescribe a different material to this section. If multiple materials had been created. Create Section Dialog Box Figure 14b.

click the + to the left of the part called I-BEAM. Click Done. they can be assigned to the geometry.  2 Top Sections 2 Bottom Sections Figure 17. Model Tree Expansion (Parts)  After the model tree has been expanded.16. this will further expand the model tree’s options. If the sections have been chosen correctly they will change color from grey to red (Figure 17). While holding the shift key on the keyboard. Selected Flange Sections ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 12 REV 03. click the + to the left of the Parts icon. further expanding the model tree (Figure 16). double click Section Assignments.Assigning Sections  Now that the shell sections have been created. In the model tree. Next. click the 2 sections of the top flange and the 2 sections of the bottom flange. Figure 16.2011 .

16. Edit Section Assignment   Figure 18b. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 13 REV 03. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 19b.2011 . using the cursor click the web of the I-beam. Under the Shell offset option make sure the drop down definition is set to Middle surface. The top and bottom now should now turn to a blue color. Double click Section Assignments. Figure 18a. choose the FLANGE section that was created. Edit Section Assignment Figure 19b. Click Done. Using the drop down menu under the Section option. If the section has been chosen correctly it will change color from grey to red. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 18b. Edit Section Assignment (FLANGE)   Click OK. the web must be assigned its respective section. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 19a). choose the WEB section that was created. Figure 19a. Next. The Edit Section Assignment dialog box will appear (Figure 18a).

The first step in creating a mesh is to seed the part.16. Creating a Mesh  When creating a finite element mesh with shell or plate elements. Hover the cursor over the Seed Edge: By Number icon and release the button on the cursor. Click Done. (Note: To rotate the beam click F3 on the keyboard then left click and drag the cursor to rotate the part. In this model. Selected Edges ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 14 REV 03.2011 . double click Mesh (Empty) in the model tree. While holding the shift key on the keyboard. To create a mesh for the model geometry. thus making the complete model blue. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color (Figure 20). Click and hold the Seed Part icon in the mesh module and six icons will appear. A total of eight lines should be selected since the part should be rotated and the four edges on the other end of the beam should also be clicked.  Click Ok. The web of the I-Beam should now turn a blue color. i. To exit the rotate command press Escape on the keyboard) 2 Top Edges   Web Edge Side Edge 2 Bottom Edges Figure 20. then the geometry should change color to pink. click the top and bottom edges of the flanges.e keep the aspect ratio of length to width to be as close to 1 as is possible. the elements will be made with dimensions as close as possible to 1 cm by 1 cm. If this selection is done correctly. it is best to make elements as square as possible.

click the four edges along the length of the I-Beam. Hit Enter on the keyboard. The edge should turn from a pink to a red color if it has been selected correctly.2011 . ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 15 REV 03. If the edges have been selected correctly they will turn a red color. This will seed the selected edges to have three evenly spaced elements along their length. A total of four lines should be selected (Figure 20). Finally. while holding the shift key on the keyboard. This will seed the selected edges to have six evenly spaced elements along their length. Next. click the web edge of the I-Beam (Figure 20).16. This will seed the selected edge to have ninety evenly spaced elements along its length.            Click Done. The edges will now appear to be seeded with evenly spaced pink points along their length. Hit Enter on the keyboard Click Done. Hit Enter on the keyboard. A total of two edges should be selected since the part should be rotated and the edge on the other end of the beam should also be clicked. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 3. Click Done. Click Done. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 90. In the Number of elements along the edges: prompt at the bottom of the viewport enter a number of 6.

the geometry will turn blue (Figure 21). click the + to the left of Assembly in the model tree. At the Figure 21. Figure 22. Model Tree Expansion (Assembly) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 16 REV 03. Meshed Geometry Creating an Instance  Now that the part has been meshed. click the Mesh Part icon bottom of the viewport you will be prompted if it is OK to mesh the part? Click Yes. If this procedure was done correctly. In the mesh module.  The part is now ready to be meshed. .2011 . To do this task. The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 22. it can be brought into the assembly.16.

