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What is a Behavioral Objective? Imagine, for a moment, an educational environment where teachers did not make behavioral objectives for their students. Given that they have their lesson plan, the materials needed, and they have taught the lesson well to the best of their ability, how would teachers and educators recognize evidence of learning without looking for evidence that learning has occurred? Behavioral objectives serve first as a map and as map markers: it indicates and guides educators towards the directions they need to head in order to get over all (long term) goals done. Secondly, behavioral objectives also serve as “educational markers” or points of reference on how and what kind of learning has occurred in various teaching and learning experiences. More importantly, it is through behavioral objectives that a student is able to accomplish the optimum goal with all teaching and educational experiences and this is: change. The Focus and Essence of Behavioral Objectives But with these statements, one must ask: What is a behavioral objective? A behavioral objective, as defined by Carolyn Chambers Clark, is a statement of what learners are to be like when they have attained the criterion. Another definition provided by Bastable in 2008 is that behavioral objectives describe precisely what the learner is able to do following a learning situation. Although from book to book and theory to theory may be worded differently, the overall definition of “behavioral objectives” still remain the same, first and foremost the behavioral objectives of an individual are learner centered and not teacher centered. After which, most definitions on this term describe that a behavioral objective describes “something that a learner is able to do or achieve after they have been taught a lesson.” With these being said, it is also important to note that effective behavioral objectives require a degree of precision in order
J.A. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching
to assure that learners learn and do what they are meant to learn. Nurse Educators, on their part must develop and practice effective behavioral objective writing with all types of learners to ensure effective teaching and learning is attained from every experience. Getting to this point Prior to this point in time of creating behavioral objectives, many things should have already been accomplished (Bastable, 2008). First and foremost, the student or the learners should have been assessed. Within this assessment, the teacher must ask: what does the learner already know? Is the knowledge of the learner correct, or does his or her knowledge need to be corrected (CEU, 2012)? What are the gaps in knowledge, and within these gaps, what does the learner need to know (Bastable, 2008)? Within the timeframe of assessing and knowing the learner in a better light, the teacher or educator must also make efforts to know under what conditions the learner is most receptive to learning; particularly, the educator must know how the learner learns best (Rankin et al., 2005). From this initial assessment, the educator moves forward in terms of what the learner is supposed to do at the end of the learning experiences (Wittmann-Prince & Fasolka, 2012). From this the educator answers the question, what is the learner expected to accomplish? The identification of needs is a pre-requisite to creating learning objectives and from these needs identification gathered from cues, an educator makes a “diagnosis” in the form of educational objectives. This educational/learning/ or behavioral objective will serve as a guide for the consequent steps of planning, implementation of the plan, and the evaluation of the overall learning experience. Goals, Objectives, and Subobjectives
J.A. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching
many authors state that goals have a global nature.” With this. It is also important to note that although a considerable amount of time is allotted for the completion of goals. In addition to this. are the opposite of goals. they should still be achievable and realistic within a set period of time (Rankin et al. 2005).” J. 2008). and are more general than specific in terms of what is expected of the learner (Little & Milliken. on the other hand. objectives are singular and one-dimensional in nature. objectives are short term. Anderson et. 2008).” This is a statement which pertains to an ultimate state of being in a future point in time (Bastable.A. In a relative note. A goal can be seen as a “long term objective. 2007). we want our students to learn. The main difference between a goal and an objective include their characteristics in terms of time span and how specific they are in identifying the behavioral characteristics to be observed following a lesson or teaching. but in terms of using these words in the educational setting. Objectives. Goals are the final outcome of what is to be achieved in the teaching/learning process over a long period of time. or rather. 2008). and they are “general or overall. these words are very different from one another. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching .” If goals are long term. they precisely name a single action or observation that is expected to arrive as a result of learning (Clark. What we want them to learn as a result of our teaching are our objectives. and usually behaviors specified in objectives can effectively be completed after only one or two lessons with the clientele (Little & Milliken.. 2007). in terms of time and specificity (Bastable. Objectives explicitly state “what learners should exhibit in order to be ‘competent’ in a taught subject matter.Behavioral Objectives Page |3 The terms goal and objective are often used interchangeably. al in 2003 stated: “What we teach.
