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Pechay Production Guide

Introduction

Pechay (Brassica rapa L. cv group Pak Choi) is an erect, biennial herb, cultivated as an annual about 15-30 cm tall in vegetative stage. Ovate leaves are arranged spirally and spreading. The petioles are enlarged and grow upright forming a subcylindrical bundle. Inflorescence is a raceme with pale yellow flowers. Seeds are 1 mm in diameter and are reddish to blackish brown in color. Uses and Nutritional Value Pechay is used mainly for its immature, but fully expanded tender leaves. The succulent petioles are often the preferred part. It is used as main ingredient for soup and stir-fried dishes. In Chinese cuisine, its green petioles and leaves are also used as garnish.
Each 100 g fresh edible portion contains:

________________________________________ Nutrient Amount ________________________________________ Water 93.0 g Protein 1.7 g Fat 0.2 g Carbohydrates 3.1 g Fiber 0.7 g Ash 0.8 g B-carotene 2.3 g Vitamin C 53.0 mg Calcium 102.0 mg Phosphorus 46.0 mg Iron 2.6 mg Energy Value 86.0 kJ Production Management Varieties Black Behi; Hari Digma; Shin Kang Gengis Khan; Shanhai No. 2 Climatic and Soil Requirements

Pechay can be grown from low to mid elevations throughout the year. Production is best, however, during the dry season in sandy to clay loam soil, with a pH of 5.5-6.5. Planting A1-ha production area requires kg seeds. Pechay can either be sown directly in soil or transplanted. Direct seeding is carried out by broadcasting or by sowing in rows. Cover seeds to a depth of about 1 cm by raking or spreading additional topsoil. Water immediately after sowing. Plant spacing should be 10 cm between plants and 20 cm between rows. If transplanted, sow seeds initially in seedbeds. Transplant seedlings 2-3 weeks after sowing at a distance of 10 cm between plants and 20 cm between rows. Transplant preferably in the afternoon and water immediately. Mulch with grass clippings or rice straw. Fertilization Apply seedlings with starter solution using urea (46-0-0) at the rate of 2 tbsp/gal of water. Side-dress along the rows at the rate of 1 tbsp/plant one week after transplanting. Pest and Disease Management Damping-off, soft rot and clubroot are the most important diseases of pechay, while diamondback moth and aphids are the major insect pests. Spraying hot pepper extract can control these pests. When seedlings begin to wilt, reduce watering immediately. Uproot and burn disease-infected plants to prevent spread of diseases. Cultivation is also necessary to minimize weeds. Harvesting Harvest as early as three weeks after planting or between 30-40 days after sowing. Harvest preferably in the afternoon to minimize postharvest losses. Upon harvesting, wash the plants, trim old leaves and remove roots. Grade according to size and quality, and pack in strong rigid containers with holes at the sides to allow aeration. Pack with the base of the plant to the sides of the baskets. Maintain turgidity by lining the basket with paper.

Costs and Return Analysis Per Hectare ITEMS I. VARIABLE COSTS A. Labor (P150/MD) Plowing AMOUNT (P) P 36,635 1,500

Harrowing Bedding Manure application (10 MD) Planting (10 MD) Fertilization (2x) (4MD) Irrigation (16 MD) Weeding (2X) (20 MD) Spraying (8 MD) Harvesting (8 MD) Postharvest operations(8MD) Sub-total Materials Seeds (3 kg/ha) Animal manure (10 t) Fertilizer (46-0-0) (4 bags) Fuel & Oil Miscellaneous Sub-total

1,000 1,500 1,500 1,500 600 2,400 3,000 1,200 1,200 1,200 16,600 675 10,000 1,860 2,500 5,000 20,035

II. FIXED COSTS 5,423 Land rental 3,000 Depreciation 5 pcs. Scythe (1 yr) 38 2 pcs. Hoe ( 3 yrs) 50 2 pcs. Shovel (3 yrs) 85 2 knapsack sprayers (5 yrs) 250 Interest on Loans at 20% int. p.a. 2,000 TOTAL COSTS 42,058 GROSS INCOME a 50 ,000-75,000 NET INCOME 7,942 32,942