Click OK.16. Create Instance Dialog Box  The I-BEAM part is selected by default because only one part has been created for this tutorial. Double click on the Instances icon in the expanded model tree.  Figure 24. then this step would allow them to be entered into the assembly. Create Instance ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 17 REV 03. If this step was done correctly the model should turn a blue color (Figure 24). The Create Instance dialog box will appear (Figure 23). Figure 23. If multiple parts had been created.2011 . This feature will allow multiple parts to be brought into the assembly.

General. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 18 REV 03. Create Step Dialog Box (LOADING STEP) Click Continue…. support constraints and forces. Under Procedure type choose General > Static. e. Create a Name for the step called LOADING STEP. Figure 26. The Create Step dialog box should look identical to Figure 25b.Creating a Step   A Step is where the user defines the type of loading. double click the Steps icon. and the Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 26). The Create Step dialog box will appear (Figure 25a). e.g. In the model tree. Create Step Dialog Box  Figure 25b.2011 . and defines the boundary conditions. Figure 25a. Static or Dynamic. Edit Step Dialog Box  Click OK to accept the default values for the various options.16.g.

Make sure to double click the Sets option that is underneath the I-BEAM part in the model tree (Figure 27). Sets Option in Model Tree  The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 28a). A total of 19 nodes should be selected. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the right side of the beam were selected for the fixed end (Figure 29). The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 28b. Figure 28a. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 19 REV 03. Create Set Dialog Box (FIXED END)  Click Continue… The model will to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. Figure 27.Creating Sets  At this point 4 sets will be created to simplify the application of loads and boundary conditions in the upcoming steps. Double click Sets in the model tree. Create a Name for the set called FIXED END.16. click all of the nodes at one end of the beam. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard.2011 . Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 28b.

In this tutorial the beam was rotated such that the nodes on the left side of the beam were selected for the load end. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color. click all of the nodes at the opposite end of the beam that the FIXED END set was created. Fixed End Set   Click Done. Create a Name for the set called LOAD END. Click Done.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 30b. Double click Sets(1) in the model tree. Another set will be created for the loading end of the I-Beam. Figure 30a. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. A total of 19 nodes should be selected. Create Set Dialog Box   Figure 30b.Figure 29. Create Set Dialog Box (LOAD END)   Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. 20 REV 03. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 30a).16. and under the type option make sure to choose Node.

Create Set Dialog Box (TOP FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. Create a Name for the set called TOP FLANGE. These sets will be created to apply the torsional load to the model. Likewise.16. Created Sets Model Tree  Click the FIXED END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes which are included in that set will turn red. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. click the LOAD END set in the model tree and the 19 nodes included in that set will turn red in the viewport. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 21 REV 03. Finally two more sets will be created.2011 . The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 32a). The model tree will expand and should look identical to Figure 31. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 32b. one for the TOP FLANGE and the other for the BOTTOM FLANGE.   Figure 32a. click the + to the left of Sets (2) in the model tree. Double click Sets(2) in the model tree. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 32b. Figure 31. To verify that the sets were not created on the same end of the beam.

Now a set will be created for the BOTTOM FLANGE. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. and under the type option make sure to choose Node. Create Set Dialog Box  Figure 34b. Create a Name for the set called BOTTOM FLANGE. The Create Set dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 34a). While holding the Shift key on the keyboard.16. Double click Sets(3) in the model tree. The Create Set dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 34b. click the nodes at the end of the top flange where the LOAD END set was created. Create Set Dialog Box (BOTTOM FLANGE) Click Continue… The model will turn to a turquoise color with a visible mesh. To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 33). Figure 34a. Figure 33. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 22 REV 03.2011 . Node Selection Top Flange Set   Click Done.

