This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CHEMISTRY OF WINE.
J.D. PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY ik THE UNIVERSITY OF UTRECHT. BY G. GEORGE'S HOSPITAL. F. MULDER. : NEW BURLINGTON MDCCCLVII. M. PHYSICIAN TO ST. LONDON JOHN CHURCHILL. . EDITED BY H.THE OHEMISTEY OF WINE. BENCE JONES. STREET.S.B.
but an unfortunate delay obliges errors me to trouble the reader to correct some from the Table of Errata.EDITOR'S PREFACE. is and neither at home nor abroad than Professor to there any one more competent to Mulder show the point we have reached. and mark out the path to be pursued for the attainment of a perfect knowledge of the chemistry of wine. at the Author's request. Dr. PEOFESSOE MULDEE'S work on the Chemistry of Wine has been translated from the German edition. because no English author has hitherto applied our present chemical knowledge to the study of wine. HENRY BENCE BROOK STREET. August. of which the greater part have been inserted in the text. I have edited this work. made many important corrections. JONES. 1857. . Oudemans has.
238 240 241 the Fatty Matter in the Free Acids in XIII. Wine XIV. VIII. On the (Enanthin in Wine Salts in 264 XIX. I. VI. V. XII. the Diseases of Wine 124 VII. the Fermentation of Grape-juice the Clearing of 47 94 101 III. . On the Albuminous Matter in Wine X VIII. Wine IV. PAGE On On On the Grape i II.CONTENTS. Citric. the Colouring Matters of the Iron in Wine 198 XI. On the Sulphurizing of Wine On On On On the Cellaring of Wine 104 . Wine On the Formic and Lactic Acids in Wine 254 250 XVII. X. On the Ammonia or Ammoniacal Wine 272 . IX. the Malic. and Racemic Acids in the Glucic Acids in Wine 248 251 XV. the Constituents of Wine 134 the Amount of Alcohol in Wine 138 18s On On On On On On On the Tannic Acidin Wine X. CHAP. Wine Wine .VI.
375 APPENDIX. and Strength of Wines 379 . On On the Odoriferous Constituents of the Analysis of Wine 294 335 XXV.. CONTENTS. 350 . On Fruit Wines . . On the Adulteration of Wine XXVIII. Wine XXVI. On the Acidity. XXI. .volatile Constituents of Wine XXIII. 345 XXVII. On the Tests for different Wines . XXII.Xll CHAP. On the Incombustible Constituents of Wine 290 XXIV. On On On the Odoriferous Volatile Alkali of Winckler the Sugar in 275 Wine 278 281 the Non.. Sweetness. PAGE XX.
The varieties of geranium.ON WINE. so that is distinctly imthe leaves or other parts. and may even printed upon to a certain extent be perpetuated. CHAPTEE THE GKAPE. The dog is always a dog. but still differs in is form in every part of the earth in which she Plants being found. which belong nevertheless to one genus. are unlimited. but the New- foundland and the lap dog. THE quality of a particular vegetable is I. The cow is everywhere a cow. . more dependent upon external influences than animals (which are restricted to no particular place). exhibit this peculiarity in a very high degree. the sheep dog and the greyhound. This property for assumes a different character. not unfreit quently affected by external influences. and may be observed equally in the animal as in the vegetable kingdom. differ from one another in no small degree. pelargonium. of the rose and dahlia. which the most part belongs to all organic bodies.
taste. Should the reader wish for an example of the imvines. indeed. And. form and taste. aroma and productiveness. vary in this case in so remarkable a manner as might lead one gift almost to regard the vine as a peculiar Creator's bounty. Erance different species of vines to The like variety may be observed not only in grapes which have been grown in different parts of the earth. caused 1400 be transplanted out of alone into the garden of the Luxembourg. while you leave another exposed. size. can distinguish numerous varieties of this fruit. and cover it with a bell of dark glass. and growing on the same spot. of the mense variety of Chaptal. an identity in the nature of apple- trees . though exposure to the action of the sun. or with oiled paper. but even in those produced in the same country. and The vine ranks among those plants which are very dependent (at least in so far as regards the fruit it : produces) upon external influences colour and size. but also of colour. we may a like difference even in the grapes of one perceive Protect one cluster of grapes from too great vine. upon There is. less strongly marked. however ignorant of botany. we will only remind him that when Minister of the Interior. and you will produce a much more . The difference is often impressed still more markedly the fruits which the plants produce. varieties not only of form and smell.& THE GRAPE. but any one. indeed.
and colourless wine can therefore be obIf the black. between black. If we add to this. a colourless tained from both. exercise a well-known influence upon plants and the fruits air. finely-scented latter. its con- and drainage of water. colourless. moreover. to those produced on the opposite side of the mountain . nor that. and the skins wine. o in fruit in the former *than the It is not. a hotter and stronger wine is produced in warm regions is than in such as are cold or temperate. sufficiently known that there is a general difference in the colour of grapes. are pressed. is obtained by fermentaI say substantially. the influx . and white the juice of both is It is. the lightness or stiffness of the ground in which the roots spread that further.THE GRAPE. which even a slight difference in the external influences occasions. which in substance equals that procured from the juice of the white grape. we shall at least have a general idea of the varieties of the juice which constitutes the principal element in these berry-bearing fruits. would effectually prevent the one . strange that the grapes which grow on the sunny side of the Johannisberg should be very superior. produced by them. purple or red grapes thrown aside. the dryness or dampness of the stituents. that the peculiar nature of the soil. for the variety in the tion. as far as the flavour and fragrance of their juice concerned. juices. therefore. in general. and the change or equality of temperature. purple or red. .
but forget that in the easier passage of the light through the colourless skin of the white grape we possess a sufficient explanation of a more powerful chemical action. it is thick. in which are various substances. The principal is component of the weight of the juice of ripe grapes (in proportion to the weight) water. perhaps. heat and light p "We know that in our regions. As we find in the juice sugar . that the heat of the sun penetrates more thoroughly the purple grape. and ascribe this peculiarity to the difference of the plants. in a small bladder) as that which is produced in the juice of the white grape by the difference between these two powerful influences.4 THE GRAPE. fermented liquid from equalling the other in flavour and aroma. either held in solution. the white grapes are much sweeter than the purple. or very minutely divided. As the juice is obtained by pressure. the we must this ascribe this circumstance to heat. and which in all living things is a powerful means of exciting chemical action. as it were. which in case penetrates more easily the skin of grape. and exposure to the heat of the sun changes it principal components very quickly into a fermented liquor. Or is it. And if we generally find the purple grapes inferior in flavour and smell. while its dark skin partially preserves it from the action of light ? Is then the same chemical action possible to the juice of the purple grape (enclosed. the result of which may be a larger formation of sugar.
gelatine.THE GEAPE. In cases where the skins are allowed. wax. sulphate of potash. tartaric acid quite free. which are not. as in the preparation of red wine. vegetable albumen. gum. accurately deterand combined with potash. What we know with certainty is. may be extracted fer- from the alcohol developed during the process of mentation. partly combined with lime (Berard). and some other substances of the nature of extractive matters. namely. lime acid. But experience has not sufficiently decided even this point. according to some. magnesia. as also tannic acid. but the aroma (bouquet). common acid phosphate of lime. iron. as cream of tartar. fat. to ferment with the juice. and silicic may also exist. which appear during fermentation. tartrate of potass and alu- mina . that colouring matter. or pectin . partly also combined with . mined. but other materials exist in it in small quantities. colouring matter and tannic acid are. malic partly -quite free. vegetable gluten. in almost unlimited variety. Up must to this time no other ingredients have been dis- covered in the juice of the grape. and impart to the fermented liquor. those. and the flavour respectively peculiar to each wine. the elements which impart odour and flavour may be drawn from them. oxide of manganese and oxide of salt. in some cases we find also racernic acid. or at least tend essentially to produce not only the vinous smell common to all wine. further. . 5 (both grape sugar and fruit sugar). however.
that the are always simple it is a blue matter. . If the skins are allowed to ferment. and of the tannic first acid. that is. It is.b THE GKAPE. juice. richly provided with tannic ferment with it. and to impart to them more or tannic acid in proportion to the greater or smaller quantity of purple skins allowed to ferment with their juice. mention here. which. but certain that the tannic . the grape stones will not be excluded from fermentation. to of grape stones. the more the red wines contain of colourless tannic acid. acquires a peculiar reddish colour. without any admixture of skins. derived principally from the skin so that such wines as are prepared from fermented juice alone. What when is other matters can be extracted from these are allowed to ferment with the it is the skins. equally formed in the skin. equal quantity in the wine so that. is not known. the more do they hold in solution of the colouring matter of the purple skins. the darker they will be. for in general one may take it for granted that an incom- plete filtration of the expressed fluid will allow a large number acid. in general. by means of the free acids of the wine. . and dissolved in therefore. possible to prepare lighter or darker less coloured red wines. As we we shall have occasion hereafter to treat in detail of the colouring matters will only . therefore. contain either acid in wine none. or at best only a doubtful trace of its presence.
a sufficient . then. and also If. and in modern times has earnestly endeavoured to achieve. and juice. the vine. to ferment with skins. But what it can do. with the existence or non-existence of potash in the ground. which contain a good deal of tannic acid. in a position to bring and perhaps never will be. the structure of plants into connexion with the nature of their products. Science is not. and are often allowed to ferment. although the amount. soil. is to investigate the organic constituents. deserves our consideration in the first place. The same holds good with respect to the stalks of the grapes. and the nature of its vegetable All wines contain cream of tartar. a salt which consists of tartaric acid and potash. / where the fruit is allowed. owing to the hardness of the covering of the seeds. with all its constituents. therefore. Looking at wine. is The quantity and quality of the grape juice connected. Potash preponderates in the ^vliole plant.THE GRAPE. a certain quantity of tannic acid may be obtained from them. In those cases. therefore. or where the grape stones in larger or smaller quantities are included in the fermentation. and the relation between the necessary ingredients of the products. The organic components of the wood are the com- mon ones. and in in the all its parts. stones. after pressure. from a chemical point of view. in the leaves and fruits. therefore. will be but small. stem and boughs.
the important services which the incombustible constituents render. with potash. sulchlorine.exist in the soil. must be found in it in sufficient quantity. The sulphuric acid and the chlorine are not with/ drawn. with respect to the nature of the ash. are peculiar properties. If. confine ourselves to this general direction. they combine with potash and soda. in it and manganese. Further. for in the grape juice. which are equally necessary. The tartaric acid then appears in . The first condition necessary to the obtaining of good is. phuric acid. soil. magnesia. in addition to those other ingredients. with great accumany isolated cases. the components of the which are necessary to a successful development of the plant. With respect to the wine. that certain of find taste.8 THE GBAPE. grapes "We need racy. lime. first. a good deal of phosphoric acid is contained and a smaller proportion of lime. not. which formed part of the cream of tartar in the grape juice. however. soda. its we may observe. the vine will not flourish. but can point out. which exist in larger or smaller proportions. potash. during the fermentation of the juice. quantity of potash does not . both of colour connected with the quantity of the iron. example. in that the plant should be well developed. a good deal of lime and magnesia (the latter as phosphate of ammonia and magnesia) will be thrown off. phosphoric acid. The different proportions of these inorganic matters exert a very great influence upon the quality of the wine.
Indust. And in like manner a larger proportion of lime or soda will cause other changes. which did not exist as free in the grape juice . * Precis de Chim. In order to explain the numberless exist varieties which necessary not only to take into consideration the so-called ash constituents. it is to begin with the composition of the soil. 1849. which we and many other proshall have occasion All this is hereafter to mention more particularly. to speak accurately. The best Burgundy comes from a clayey lime soil Champagne from a more thorough lime soil Her. more free tartaric acid wine than was present in the grape juice. . merely the result of the grape juice containing more phosphoric acid. and follow it through the different parts of the vine into the juice. and then pursue it afresh through the process of fermentation till the wine reaches us at table. Payen* maintains that wine of very good quality. the wine. may be obtained from very different soils. the development of the grape.THE GRAPE. . differ The quality of the soil may considerably without having a decided influence on the quality of the wine. I need not apologize for giving in this treatise only a general sketch of the influence which these important materials exercise on the existence and growth of the plant. but among wines. or. perties are developed. and the formation of the wine. 384. but of dissimilar bouquet. p. The wine acquires a harsh or sour taste. and if it be exists in the red wine the colour is brighter.
