Atsuete Ink | Foods | Food & Wine

Annatto (Bixa orellana L) Ink

Research I-B Adviser: Mrs. Ramonita F. Calumpang

Researcher:

Marcelle Antonette A. Carriaga

namely: Annatto seeds. Next. The chief ingredients of the said product is Annatto(Bixa orellana L) seeds. Ten respondents were requested to judge and rate the product in terms of color. odor. all the ingredients were prepared. Set-up C (trial 3) being the best set-up proved to be the having the good quality of color. After soaking. First. After the statistical analysis was computed. having good odor. kettle/sardine can. the researchers concluded that the best set-up is Set-up C. The researchers then concluded that in making ink. chopping board. The procedure the researchers conducted was simple. Three set-ups were organized by the researchers and each set-up had three trials. strainer. pulverize the soaked annatto seeds. Abstract This study was launched to produce a natural ink. pliers(if using sardine can). After. vinegar. After boiling. trial 3. the researcher decided to name as Annatto Ink. boil the annatto seeds with the vinegar. and appearance. one could also use annatto seeds. rolling pin/knife. . The researchers gathered all the equipments and ingredients required. and most appealing among the other set-ups. container. soak the annatto seeds. pour it in a container. The respondents then rated each trial from the scale of one (1) as the lowest and ten (10) as the highest rating.

Jo-ann Carriaga. I would like to give it all back to our Heavenly Father. Calumpang. In the midst of all these difficulties. All the glory belongs to You! I would also express my profound thanks and gratitude to my dear parents. our Research I-B adviser. I still made this a successful one. for their candid. I acknowledge them for their words of encouragement. thank You for bestowing the researchers the said essential individuals that made this study successful and for giving the researchers a precious gift and this is their determination to give their best to make their study triumphant. Venerando C. I the researcher had encountered many problems. To Mrs. But this would not be possible without the endless or never ending support of some people whom I consider now my inspiration. sharp and positive criticism and for the financial support throughout the whole duration of my investigatory project. First and foremost. thank you for the approval of my study and for your additional suggestions in our product. Carriaga and Mrs. Mr. Ramonita F. Acknowledgement Upon making this investigatory project. .

...... Background of the Study «««««««««««««««««««................................................................................. Recommendations ......................................... Methodology ....................................................................................... Related Studies «««««««««««««««««««««««......................... Acknowledgement «««««««««««««««««««««««««............................................. Review of Related Literature «««««««««««««««««« F................................ A............................................ Abstract «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««............................. Scope and Limitations ««««««««««««««««««««........ Introduction .................... C................ Results and Discussion ..................................... E...... Table of Contents Title Page «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««......................................................... Bibliography ................ Significance of the Study «««««««««««««««««««........................................ ..... Statement of the Problem/ Objectives ««««««««««««««............................... ............... Conclusion ...... D......................... B..........

but what do you think are the possible ways to prevent his crisis? I suggest that being practical is one of the solution to this problem. By this. Specific Objective This study aims to produce an ink using achiote seeds.I. The color produced by this ink is only color Red. Significance of the Study The importance of the study can be observed on how to produce ink out of achiote seeds. General Objective The study aims to produce an ink. Annatto is employed commercially for coloring butter and in preparation of various polishers for russet leather. it may lessen the expenses of buying ink. The basic ingredients are vinegar and annatto seeds. . we can be practical by using our knowledge instead of wasting our money. Statement of Problem/ Objectives 1. Scope and Limitations The production of this ink depends on the availability of the achiote seeds. The coloring matter of the fruit. As students. C. INTRODUCTION A. This project do not need much time and money because we can make our own ink within a short period of time. Everyone to solve it. Background of the Study Nowadays our country has big problem about our economy.The seeds of the Annatto are used locally for coloring food. B. D. 2.