The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 36b. Apply Constraint Boundary Conditions   Boundary conditions will be defined which will simulate a fixed (also known as “clamped”) beam at one end with a tip load. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 23 REV 03. Under the Category option choose Mechanical.2011 . To ensure each node is selected properly they will turn to a red color (Figure 35). Node Selection Bottom Flange Set  Click Done. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. Figure 35. click the nodes at the end of the bottom flange where the LOAD END set was created. Double click BCs in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 36a).16. Create a Name for the boundary condition called FIXED. A total of 7 nodes should be selected. and choose Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre under the Types for Selected Step option. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose Initial.

If this selection is done correctly you will be immediately prompted by the Region Selection dialog box (Figure 37).FIXED END. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 38. Region Selection Dialog Box   Using the cursor.Figure 36a. click Sets… at the bottom right side of the viewport.2011 . Create Boundary Condition Figure 36b. Click ENCASTRE (U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0). Create Boundary Condition (FIXED)    Click Continue… Using the cursor. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 24 REV 03.16. Figure 37. Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear. click I-BEAM-1.

The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 39b.Figure 38.01% axial strain will be applied to the end of the beam as a prescribed displacement. Create a Name for the boundary condition called AXIAL. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Edit Boundary Condition Dialog Box  Click OK.2011 . Figure 39a.16. Applying an Axial Load to the Beam   A 0. Create Boundary Condition  Click Continue… Figure 39b. Create Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 25 REV 03. Double click BCs(1) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 39a). and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option.

00009. Check the box to the left of U3 and enter a value of 0.LOAD END. Since the I-Beam cross section was sketched in the X Y plane. The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 40). Edit Boundary Condition Figure 41b. Edit Boundary Condition (AXIAL) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 26 REV 03. Figure 40. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 41b. Region Selection Dialog Box   Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 41a). Figure 41a.2011 . a displacement will be added in the Z direction.16. Using the cursor click I-BEAM-1.

2011 . and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. Applied Axial Load Applying a Torsional Load to the Beam  An equal and opposite displacement will be imposed on opposite sides of the beam to simulate a torque on the beam.00258 m. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 27 REV 03. The load is to be a 5° twist at the end of the beam. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. The y-distance from the center of the beam to the top or bottom flange is 0. To find the required displacement in the x-direction to achieve the 5° twist use:   Where x is the prescribed displacement and is equal to 0. Figure 42. Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Click OK.0295 m (0. Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION TOP. If the prescribed displacement has been applied correctly small orange arrows will be visible at the nodes (Figure 42). The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 43b.16.059/2). Double click BCs(2) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 43a).

Create Boundary Condition Figure 43b. Figure 44.00258. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 45b.Figure 43a. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 28 REV 03. Since this displacement will be applied to the top flange in the +X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of 0.2011 . the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 44.TOP FLANGE. Click I-BEAM-1. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 45a).16. Create Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.

Create a Name for the boundary condition called TORSION BOTTOM. Edit Boundary Condition   Figure 45b.2011 . Under the Category option choose Mechanical. Double click BCs(3) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 46a). If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the +X direction at the end of the top flange. An equal and opposite displacement will be prescribed to the bottom flange. Create Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 29 REV 03.Figure 45a. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 46b. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION TOP) Click OK. Figure 46a.16. Create Boundary Condition Figure 46b. and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option.

Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 48a).  Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear. Edit Boundary Condition (TORSION BOTTOM) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 30 REV 03. Edit Boundary Condition Figure 48b. Figure 48a.BOTTOM FLANGE.16.2011 . Figure 47. Click I-BEAM-1. Since this displacement will be applied to the bottom flange in the -X direction click the box to the left of U1: and enter a number of -0. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 47.00258. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 48b.

Under the Category option choose Mechanical.2011 . and choose Displacement/Rotation under the Types for Selected Step option. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 31 REV 03. and under the Step drop down menu make sure to choose LOADING STEP. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 50b. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -X direction at the end of the bottom flange. Figure 49. a prescribed displacement in the –Y direction will be imposed on the tip of the beam. Create a Name for the boundary condition called BENDING.16. Click OK. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 49. Both the axial and torsional loads are applied in this view. Axial and Torsional Loads Beam in Bending  Finally. Double click BCs(4) in the model tree and the Create Boundary Condition dialog box will appear (Figure 50a).