Iron is known to exist in wine. however.) Peretti has convinced himself that these metals were not admitted during the preparation of the wine. manures which are inodorous and putrefy slowly. so well tasted.10 THE GRAPE. not the case . p". on the contrary. . near Toulon. Med. the difference of the compensated. horn. and extracts the ashes by means of nitric acid. burns the residue. exercise a very prejudicial influence on the odour of the wine. soil Lamalgue. on the other hand. mitage from a granite soil.* This variety of all might lead one to imagine that is soils are equally suited to the cultivation of the vine. such as fecal matters and the mud of great towns. The organic manure is also of consequence to the plant if it is very nourishing. the presence of copper. iron and copper are found in the wine produced near Rome. Such. 92. and is therebut up to this time no one else has asserted fore not remarkable . The putrefying * According to Peretti. de Ch. while. such as wool. but as it is hand that the principal constituents may be the same in apparently different soils. a larger quantity of wine will be produced. in which the metals are held in solution. . by the addition of vegetable possible on the one matters. He evaporates the wine. and bone black. but the wine will not be so well scented nor . soil may be adjusted or vine manures are as imporInorganic tant to the plant as the soil itself. 1832. and Chateauneuf from a Bandy la Grande a sandy and a slaty one the wine of . so. (Journ. A slaty soil produces Yin de one Graves and Me doc. It is remarkable that fetid manures. conduce very much to its fragrance.
water. that good wine although it would no wine-grower who prepares manure. constitute an excellent manure for the plant. At the vintage only the fruit fall is removed from the field. large organic substances of the manure pass into the plant. analysis will The following give an idea of the in the plant. manure it can be recognized. The leaves of the vine. I venture also to maintain.THE GEAPE. and often contents itself with substances which it obtains principally from the weather-beaten rocks on whose slope it is planted. that the vine requires so little inorganic manure. inorganic constituents to be met with "We give them as examples. when their ashes necessarily com- pose the best manure for future vine leaves. which contain a considerable quantity of alkali. for example. but I venture nevertheless to allege them.his vines putrid has become the fashion among scientific writers to copy from one another the assertion that plants take up from the earth only carbonic acid. that they are observable in quantities of the as. and the leaves to the ground. is not without danger. in the cauliflower the smell of the putrid fish which is used to Westland. the fruit. give. and without attempting . and prepare from them all organic substances. 11 in such. The publication of these facts at a time when it is asserted that plants do not bear a single trace of the organic constituents of the soil. Only in this manner can the fact be explained. and ammonia.
12 THE GEAPE. forms in which they are directly conveyed to the plant. but is not generally in a condition to do so without the assistance of inorganic manure. because I have never yet found any mention of the chemical composition of the incombustible manure of the vine. that is. . Tor the rest I feel myself more at liberty to pass over the chemical composition of the soil. "When in a soil substances exist in such a state of combination that they only become fit for use by exposure to the air for some time. any comparison between them and the constituents of the soil. then such a soil will nourish the plant in the long run. because these are seldom specified in the in a soluble state.
.THE GBAPE.* . according to Levi. according to Crasso . III.. The branches of vine have the following ash comI.. I shall therefore nature of the components of the ash of the wood. In the first 13 dwell on the place. according to Hruschauer ponents in 100 parts : . II.
THE GRAPE. Potash . Walz found in vine branches.
. white are chasselas. 36' Fruit-stalks 42' . . and known under the name of Gamay.THE GRAPE. fruit. 0'6 ashes Skins and stones Juice 220' 738' M 0'6 ashes I'l 240' 724- T9 3'0 The particular components were PINKAU. v In 1.000 Pineau. of the greatest value to us. . the purple pineau. 23'5 1'4 Berthier gives also a comparison of the ashes of the different parts of the fruit of the purple and the white grapes in the neighbourhood of Paris . CHASSELAS. 15 and between the different parts of the fruit may be deduced.. The following results of the ash of entire fruits collected at Namur is in 1850. parts grapes were Chasselas. 5*0 Sulphate of Potash Chloride of Potassium 27 44'4 1 Carbonated Alkali Carbonate of Lirne Carbonate of Magnesia 05 12'5 Phosphate of Lime Silicic Acid .
3 Serie. while the constituents of ash * than other plants. . 369. on account of erroneous. de Ch. 14 12 .16 THE GBAPE. xxx. et de Phys. nor can any probable Ann. is reason be alleged for maintaining that the removal of the grapes alone. torn. the assertion that the vine alkali the grapes alone. Potatoes 63 Phosphoric Acid. Boussingault * gives the amount of the incombuscomponents of the grape-juice in Alsace in the tible following manner Potash : 0-842 0'092 (V172 Lime Magnesia Sulphuric Acid Chlorine 0'096 traces Carbonic Acid 0'250 Phosphoric Acid Silicic Acid O412 0'006 He finds that the vine in these districts absorbs in the course of the year the following quantities per hectare (about 2 J acres of cultivated land) : Potash Soda 16-42 0-15 12'49 Lime Magnesia Phosphoric Acid Sulphuric Acid 3'24 7'23 T93 In the same districts the ground : is exhausted in the following proportions per hectare Alkali. p.9 Mangel Wurzel 90 Wheat with straw 27 According to requires more this.
13). 8. Must from 4. 3 analysed in the second the first analysis. of the small Burgundy 2. extract the following : Must from unripe purple grapes or black ^Clavners (Metzger). 4. Must from ditto. or black Clavners (Metzger). vaners (Babo and Metzger).THE GEAPE. Stones from No. Stones from No. of JSTo. 6. We 1. Must from ripe white grapes. Potash . Purple skins from No. ripe purple grapes. 7. or green Syl- 5. 3. 1. Crasso has given us* a more exact analysis of the different constituents of the vine. White skins from No. 1. We find the wood column (p. 4 all in 100 parts. 17 in the leaves are returned to the soil exhausts the alkaline contents of the earth more than it is ex- hausted by the removal of other plants. but from a different place. Schonfeilners. small Burgundy.
s. diminishes considerably in every part of the fruit. in the skins than in the juice. 67. as muriate of soda. silicic acid. 1 and 2. Nos. which constitutes a large portion of the ashes of the wood. we see what appears remarkable. and sodium. juice. 57. . chloride of lime. whereas the potash plainly increases in quantity. so that two-thirds of the ashes consist of potash. which pass partially into the wine. and also in connexion with the previous summary of the incombustible constituents of the vine. and we perceive no remark Ann.* to he found more The tables above given are of importance. was probably a mistake which led Crasso in an examination which he made of vine branches imagine that earlier of one and two years standing. In the first place. in the constituents of the ash.18 It THE GBAPE. * In the juice of the unripe grape. sulphuric acid. with respect to the ash constituents. 2. magnesia. that soda. and I wish to We oxides of iron and manganese. which belongs to the albuminous substances of the grape juice. Bd. lime than potash. combined with chloride. In Nos. also a a large quantity of phosphoric acid. and is entirely wanting in the stones. we have the find in it analyses of the undirect attention fermented grape particularly to it. both as exhibiting the respective proportions of the component parts named. and a small proportion of soda. 3. and 4. though to a less degree.
176. torn. . during the latest period of development. and the temperature during the whole year never sinks below a certain minimum. But when the vine yields exuberantly. de Ch. et de Phys. therefore agrees with Couverchel's experiments upon the ripening of fruits). the temperature of the region in which the vine grows exercises a no quently to the formation of less important influence upon it. able difference. if the composition of the soil of considerable moment to the development of the plant. and conse- good fruit. Ixiv. * juice. . to have an individual life. or if we may assume that a sufficiency of albumen is always to be found in grape alone. upon the quantity of sugar which is formed per hectare vineyard.* The production of alcohol depends necessarily upon two substances. 19 (and this The fruit appears. Boussingault has given us some valuable information with respect to the quantity of alcohol produced per hectare (two and a half acres) of vineyard. taking into consideration the temperature of the air during the summer and the whole period of culture. the vine produces nothing but ripe and well-flavoured grapes. the quantity of wine depends entirely upon the temperature. But. then ifc depends on the sugar Ann.THE GBAPE. In districts where the summer is sufficiently long and warm. and to be comparatively indeis pendent of the plant. and the quantity of albuminous matter afterwards produced.
near Lampertsloch. which yields wine of very variable quality. a property belonging to Boussingault.20 THE GEAPE. The following table applies to the Schmalzberge. .
to where in many places the vines are allowed to grow the height of two metres (6^ feet). if it not entirely. * is Apples and pears may serve as On an average. (16. 462 gallons. (2f millions of hectolitres. and that the process of ripening is carried on through the evenings and nights by the warmth which is exhaled from the earth.THE GRAPE. sometimes as low as three feet. depends to a certain extent. upon the circumstances in which placed during growth.) while in all the German states the yearly consumption is given at 58^ million gallons.* when the The kind of grape variety existing is among wines.) in that of Gaillac 352. to the hectare (2^ acres) of ground. they reckon in the vine districts of France. for in the beautiful vine districts of South France. wine.) and a yearly total of 979 million gallons. (21 hectolitres. (44^ million hectolitres. 21 On Any this account vines are not allowed to grow high. in the region of Toulouse. but the wine prepared that obtained in the same region and from the same kind of grapes vines are kept shorter. a great quantity of juice is it is from much worse than secured. another cause of the great know that the We influence exercised upon its by the nature of the plant itself productions.) . but are kept down. that they are ex- posed to the rays of the sun reflected back from the ground. Let no one imagine that the vines are kept short in order to obtain a greater quantity of grape juice . The reason is. one may easily be convinced that the grapes will ripen and develope better the nearer they are to the ground.
an example of this a golden reinette planted in another soil and in another temperature will cease to bear golden pippins. for as the purple grapes admit . which Both these kinds of grape produce red wine. where the noirien seldom produces good wine.22 THE GRAPE. and wine. they must This caution is vines together wish take care. Tokay prepared differ- mentioned. le . Le pineau gris. be used in order to procure therefore. however. yield the only grapes of one and the same kind must that. when fresh are planted. inferior quality. those of a higher flavour are selected. The quality as well as quantity of the wine by each individual variety of the vine. is affected The following kinds of grapes are particularly used : in Prance in the preparation of wine Le pineau gundy. where the plants are consequently allowed to attain a considerable age and . If. which makes good Burin other districts also produces good yields abundantly. best wine . but wine of This grape is best cultivated on flat lands. to keep each kind of grape separate. noir or noirien. and le furmint. is in Hungary. These mixed sorts never. at the vintage. however. those who have planted various kinds of to make good wine. . gamay blanc. make white wine from the last are. vine districts where the There ent kinds are not kept separate. Le gamay. especially necessary (to the produc- tion of a useful wine) if purple and white grapes have been planted together .
and increase. give it potash enough. and the wine will be better.THE GSAPE. It may be said the vine is an alkaline plant . to pick the purple grapes ones. the kind of grape. by transplantation into different the excellence of the better kinds of vine would be preserved and with respect to some very richly scented . warmer to a colder region. to a very great extent. whereas formerly the reverse was the case. sorts. in the character of the wine itself. Orleans yields wine enough a proof that there is sufficient potash in the ground. so that to avoid the possibility of having a bad. was formerly supposed districts. within certain limitations. the wines of Orleans are now considered very inferior to those of Burgundy. as a general rule. in France where There are very famous wines were made. But this is not the case. however. however. that the soil may be exhausted just as much by districts the vine as by any other plant. is it necessary. . been If. diminish. appearances. Temperature and soil together determine. they are generally ripe ten or twelve days earlier than the white. To no other cause can the perpetuaOther tion of the innumerable varieties be ascribed. the saccharine contents. if it is brought from a colder to a warmer district. and where only very inferior kinds formerly can now be produced. teach us. the vine is removed from a justified. and yet the wine is no longer so good as formerly. sour wine. It before the white that. 23 the heat of the sun more readily. For example. at the vintage. the opinion has.