. Achiote originated in South America and has spread in popularity to many parts of Asia. and are covered with short. For this reason. It is used as coloring in many cheeses (e. Red Leicester. margarine. stiff hairs.). sometimes called roucou or achiote. custard powder. Cheddar. The heart-shaped fruit are brown or reddish brown at maturity. Although it is a natural food colorant.g. rice. the achiote is sometimes called the "lipstick-tree". Central and South American natives use the seeds to make a body paint and lipstick. it has been linked to cases of foodrelated allergies. While the fruit itself is not edible. Achiote dye is prepared by grinding seeds or simmering the seeds in water or oil. butter. sweet and peppery". When fully mature. Review of Related Literature Annatto/Achiote Annatto. Africa and Asia. It is also grown in other tropical or subtropical regions of the world.. is a derivative of the achiote trees of tropical regions of the Americas. Annatto is commonly found in Latin America and Caribbean cuisines as both a coloring agent and for flavoring. Annatto coloring is produced from the reddish pericarp or pulp which surrounds the seed of the achiote (Bixa orellana L. exposing the numerous dark red seeds. the fruit split open. and smoked fish. Its scent is described as "slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg" and flavor as "slightly nutty. the orange-red pulp that covers the seed is used to produce a yellow to orange commercial food coloring. ice-cream. including Central America. Gouda and Brie). used to produce a yellow to orange food coloring and also as a flavoring. Gloucester cheese.E.

butter and spreads. The genus name is probably derived from the Portuguese 'biche' meaning beak which alludes to the beak shaped seedpods. which has long been used both as a body paint and dye stuff for textiles or food. Indigenous people still use the pulp for 'cosmetic purposes'. The pulp of the Annatto fruit yields a bright red dye. hence the English common name 'Lipstick tree'. The Aztecs were known to add Annatto to their sacred xocolatl brew and other foods. candy and custards. who accidentally discovered the Amazon. It lends its reddish tint to cheeses. Annatto is probably one of the most ubiquitous of all food dyes used by the food industry. The whole tree has a long history as a valued medicinal plant that has been used to treat a wide variety of conditions from fevers to cancer. a Spanish conquistador of the 16th century. while the species name is given in memory of Francisco de Orellano. Although the fruit of the Annatto tree are inedible it is often cultivated for its flowers and more especially for its seedpods.History and Mythology of the Annatto/Achiote The Latin name of this plant 'Bixa orellana' does not give much of a clue regarding its properties. Its use as a food dye has persisted until today. Its use as a food dye is just as ancient. The pulp is also said to repel insects and to protect against sunburn due to the UV-filtering properties of the carotenoid pigment known as Bixin. The ancient Maya and Aztecs regarded it as a symbolic substitute for blood and thus ascribed to it sacred connotations. The seeds also have a reputation as a female aphrodisiac and are believed to make bulls used for bullfighting more aggressive. It is . It was also used to make ink and virtually all the ancient Maya scriptures were penned in annatto juice. as hair dye or lip stick.

soap. shoe polishes. A spice paste known as 'Achiote Recado' is a popular flavouring in Yucatan cuisine (southern Mexico). Fish. brass-lacquer. a pigment for mural paintings. Scientists have figured out the biochemical pathway and manipulated E. and an ink. furniture.also still used as a traditional food dye for meats. some people appear to be highly allergic to it and lobby against the use of this additive.coli bacteria to produce Bixin. a) completely naturally processed annatto (see recado recipe below). lipstick-red fruits were used by the indigenous peoples of Central and South America to make body paint. leather and calico. The spiny. (The bright red colour of Chinese poultry however is due to treatment with a caramelised malt solution. floor polishes. wool.) The seed pods are processed by separating the pulp form the seeds. It might be interesting to conduct a comparative study of allergic reactions between. Furthermore. which are washed and used separately as a mild spice. which just may possibly have something to do with these reported allergic reactions. The way in which commercial annatto is processed as a dye involves hexane extraction. It was also used to . Even though Annatto is one of the most widely used food colouring substances of the food industry. the colouring agent. Annatto dye is also used to colour hair-oils. nailgloss. The meat is marinated in the paste and wrapped in banana leaves. bio-engineered bixin or commercially extracted annatto dye. This use is most prevalent in the Philippines and in Central America and Mexico. chicken and especially pork or suckling pig can be treated this way. known as Bixin can now be produced by bio-engineering. cosmetics and pharmaceutical ointments as well as textiles.