& Kemp. 2008). Ross. 2008). These objectives become the basis of educational programs such as a part or the whole of an educational program or curriculum. or something already learned (Bastable. These three types include: educational objectives. and must also be ‘customized’ to fit the learner’s needs as all learners are different. To accomplish effective learning. objectives derived from goals must be consistent and related with that goal. Educational Objectives – Educational objectives are used to identify the intended outcomes of the learning process (Bastable. objectives can be viewed as unimportant. with different abilities and capabilities (Mager. students will not take the same information from the same instruction (Bastable). Instructional Objectives – These are the exact teaching activities and resources used to facilitate effective learning (Morrison. 2004). it is also important to note that even though the same subject matter is taught to many students. impractical. and plans of a learner should be collaborated with both the one who is teaching and the one who is being taught. 2008). Types of Objectives According to many authorities on education. and are centered on structuring the types of learning activities to be utilized during a lesson (Bastable. J. the goals.A. rather than the entire program itself or the learner.Behavioral Objectives Page |4 Furthermore. Educational objectives serve as guides in designing curriculums and units of educational institutions and continuing education programs (Bastable. From these pieces of information. there are at least three identified types of objectives. irrelevant. teaching/instructional objectives and behavioral or learning objectives. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . 1997). Without working with the patient or the learner. These objectives are more focused on the process of education. 2008). objectives.
it is important to know that without clear behavior/learning objectives that can be shared between a nurse and a learner. unfair. meaning immediately after a lesson. “if one does not know where he is going. the client or learner should be able to exhibit the noted behavior or action (CEU.A. because for these professionals. Ross. and Morrison. outlined by Arends (1994). they already have a good grasp of what “needs to be seen” as an outcome of learning a particular lesson. implementation and evaluation of learning activities (Reilly & Oermann. the exercise of writing behavioral objectives is redundant or superfluous. Haggard (1989). (Bastable. Most behavioral objectives are short term. 2008. Arguments. For experienced educators. Those in opposition to the creation of learning objectives say that the objectives are not a panacea (solution or remedy) for all the problems that can be encountered in the planning. It is focused on what outcomes should be present and observable (Bastable. 2008). Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . Little & Milken. irrelevant. and Wilkerson (1987). 2008).Behavioral Objectives Page |5 Behavioral or Learning Objectives – These are the markers of what a learner should be able to do following a learning activity (Bastable. measures of achievement can be misleading. Durbach. 1990). who states that the underlying principle has been. Goodall. 2007). and Kemp (2004) have given seven main reasons to why the practice of writing behavioral objectives should be discontinued. A debate on using behavioral objectives One of the best ways to understand the concept of the need for behavioral objectives is from a statement made by Mager (1997). 1. Clark. 2008. or useless (Clark. 2012). how will that individual know he or she has arrived?” In line with this. 2008) J. Reilly and Oermann (1990). To this day there is still a present debate on whether or not learning objectives should be utilized.
however. (Bastable. Writing Behavioral Objectives is incompatible with a complex field such as Nursing because an infinite number of objectives are possible for one topic or subject. (2004) are able to list more reasons in considering learning J. as these processes are not readily observable or measurable. Furthermore. (Bastable.Behavioral Objectives Page |6 2. and specific learning objectives can lead to reductionism. (Bastable. Objective writing is a time-consuming task. 2008) 5. Unable to capture the intricate cognitive processes. 2008) 3. 2008) Most others. Writing behavioral objectives is a pedagogic process. Predetermined activities only cater or grab focus to specific areas of the lesson which can stifle creativity and interfere with the freedom to learn and to teach 6. (Bastable. it mainly expresses the teacher’s expectations of the outcomes of the learning process rather than giving learners the opportunity to formulate their own objectives or expected outcomes of the lesson. It is more tedious to create a behavioral objective than is warranted by their effort on an institutional program. are still very much in favor of creating behavioral objectiveas Ferguson (1998) and Morrison et al. something which can be done to effectively teach children. may deem ‘unnecessary’ for adult learners or clients. (Bastable. It does not reflect the sum of the total parts of the learning process. 2008) 4. or rather. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . in contrast. Practice of writing objectives can be limiting on the part of student.A. 2008) 7.