with respect to their capacity for producing wine. Sufficient care alone.THE GKAPE. . and the same kind of wine which was formerly esteemed. or another method may be used in the preparation of wine. But who can ? rightly understand that which has passed Bouchardat has examined several kinds of Burgundy. and has ascertained that the following kinds of grapes yield such and such quantities per hectare :* Kinds of Grapes. very may now no longer appear palatable. for taste may not have been taken always to plant good sorts of vines in those places which were once famous. But I will not refer this circumstance to chemistry may have undergone a change.
more particularly affected by the also And this inference may be deduced from Bouchardat's remarks. he is of is opinion that it kind of grape. to the study of that which will give us a better knowledge of wine. skins. though the quantity of tartaric acid or of alcohol will be proportionably less. must confine ourselves almost entirely. to take into special considera- tion the grape juice. point out the chemical we will not linger full but limit ourselves to a ing the fruit yielding the juice which subject of our particular attention. that the quantity of alcohol absorbed in the wine. it having been stated by many to exist both in grape juice and in wine. not uniform with the production of potash or tartaric great deal more potash accumulates in one A kind of grape than in another.THE GKAPE. We however. however. statement respectis to form the We have. from the fact made evident by them. effect. prpduced yearly per hectare of ground. we cannot here connexion between cause and over it. stones and stalks. is acid. and take it for granted that the rest is already known. 25 exercises an important influence "Whilst he acknowledges that the plan of cultivation on the wine. therefore. These results are particularly worthy of observation. the constituents of the ash of the grape- Among juice we have particularly to mention alumina. all four being of greater or less importance to the formation of wine. The first who indicated the presence of alumina in . As.
and a * phosphate of lime was dissolved. as s. "When he had the "Winkler. He discovered it in Rhine and . little A slight thickness ensued. is afterwards (in so far as it contains soluble alumina. These were treated with hydrogives 0'94 per cent. 61. . Die vulcanischen Mineralquellen Deutschlands. is of course understood.* THE GRAPE. which. however. and after that ammonia were added. able did it many vegetables. Alumina may therefore is actually exist in wine. to exist in Alumina was formerly believed be erroneous. but this supposition has been proved to it appears to be found really in It would certainly be very remark- really exist in grape juice. and very few plants.26 wine was Bischof. therefore. grapes washed in pure water. Its origin is. and adhering to the juice during the process of pressing. and the liquid thus obtained was warmed with a considerable quantity of liquid and filtered . not the plant. chloric acid. Moselle wine when precipitated with ammonia that phosphate of lime and phosphate of ammonia and magnesia were also mixed with it. but not to be regarded as a constituent of the plant. and afterwards pressed. gave us the explanation of this remarkable phenomenon.) taken up by it. manifested no trace of alu- mina. but the dust which sticks to the fruit. the alumina was to be found in the juice. (running burnt 31*85 raisins and obtained O3 ashes. which taken in conjunction with the stones and skins. some years since. potash to this clearer liquid hydrochloric acid.
to the acids found in differently specified. Bd. There was no evidence. et Pharm. s. for. And is any one able to analyse all the different kinds of grapes used for wine ? Schwartz * discovered a considerable * portion of Ann der Ch. 27 oxalate of was shown by the presence of molybdic acid. of alumina. that it is not possible to make such a general examination as would be necessary in order to obtain a positive result. . THE ACIDS. tartaric acid. thereIs it fore. These acids are No one doubts the existence of respecting citric and malic acid. but there has been some uncertainty The reason of this uncertainty is.THE GRAPE. since in what does not exist one kind of grape may yet be detected in another. In considering the organic constituents of grape juice. in the first instance. there is no occasion to add anything to what has been already stated. it. we must devote our attention. 83. 84. the same result would be oftener arrived at with respect to alumina in wine ? There is nothing particular to mention with respect fruit in con- to the other inorganic components of the nexion with the formation of wine. and ammonia. as they may all be referred to the usual constituents of ashes. not probable that were careful examinations oftener made.
the presence of malic acid in unripe. 14. and found in unripe grapes both tartaric and malic. and of tartaric acid in ripe grapes is established. if all three were found in the grape juice in sufficient quantities to allow of their being accurately distinguished. 7. which will be small in proportion to the ripeness of the grapes. . 77. and on the contrary. No malic acid appears to exist in wine which has been prepared from perfectly ripe grapes. or tartaric and citric. but either citric or malic. the three acids are rarely found together in one fruit. 160. now. * In some Bordeaux which Kepert. So far as we know. s. and the existence or non-existence of citric acid. + Mag. however. but no citric acid. Bd. Bd. der Pharm.28 THE GRAPE. Proust considered the acid of the unripe grapes to be citric. fur Pharm. and since then it has been several times subjected to examination. we may certainly assume that besides tartaric acid a fixed quantity of malic acid may be found in wine. be an exception to the rule. or tartaric and malic acid. therefore. the existence of citric acid is not suffi- ciently proved. s. As. Greigerf examined this subject more closely. malic acid in the juice of unripe grapes. and Kaufmann* has stated that unripe grapes are peculiarly adapted to the preparation of citric acid. It would. This is all that we have found asserted with any probability respecting the existence of tartaric.
and how possible to turn one acid into another. Kestner. and others. Until a few years since the opinion was entertained that in the grapes of the Vosges. 3 Serie. xxiv. difference whatever in the quality of the the quality of the wine is only affected the presence of a large quantity of racemic acid. asserted that this. an acid existed. by the former it was detected in the tartar of many Pasteur succeeded in turning tartaric German wines. have properties. The admixture of a small quantity of racemic acid makes no wine. it can astonish no one that racemic acid should be more and more frequently met with in wine. and exceptionally in a few other kinds. but no citric acid was Winkler thought he had discovered an acid in the juice of unripe grapes. by warming . 29 we examined. by lime will then be found in it first. tartrate of cinchonine. trace of malic. is not so very rare. p. which he calls "para -citric." But Pasteur* looked upon this as malic acid. . Considering how nearly related acids are to each it is other.THE GRAPE. having the same constituents as tartaric acid. into racemic acid. which is called racemic acid. but differing from its it in Pasteur. in French and Tuscan wine . t. de Pliarm. The last-named found it in insignificant quantities in 1850. a found. because less * And Journ. 75. is or tartaric ether in either case the result the conversion of tastaric into racemic acid.
and the precipitate washed. (racemate of lime being less soluble than tartrate of lime) and next. from 4 parts sugar from grape juice." although this ticular kind of sugar. parts can be obtained solid. They are. a larger proportion of racemic acid. is in order to saturate the free acids. and the wine will then be redder coloured. the latter in 180 parts. therefore. besides tartaric acid. water than double racemate of 2' E. more free acid may be dissolved in the former.) potassa the first salt being soluble at 19. only 3 and 1 part as fruit sugar. and if red wines. "Wines. in conse- quence of the presence of this acid deposit during fermentation. sweeter. for if these are wines containing racemic than in those in which tartaric acid is found. At the same time this result depends entirely on the quantity of bases less in present at one time. The grape juice is boiled with chalk. therefore. because cream of tartar is much .. the liquid filtered.30 THE GRAPE. The liquid matters are mixed . and less sweet tasted. (66 in 204 parts water. name no longer denotes grape a par- By a process to be mentioned hereafter. which contain. darker coloured than wines which contain only tartaric acid.) a larger amount of lime salt and potash. The sugar which exists in grapes is called " sugar. more easily soluble in . THE SUGAR. (supposing an equal quantity of bases.
Bd. in the . may grapes. in the Neckar district. with albumen. 337. According to Chaptal. 139. deduce the following results : Prom it we According to Chaptal. environs of Heidelberg. states it to be. Bd. Journ. the grape juice of Touraine and the banks of the Cher and Loire has a specific weight of 1-0627 1-0825 according to Fontenelle. . contained in * f- the juice produced in s. gives and in 1811. 1*050 1'090 According to Schiibler. 460 Dingier. writing of .* Eeuss .THE GKAPE. Journ.f statement of specific gravities does not express the saccharine contents of the grape juice with accuracy. . we accept it as a foundation. Bd. from 1-084 1*074. it contained from 1-1029 to 1-1283. grape juice produced on the banks of the Cher and Loire contains 20 15 per cent. 1'039 r091. Erdinann's Journ. because Although this by it we approximate to the truth. s. solid the sediment by particles. 1*099. Pol. 42. some time crystals of grape sugar are deposited. boiled. in the environs of Stuttgard. in 1809. 358. and new ones may be produced from means of repeated evaporation. 12. the South of Dingier. s. and according to Metzger. 1*066 Giinzler. 30 18 per cent. s. is . in 1822. Poggendorf s Ann. Bd. filtered. it as from 1-0541-047 Marbach. As much as 40 per cent. mostly of be contained in the juice of very ripe sugar. 75. Pol. sugar according to Fontenelle. but the greater number contain much less. 1. 31 After and evaporated.
be used for wine for an extract of . finds THE GRAPE. . 30 13. therefore. Hlubeck.. Giinzler 15 per cent.. 23 The extreme products of a larger are. it can be no matter of surprise that the preparation of wine in Holland should be very unsatisfactory. Only a very small quantity of sugar is contained in the grapes of this country (Holland). in Styria. Schiibler and Kohler. districts. the low and variable temperature of the autumn. but this de- pends partially upon other circumstances. the juice of fine purple grapes. The increase of saccharine matter renders the formation amount of alcohol possible. as we know. 14. Balling. in Bohemia. produced only from 10 to 12 per cent. however. When one takes into account. Metzger. In the neighbourhood of Stuttgard. though they may.32 Prance. which we shall treat of hereafter. dried in a temperature of 110 C. from 22 In the grape juice of the same Reuss. 2617. in Heidelberg. 24 14 per cent. 2513 per cent. 22 14. 230 F.
reckon- ing that from 13 to 30 per cent. hence there is and no albumen is about one-thirtieth of gluten to the quantity of sugar. Beltz. would give from 1 to \ per cent. 327. 33 THE ALBUMINOUS SUBSTANCES. We albumen. Thenard appears to have detected gluten in the juice of the Johannisberg grapes at least he found in . it a sticky albuminous body.analysed the must of the Eiessling grapes of Grumbach. and found in a quart. are acquainted with but few good analyses of Sometimes the albuminous bodies found in grapes. Pharm.THE GRAPE. Jahrh. presented * when exposed to the appearances of s. sometimes gluten. D . all the action of heat. gluten. and sometimes both are the only person who has ventured to determine the quantities of these ingredients. the specific gravity of which was 1*08 Sugar Tartaric acid 1680-6 7*7 Gluten 505 18'5 Cream of tartar Alumina Lime Magnesia 3'0 2'0 2"0 1764-3 According to this table. gluten found in the plant. sugar exists in grape juice. spoken of. Bd H. Beltz is and how he ascertained them remains a question.fur pr. and this. which.