sunscreen and insect repellent. In the Philippines. Many Latin American cuisines traditionally use annatto in recipes of Spanish origin that originally call for saffron. The more norbixin in . they do not have the correct chemical structures to be vitamin A precursors. and both share the same E number as annatto. Annatto/Achiote as Food Coloring As a food additive. it is called atsuete and is used as food coloring in traditional dishes.5-5. the water soluble part is callednorbixin.) are called urucum. annatto (called locally onoto) is used in the preparation of hallacas. Amazon tribes use it for body paint and as a protection from insects. annatto is used to colour the rice red. including as a food dye. and other traditional dishes. body paint. which are classified as carotenoids. The yellowish orange color is produced by the chemical compounds bixin and norbixin. in arroz con pollo. to give the rice a yellow color. In the United States. both annatto (the product) and the tree (Bixa orellana L. another well-known carotenoid. annatto extract is listed as a color additive "exempt from certification" and is informally considered to be a natural color.5% pigments. However. which consists of 70-80% bixin. The fat soluble part of the crude extract is called bixin. In Belize. perico. treatment for heartburn and stomach distress. unlike beta-carotene. and the product itself may also be calledcolorau.colour butter and cheese. They also use it as an aphrodisiac. for example. Annatto seed contains 4. annatto has the E number E160b. In Venezuela. In Brazil. Annatto/Achiote Uses Annatto has had many uses over the centuries in Latin America and the Caribbean.

the more yellow it is. Producers of inferior cheese added annatto to the milk to make the cheese appear better quality. and even as early as 1860. Cheddar cheese is often colored. Unless an acid-proof version is used. and contains as well gamma-tocotrienol (the ratio between gamma and delta forms is around 9-to-1). it takes on a pink shade at low pH. annatto has fewer tendencies to oxidize than beta carotene. markedly delays polymerization of the oils during heating. Annatto is used as a source of these two types of tocotrienols for dietary supplements. Solvent-extracted annatto pigment present in edible oils at even low practical use levels. while not containing any tocopherols. Annatto appears to be one of the richest natural sources of delta-tocotrienol (a type of vitamin E). a process that may itself induce polymerization. Whether this effect is also present in oil-extracted annatto pigment. is not known. which inhibit metabolism of tocotrienols in humans. where annatto seeds are held in edible oil at high temperature under near vacuum or inert gas. As a food color.an annatto color. thus to command a higher price. and thus delays the development of the unhealthy by-products of polymerization. possibly from high levels of carotene in the grass on which the dairy cattle fed. One theory is that cheeses regarded as superior in the 16th century had somewhat yellow color. the real reason for this was unclear: English cheesemaker Joseph Harding stated "to the cheese consumers of London who prefer an adulterated food to that which is pure I have to announce an improvement in the annatto with which they compel the cheesemakers to colour the cheese". . a higher level of bixin gives it a more reddish shade.

anticonvulsant effect. (2) Study of organic extract of BO showed to possess a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial activity. ‡ Hypoglycemic / Antidiabetic: (1) Study of BO oil seed suspension of the red seed coat showed it to be a potent hypoglycemic agent. B orellana showed low MIC against against E coli and a better MIC against B cereus. . ‡ Anti-Gonorrheal: In a study of 46 plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhea. Review of Related Studies ‡ Antimicrobial / Antifungal: (1) The study screened plants extracts . Results showed that Bixa orellana. Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents. effective only against Gram+ bacteria used in the study. analgesic and antidiarrheal effect and a delay i gastrointestinal motility. ‡ Milk-based pigment: Study showed B orellana seeds can be used as a pigment in making milk-based paint. The activity was attributed to the stimulation of peripheral utilization of glucose. ‡ Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Antidiarrheal / Neuropharmacolic / Anticonvulsant/ Gastrointestinal Motility Effect: Preliminary pharmacologic studies on the methanol extracts of BO leaves showed statistical decrease in locomotor activity. (2) Annatto extract was found to decrease blood glucose in fasting normoglycemic and streptozocin-induced diabetic dogs.F. B orellana bark was one of the most active plants that inhibited strains of freshly isolated N gonorrhea. Extract study showed hypoglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin diabetic dogs.including Bixa orellana ± for antimicrobial activity and MIC. It also showed radical scavenging properties and antibacterial activity against agents of diarrhea and dysentery.