both the learners and the health care team members alike. Forces the educator to organize educational materials so as not to get lost in content and forget the learner’s role in the process 5. As seen in the following list. the benefits still outweigh the cons of this task: 1. Tailors teaching to the learner’s particular circumstances and needs 7.Behavioral Objectives Page |7 objectives then there are arguments against. 2. Creates guideposts for teacher evaluation and documentation of success and failure.A. J. Communicates to others. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . Helps learners understand what is expected of them so they can keep track of their own progress 4. 6. Focuses attention not on what is taught but what the learner will come away with once the teaching learning process is completed. 3. Helps to keep the educators’ thinking on target and learner centered. what is planned for teaching and learning. Make it easier for the learner to visualize performing the required actions. 8. Encourages educators to question their own motives—to think deliberately about why they are doing things and analyze what positive results will be obtained. 9.
creating behavioral objectives and pinpoint the best way to evaluate the learner’s progress (Bastable. Writing Behavioral Objectives Writing behavioral objectives is not merely a mechanical by also a synthesizing process (Bastable. condition. 2008). and lastly. teaching methods which will work most effectively. Roger Mager also includes three other major advantages to writing explicit objective statements. 2008). mutual setting of goals and objectives are considered by most educators to be the initial. With this. clues as to how the learner best acquires information. Again. he included ‘the learner.’ All four of these terms are clearly illustrated in the table below. and 3) They allow for a determination as to whether an objective has. it is important to note that there are two main formats for writing behavioral objectives. 2008). Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . 1997). It implies and indicates that “something” or “a change” must be seen as a result of learning.A. Roger Mager Mager. 2) They provide learners with the means to organize their efforts and activities toward accomplishing the intent of instruction. methods. and these include: performance. In describing these portions of the written learning objectives. these provides direction that helps the educator and learner identify: time that will be needed to accomplish learning. Performance is the “action” or the “behavior performed” by the learner (Mager. indicated that there are (originally) three important components in the writing of behavioral and learning objectives. and these include those of Mager (1997) and those of Bloom et al in 19. Mager first describes performance is what needs to be done. In completing learning or behavioral objectives. in fact. criterion. J. and in later works. most important consideration in the education process (Clark. and these include: 1) They provide a sound basis for the selection or the design of instructional content.Behavioral Objectives Page |8 To add on to this. and materials. a noted authority in the creation of writing objectives. been accomplished.
A. and this is of course. 1997). In relation to this. The last component. Mager moves to the definition of the condition.Behavioral Objectives Page |9 Performance can be a variety of different actions. depending upon the subject matter and the intended skill to be learned. The condition of the objective is the environment and the conditions rendered to the learner for the task to be done (Bastable. the criterion describes how well the task is expected to be accomplished following the learning activity. 2008). The learner is the person who is expected to complete the task. After defining performance. it is the degree to which the task is accomplished (Mager. 2008). Table 1 The Four Part Method of Objective Writing Audience Behavior Condition (The Learner) (Performance) (Situation) Student Staff Nurse will solve will demonstrate without using a calculator using a model Degree (Criterion) five out of 6 math problems the correct procedure for changing sterile dressings at least two reasons for quitting smoking high protein foods with 100% accuracy Patient Significant Other/ Care Giver will list will select following a group discussion after watching an educational video J. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . the learner. This term connotes that certain environmental conditions were made by the teacher to help facilitate the learning of the student (Clark. of course. is who the behavior is expected to come from.
the most common noted by authors Bastable and Clark in 2008 include: basing the objectives on the expected behavior of the instructor. Table 2: Commonly Made Mistakes and their examples Commonly made Mistake Based on expected behaviors of instructor. and Smaldino in 2001 who organized these concepts as ABCD: A-udience (who) B. Has more than one behavior After 8 hours of RLE experience in AMCER. The following table illustrates the each of the commonly made mistakes and means to remedy these to create more accurate objectives. Objectives become difficult to realize if more Example After the lesson. Russell. Molenda.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 10 In an effort to organize these concepts in an organizable and easily recallable way. Behaviors should be written ‘singularly’ and with one general direction or with one focused objective. and forgetting one of the many behavioral components. not student. many mistakes are made which could have been easily avoided. Of these mistakes.A. the fourth year nursing students will be able to adequately place ECG leads and Create separate objectives for each behavioral outcome. or the rush to formulate. Remedy Change the subject matter from instructor to student.ehavior (what) C-ondition (under what circumstance) D –egree (how much or to what extent) Due to inexperience in formulating behavioral objectives. J. many nurse educators rely on the works of Heinich. having more than one expected behavioral outcome. the instructor will be able to…. rather than the student. Rationale for Error The focus of behavioral objectives should be the STUDENT as the student is at the receiving end of the education continuum. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching .
Criteria: How can you state how well or to what degree is the subject matter mastered. The objective is unattainable by the learner Work hand in hand with the learner for goals to avoid this Sample of ambiguous words: with: i. realize. it is best to individually mark each of the portions of the objective in terms of ABCD to ensure all criteria is included. -Condition: In what way did you teach the skill so it would be mastered? Uses ambiguous terms Words like understand. To Understand Better words to replace these to apply to identify J. and be familiar with take on many terms or cannot be directly observed. know. After watching 1 hour of the diabetes educational video. the client will be able to understand the need to decrease sodium intake.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 11 than one is included at a given time. if: -Learner: Who will you observe? -Behavior: How can you indicate that learning has occurred? . Forgets one of the four components needed Depends on the characteristic missing. work with the learner to establish whether or not the objectives are SMART. the patient will understand how to control low back pain. the patient will be able to totally eradicate high-sugar foods from their diet.A. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . After drafting. An unrealistic goal may leave a learner frustrated or unmotivated to learn the subject matter read ECG findings. To know ii. After an hours of health teaching. use more specific words as listed in the following table. (No Criterion) After drafting the objectives. Given a list of exercises to relieve lower back pain.
A. According to Anderson and Krathwohl in 2001.Behavioral Objectives iii. To be interested in viii. learning objectives guide the development of a learning system. Hill. taxonomy is a “special kind of framework in which categories lie in a continuum. and these were revisited by Anderson and Krathwohl in more recent years. To think x. These include the cognitive domain. 1956). Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . By definition. Furst. To Feel ix. a taxonomy is a mechanism used to categorize things according to how they are related to one another Bloom. To realize iv.. Although Bloom uses these categories to distinguish terminology J. A taxonomy is an orderly classification (Clark. Bloom’s taxonomy still continues to be the one most widerly used. To enjoy vi.” Taxonomies are used in the creation of learning objectives. she mentions that “just as nursing philosophy guides a curriculum. To be familiar with v. Englehart. To learn to list to predict to construct to define to describe to demonstrate to verbalize* to write P a g e | 12 Taxonomy and the work of Bloom In a statement formulated by Carolyn Chambers Clark (2008). To value vii. and the psychomotor domain. 2008). and Krathwohl first developed a taxonomy of cognitive or thinking objectives in 1956. Till this present time. “ More information on taxonomies can be seen in the reference section at the end of this written report. the affective domain. Blooms taxonomy has three main domains or categories in which objective terminology are classified (Bloom et al.
2008. or high. it is also pivotal to mention that the knowledge that a person knows affects greatly how that person feels. J. and how that person performs tasks. 2008.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 13 of learning objectives. 2008). learning in the cognitive domain is a prerequisite to engage in other educational activities such as group discussion or role play (Clark. and therefore: the classification systems exist independently and interdependently of each other. For example. Bastable. 1956). 2008). or arguments on a particular subject matter if they did not know what they are talking about. Human beings are diverse and complex. or better. it is of importance to note that although a division may exist. procedures. a thorough understanding of the subject matter in order to correctly apply this knowledge into the activity. In sifting through behavioral objectives. 2008). individuals must master first the lower level domains before they are able to adequately learn and master the higher level behaviors/learning in each of the domains. including the recall or recognition of specific facts. With this information in mind. and can occur at the same time (Bastable. and concepts (Clark. learners would not be able to create or place input. understanding. The development of intellect and overall knowledge is gained through exposure of all types of educational experience. and the thinking process of learners (Eggen & Kauchak. The same goes for the creation of a group discussion. opinions. learners must have a basic background. behavioral objectives can be classified further as low. Adding to this.A. in order to actively participate and apply particular concepts in a role play activity.This domain deals with the development of intellect. ranging from moderate to complex difficulty within each of the classifications (Clark. Bloom. just as other human processes do as well. this does not necessarily mean that the objectives must occur at separate times or that the domains are completely independent of each other (Clark. 2008). 2001). Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . and for most other activities. medium. Cognitive Domain The cognitive domain focuses more on the acquisition of information and focuses on knowledge.