THE GRAPE. and the juice then passed through The pulp was rubbed and treated with water. The remaining cell-walls. perhaps in the walls of the cells of the pulp. after being warmed with potash. until nothing but pure water passed through. is pro- The existence of this matter has been ascertained in the following First. in the walls of those These crushed cells in which the juice is enclosed. yielded. in order to under- stand rightly the mode in which the ferment duced in the juice. A acid. particularly as he asserts that this matter is soluble in boiling water. and strained. and exercise an im- portant influence upon the fermentation. as and cellulose. The prinThe^ pectose. It is. filter paper. and that which exists cell.walls ferment with the juice. a product of the decomposition of residuum was cellulose. manner : we must distinguish between the albumen found in the juice. part of these cell-walls was boiled with acetic the liquor so obtained was neutralized with after filtration. however. freed from stones and The pulp of white grapes was skins. ammonia A white flocculent preci- . finely strained. on addition of acid. very necessary to know what albuminous matter is found in grape juice. of the cell-walls seem to be pectose cipal ingredients pectic acid.34 albuminous matter. But even Thenard's examination cannot be regarded as conclusive and decisive.
and evaporation. albumen. or 0*007 nitrogen. gave M. That this was really vegetable albumen and not vege- was proved by the treatment of the cellwalls with boiling alcohol. in 100 parts. it when cleared and treated with alcohol. the quantity of albumen was found. 0-316 of cell-walls. With respect to the grape juice. After filtering. might contain either pectose or gum. Ylaanderen 0*048 platinum. white and flocculent. 14 parts albumen. pitate of 35 albumen was obtained. This flocculent precipitate but neither . which ferment in the juice. on the table gluten was addition of water. Hence these cell-walls contain. if we reckon 15*5 per cent. and mixed with a crystalline precipitate of the salts. nitrogen in The sist cell-walls of the pulp cells of purple grapes con- therefore of Cellulose ^ ]" gg 14 Pectose Vegetable albumen 100 This is a considerable quantity of albuminous matter.THE GEAPE. The existence of vegetable albumen in the walls of the pulp cells. for which reason we shall recur to it again at a later period. is of the greatest importance in the fermenta- tion. no vegetable gluten precipitated. dried at 110 C. By determining the quantity of nitrogen. yielded only a small deposit. 235 F.
and b.. 0.. The same cause prevents grape juice from becoming turbid by boiling. 0*39 per cent. for free tartaric acid retards the coagulation of albumen . too little vegetable albumen nor vegetable gluten was obtained even from a large quantity of juice to allow of a satisfactory analysis. Grape juice evaporated to the consistency of an extract. 1-150 gave 0*0295 platinum. According to the method of "Will and Yarrentrapp.36 THE GEAPE. albuminous substances in the extract of grape . nitrogen we get. 110 C. b.36 per cent. The action of heat applied to the juice does not cause vegetable albumen to coagulate. If we take the it mean proportion. the two following results were obtained by M. and with albumen or gluten. &c. dried at 230 F. This gives a.. the alcohol only produces a deposit consisting principally of salts. .. have the same effect. and mixed with alcohol. reckoning the compare in the organic elements at 15 -5 per cent. nitrogen. gave no insoluble albu- minous precipitate. for tartaric acid renders albumen extract of soluble even in boiling alcohol. or 0*375. And if this grape juice be mixed with water and with sufficient carbonate of ammonia to saturate the tartaric acid. a. : 1-128 gave 0'031 platinum. Vlaanderen with respect to the quantity of nitrogen found in the residuum of clear filtered grape juice. acetic acid. potash.
as According to this. albumen but if we reckon . and possess the well- known properties of vegetable gluten. sugar to 10 per cent. 9 per cent. filtering.&c Organic and inorganic salts Water GO'OO 100-00 The existence of vegetable gluten is in the grape juice placed beyond doubt by treating the evaporated juice with alcohol. . is a great deal The following are the contents grapes of these districts : of the purple Albuminous matters Sugar Extractive matters 0*24 Gum. which more than is required. 10 per cent. we do not get in this grape juice more than 242 per cent. flakes adding water. extract. by . and reckoning all the nitrogen albuminous matter. after evaporation. 37 The grape juice referred to was and left a residue of expressed from Dutch grapes. juice. albuminous parts sugar would find 2 18 per f matter ready for fermentation.THE GEAPE. every 100 cent. it is but distilling the alcohol that an albuminous body form. and not therefore proved exist in another may not The vegetable gluten is obtained as white in the manner related above these flakes : adhere together on evaporation. 2'42 per cent.
soluble in water. from grape juice by precipitating the lime with oxalic acid. another substance is formed from this pectose. the liquid thus procured is precipitated with alcohol dissolved in water. never met with in wine if it should be found in . The constant increase of alcohol during the transformation of grape juice into wine. p. connexion has yet been established between this pectin and the development of ferment in the wine. and capable of being precipitated by means of alcohol in the form of a jelly. supposing a good deal of water to exist in it. which called pectin. precipitates it. it is can only be in the sediment obtained by means of basic acetate of lead for this and not sugar of lead . which soluble in water. little is No known of the peculiar properties C8 H 6 O8 composition may be designated by although Eremy reckons it at eight times Its .38 THE GBAPE. that is. One of the constituents of the cell-walls in which is the juice enclosed appears to be (as we have already is in- seen. and again precipitated with alcohol till It then presents a thread-like it is quite pure. 34) an ingredient called pectose. PECTOSE A.ND PECTIK. It it. body. During the ripening of the is is fruit. precipitates this matter. this pectin is obtained soluble in water. indeed but of pectin. and According to Eremy.
as 39 much. however. between them. and all particular circum- stances. if how ? this "We must leave those to answer spot where wine query who are able to watch the traces of alteration in pectin on the is made. will be . C 12 H O 10 vegetable H 19 is The mode of preparation of given by Fremy. the substances found in grape juice. cellulose or gum. all except when prevented by sweet fruit juices. dispute about the formula. We however. OB. and particularly deserving of notice in connexion with the Among formation of ferment. mucus.THE GRAPE. GUM. is gum is or vegetable mucus. pectin assist in the so. assumes that gum or vegetable mucus. which contains none. As. but only intimate that more oxygen exists in it than in sugar. Does formation of wine or not ? and. it being unnecessary at present to make 10 a distinction . being insoluble in alcohol. and as nothing has been ascertained with respect to the disappearance of pectin during fermentation therefore atten. tion must be directed to this point before studying fermentation. will not. and the question must be asked. is sufficient to ensure good fermentation in sugar and water. VEGETABLE MTJCTJS. pectin is found in these. ferment easily and strongly. Pectin is not necessary for fermentation. or than is necessary to form water. C pectin which 14 Gum O 19 . for yeast.
stones. analysis. important to a thorough knowledge of wine. It has not been ascertained that gum or vegetable mucus there exists. which consist of cellulose. In the preparation of some wines. are the only matters forming the integuments of the ferment-cells. Alcohol precipitates them with and if juice of our country (Holland). are allowed to ferment. there- fore. As far as our present object concerned. there are only . The existence of one of found mixed with pectin. strong alcohol be added to the grape it will be seen that they are precipitated.40 THE GRAPE. although it is not mentioned in Beltz's imperfect pectin. the skins and and in many cases. that by the development of alcohol in the Nevertheless. and insoluble in alcohol. the stalks too. GRAPE-SKINS. though in small quantity. further on we shall see gum exists in wine. but is no doubt that where one of these bodies is a considerable portion of such integument it. these bodies (gum or mucus) in grape juice cannot be doubted. will mostly be precipitated grape juice. An acquaintance is with all these is. formed by The quantity present will be considerably dimi- nished as the grape juice changes into wine. what may be produced from being cellulose in the formation of ferment.
and of the presence of a larger quantity of acid in the purple than in the white skins. and the colouring matter. quantity of skins. the greater will be the quantity of tannie acid in the wine. in which the skins are allowed to ferment. which is only met with in the skins of the purple grapes. juice. Tannic acid is soluble in alcohol and water. no more tannic acid can be detected in the juice of the purple than in that of the white grape. And for the same good with regard to red wine. When tannic acid is discovered in white wine. by boiling them with water. or salt of oxide of iron. White grape on the contrary. and adding The larger the gelatine. "Wines prepared in this manner lose less The of their colour by age than any others. Any one may convince himself both of the existence of tannic acid in the skins. and the more they are pressed in preparing wine. juice of white grapes allowed to ferment without the skins yields a wine almost entirely free from tannic acid. We shall speak more particularly of this circum- .THE GEAPE. and white skins. 41 two points to be considered with respect to grapethe tannic acid which is found both in purple skins. gives a liqueur-wine which darkens with age. Not the slightest trace of tannic acid is to be found in the juice of either kind of grape. a larger or smaller quantity of which were included holds 'in the fermentation. it proceeds from the skins.
At present we will only observe. all and then in acid.wines. so as to remove tannic a quantity of apothema is obtained from the tannic acid as a brown substance dissolved in am- monia. the only Colouring matter is obtained from grape-skins in the following manner they are well washed in water. that raisins prepared from white grapes cease to be white. stance in treating of liqueur. If the raisin skins are well soaked first in water.42 THE GRAPE. I may here observe. the reason being that atmospheric action has changed the tannic acid contained in the skins into apothema. that the contents of white raisins are less. the precipitate washed. It is not. precipitated : with sugar of lead. and cause of the colour of red wine.wines. liquid ammonia. The other component the colouring is matter which exists in purple grapes. and coloured brown. colour- but (in consequence of a peculiar change in one of the ingredients of grape juice. however. suspended . and become light brown. for if they are softened in water they do not regain their original hue. by the process of drying that the skins acquire a brown colour. called extractive matter) are transformed into a brown substance. We shall speak more particularly of this point in of grape-skins is treating of the colour of liqueur." no longer as they were " originally. a brown substance. then soaked in water and acetic acid. but remain brown.
it to become blue. In unripe grapes. and the action of makes it red. and the residue freed from fat by means of is ether. cold. and it is therefore easily obtained which contains from the skins by means of the juice.THE GBAPE. acids The colouring matter is blue. when the quantity of alcohol is con- tinually on the increase. the sulphide of lead filtered off. the colouring grapes obtained pure. and a still larger quantity can be precipitated from the alcohol by the addition of . it is consequently red. and during the process of fermentation. tartaric acid. this process. sulphuretted hydrogen gas conducted through boiled with water. the liquid then allowed to evaporate.treating of it in detail later. and treated with alcohol and acetic acid. and consequently the wine extracted from the juice and skins is darker also. The skins of very sweet grapes are often black. but this is of no particular importance to the wine. By wine. A The wax sinks when water. The less acid the grapes contain. considerable quantity of white wax may be obtained from grape skins by means of boiling alcohol. and the riper the more the diminution of the acid causes they grow. which are satu- rated with acid. As it matter of the purple is also found in red Colour- we prefer. 43 in water. it. the darker are the skins. ing matter is more easily soluble in alcohol and tartaric acid than in tartaric acid and water.
* f- J Jonrn. Grape-stones. s. Bd. the amount of which R/oy reckons at five and a half million kilogrammes (1 yearly for France alone. 1. s. extracted with warm water after pressure. 42. en masse. oil. 1836. THE STORES. 273. Med. and convinced pressure. in large quantities. Verhandl. 1846. des Coblenzer Gew. p. Janv. which was not removed by the previous pressure. des Wiirteinberg. The stones of grapes are remarkable as containing a considerable quantity both of tannic acid and of a fatty oil.-Vereins. yield a strong solution of tannic acid. de Ch. possessing a specific gravity of 0*950. Landwislhsch. 1835. Hefl. to he obtained 4f per cent. = 2'2 pounds) that this Koy various considers as well suited for food as for burning.44 THE GRAPE. almost insoluble in He alcohol. 3. Correspondengbl. oil is kilo.* Ben- experiments with this oil. 7. Vereins. himself that the oil does not cover one-fifth of the derf of Coblentz tried expense of pressing. and capable of drying very quickly if combined with oxide of lead. By subjecting grape-stones. Linderberger recommends the stones themselves as colouring matter. . oil. Zeiraer J also extracted this oil obtained a greenish-yellow disagreeable to smell and taste.
if But fat is also to be met with in grape juice for. If the stones are fermented with the juice. It is therefore much to be wished that an analysis of this oil in connexion with the fat acids of wine should be undertaken. This oil. after being treated with water they are extracted with ether. obtained by the pressure of grape-stones. In every case in which the stones are allowed to ferment a portion of this oil passes into the wine. . and the sediment be treated with ether. particularly as it is still an open question whether or no the fat acids of wine originate in the fermentation of sugar or not. particularly We shall speak more upon this point in treating of the odo- riferous ingredients of wine. and is coloured green by the admixture of a little chlorophyl. the juice be allowed to evaporate. Others have suggested roasting them and using them instead of coffee. and as fat is found in wine. If. more or less of tannic acid and of this oil will be dissolved . a product of fat is obtained. and their treatment with ether.THE GRAPE. has a spicy smell. In the same way the quantity of fat acids existing . I have not been able to prepare enough of it to examine it thoroughly. the existence of this oil in the stones is of importance. the fatty oil spoken of before is obtained from them. although the actual quantity be insignificant. 45 and they might be so employed.