LOAD END. Figure 51. Create Boundary Condition (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Region Selection dialog box will immediately appear.006. the Region Selection dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 51.2011 . Click I-BEAM-1. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 52b.Figure 50a.16. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 32 REV 03. Create Boundary Condition Figure 50b. Region Selection Dialog Box  Click Continue… The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 52a). Since this displacement will be applied to the load end in the -Y direction click the box to the left of U2: and enter a number of -0.

16. Axial. and Bending). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 33 REV 03. Figure 53. An expanded view of the loading end of the beam is shown in Figure 53.Figure 52a. Edit Boundary Condition  Figure 52b. Torsion. Edit Boundary Condition (BENDING) Click OK. Torsion and Bending Loads.2011 . All three loading conditions are applied in this view (Axial. If the procedure has been completed correctly small orange arrows will appear pointing in the -Y direction on the loading end of the beam.

Create Job Dialog Box (BENDING)   Click Continue… The Edit Job dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 57). Up to this point. create a Name for this job called BENDING. i. Blank spaces are not allowed in a job name. Figure 57.16. Thus the use of the underline in the name. double click the Jobs icon in the model tree. A job will take the input file created by the preprocessor and process the model.e.2011 . In the Create Job dialog box. you have been preprocessing the model.Creating a Job  To create a job for this model. Figure 56. The Create Job dialog box should look identical to that in Figure 56. perform the analysis. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 35 REV 03. Edit Job Dialog Box (BENDING)  Accept the default values and click OK.

Figure 58. Click OK. Figure 59. Set Work Directory  The Set Work Directory screen will immediately appear (Figure 59). Set Work Directory (FOLDERS)   Click OK. At the top of the screen. click File and in the dropdown menu click Set Work Directory… (Figure 58).16. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 36 REV 03. setting the work directory must be accomplished.Setting the Work Directory  To ensure that the input files write to the correct folder. Click Select… and use standard Windows practice to select (and possibly create) a subdirectory.2011 .

Right click the job called BENDING and click the Write Input option.16. Figure 60. first click the + next to the Jobs(1) icon in the model tree. cd APPLIED STRENGTHS T. Model Analysis (ABAQUS Command) Method #1      Go to the Start Menu and open Abaqus Command ABAQUS is set to a default directory (Example E:\>).2011 .inp) of this model to the work directory.g.Writing the Input File (.. Now that the correct directory has been sourced in the command window type abaqus inter j=BENDING and then hit enter.A) then hit Enter. This choice will write an input file (. To access a specific directory within that drive type cd followed by the specific folder name in that directory (e. If the job has completed successfully the Abaqus prompt should look similar to Figure 60.inp)    To write the input file of the job that was created. To change directories in the Abaqus Command type the directory of choice followed by a colon (D:) then hit Enter. It may be helpful to go to the folder on the computer to which the work directory is set to ensure that the input file was written there. Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 37 REV 03.

2011 .16.Method #2    An alternative method for submitting an *.inp file for processing by ABAQUS can be accomplished with ABAQUS CAE Right click the job called BENDING and click the Submit option. return to view the ABAQUS CAE viewport. If this selection was done correctly. the model should turn to a green color and the truss will have rotated to an isometric view (Figure 61). Postprocessing using ABAQUS CAE   After the analysis has successfully completed in the Abaqus Command window using Method #1 or using Method #2. Analysis Results Isometric View ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 38 REV 03. Right click the BENDING job and then click Results.  Figure 61. the BENDING job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree. The model will now be submitted for analysis by ABAQUS and the progress can be viewed in the status window at the bottom of the screen. The intent of this warning is to prevent the user from accidentally overwriting a previously completed analysis with the same name. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. If you see a warning:  Click OK.