or . classifying Example: Paraphrase Orem’s theory of self –care using your own words Key Words: Implementing.Defending research findings. recognizing. combine. . summarizing. comprehension.A. and its most basic characteristic could be through the teacher prviding instruction to his or her student (Bastable. carrying out. experimenting. executing Example: After participating in the ICU simulation game. the cognitive domain is the one address the most. synthesis. SYNTHESIS Basic Definition: to put together pieces of information Key Words: categorize. and defending Example: Organizing a class presentation in a logical and understandable fashion. compile. Six Levels of the Cognitive Domain: KNOWLEDGE Basic Definition: recalling or remembering Key Words: Recalling. and evaluation (Clark. ANALYSIS Basic Definition: Breaking information into parts Key Words: Exploring relationships. exemplifying. questioning. design. using.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 14 Of all the three domains. devise. Example: After the discussion on behavioral objectives. critiquing. 2008). Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . application. and J. organizing. It can be done in a simple classroom-lecture type environment. describing. hypothesizing. analysis. The cognitive domain is divided into six levels. or anywhere for that matter. finding Example: List three cardinal rules for teaching relaxation procedures COMPREHENSION Basic Definition: Explaining ideas or concepts APPLICATION Basic Definition: Putting understanding into action Key Words: Paraphrasing. deconstructing. generate. naming. EVALUATION Key Words: checking. quoting. and these include: knowledge. as it is the traditional basis of teaching. correlate. the students of the MSN class will be able to generate their own behavioral objectives using the Mager’s writing format. students will be able to use information gained from the game in the clinical experience in the ICU tomorrow. 2008).
As the cognitive domains deals with knowledge. P a g e | 15 Example: Hypothesize about the meaning of class behavior during the role playing situation Types of knowledge according to Bloom Bloom’s revised taxonomy also provides information on the different types of knowledge. Conceptual knowledge on the other hand is knowledge of classification and categories such as those used in medications. 2008). and educators must keep this in mind. especially during the formulation of educational contracts which will be discussed later. recall. and diets.A. and knowledge of theories and models. Metacognitive Knowledge is knowledge or thinking about your thinking and includes activities such as self-critiquing your abilities or defending how you planned or executed care. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . herbs. Procedural Knowledge is knowledge of how to do certain skills. and metacognitive knowledge. The Importance of Spacing lessons and Cognitive Knowledge It is important to keep in mind the timeframe in which learning elements should be given (Bastable. anatomy).Behavioral Objectives judging. Scientists note that learning a subject through several sessions is more effective than learning a subject in a single session. and the application of knowledge through understanding. Having more time to analyze and internalize information has been described by Willingham in 2002 as “the spacing J. conceptual. Factual knowledge is the knowledge of specific terminology and details (ex. This also includes standard care procedures. These include factual. it is important to note that the time span from learner to learner will vary. procedural.
Terms in the affective domain specifies the degree of emotional depth in response to particular tasks.A. person. or event). Of all the domains. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . learning all the information in one day is known as massed practice while learning information through distributed periods of time is known as distributed practice (Bastable. attitudes.” In line with this. but inferred from words or actions (Maier-Lorentz. the affective domain is both the hardest to teach and also the hardest to measure (Clark. However. 2008). Competencies in this domain relate to the development of the value system. Educators often have difficulty in establishing an “adequate weight system” to measure outcomes within this domain because outcomes are implied or indirectly seen. Distributed practice in learning information is usually the better choice. and attitudes: Belief – Perception. These cannot be directly observed. 2004). 2008). 2008). interest. 2001 as cited in Bastable. 2008). values. Educational activities that can promote growth in the learner and J. It can be described as increasing internalization or commitment to expressed feelings. Affective Domain The affective domain is also known as the feeling domain. Values – Operational beliefs that guide day to day actions. A person retains or learns 67% better if the lesson is distributed through several sessions rather than one session (Willingham.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 16 effect. practices and appreciations (Bastable. Reilly & Oermann in 1990 differenciated the difference between beliefs. how an individual perceives reality Attitudes – Feelings about something (object. or beliefs. formal documents such as the code of ethics for nurses and nursing laws can serve as guides for these tasks. and retention and understanding of the subject matter is increased with this type of learning practice.