but not from the juice itself. The other ingredients are of no value to us as regards our special objects. and those wines in stones have been oil which the skins and oleaginous allowed to ferment. it appears to me that the quantity of sufficient to fat existing in these is more than produce the fat acids of wine. contain as a rule more fatty than those obtained from grape juice alone. Tannic acid may therefore be obtained from the skins. are allowed to ferment. The stalks deserve our attention for a moment.46 in wine is THE GRAPE by no means . without asserting that they are yielded entirely by the fat found in the large. stones. This point is of special importance. the addition of a salt of oxide of iron indicates a considerable portion of tannic acid. juice and stones. . like the skins. and especially the stones. They. or stalks. because the fat acids play a principal part in wine. too.STALKS. If treated with water. since they. GE APE. and. have a sharp astringent flavour.
and the kind of grape. Thus the possibility of the future wine being spoiled . and such as are free from admixture with unripe or overripe grapes. know also that the excellence of the wine depends not only on climate. soil. were the vintage more carefully conducted. In countries in which the vintage begins everywhere on the same day. but also on the fostering care bestowed by man upon the vines.THE GKAPE. and the care with which they are gathered and treated. For it cannot be supposed that grapes^ growing in sunny and warm places will ripen at the same time with those which are more exposed to cold. ordinary wines. at least in the case of . 47 ON THE FERMENTATION OF GU1APE JTJICE. The less quality of much home-grown wine might doubt- be improved. which are prepared in large quantities. The excellence of the wine must depend in no small degree on the ripening of the grapes. Those who know the care expended upon the better sorts of grapes (even in the pulling of them). it cannot but be -that a good deal of wine will be prepared from unripe grapes. Great care must be taken during the vintage to keep the decaying grapes from the ripe ones for to pick them over again afterwards is simply impossible. A really well-flavoured wine can only be obtained from ripe grapes.
that fermentation is generally better and more equally developed in large than in small quantities. is prepared from grapes which have been allowed not only to get overextent to dry upon the vines ripe. but to a certain . Tokay wine. The grapes used for the from the vintage. and that the wines most prized by the consumer cannot retain any constant properties. from grapes which have been allowed to dry in the sun. it is generally necessary that the fruit should be ripe enough for the stalks to look brown. for instance. In both cases water is Vin de paille is obtained . that grapes enough should be gathered in one day to fill one or several vats of the same size with their juice. Let me make here two observations. in order to obtain uniform quality. better When the grapes and stalks are all pressed and allowed to ferment together. kinds of wine are picked over again afterwards. though they are sometimes considered indis- pensable in order to increase the quantity of tannic acid. the hard green stalks would spoil the wine. It is well known that the course of fermentation liquid set in fer- depends partly on the quantity of mentation at once.48 dates THE GRAPE. The strength and peculiarity of some wines may be explained by the treatment to which the grapes are subjected before pressing. These are facts which we admit without bestowing any particular attention upon them. It is much to be wished with respect to every kind of wine.
They evaporated the fresh grape juice by exposure to moderate heat. of the juice. and two equivalents alcohol are formed from one equivalent grape sugar. when analysed. from 7 to 15 per cent. This is the method of prepayields a stronger wine. vin de paille. the wine is called vin sec (dry wine) . equivalent and in a 198. We If we reckon is all 13 this as grape-sugar. as a maximum. and during fermentation more alcohol is evaporated than E . 49 evaporated. or boiled wine.ON THE FEEMENTATION OE JUICE. of alcohol by weight. rich in alcoholic contents. of brevity 198 grape sugar gives 92 alcohol. . being more concentrated. But some of the sugar remains undissolved. supposing there to be no loss. when they are dried on straw. and the juice. then hydrated state as alcohol = C H14 O 14 = and therefore equivalent 46. According to this the juice of Prench and Grerman grapes gives. then 198 parts grape sugar . 92 parts of alcohol. When the grapes are allowed to dry on 'the vine. and the juice afterwards yielded a stronger wine. and all the grape sugar to be converted into alcohol. ration which the ancients made use of in order to pro- cure heavy wines. but for the sake we shall consider them as 2 and 1. grapes juice has been evaporated and when the by means of heat. 32) that the saccharine contents of the grapes amount to from 13 to 30 per cent. C4 H 6 O3 = would give. have already seen (p. vin cotti.
alcohol by weight. or rather for the wine to be produced from it. of which more that 20 per cent. sugar in the wine. Sugar is found in all wine. for such grape juice. Let us suppose 20 per cent. the alcoholic contents must be under 15 per cent. alcohol. the composition of such wines leads us to conclude that they were prepared from dried grapes. and from 22 to 24 per cent. therefore. enables The knowledge that 92 parts supposes 198 parts grape sugar in the us to arrive pretty accurately at the saccharine conFor extents originally contained in the grapes. water. 19 per cent. alcohol by weight.50 FEEMENTATION. residue after evaporation. is sugar. sugar must have been contained in the grape juice before the formation of such a wine was possible. as minimum. grape sugar. cent. be . 39 per cent. sugar is necessary to the production of 9 per cent. though in certain kinds but little exists while in Muscadel and others we . if it has not ample. If. sugar or alcohol has not been purposely added. (by weight) been mixed with alcohol must have been produced from grape juice containing 34 per cent. therefore. have 9 per cent. as maximum. a port wine containing 16 per cent. Pew examples are needed to show how close the connexion is between the saccharine contents of the to grape juice and the excellence of the wine prepared from it. and 7 per alcohol in wine prejuice.
if albumen enough to cause fermenthe necessary quantity of sugar were only there. So long as the sugar is pure. often leads at this stage to an attempt to intro- duce foreign elements into the juice. since both yield alcohol. The simplest plan is to add sugar to the juice which is deficient in saccharine matter : common its cane. on account of are cheap- potiit^e-syrup (glucose) to added. Here. or beetroot sugar. much . as well as when the juice is sour. In this manner many kinds of strong wine are made to imitate port wine. and tation. the grapes often yield juice which contains less sugar. It is scarcely necessary to mention that wine with an aroma cannot be obtained in this manner from grapes which have ripened badly. are often employed to obtain a stronger wine from good grape juice. but a considerable portion of acid. for and the in compensate quantities ciency in the juice. and to doctor it. the addition of sugar to grape juice. Eaisins are often used for the inferior German wines. notwithstanding. chemistry is which was wanting in the here at fault. The desire to obtain. sufficient defi- The admixture with sugar cannot afterwards be detected .FERMENTATION. since only that fruit has been added to it. it matters little whether cane sugar or glucose be employed. owing to want of heat and excess of rain. viz. The same means. 51 When the summer has been unfavourable. a serviceable wine.. or ness.
has has been deprived by lime of its free gained relatively by the so-called neutral tartrate of potass. for example. and its free acids are -thus : withdrawn . it is of consequence that the sour grape juice should not contain too much tartaric acid. evaporation in sugar. In this case another are obliged to call remedy is employed. used are these chalk is added to a portion of freshly expressed juice (must). this. and contains the free tartaric acid of the latter combines with the neutral tartrate of potass of the former. in the sense in which alone may be made) adulterawo are now considering it. The por- tion of juice mixed with chalk evaporation. and half the cream of tartar. Now if to this another portion of the original must be added. professes to be grape juice c'^niged bv The means fermentation. allowed to cool. exposed to partial and the precipitate deis In this manner a juice all is obtained which acids. acid. and its saccharine contents are increased by the . and these are geneBesides rally present. and forms a The whole thus becomes less fresh cream of tartar. and nothing more ncr less. the free tartaric acid existing in the juice. for this is not entirely removed by the sugar. posited. though rendered for the most part ineffective as far as taste is con- cerned.52 depends on the presence of a sufficient quantity of the matter necessary to fermentation. for wine. at least up to a certain point. and we both this and the addition of sugar it (with whatever intention tion.
the liquid appears to be in motion. in a climate it generally occurs in from three to four days. as Let us now pass to the consideration of the liquid it flows from the wine-press. 53 addition of that portion which has been exposed to evaporation. can no longer retain in a state of perfect solution various matters which it previously held in that condition. One may however be considered certain after an unfavourable summer. Fermenmoderate tation reaches its highest point with greater or less rapidity according to the temperature . in . and enriched with alcohol to a greater or less degree. the consistency of the liquid decreases. or other of these adulterations quantity. originally watery. not quite clear at first. and now engendered. becomes more turbid. as do also its saccharine contents. but within a few years. When the fermentation is diminishing. and before is completely finished. the whole mass of liquid is it stirred up. and froth is formed on the surface the gas bubbles become larger. the motion of the liquid in. creases. It follows of course that. mentation has begun the juice.FERMENTATION. of these more and more alcohol is the liquid. practice still I till know not whether the exists . Shortly after pressing. and little air bubbles rise to the surface fer. In place . since the loses must necessarily the wine suffers diminution in by evaporation. in order to bring its elements into contact with each other afresh.
precipitate is continually forming and depositing itself at the bottom. 98 F. According to Thenard. who not only stirred up everything. the sediment being left behind. and a fresh . when . and at this it remains for three or four days it then begins to diminish. (and the fermentation the time generally increases again during the next spring. it is transferred into casks in which it can be exported. parts of France the infamous custom (for it ?) many else how a can I designate prevailed of allowing naked man to go into the wine-tub. Five conditions are necessary to the fermentation of wine . and by forming a precipitate at the bottom allows the .54 FEKMENTATION.) and has been drawn from time to time into it other vessels. the three . they After some days the whole mass reaches its highest this way. in order to free from the sediment which has been continually forming. but promoted fermentation by the temperature of his body. wine to become gradually clearer. Fermentation continues. but more quietly and this is called after-fermentation. . several individuals have been killed in atmosphere of carbonic acid in which found themselves proving fatal to them. (37 C. at it is said when the vines blossom. Sugar is constantly being converted into alcohol and carbonic acid. the point of effervescence. After the wine tation for several has undergone this after-fermenmonths. the warmth of the air excites fermentation off again. that is.). The wine is now removed into another vessel.
Not only have some asserted that no air was necessary to the development of fermentation. This experiment and the conclusion drawn from it have been interpreted in various ways. Bd. yet that only so much was required as might serve to initiate the process. broke upon quicksilver them with a metal some them remain in this state quietly for days. and then he saw no signs of fermentation. Dopping and Struve* thought they had ascertained * Erdmann's Journ. which appeared to prove that although air was essential to the promotion of fermentation. the admission of atmospheric air. ATMOSPHEEIC AIR. 41. he afterwards introduced a little air When active bubble. last of 55 which. warmth . the presence of water. 275. and an albuminous matter in a state of actual change and 3. 2. namely. fermentation was at once excited. . which would then be continued and ended without freed from wire.. . let it. must be more particularly considered. and con- tinued without interruption. sugar. He placed grapes all air bubbles. that a free admission of air during fermentation improves the wine.FERMENTATION. viz. Many years ago an experiment was tried by GayLussac. 1. s. but exactly the opposite has been maintained.
and suggests that a large opening should be made in the cask^ in which fermentation takes place. Briefe. Neither before. to the fermentfor ing liquid carbonic both cask filled. if a large wine. during. " in accordance with this advice."* This experiment was made in 1841. in order to prevent the loss of alcohol during fermentation. was any change found in the quality of the wine and yet such must have been the result. where the air is allowed to enter freely. + Liebig. s. That little or no air is necessary to the continuance of fermentation is certain. Liebig recommends the same in the case of wine.outh part of alcohol was lost 2 this But in consequence. quantity of air were necessary to the preparation of After an account of the method of preparing Bavarian beer. scarcely . . without a trace of oxygen. Yon Babo. use. provided with a long pipe. 1851.56 FERMENTATION. In this manner the admission of air was completely cut filled. for it was the custom for many years in France. allowed wine to ferment in casks provided with large openings. by experiment that fermentation might be completed in carbonic acid or hydrogen gas. but they never saw fermentation commence without it. nor after its . with red wine. to cover the wine-coops with a cask lid. wherein the alcoholic vapours were condensed. off. a vine-grower in Baden. 302. Ch. and kept with apparatus has fallen into disuse since G-ay-Lussae proved that when open vats were used. and pipe were speedily acid.