The model should look similar to that in Figure 63. Deformed Shape (BENDING) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 39 REV 03. Click Toolbars and make sure the option Views has a check mark to the left of it. If not. click the Plot Contours on Deformed Shape icon in the Visualization module.  To rotate the truss back into the X Y plane for viewing. Views Toolbar  To view the deformed shape of the model. Next. click View in the toolbar at the top of the screen.2011 . then click it. Figure 62. The Views toolbar will appear (Figure 62).16. and the Apply Front View button can be clicked to view the model in the X Y plane. Figure 63.

this will change the contour color to represent the third invariant stress levels. At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu Mises (Figure 64). Mises Dropdown  Using the cursor click Third Invariant.2011 .Obtaining Stress Values in Elements  To obtain the stresses in an element first the appropriate type of stress must be viewed. Third Invariant Stress Contour ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 40 REV 03. Figure 64. Figure 65. The I-Beam model should look similar to that in Figure 65.16.

Click Element under the General Queries option. Now that the appropriate stress contour is being viewed.16. Toolbar Tools  The Query dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 67a). Query Dialog Box (ELEMENT) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 41 REV 03. Figure 67a. At the top toolbar click Tools (Figure 66). The Query dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 67b.2011 . output stress values will be obtained for different elements. and then click Query… Figure 66. Query Dialog Box Figure 67b.

At the top of the viewport underneath the top toolbar click the drop down menu S (Figure 69). If a combination of loading conditions is desired. To obtain the reactions at the nodes click the Create XY Data icon in the Visualization module.  Likewise. Choose the ODB field output option (Figure 70b). For the best analysis. Since the reaction force in the Z direction is desired click the Magnitude dropdown menu directly to the right of the RF dropdown and then click RF3. Please note: two torsional loads must be suppressed since there is a load for both the top and bottom flanges. a unit axial load will be applied to the tip of the beam. the AXIAL job should still be highlighted in ABAQUS CAE model tree. The reaction forces at the nodes at the end of the beam are to be determined. Because the last step of creating the model was to create a job/write (and possibly submit) an input file. resume the respective boundary conditions and complete the post processing as needed. suppress the TORSION and BENDING conditions and create a new Job called AXIAL and complete the post processing as needed. the amount of force to apply to each node is a function of the beam width of the element and the number elements connected to a node.   Figure 69. However. Right click the AXIAL and then click Results. The Create XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 70a).2011 . S Dropdown  Using the cursor click RF.16. this unit load should be distributed amongst all of the nodes at the tip of the beam.  ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 43 REV 03. this will change the contour from viewing stresses to the magnitude of reaction forces. Beam Buckling  For the beam buckling analysis.

Create XY Data Dialog Box   Figure 70b. All other reaction components should be left unchecked (Figure 71b). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 44 REV 03.2011 . Make sure that Pick from viewport is selected in the Method section. XY Data from ODB Field Output   Figure 71b. Figure 71a. Under the Variables tab click the Positions: drop down menu and change the selection to Unique Nodal.Figure 70a. Click Plot. XY Data from ODB Field Output  Next click the Elements/Nodes tab. While holding the Shift key on the keyboard. When the elements have been selected they will turn a red color.This click will expand the selection for more options. Create XY Data Dialog Box (FIELD) Click Continue… The XY Data from ODB Field Output dialog box will appear (Figure 71a). Scroll down and click the black arrowhead next to RF: Reaction force . A total of 19 nodes should be selected.16. and click Edit Selection. Scroll down and check the box next to RF3. click the nodes on the model at the end of the beam which the load was applied.

click the XY Data Manager icon in the Visualization module.2011 .  Figure 73. This option is located directly to the right of the Create XY Data option. Field Output Plot  To view the numerical values of the reactions at the nodes. The XY Data Manager dialog box will appear (Figure 73). XY Data Manager Dialog Box ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 45 REV 03. A plot should appear similar to that in Figure 72.16. Figure 72.  Click Dismiss.

double click each selection and an Edit XY Data dialog box will appear (Figure 74). Figure 74. Figure 75. To view the value.16. At this point click start on the computer and open Microsoft Excel. Click OK. In column A of a new Excel workbook enter the node numbers of the 19 nodes found in the XY Data Manager dialog box (Figure 75).2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . 46 REV 03. Import Node Numbers (Excel)  Double click each entry and enter the reaction force value in column B of the same Excel workbook (Figure 76). Edit XY Data Dialog Box    In this dialog box the value of the reaction force at the respective node is listed.