Key words: completes. demonstrates. names. invites.A. Exhibiting confidence through movements Ranges from simple acceptance to th more complex state of commitment. shares. gives. role playing. reports. and procedures to understand them. gaming. and extrapersonal (Level perception of others as established groups). reads. Demonstrates a willingness to help without being • J. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . • • Awareness. theory. The following table elaborates the five levels of the affective domain: Five Levels of the Affective Domain: Receiving showing awareness to an idea • • • • • • • Responding responding to a particular experience • • • • Valuing Accepting the worth of an idea. 2008) Verbalizing feelings of confidence Questions concepts.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 17 his or her affective domain include: questioning. differentiates. works. follows. Learning in the affective domain can occur in three sociological levels which include: Intrapersonal (self awareness and self concept). joins. points to Examples: Identifying fears Identifying weaknesses Asks questions that are focused on the topic Sits in a calm open way. models. willingness to hear and selected attention (Clark. 2008) Key words: follows. proposes. locates. case study. group discussion. studies. holds. selects. interpersonal (self in relation to other individuals). identifies. explains. or event as a guiding belief in daily practice. justifies. initiates. indicating receptiveness to other’s comments Active participation and paying attention to a specific phenomena (Clark. forms.
Having a value system that controls behavior and is pervasive. Defends professional ethical standards by speaking up in class. the earliest of which implies that psychomotor skills are not merely the copying and imitation of teacher’s motor skills. In contrast to this.Behavioral Objectives prompted to in emergency situations. Whichever stance may hold true. Eggen and Kauchak in 2001 state that psychomotor skills are simply the manipulation and the imitation of observed skills. consistent. psychomotor skills play an important role in nursing education. • Organization Ability to classify and prioritize values • • • Characterization/ internalizing • Having a value system that controls behavior and is pervasive. Key words: comparing. The knowledge to complete this act. and characteristic of the learner. Done through contrasting different values. consistent. there are two opposing stances on the matter. but rather a synthesis of theory and knowledge to complete an act. according to Reilly and Oermann in 1990 is usually far more than what is suggested to be known. and creating a unique value system. • • • P a g e | 18 Informs class about matters one feels strongly about. especially towards inexperienced staff and students. Showing consistency in ideal practices. Psychomotor Domain The psychomotor domain is also known as the skills domain and consists of the development of fine and gross motor skills. resolving conflicts between them. and characteristic of the learner. Currently. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . predictable. Comparisson of ideal from non-ideal practices in Hospital setting. one thing remains certain. Of all J. Being continued to be lead by learned values until they are integrated into part of your being. relating. and synthesizing values.A. predictable.
These are further elaborated in the following table.A. J.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 19 the domains in Bloom’s taxonomy. the naming of objectives and measuring of learning outcomes come easiest with psychomotor learning objectives as these actions are the most observable. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching .
Using sensory cues to guide motor activity • • • • • • • • • • KEY WORDS: chooses.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 20 Perception awareness to objects and cues associated with a task. Set/ Readiness to Act Sometimes also called “mind sets” Mental. identifies. Imitation and trial and error learning are prevalent (Clark. Learned responses become habitual (Clark. reproduces. shows. 2008) • • • Keywords: copies.A. isolates. fastens. calibrates. Examples: Detects non-verbal cues Identifies client anxiety Reading directions Keywords: displays. Readiness to take particular action Expressions of willingness Displays correct equipment to perform a nursing procedure States correct side effect to medication before dispensing it. physical. explains moves. fixes. grinds. volunteer.and emotional sets necessary to perform. displays. differentiates. responds. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . Early stage of learning complex skills. detects. with the guide of an instructor Follows simulation directions Mechanism Ability to perform repeated steps of a desired skill with certain degree of • Key Words: Assembles. sketches. 2008) • J. distinguishes. IV insertion. states. Guided response Overt actions with the guide of an instructor. reacts. reacts. describes. follows. and selects. heats. manipulates. constructs. Ex. organizes. dismantles. proceeds. medication administration. relates.