45.* were equally successful. But in other experiments. made with white wine. 36. 59. suffi- covered with a piece of coarse canvas. + Erdmann's Journ. the wine in open casks appeared to lose in aroma doubtless. 57 and was repeated at Johannisberg in 1846 with great success. was cient. Prince Metternich having placed 6 casks. whilst those less rich in during fermentation. The wine which fermented in them was of a better quality than that which underwent the same process in a cask which was closed and only provided with a glass tube for the passage of carbonic acid. and Schubert t in particular attacked * stating Liebig's Ann. An aperture of six square inches. have opposed big. therefore. Prom these experiments we may. saccharine contents may be left in open casks. 360.FERMENTATION. tried by Crasso. while for that put into closed vessels a greater degree of heat is necessary "Wines containing a great deal of sugar may therefore be allowed. this opinion of Lieit. however. Many. much depends on the kind of . Experi- ments of the same kind. Bd. each containing 1200 bottles. Bd. to ferment in closed vessels. at the disposal of the experimenters. that wine placed in open casks requires a lower temperature. however. . s. pro- vided the temperature be low and equable. with advantage. deduce the general principle. wine. s.
t. Every kind of grape juice cannot bear the admission of air in large quantities. The last observation is so it completely the result of appears unnecessary to dwell upon it longer. if the air be excluded. Not having any matter. if the object desired be to increase the quantity of alcohol. air is unnecessary Univ. . practical experience in this I cannot enter more particularly upon it. by the use of the same means. which may render it possible to obtain good wine. 168. and experiments by proved that a large admission of * Bibl. The admission of a large quantity of air is not only unnecessary but injurious. If any one should still maintain that every kind of grape juice can bear the admission of large experience. These three conclusions generally admitted. had obtained . that large quantities. yielded good wine ? The two former results are deduced principally from which De Saussure * tried. we would only ask. if I do not mistake. placed in air in closed vessels. xxxii. FEKMEtfTATION. or at least circumstances may occur. If wine of another quality is wished. vats fail. while the very same grape juice. Why. this may be obtained by regulating the quantity of air admitted during fermentation. very unfavourable results Liebig defended himself. and maintained that the experiments had been badly tried. But something appears to me to have been overlooked. are. did experiments tried with grape juice in open then. p.58 that he.
Except. freed every now and during then from the gaseous contents present in it. the object of which was to condense into water the alcohol escaping with carbonic acid . that it is injurious. was screwed upon it. 59 I and injurious to the production of a large quantity of I alcohol. an equal quantity of the same was put into a bottle filled with air. This result again intimates that cessary. At the same time. air. capable of containing I I I 44 litres (77^ pints). much air is unne- and even injurious to the production of That it is unnecessary. and a globe filled (must I This globe was. for the minimum quan- tity of air which the liquid might have absorbed during [ pressing. and a I globe. be regarded as possessing an excess of At the end of four weeks the liquids were distilled. This liquid might. the two following days. therefore. and bur- with nished with fresh air.FEEMENTAT101ST . I into a flask from which air 375 grammes (5787'7 grains) of must were put had been expelled. air was screwed upon it. it might be looked upon as fermenting in I a space devoid of air. was sufficiently proved by the large experience obtained from the fermentations in Gervais's apparatus (vats covered with loose lids). alcohol. when the quantity of alcohol found in the flask devoid of air was four times as great as in that filled with air. is proved by the acids which a . out of which also the air had been pumped. therefore.
as opposed to that common among And it is my conviction that Liebig's opinion us. experiment The reaction of the must was acid before the experi- by De ment. render it impossible that under favourable circumstances certain kinds of grapes might produce a better flavoured wine. monia. however. from 5 to 6 grammes (77 to 92 grains). ought not to have been so severely attacked as it has This been. . That is to say. it Now. Though on the ferent. that is six times as much. grains) of ammonia were necessary to saturate the acid in 375 grammes (5787*7 grains) of must. the freer admission of air caused the formation of acetic acid in the same proportion in which alcohol disappeared from the liquid. narrated above. which had fermented without tralize its in order to neu- acidity. the large scale the result might be difexperiment teaches sufficiently that but very little air is required for the preparation of wine. large admission of air engenders from the wine. These inferences do not. is clear from the method used in the preparation of Bavarian beer. 0*76 grammes (11'7 grains) ambut to that which had fermented in the air. The acid was acetic acid. after the experiment was necessary to add to the juice air. An Saussure has proved this also. so that 0'81 grammes (12*5.60 FERMENTATION. if during fermentation a certain portion of air were admitted. The action of the oxygen in the air changes the alcohol into acetic acid.
and done their best to produce good wine. The grapes of each country ripened under different degrees of summer warmth. in order to invesignorant tigate thoroughly the influence of temperature upon a good. but the boundary is very narrow which limits good and active fermentation in every kind of wine. but various is the heat in autumn. however.FERMENTATION. climate. unnecessary here to mention the degrees. 61 TEMPEEATUEE. necessary. But we are we know quite ignorant upon these points. and many other circumstances have concurred. still is. that soil. unless during the whole process of fermentation a sufficiently high temperature can be maintained. the result may still be a failure. that a high temperature during . There is a wide interval between the extremes of temperature in which fermentation is possible. which should not spoil with age. and very un- equally rich in constituents. require different tempe- ratures during fermentation. well-tasted wine. Supposing. the kind of grape. during which An time wine is prepared in different countries It is how very ! acquaintance with is. many details of which we are still however. and different temperatures are also required for grapes which are the product of a All warmer or colder summer.
H 12 13 O 12 . . which are ceeds The substances from which the both easily convertible. and notwithstanding the escape of carbonic acid. FERMEKT. H O O8 active force proare albumen and vegetable gluten. the heat of the liquid exceeds that of the air.62 FEBMENTATION. and detrimental to it. some of them in the form of gases. a low one is autumn promotes fermentation. Fermentation is a term used to express that chemical change. Grape and the active fruit sugar are the materials upon which are forces in . taking place in an organic substance. both sugars have the same compoand can be alike converted into alcohol and carbonic acid. 4. and not unfrequently spoils the wine altogether. 2. can arise. It has further been ascertained that in consequence "of the chemical action. Carbonic C 12 C8 Acid C 4 . . and which transfer the che- . that is during fermentation inequality of temperature extremely injurious. Equivalent Sugar Alcohol . which is capable of being transferred to another organic body from which various products. the fermentation of wine brought to bear sition. 1.
s. 51. and others. p. Lehrbuch der Chemie. + Scheik. The analysis of ferment teaches us that about it half of ters. et de Phys.* I may here observe. xxviii. Bd. The treatises of the two last named appear in the Ann. reckoned in a dry state. de Pharm. ii. that some years since an examination of ferment and fermentation enabled me to obtain some general results. and Schlossberger. There is a fixed relation between the of alcohol produced (a sufficiency of sugar quantity being pre-supposed). deel. 409. and the quantity of albuminous matters capable of undergoing change which sets up fermentation. 193. Par- mentia. Fontenelle. According to Thenard. Sept. and in the Journ. Colier. the substance of they relate to this matter.FERMENTATION. Le Gentil. Mourgues. Dandale. Aster. and torn.|| in so far as Ferment * consists of cells. J || Versuch einer Chemischen Statistik. 1823. 437. . consists more or less of albuminous mat- and therefore f parts albumen are required in order to convert 100 parts sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid. "We must address ourselves more particularly to the examination of ferment. 370. Herpin. de Ch. 63 mical change in their constituents to the constituents of the sugar. and especially upon the fermentation of wine. which Fabroni. p. 100 parts of sugar require 1 parts ferment. s. Liebig's Annalen. xxv. p. 128. s. Gervais. 4 Aufl. but also with regard to the constituents of wine. 88.Cbaptal. p. torn. J Mitscherlich.f which agree with those given by Dumas. not only on account of its connexion with the preparation of wine. have written upon fermentation. Onderz. Bertholon. 133. in few words.
ferment will be formed when fer- mentation occurs. or vegetable mucus. 23-8 Albumen and gluten have the same The cell-walk c . ment. . Fermentation. and of the following composition : C. and table mucus. 15-8 . (be vegetable . and by carbonate of ammonia.t of cellulose. K O. Then after having been treated with alcohol. continues during Ferthe formation and decomposition of ferment. 53-4 7-0 H. may K also. are the matters which cause fermentaof Ferment belongs is to the albuminous class substances. which means here the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid. the contents of the cells are obtained free from ash.iisi.FERMENTATION. but are not enclosed in cells. everywhere produced from vege- extracted from precipitated The albuminous substance of the ferment may be it by means of strong acetic acid. the contents of these cells tion. 10 O 10 from gum. mentation is in the first instance the consequence of it the conversion of albuminous matter. are produced . cause sugar to ferIf gum or vegetable mucus and air are present at the same time. . rind composition.. S. itself takes no part in the action . C 13 Other bodies which belong to the order of albuminous substances. under certain modifications.
This body may be procured from ferments either by boiling them. cells into a The transformation of the contents of the ferment body rich in oxygen. The highly oxygenated substance. and contains far more oxygen than the substance out of which it is formed. or both. the transformation proceeds to the formation of ammonia. and trans- fer this chemical action directly to the sugar. * The primary cause of the motion of the molecule is probably that the phosphorus of the albuminous group is oxydized. 65 mucus.FERMENTATION. absorb oxygen from the air. insoluble in alcohol. forming phosphoric acid. the formation of which sets up fermentation. is not. It is insoluble in alcohol. the only change which occurs during fermentation. or vegetable albumen. however. F . into which albumen and gluten may also pass. is is either decomposed by the alcohol which this body which is dis- solved when ferment is treated with cold water. it or precipitated from the liquid is subsequently formed . The quantity of oxygen found in this matter is to the oxygen in the substance out of which it is formed nearly as 3:2. The formation of this matter is one of the chief as sugar causes of fermentation.) into a body which is soluble in water.* As soon comes in contact with yeast. the albuminous contents of the ferment cells exude through the partitions of the ferment cells. or simply washing them with cold water.
and forms insoluble is cells The cells. On this account the globules of ferment are well their adapted to the engendering of fermentation . or vegetable mucus. however. cannot be* changed into soluble bodies rich in oxygen. or albumen. the liquid or freely admitted to does not furnish . and thus become capable of further decomposition. the result of one The gum or vegetable mucus cellulose. new two operations. and engender ferment. which are insoluble. contents of the ferment "Without absorption of oxygen the albuminous cells. Ferment cells are not necessary to fermentation. the sufficiently warm tempera- highly oxygenated matter. vegetable gluten. is thus changed into in water. "When the air. necessary. enclosed in the and retains the chemical capability peculiar to of taking up oxygen. it. Very little oxygen is. since two for fermentation threeparts sugar scarcely require of albuminous matter in a state of oxidafourth part tion. It is however necessary that the action of vegetable acids should keep the ferment acid. Vegetable gluten and vegetable albumen. contents have only to exude through the walls of the cells in order to give the sugar an impulse to decomposition. only their contents are requisite. and at the same time set up fermentation .66 FEBMENTATIOtf. cause. which has either been dissolved in it. form when brought into contact in a ture. with sugar and gum.
this oxygen. p. and by so doing decomposes sugar hence the substance extracted from ferment by cold water is capable of producing fermentation. which for the sake of brevity we call extract of ferment. 168. vol. 67 it seems that the sugar supplies it. in consequence of which ammonia is formed. 461. as phosphate of ammonia and magmusfc therefore assume that the albunesia. p. Ann. As rests this representation of the operation of ferment tions upon experiment. We minous contents of the ferment cells is a conti- nually decomposing body. certain important examinamade by C. Lxi. and may be obtained from the liquid after fermentation by means of sulphate of magnesia and phosphate of soda. up more oxygen. is the result.FEBMENTATION.und. ii. and insoluble in alcohol. constitutes one-fourth of the substance which exists in the cells.) fusel oil. which during the process of decomposition furnishes ammonia and other by-pro* Scheik. der Ch. the Odoriferous Constituents of Wine. and is capable of taking . Pharm. The soluble substance rich in oxygen formed from albuminous bodies. t Onderz. but that this matter when once formed is subject to further decomposition.* This may un- dergo further transformation. and (See containing little oxygen. . Schmidt are of great value to us in completing it.f He has proved that the change undergone by the albuminous contents of the ferment cells is not limited to the formation of a highly oxygenated matter soluble in water. deel.