9. Import Reaction Forces (Excel)  Use the SUM function in Excel to add all the forces in column B.2011 ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL . Dividing each Reaction Force value by this total gives the respective force to apply to each node so as to have a net unit force on the end of the beam (Figure 77). Figure 77. Return to the model tree by clicking the Model tab at the top left 47 REV 03. Color Coded Unit Loads (Excel)  Now that the nodal forces are known return to Abaqus CAE and close the Edit XY Data and XY Data Manager dialog boxes.Figure 76.16. Many of the nodes have the same respective reaction force and it may be beneficial to color code the nodes with the same reaction forces (Figure 77). In this case the sum is 5164.

Create a Name: for the step called BUCKLE. Right click LOADING STEP and left click Suppress. The Create Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 78b. Expand Steps (2) in the model tree if it is not already expanded by clicking the + to the left of the Steps(2) listing. Suppress the AXIAL boundary condition (Right click -> Suppress). ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 48 REV 03. Figure 78a. Under the Procedure type: drop down menu choose Linear perturbation and click Buckle. Create Step Dialog Box (BUCLKE)  Click Continue… The Edit Step dialog box will immediately appear. Create Step Dialog Box Figure 78b.  hand side of the viewport. The only boundary condition that should still be resumed is the FIXED boundary condition. Under the Number of eigenvalues requested: option enter a value of 5 in the box. Double click Steps (2) and you will be prompted by the Create Step dialog box (Figure 78a). The Edit Step dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 79.2011 .16.

16.2011 . double click Sets (4) in the model tree and the Create Set dialog box will immediately appear. and 430. we will create 4 sets since there are repeated unit load values of 116. Edit Step Dialog Box (5 Eigenvalues)    Click OK. Create Set Dialog Box (NODES_3_6_10_11)   Click Continue… At the top toolbar click View then click Part Display Options… and the Part Display Options dialog box will immediately appear. Similar to creating sets in the first part of the tutorial.711. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 49 REV 03.Figure 79.412. In the dialog box click the Mesh tab. 233.557.779. Figure 80. Rather than individually load 19 nodes with its respective unit load value. Create a Name for the set called Nodes_3_6_10_11 and ensure that Node is selected under the type option. Next click In all partrelated modules and check the box next to Show node labels (Figure 81). The Create Set dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 80. 393.

This was done so that the appropriate unit load could be placed on the correct nodes. When the nodes are selected they will turn a red color (Figure 82). and 11. 6. 10. Set Creation (Nodes 3.Figure 81. 6.2011 . At this point small purple node labels will appear on the model.16. Part Display Options Dialog Box   Click OK. Figure 82. 11) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 50 REV 03. While holding Shift on the keyboard click nodes 3. 10.

  Click Done. 474. 104. 573] Nodes [2. New Sets Figure 83. Create Load Dialog Box (NODES) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 51 REV 03. Double click Loads in the model tree and the Create Load dialog box will appear (Figure 84a). 571. 7]  If all of the sets have been created correctly the model tree should have a total of 8 sets and look similar to Figure 83.16. Figure 84a. 570.2011 . Repeat the same method to create sets for: Nodes [103. 289. The Create Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 84b. the appropriate loads can be applied to the nodes. 476] Nodes [569. All Created Sets  Now that the sets have been created. Create a Name: for the load called NODES_3_6_10_11. 572. 290. Ensure Mechanical is selected under Category and Concentrated force under Types for Selected Step. 475. 473. Create Load Dialog Box Figure 84b.