Clark. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . Rearranges. creates designs. Revises. Anxiety Level 6. Past experiences 3. swifter. constructs. Examples: Constructs a new theory Develops a new teaching module Important reminders in formulating Learning Objectives 1. and better manner. (Simpson. Origination Ability of the learner to create new motor acts When skills are highly developed. creativity is possible • • • • Key words: Makes. Knowing when to kink or not kink an IV line when administering IV medications.Behavioral Objectives confidence. combines. • Key words. 1972. Alters. 2001) Adaption Ability of the learner to modify and adapt motor processes. Environmental Stimuli 5. • P a g e | 21 Student nurse and VS Complex overt response Automatically complete a motor act with independence and a high degree of skill. Ex. Changes. • • Key Words: Adapts. Readiness to learn 2. Practice Session Strength J. and Varies. same as those used for “mechanism” however. Reorganizes. adverbs and adjectives indicate that the actions are done in a quicker.A. Developmental Stage 7. builds. Health Status 4. composes.
4. In her book. in what way they must be carried. and equipments) needed teaching the related content J. Instructional methods used for Methods used to evaluate learning 6. With this. Time allotted for teaching each objective 7. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . Educators create what is known as a “teaching plan” to effectively write out the essential elements of the tasks to be carried out. 2) to outline and format exactly what needs to be taught. With the predetermined goal set by both the teacher and the learner. 3. In creating this more detailed plan. 5. The purpose Statement of overall Goal List of objectives and Subobjectives An outline of related content 8. Ryan and Marinelli (1990) iterate that a teaching plan should consist of eight basic elements.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 22 Making Teaching Plans Teaching plans should be made with mutual agreement between the teacher and the learner. 2. The instructional resources (materials. And these are: 1) to ensure a logical and sequential process to teaching. should be written as clearly and as concisely as the goals and objectives which are the foundation of it and should reflect the various elements of the educational process. which include: 1.A. tools. as stated by Bastable in 2008. A teaching plan. Bastable notes three major reasons for developing a lesson plan. this goal will serve as the basis for formulating the plan and ensuring that all goes according to plan in the achievement of a preset goal. and how to measure the outcomes of learning after each lesson. and 3) to legally document that each individual has a plan in place to satisfy mandates for institutional accreditation.
Learners must review and acknowledge their part in the learning process b. What the learner wants to be able to do within a specific span of time II. Learning contracts are a very innovative way to teach students as they can empower students to learn on their own and reflect on strengths and weaknesses. so many are still unfamiliar with this method of teaching. Review the contracting process a. Steps to implement the Learning Contract I.A. The components of the contract include: A. 2008). Encourage learner to identify his or her learning needs b. Performance expectations – Specifies activities to be facilitated C.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 23 Use of Learning Contracts A learning contract is a formal legal agreement between a teacher and a learner terms of transaction over a specified period of time (O’Reilly. especially those who are self-sufficient or independent when it comes to learning. With these types of contracts. III. Specifies the criteria used to evaluate the achievement of objectives such as checklists. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . such as staff nurses looking to increase their work ethic. learners have an opportunity to change behavior based on their personal reflections. Self study materials and audio visual tools IV. Assess the learner’s competency level and learning needs J. Not widely used. Content –Specifies the precise behavioral objectives to be achieved B. Identify the learning resources a. Determine specific learning objectives a. What is the instructional material available? b. It can be used for all types of learners. 1994) It can either be written (formal) or unwritten/verbal (informal) and is useful in many health institutions in the form of discharge planning (Bastable.
What skills must be demonstrated? c. Behaviors from simplest to most complex c. Goals and expectations can be renegotiated as the educational process continues. If an objective has been completely met. Pretesting must occur V.A. take note of health status c. Evaluate a. XI. Implement the learning experience a . Have periodic and summative evaluation of a learner’s process. Based on sequencing of behavior b. X. Target date for the completion of each objective VIII. For patients. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . both parties will sign at the last column (completion date) The Concept of Learning Curve J.Take into consideration what the learner can learn through self study b. Learner collects data primarily through interview b. b. Roles of the educator and learner must clearly be established before the implementation of the contract VI. Contract is based on the learner’s current abilities and learning needs. Define roles a. Determine content and type of experiences to be utilized. Negotiate the time frame a. Plan the learning experiences a. What time can be given for self study? VII. Document a. Write down observations and evidence of achievements in learning goals (of both the learner and the teacher). People frequently change their notions on what they would like to learn. Renegotiate a.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 24 a. Type and level of complexity IX. b.