carbonic acid and water decomposition of this albuminous is not to certain of this. O098 ammonia and magnesia was obtained from related above : in the manner in another experiment. If. body into ammonia. of beer yeast had fer(46'3 grains) of sugar for (1*51 grains) phosphate of it mented with 3 grammes eight days. A complete for. may fairly grains) nitrogen. ammonia during the In the albuminous substance of the contents of find J. of beer quainted with the decomposition. grains) nitrogen escaped from these quantities of eight days' yeast in the form of fermentation. be looked We know nothing more though we readily are well aware that albuminous matters ammonia. the albuminous substance In eight days 0-012 (018 grains) escaped. in which urea was present (without. nitrogen so that we reckon in 0'410 (6*3 grains) yeast. more than half of which consists of albumen. as dry sedi- ment. was entirely freed . FERMENTATION". 0'032 (0'49 the cells we . our purpose to know the result just After this 5 c. c. yeast left after being washed with water. but mentioned. they are gently warmed with an alkali. sufficient for Had it not been washed. yield Schmidt's experiments make us thoroughly ac5 c. therefore.5'8 per cent. being decomposed) the So that O012 (O18 result was O103 (1*59 grains). it is a larger sediment would have been obtained. however. 0'410 (6'3 grains). c.68 ducts. if. for example.
it 69 follows that one-eighth of the contents of the cells underwent complete decomposition. gave a dry residue of O410 (6'3 grains) . carbonic acid. the same quantity of ferment. he found the ferment (considered to be dry) increased in weight. and the progress of the same process in other bodies gives rise to other nitrogenous substances. This last had gave a dry residue of O628 (9'7 grains) . The ferment gained remaining after fermentation is cellulose. it had lost in by cells is lost to the sugar (out of which it is formed) as . consider albuminous as certain that during fermentation the matter was completely resolved into ammonia. By the putrifying of caseine. leucine formed. c. and yet had in weight. from nitrogen in the form of ammonia. yielded O012 (O1S grains) nitrogen in the form of am- monia albuminous contents. is and water. we are almost entirely ignorant. I may here just notice one observation of Schmidt's. into which sugar has been converted. which can only be accounted for by the conversion of sugar into lulose. especially with regard to wine. for as far as these matters are concerned. That which is gained as cellulose the ferment .FEEMENTATION. sults of the decomposition of During fermentation. cel- 5 c. of beer ferment. however. washed with water and dried. after fermenting during eight days with 3 grammes (46'3 grains) of sugar. it "We cannot. An investigation which should follow out the re- ferment during the fermentation of sugar would be of the greatest value.
fermentation will be produced again in this liquid. filtered. If such ferment as remain on the filter be again allowed to stand. For they are put in this state into a solution of sugar at too low a temperature to develope fermentation. and sugar added. deel. from which such extract is prepared. cells may be deof the greater part of their protein compound. and mixed with fermentation will begin. and filtered. insoluble in water. into sugar Scheik. is too in- be considered of any practical importance. made by me nine years ago. mixed with water. repetition of this experiment.70 FERMENTATION. significant to But the quantity cells. prived At last a body remains. and the liquid filtered after standing some hours. then much the liquid so obtained will possess a greater power of fermentation than the simple watery extract. Onderz.* If ferment be mixed with water. which. . if after being thus washed. and By a nearly devoid of nitrogen. and a watery extract of ferment can never decompose as much sugar as the ferment itself. still retains a large portion of a protein compound in the cells. sugar. That the walls of the lose. * when put p. ii. The ferment. 429. By the repetition of this experiment the capability of the filtered liquid to engender fermenta- tion is continually diminished. be clearly proved by the following experiments. which consist of will cellu- have no effect on the fermentation. regards the fermentation.
71 and water. some years since. that (tartaric lactic. motion. and in a form which was announced as new. " A body very easily communicate this condition to another body in which it has in the act of decomposition may not begun. Solution of sugar is much more efficacious than water alone in extracting the protein compound enclosed in the cells. produces scarcely any fermentation. and with it the decomposition of the sugar."* is still in a state of repose. which ternal motion.FERMENTATION. p. may easily bring another body. in it dissolving the albuminous cells matter. Frankf." Stahl says. may add to this that sugar appears to excite the ferment to the absorption of oxygen. Stahl has expressed himself with regard to the principle of fermentation very clearly. Indeed. Lastly. The strong endosmotic properties of sugar are well known. in which internal movement has already commenced. We Further. in reference to this. and all that which. in extracting from the and introducing it into the liquid. but disposed to motion. although during the absorption its decomposition is carried on. such a body. into the same condition of in- The honour of having laid down the fundamental principle of fermentation. or some other organic assists acid acid in wine). 304. . is promoted. taken * Zymotechnia Fundamental. 1734. by means of which its own oxidation. and ascribed to Liebig he calls it " the molecule in .
Schmidt mentions that gluten. as the word movement is to express the outstretching of the hand of friendship. and movement is as ill fitted to convey a correct is idea of what intended.72 in connexion with FEBMENTATIOtf. it. This fact trefaction would progress were it not for the sugar. in and which. not passive. in an advanced stage of if put into a solution of 1 part sugar 4 parts of water. the history of spirits of wine. decomposition. before we proceed to develope. or the drawing the sword of destruction. will first apply these general results to the fermentation of grapes. annuls it. and sets up fermentation. belongs to Stahl. if distilled. Vegetable albumen and mucilage are found in the . or ferment. renders the whole subject so much more clearly intelligible. That these substances are coupled compounds of sugar is beyond doubt. it us that sugar reverses the action of putreteaches Pufaction. furnishes alcohol. sugar yeast is Just so in the case of fresh ferment. We in detail. and yields a liquid of an agreeable odour. is of importance on two accounts. "We learn further that active. Here also sugar is converted into ferment cellulose. meat. are formed from putrid gluten or putrid cells meat. who first and distinctly enunciated the word But the movement of the molecule is peculiar. loses in a few hours all signs of putrefaction. though both are actually movements of the hand. fer- which decides the movement of the molecule to mentation. it.
which attains its highest point in 10. indeed. What this sediment is. And if ferment be once formed may be decomposed at a later period. nor is this. we shall mention . and fermentation kept up. is the period during which the decomposition of vegetable albumen and mucus. but it after No is fer- found The formation dates from the of fermentation. walls of the cells. The decomposition of yeast depends principally upon the chemical change of the albuminous matter which was formerly contained in the yeast cells. days . ment can be detected in grape juice. the formation of ferment and the emptying of ferment cells takes place that is. the exudation of the albuminous contents through the . its decomposition its principal characteristic. for this latter process does not consist merely in the emptying of the yeast cells.FERMENTATION. 73 and should these be brought into a state of transformation. During the after-fermentation a great deal of sediment is formed from the wine. by contact with air. and continues several commencement fermentation. extends over a period of months. tation may therefore be induced in it it. they not only ferment. 12. palp of grapes. and fermensugar are also found in grape juice. but excite the formation of alcohol But gum and and carbonic acid from the sugar. but this contains no ferment. or 14 days. The after-fermentation is the period during which these albuminous contents de- compose. The active fermentation of grape juice.
of the transprimary formation of vegetable mucus. sugar and vegetable gluten are mixed (p. with the crushed cell. is juice. and the torn cell.walls.walls of the pulp. 55) Dopping are decisive. why did not fermentation take place within the grape itself? It is true that both Fabroni and 'Easpail have inti- mated that albumen and sugar occupy tions in the grape. then. the conclusions and Struve from their experiments (p. Fermentation and its development are undoubtedly promoted by the admixture of the contents of the cells . promotes the solution of the solid vegetable albumen of the cell. whilst in the fruit the juice was protected by a covering saturated with wax. The grape prepared. consisting of the pulp of the grapes. 37). from which every kind of wine is by no means clear as water. must not be confounded with Atmospheric air first comes in contact with the grapes at the time of pressing. the con- tents of the pulp cells. that is. The admixture of the grape juice. recognise in the contact with air the cause of fermentation. but a turbid liquid. it FEKMESTTATIOtf. which is well provided with free tartaric acid. only ferment. different posi- But this only holds good of the of the albumen found in a grape cells (p. We mucus and sugar were present in the juice of the same grape. and rightly for the . 35).74 by-and-by.walls. solid state in the walls In the juice. drawn by If.
that is free tartaric acid exists in every kind of grape juice (the re-action of which therefore always acid. completely exclude the air. little air is then we necessary to cause fermentawillingly accept these statements by which they assert that no good formation of ferment takes place without larger admission of air. very tion. Dopping and Struve thought they saw ferment originate in carbonic acid or hydrogen gas. is whilst the ferment in process of formation. perhaps. albumen in the torn walls. and. a portion of one two serving to engender fermentation. rich as they are in albuminous matter. and that free tartaric acid is capable of dissolving solid albu- minous bodies (p. If of we call to mind the very considerable quantity solid state in the walls of those is albumen found in a cells in which the juice enclosed (p. are found in the juice. which ferment of the last These four together are the material out of cells are constructed. .FERMENTATION. but to the formation of good ferment a well-regulated admission of air is necesIn the same way. as to think they did not. 35). and remember. further. though but little oxygen is sary. gum. we shall be able to form an idea of the advantage derived from mixing a liquid containing acid with the torn walls of the cells of the grape pulp. and vegetable mucus. according to G-ayLussac. 75 with the torn walls of the pulp. A little air may occasion fermentation. even though the excess of sugar gives it a sweet taste). Sugar. if we only so far throw doubt on the results obtained by them. 36) .
. s. Ann.76 FERMENTATION. Schmidt's experiments. aforementioned points fermentation begins in consequence of the change induced in vegetable gluten or al- bumen. and Schmidt. What. will take place in freshly pressed grape We may assume. Striive. the two . began to ferment at the end of four hours. is necessary to excite fermentation. und Pharm. s. tation Fermen- may therefore exist before the formation and during the decomposition of ferment. and fermentation is maintained by means of its decomposition. which had been filtered. fur Prakt. prior to the presence of ferment in consequence of the addition of ferment. 241. 61. Bd. der Ch. the latter we learn from seeing fermentation brought about in a solution of sugar.t results Wagner * t Journ. 45. by means of a little oxygen. a larger quantity needed in order to ensure the formation of ferment. teach us the first fact. juice ? then. and hardly has it begun before the formation of ferment commences. Bd. 168. and those which are recorded (p. Chemie. denies altogether the accuracy of the obtained by Dopping. Schmidt observed that a solution of grape sugar. and at the end of eight hours the fer- mentation was very perceptible.* But there are here two points which must be kept Fermentation may exist and it may be set up . under the influence of a solution of emulsin. 68). distinct from one another. without hesitation. whilst cells could not be observed till the expiration of 36 to 48 hours. by the addition of ferment.