Alugbati Fruit. general acceptability. Diamondrav Villamor. Kemuel Ed Kevin Madelo. C morifolim and I batatas showed potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose reductase. King Lustre Abstract The researcher aimed to develop an economically useful substitute for the commercially available typewriter ribbon ink. cleanliness.‡ Antibacterial / Anti-Staphylococcal Activity: Study showed crude ethanolic extracts from leaves of B orellana and bark of Alstonia macrophylla showed potential antibacterial effect against S aureus. y The Feasibility of Atsuete as Ink Pigment Researchers: Carlo Ace Cariaga. Darryl Aaron . and Luyang Dilaw as Substitute for Typewriter Ribbon Ink Researchers: Don Carlo Inato. John Kris Magbanua. Aprilson Maroo Arnado. glossiness. y Atsuete Seeds. ‡ Aldose Reductase Inhibition: Study of hot water extracts of B orellana. and goodness of the printed material. Alugbati Fruits and Luyang Dilaw Extracts similar to the commercialized typewriterribbon ink in terms of clarity. Marco Fernando. The project intends to determine the achievability of producing a typewriter ink from Atsuete seeds. Phytochemicals yielded isoscutellarein from B orellana as its potent inhibitor.

pulverize the soaked annatto seeds. After.II. Treatment/General Procedure The procedure the researchers conducted was simple. all the ingredients were prepared. First. boil the annatto seeds with the vinegar. Set-up A Trials Annatto (grams) 1 2 3 100 200 300 Vinegar (mL) 50 50 50 No. of minutes soaked (minutes) 2 2 2 . After boiling. Next. pour it in a container. Materials/Equipment y y y y y y y y Annatto Seeds Vinegar Rolling pin/knife Strainer Container Kettle/Sardine can Pliers(if using a sardine can) Chopping board B. After soaking. soak the annatto seeds. Methodology A.

the amount of annatto seeds and the number of minutes soaked was the controlled variable. of minutes soaked (minutes) 2 5 10 In set-up C.In set-up A. The manipulated variable in this set-up is the amount of vinegar. the amount of vinegar and the number of minutes soaked was the controlled variable. The manipulated variable in this set-up is the annatto seeds. Set-up C Trials Annatto (grams) 1 2 3 100 100 100 Vinegar (mL) 55 55 55 No. The manipulated variable in this set-up is the number of minutes soaked. The best trial in this set-up is set-up B trial 1. Set-up B Trials Annatto (grams) 1 2 3 100 100 100 Vinegar (mL) 100 150 200 No. The best trial in this set-up is set-up A trial 1. The best trial in this set-up is set-up B trial 1. . of minutes soaked (minutes) 5 5 5 In set-up B. the amount of annatto seeds and the amount of vinegar was the controlled variable.

III. Legend: 1-4 Needs Improvement Set-up A (Trial 1) Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total: Color 8 10 7 8 9 9 10 8 9 9 87 Odor 8 9 8 10 8 7 9 9 8 8 84 Appearance 9 7 9 8 8 10 9 9 8 9 86 5-8 Satisfactory 9-10 Excellent . To be able to know which among the set-ups is the best. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. the best trial is trial 1. the researchers let ten (10) respondents judge the products. and for set-up C is trial 3. Findings In set-up A. for set-up B is trial 1.

Set-up B (Trial 1) Respondents Color Appearance Odor Appearance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total: 8 7 10 9 10 9 8 10 8 9 88 8 9 9 10 7 8 7 9 8 9 84 9 7 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 9 82 .

. set-up A (trial 2) got the highest average which clearly implies that it is the best among the other set-ups.Set-up C (Trial 3) Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total: Color 8 9 8 10 7 8 8 10 8 9 85 Odor 9 10 10 9 8 9 9 10 8 10 92 Appearance 8 8 7 9 8 9 8 10 8 8 83 Over-all Rating Set-up A B C TOTAL Color 87 88 85 260 Odor 84 84 92 260 Appearance 86 82 83 251 TOTAL 257 254 260 771 After letting the respondents rate the best trials of each set-up.

one could also use annatto seeds. having good odor. and most appealing among the other set-ups. Set-up C (trial 3) being the best set-up proved to be the having the good quality of color. Reccomendations The researchers would like to recommend to the future researchers to think of ways on how to make the odor of the ink better and.III. It is also recommended to find other seeds as the main ingredient in making inks. CONCLUSION The researchers therefore conclude that in making ink. IV. .

gov.ph/union/ShowSearchResult.stuartxchange.org/wiki/Annatto http://www.org/academy/?page_id=51 http://www.php http://www.org/Asuete.php?s=2&f=&p=&x=&page=&sid=1&id=The +feasibility+of+atsuete+as+ink+pigment&Mtype=PROJECTS http://spaconline.sacredearth.VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://scinet.wikipedia.html http://en.dost.com/annatto/ .cloverleaffarmherbs.com/ethnobotany/plantprofiles/achiote.

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