In the past. it has been used incorrectly as it had been used to refer to “all types of skill.Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 25 Learning Curve has been historically used to describe how long it takes for a learner to learn a new psychomotor skill. learning occurs at a very predictable pattern. o Renewed Gains – Rate of performance rises again if gains are possible.A. Cronbach (1963) defines the learning curve as a record of an individual’s improvement made by measuring his ability at different stages of practice and plotting his scores. o Approach to limit – Ability to perform has reached its potential. o Plateau – No substantial gains are made. 384 . this graphical representation still deems useful as in many situations. pp. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . References Bastable. However. Alongside this. principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice. B. Cronbach defines and divides this pattern into 6 individual stages including: o Negligible process .422). (Third ed.” however. MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. (2008). J.. Nurse as educator. Sudbury. S. Latest researches on the learning curve focus on medically invasive and surgical procedures (Gawande.very limited improvement detected o Increasing Gains – Rate of learning increases as learner grasps the specific tasks o Decreasing Gains – Rate of improvement slows but does not go down. McCray and Blakemore (1985) stated that the learning curve is nothing more than a graphical depiction of individual process during a specific period of time. the learning curve has great potential in understanding mastery of skill however no research so far that this concept has been applied to skill practice. 2002).
Journal of Nursing Staff Development. 14(2). (pp.. C. P. Molenda. P. Strategies for teachers teaching content and thinking skills (4th Edition). Little. Rockville. International Journal of Nursing Education and Scholarship. Cronbach. (2001). Behavioral objectives: a necessity for nurse educators. P. GA: Center for Effective Performance.A. D. Practicing what we preach: balancing teaching and clinical practice competencies. C. 4(6).Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 26 Clark. Journal of Conintuing Education for Nurses. Heinich. Annals of medicine.. J. R. Atlanta. J. J. Ferguson. (1977). Englewood Cliffs. Eggen.. M. Educational psychology (2nd Edition). S. pp. 3-6. L. Classroom skills for nurse educators. MD: Aspen. Preparing instructional objectives (3rd edition). (2008). R. NJ: Prentice Hall. Russell. New York: Harcourt. The New Yorker. New York. pp. (1998). NY: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. (1963). (2001). The learning curve. Curran. Inc. (2007).D. 100-116). 87 – 94. L. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . M. Instructional methods and technologies for learning (7th edition). Writing learning objectives. A. A. 52-61 Haggard. (1997). Mager.M. (2002). & Wald. & Smaldino. Brace. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. (1989). 8(6). & Kauchak. Handbook of patient education. & Milliken. Gawande.
Retrieved from http://www.. Behavioral objectives: Evaluation in nursing (3rd edition). M. H. (pp.com/v2/contribute_3. CEU. 31( 4). State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse. Patient education in health and illness. Objectives and Outcomes: The Fundamental Difference.. (CEU4U). & Marinelli. Reilly. Ryan. College of Nursing. Unpublished raw data. & Fasolka. 2012 J. T. (1990). PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Developing a teaching plan. (2012).Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 27 Rankin. Unpublished self-study module. Stallings. New York: National League for Nursing. B. Nursing Education Perspectives: July 2010. 213-220). Wittman-Prince. D. No. M. F. S. Available from Continuing Education Provider. (2010).A. K. & Oermann. R. Pub.ceu4u. 15-2367. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching . Philadelphia. (1990).php on January 20. D. & London. (2005). pp. 233-236.
Behavioral Objectives P a g e | 28 Taxonomy References http://www.com/bloomstaxonomyoflearningdomains.purdue.com/tap/topic69.ac.html http://www. Maniulit || GSN 101 : Clinical Teaching .html http://education.com/2009/07/use-blooms-taxonomy-wheel-for-writing.A.edu/vockell/edPsybook/Edpsy3/edpsy3_bloom.uvic.htm http://krummefamily.html http://eduscapes.blogspot.uk/resources/personal-development-planning/table/ http://www.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.htm http://zaidlearn.htm J.ukcle.org/guides/bloom.coun.businessballs.calumet.