Figure 85. Click Continue… In the bottom right hand side of the viewport click Sets… and the Region Selection dialog box will appear. Edit Load Dialog Box (-0.2011 . Enter a value of -0. the Region Selection dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 85. Region Selection Dialog Box (NODES)  Click Continue… The Edit Load dialog box will immediately appear (Figure 86a). The model should look similar to that in Figure 87. Edit Load Dialog Box  Figure 86b.NODES_3_6_10_11. The Edit Load dialog box should look similar to that in Figure 86b. Small yellow arrows will be visible pointing in the –Z direction if the procedure has been completed correctly. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 52 REV 03.16.02261 in the CF3: option. Click I-BEAM-1.02261) Click OK. Figure 86a.

573] = -0.Figure 87. 570. 476] = -0. 473.16. 289. create loads for the three other sets that were generated in the previous steps. 290. 571.076227 Nodes [2. Loads of: Nodes [103.2011 . 7] = -0. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 53 REV 03. Model Load (-0. 104.04522 Nodes [569.083333  If this procedure has been completed correctly there will be small yellow arrows located ALL the nodes on the loading end of the beam (Figure 88). 475. 572. 474.02261)  Using the same approach.

the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 89. Also.16. When viewing the results.Figure 88. Write the input file and post process the job the same way as in the first part of this tutorial.2011 . Unit Load   Double click Jobs (1) in the model tree and create a job named BUCLKE. Deformed Shape (Localized Buckle) ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 54 REV 03. Buckle Load Figure 89. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 30200 Hz.

Open the BUCKLE. Input File (.16. Open the folder on the computer that the working directory is set to. This part of the .  The buckled shape shown in Figure 89 is distorted and appears to be localized buckling of the thin flanges and webs and not overall Euler buckling of the column. Enter Shell and then click Find Next.inp files that are generated in the working directory.2011 . Figure 90.inp file should look similar to that shown in Figure 91. This will open the Find dialog box. The model will now be edited to increase the thickness of the flanges from 1 mm to 5 mm and the web from 2 mm to 4 mm. Figure 91. Shell Section Input File ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 55 REV 03. These changes will be made by editing the . The .inp file should look similar to that in Figure 90.inp file using Notepad.inp)  While holding Ctrl on the keyboard press the letter F.

inp extension MUST be entered in the file name) Go to the Abaqus Command window and source to the directory if it is not already sourced. Double click the first item in the Results tab called Output Databases. Change 0.005 and change 0. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 56 REV 03. This is where we will change the thickness values of the flanges and web. This section of the input file should look similar to Figure 92. If the analysis completed successfully the command window will look similar to that in Figure 93.004. Shell Section Input File (Increased)    Click File then click Save As… Enter a File name: for this input file called BUCKLE_EULER.002 to 0.inp (Note: the .2011 . Abaqus Command Prompt (COMPLETED)   Return to the Abaqus CAE viewport and click the Results tab located at the top of the model tree. Source to the BUCKLE_EULER. The Open Database dialog box will appear. Figure 92.odb and click OK.001 to 0.16. Figure 93. Enter the command abaqus inter j=BUCKLE_EULER and hit Enter.

Note the buckling force that was applied was based on the force distribution over the nodes resulting from an axial pull on the thinner sections. ABAQUS CAE BEAM TUTORIAL 57 REV 03. When viewing the results. the buckling load may be slightly incorrect for this second buckling analysis.  Conclusion  Save the file by doing either File > Save or clicking the disk icon   Close ABAQUS CAE: File > Exit or Ctrl+Q This completes the Finite Element Analysis of an I-Beam tutorial. the first buckling load is listed in the viewport to be 168712 Hz. That force distribution may not be the same as we did not increase the size of the web and flanges by the same scale factor. the deformed shape should look similar to that in Figure 94. Thus. the important lesson is that the finite element method can find critical buckling loads be they local or overall Euler buckling. Also. However. Deformed Shape (Euler Buckle)  The buckled shape is shown in Figure 94. Buckle Load Figure 94.2011 . The localized buckling is not present in this view and the overall buckling looks to be Euler buckling and notice that the deflection is about the smaller area moment of inertia.16.