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the pre-Spanish times to the present. In meeting the needs of the society, education serves as focus of emphases/priorities of the leadership at certain periods/epochs in our national struggle as a race. As early as in pre-Magellanic times, education was informal, unstructured, and devoid of methods. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3 Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors. The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish colonization. The tribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish Missionaries. Education was religion-oriented. It was for the elite, especially in the early years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. Education during that period was inadequate, suppressed, and controlled. The defeat of Spain by American forces paved the way for Aguinaldo's Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time being but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior. The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution. An adequate secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission per instructions of President McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction. A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission by virtue of Act No. 74. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the
1978 Education Act of 1982 E. Culture and Sports Department of Minister Minister Secretary . 94 October 1947 (Reorganization Act of 1947) Proc. OFFICIAL OFFICIAL NAME OF TITULAR DECS HEAD Superior Commission of Chairman Primary Instruction Department of Public Instruction Department of Public Instruction Department of Education. 1942 Minister Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic Renamed by the Commonwealth Government Renamed by the Commonwealth Government E.A. No. Jan. 1081. 21. Health and Public Welfare Department of Public Instruction Department of Public Instruction and Information Department of Instruction YEAR 1863 19011916 19161942 19421944 LEGAL BASES Educational Decree of 1863 Act. 1972 P. September 24. 74 of the General Philippine Superintendent Commission.O. 1397. 1944 1944 19451946 19461947 19471975 19751978 19781984 19841986 1987- Secretary Secretary Secretary Department of Education Secretary Department of Education Secretary and Culture Ministry of Education and Culture Ministry of Education.Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines 600 teachers from the U. No. No.S. Health and Public Welfare Department of Education.D. June 11.O. 1901 Secretary Organic Act Law of 1916 (Jones Law) Renamed by the Japanese Executive Commissioner Commission. No. 117. June 2. They were the Thomasites. No.
On February 27. 1870 which created the University of the Philippines. In 1972. the Department of Instruction was changed to Department of Education. special educational institutions. and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 by the Philippine Commission. During this period.sponsored Republic created the Ministry of Education. Philippine History. No. Japanese educational policies were embodied in Military Order No. On October 14. Under the Japanese regime. the Japanese . Culture and Sports January 30. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system. In 1908. the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. Love for work and dignity of labor was emphasized. Health and Public Welfare and schools were reopened in June 1942. by virtue of Executive Order No. it became the Department of Education and Culture by virtue of Proclamation 1081 and the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978 y virtue of P. In 1947. The Reorganization Act of 1916 provided the Filipinization of all department secretaries except the Secretary of Public Instruction. 1994 Trifocalization of Education Management RA 9155. the Department of Instruction was made part of the Department of Public Instruction. and Character Education was reserved for Filipinos. 1945. 1943. August 2001 (Governance of Basic Education Act) 19942001 Secretary 2001 present Department of Education Secretary The high school system supported by provincial governments. 1987 RA 7722 and RA 7796. The Philippine Executive Commission established the Commission of Education. an agricultural school.D. . Culture and Sports Department of Education. 94. 2 in 1942. the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools. the teaching of Tagalog.1994 Education. school of arts and trades. 1397.
The trifocal education system refocused DECS¶ mandate to basic education which covers elementary. TESDA now administers the post-secondary. In August 2001. middle-level manpower training and development while CHED is responsible for higher education. DepEd MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE To carry out its mandates and objectives. RA 9155 provides that the Department should have no more than four Undersecretaries and four Assistant Secretaries with at least one Undersecretary and one Assistant Secretary who are career service officers chosen among the staff of the Department. respectively. was passed transforming the name of the Department of Education.) At present. RA 9155 provides the overall framework for (i) school head empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. secondary and nonformal education. Culture and Sports in 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. Culture and Sports which later became the Department of Education. 117.The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education. the Department operates with four Undersecretaries in the areas of: . the Department is organized into two major structural components. division offices. productive and patriotic citizens. knowledge. 117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994 when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). respectively. The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report provided the impetus for Congress to pass RA 7722 and RA 7796 in 1994 creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills. The Central Office maintains the overall administration of basic education at the national level. (See DepEd Organizational Chart. and 1995 when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) were established to supervise tertiary degree programs and nondegree technical-vocational programs. The Field Offices are responsible for the regional and local coordination and administration of the Department¶s mandate. otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act. and values to become caring. self-reliant. Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices. The structure of DECS as embodied in EO No. including culture and sports. district offices and schools). Republic Act 9155.
and (4) Legal Affairs. including the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM*). 2. the functions of a fourth bureau. (2) Planning and Development. Assisting the Schools Division Offices are 2. and (4) Legal Affairs. Health and Nutrition Center (HNC). and the Task Force Engineering Assessment and Monitoring. and the Instructional Materials Council (IMC). bureaus and centers. At the sub-national level. were absorbed by the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC) last August 25. the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS). Philippine High School for the Arts. each headed by a District Supervisor. (3) Finance and Administration. four hundred forty-six (48. Under the supervision of the Schools Division Offices are forty-eight thousand. (3) Budget and Financial Affairs. Sixteen (16) Regional Offices. National Educators Academy of the Philippines (NEAP). and the Bureau of Nonformal Education (BNFE). 446) schools. Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force (EDPITAF). four Assistant Secretaries in the areas of: (1) Programs and Projects. These are the National Education Testing and Research Center (NETRC). Center for Students and Co-curricular Affairs. Educational Technology Unit. and Technical Service. and Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (IMCS). Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE). standards. The five services are the Administrative Service. These are the Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE). and programs related to curriculum and staff development. One hundred fifty-seven (157) Provincial and City Schools Divisions. Human Resource Development Service. Planning Service. Other attached and support agencies to the Department are the Teacher Education Council (TEC). Three staff bureaus provide assistance in formulating policies.(1) Programs and Projects. By virtue of Executive Order No. Literacy Coordinating Council (LCC). Six centers or units attached to the Department similarly provide technical and administrative support towards the realization of the Department¶s vision. each headed by a Regional Director (a Regional Secretary in the case of ARMM). 1999. National Science Teaching Instrumentation Center (NSTIC). each headed by a Schools Division Superintendent. 81 series of 1999. broken down as follows: . the Field Offices consist of the following: 1. (2) Regional Operations. Backstopping the Office of the Secretary at the Central Office are the different services.227 School Districts. 3. Financial and Management Service. There are four special offices under OSEC: the Adopt-a-School Program Secretariat.
.683 secondary schools (4.261 private) Legend: * ARMM is included in the budget of the Department on the following: y y y y Creation of teaching and non-teaching positions. Funding for newly-legislated high schools.422 public and 3. Regular School Building Program. and Certain foreign-assisted and locally-funded programs and projects.o o 40.234 public and 4.529 private) 7.763 elementary schools (36.
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