Erdraann's Journ. 244. muriatic. . It be affirmed that this opinion respecting the action of ferment has always been admitted. Journ. such as Schwann. and Bd.t Quevenne. de Pharm. 429. J Journ. xxi. s. || L'Institut. and and tarfcaric acid materially assist the formation of ferment.* No more ter. Perhaps nothing in science has been so variously represented as the theory of fermentation . as details are necessary concerning this mat- these appear to cannot. f. der Pharm. de Pharm. with one word the promulgators of the opinion that fermentation is We an operation caused by a plant in process of formation (even supposing that plant to consist of a single cell. nitric acid retards this process. affix themselves independently). 31. 284. to which other cells may. 1835. may dismiss following as shortly as possible. t Pogg. Brendecke (Archiv. 93. t. de Ch. 10. 1836.|| Cagniard la Tour. indeed. 169. 90.J Kiitzing. p. cells begin simultaphosphoric. 1841. Turpin. Bd.FERMENTATION.^[ They have the merit of having describe^! and drawn attention to the cellular nature of well- * See also Helmholz. at a later period. lactic. Journ.) Dubrunfaut. s. 1841. xLi. the most extravagant ideas have been repeatedly formed concerning it. Bd. t. Ann. . 133. He observed that acetic. An. 41. Ann. Bd. Chemie. Prakt. et de Phys. and each was grounded upon We will notice the observation and experiment. 77 and maintains that he has observed that fermentation and the formation of ferment neously. s. me conclusive. s. p. 1838. whilst the presence of sulphuric.
the oxidation of the fermenting LiidersdorfFs experiment and its negative result only serve to establish the assertion laid down (p. 64). are incapable of by proving that the being rubbed in water for producing fermentation. . stances verging on putrefaction it is of a tube shape. That fermentation quality of these cells to show. by adding sulphate of magnesia and phosphate of soda to the liquid. Bd.* observed. and Blondeau can only have seen it in ferment which had been spoiled. The ter first is are the genuine globules of ferment. was still of opinion that fermentation preceded the formation of ferment plants. 61. s. and that it was developed step by step with them. in asserting that fermentation was a necessary condition of the origin or formation of such cells.78 FERMENTATION. 67. such as may be seen in other sub. " that the cause of fermentation is to be found in the oxidation or decomposition of the contents of the ferment cells." Schmidt found in a single gramme (15'4 grs. Two beer. is very much determined by cells the was what Liidersdorff attempted of ferment. s. Blondeau. in 1847. Bd. But they went too far. the lata white film. 409. and collect* Fogg's Ann. formed ferment. with ramifications.) of ferment (after it had been in contact with water for six hours).f that so facilitate But Schmidt has friction rightly much would considerably matter. 171. kinds of these plants are found in the yeast of Torvula ceremsicB and Penicillium Glaucum. after six hours. t Liebig's Ann.
on the contrary. decomposed ferment- ing matters in the ferment but there is also another substance contained in it. general rule on the cellular structure of Schubert. 67. s. t Ibid. Liidersdorff thought he had observed that ferment ceased to operate if its particles were subjected to friction. There are. s. 157 and 542.) phosphate of ammonia and magnesia. therefore. He ascribes its operation solely to the peculiar capacity possessed by ferment of absorbing gas. and others. he really perceived a fermentation of sugar.). 69. Schubert* instituted a variety of investigations upon the subject of fermentation. that the action of the ferment depended as a its parts. .FERMENTATION. and in a gramme of ferment. 0*056 (0'86 grs. 197. which had been rubbed in water for six hours. Bd. which must serve as critical reviews of those earlier ones undertaken by Liidersdorff t and others. s. and this only requires to come in contact with the air in order to be resolved into ammonia. Bd. which is still decomposing. attempted to prove that even vegetable particles are unnecessary to fermentation. According to Rousseau. He was led to make these experiments by the follow- ing statements. Bd. ing the deposit. . and he thought that when he substituted other bodies possessing the same capability in an equal degree. 408. whose opinion * is confirmed Fogg's Ann. 77. 79 O013 (0*2 grs. and believed with Cagniard la Tour.
ferment. and common are prejudicial. stone. Schubert having multiplied these experiments. of grape sugar causes active fermentation. and starch. found that not only grape. The co-operation of a vegetable act without it. even when they are present in the shape of powder. is by no means necessary to fermentation. pumice leaf. such as charcoal. in order effectually to promote fermentation. and carried straw. oxide of iron. The but operation is more tardy than in the case of ferment. The same effect may be produced by platinum black.80 FEBMEISTTATION. and of at one acid. acid vegetable salts do very materially assist fermentation. in the space of a few days. Brendecke had observed that the addition and the same time of monia. asbestos. fresh precipitated alumina. paper. silverflower of brimstone. Nevertheless. Not- . the formation of ferment simultaneously with the commencement of fermentation. as the other substances named above can Spongy platinum. tartrate. According to Schubert. caused fermentation clay. or citrate of am- a porous body. burnt and pectin. but cane sugar was decomposed in the same way. it does not fail. pumice-stone. whilst other salt. and according to him the salts remain unchanged. and cream of tartar such as metallic is very useful. acid Schubert found unnecessary. asbestos or goldleaf (?) to solution them out in detail. by Colin and Thenard. must be acidified "by means of a vegetable acid. salts.
Eose explains at length why fermentation is promoted by certain organic acids. p. he thought that the nitroge- nous constituents of the ferment were chemically decomposed. with difficulty fer- and yet it must escape before mentation can begin. scarcely differs from that here given. Tartaric acid dissolves it easily. If a little tartar is added it quickly sets the cane sugar in fermentation. taken as a whole." and his view of fermentation. I may just observe. Eose made use The albuminous is substance enclosed in the cellules soluble in water. lii. not in the formation. and sulphuric acid not at all. Pogg. Ann. withstanding this. and the decomposition transferred to the sugar by the application of the ferment.* tion to the fact. Eose * also found that sulphuric acid and vol. larger quantity of ferment and that a much is required to produce fermentation in the former than in the latter. but in the solution of ferment. H.FEEMEOTATIOK. that fermentation He is draws atten- a much slower process in cane than in grape sugar. It may be as well not to admit that fermentation can be brought about by means of spongy platinum. diluted acetic acid with less ease. 1841. 81 when he saw fermentation begin " in quite another way. 297. that I do not lay much weight on many of Schubert's early results. or oxide of iron. inasmuch as both seek the cause of fermentation. of beer ferment treated with water. G . The reason of this is very clear.
82 acetic acid taric acid. 1838. taining a great deal of sugar. we have the investigations of Bouchardat. did not produce the same effect as tar- from the grape fermentation. as well as beer. what from want of knowledge in this matter I formerly left undetermined. Bd. and the manner in which it is formed. teach us. an observation which coincides with Quevenne's.* The diameter of the globules of wine ferment was found by Quevenne not to exceed from ?fo to T io millimeter (0'039-inch). 14. that wine. assume a beautiful violet colour (this being a characteristic of albuminous bodies) * . which contain a than in that of perfectly ripe grapes considerable quantity of free malic acid (Schwarz) and wines con. 346. less free acid. which though by no means complete. He observed that their con- hydrochloric acid. ferment more slowly than those in which the proportion of sugar is smaller. we may turn our attention directly to wine ferment. and therefore. of which only the contents are active . fermentation taric acid in is These results agree entirely with those obtained It was long known that promoted by a copious supply of targrape juice. as a rule. ferment consists of cells. PEEMENTATION. tents. . And first. when acted upon by and he also remarked that the Erdmann's Journ. After these general observations upon ferment and fermentation. s. Fermentation is more rapid in the juice of not very ripe grapes.
p. the ferment put an end to fermentation. was completed at the end of 40 hours.) to 12 (53 6'F. 1120. Put into sugar and water at a temperature of from 10 (50 F. and the slow fermentation. torn.) of water. Eerment of wine is designated by Bouchardat* " ferment noir. begun by means of the black ferment. The mixture was divided into two equal portions. The globules are mostly homogenous." He obtained from white wine. in a temperature of 25 C. and to one-half was added.) of tannic acid.). ferment consisting of round particles. however. In the other half of the liquid not a trace of alcohol could be detected. Quevenne was not. But how can tannic acid. According . alcohol was found in the fermented liquid. 10 grammes (154 grs. 77 P. xviii.FERMENTATION. which * Compt. acquainted with the properties of ferment. The white of 4 eggs and 1 kilogramme (2*2 pounds) of sugar were dissolved in 7 pints (4 litres) of water. characterised by a black spot. 83 globules (of ferment) retained their form even under the influence of potash. . perfectly round. which had been carried on during a period of six months and more than 17 per cent. and have a diameter of from aib to aio millimeter. Rend. A copious precipitate was formed.. to Bouchardat tannic acid exercises a considerable influence upon fermentation. dissolved in 100 grammes (1543 grs. which contained nroo of muriatic acid.
All which bodies have either already been found or might be discovered in beer ferment. "Wine ferment resi- washed with water. brown resin. exactly agrees with the residue of beer ferment. tartrate of lime and mag- nesia. And according to Walz. acid phosphate of lime and of soda. now Walz found exactly. acetic acid. property of precipitating albuminous substances. a liquid phosphoric fat. left a due of cellulose. I should pass over in silence. being perfectly valueless. lactic acid. oxide of iron and some alumina.* that wine and beer ferment correspond He detected in them fat of a greenish colour. promote fermentation ? Among the constituents of wine ferment. address myself to Walz's Analyses. were it not that their apparent accuracy is calculated I to mislead and give rise to grave mistakes. this. which. a solid fat. lactate of lime and lactate of soda.84 possesses the FERMENTATION. He gives their chemical composition in the following manner : . after the cells were emptied. besides albuminous matter of easy solubility in gypsum. Bouchardat reckons an albuminous substance. acetic acid and potash.
having convinced myself I am right) because it was made with the pen and not with the ferment. 6'6 N. II. : With potash. 55-5 55-5 7'5 H. Quite another Wine ferment. III. He finds the acetic acid. precipitated with acetic acid . Different kinds of ferment. Walz. I. 49-4 I. 85 I. precipitated with potash and II. or exactly correspond to one another .FERMENTATION. Schlossberger. O. He divides his confidence between Schlossberger and me. The next point is of more importance. In the first place. C. Mulder. With acetic acid. in the carbon and hydrogen of the cellulose ferment. not only because the whole analysis appears to me suspicious. The following numbers were obtained. 14-0 23-0 14-0 14-0 16-0 23-0 23-0 22'6 Wine ferment burnt as such. from the extract of wine ferment in acetic acid. yielded Walz. 49'6 6'6 51-9 7'2 51-3 7-0 9'5 5O9 7-0 8-5 H. from the potash extract. 10-5 0. although every one . two substances treated with potash. 55-5 7-5 Mulder. 7-5 N. but also (I venture to assert it. 54'4 7'0 C. 33-5 11-1 10-4 29-8 32-2 33'6 33'4 I have used round numbers throughout. II. he exactly splits the difference between Schlossberger' s numbers and mine.
"Walz professes to have found. aware that when treated with potash. t. xlvi. of sacks filled with the same example. and ^the same amount of hydrogen. in order to saturate the acids.86 is FEKMENTATION. Should 25 different kinds of ferment be just as the contents article. analysed. 69. . for some difference would be detected in each. although a considerable quantity of albuminous matter must in every case be found in fer- ment ment as a whole. Fer- ment consists of cells and their contents. Eut I these numbers. in two different kinds of ferment. the nitrogenous contents are diminished. would not necessarily be will not detain the reader longer with alike. He treated a sediment obtained from wine with carbonate of potash or soda. each formed of a totally different substance. Eut it obtained by Schlossberger and by was convenient to him in this instance to copy only Schlossberger' s numbers. ferment. burnt as such. the same contents. and found that a large portion of the actual fermenting matter was thereby dissolved. made some few years since. Eraconnot's* analyses of wine ferment. which is also shown in the different results me. with that in fer- exactly corresponding in quantity cellulose. hydrogen. should have a composition of its own. and this albumen has 7 per cent. well deserve to be more particularly mentioned. But what follows is still worse . money. p. * Annales de Chimie.
which had not lost the power of coagulation. 1845. 22'6 9' 7 The principal * components found in the ashes of ferth." 7'51 the "under ferment.. He filtered it. 231. Ph 05 . 2 Mg O. . he gives Upper ferment. principal points are of use to us.5 16'8 2'3 Phosphoric acid Potash 39'5 28'3 Phosphate of Magnesia. and when saturated it with alkali the solution was sticky. The uncoagulated ferment caused speedy and active fermentation in a solution of sugar. iii. 2 Ca O. but after it was so treated acid dissolved this was no longer so. 87 with acetic acid. Under ferment. Ph 05 Phosphate of Lime. s. He found that the substance. before was heated in water. and at the same time collecting the volatile products. 41/8 39. and coagulated by boiling in water.FERMENTATION. supported on platinum. in a glass tube under a stream of oxygen. was soluble in lime water. and precipitated it by which means he obtained one of the constituents of ferment in the form of an albuminous substance. Tartaric substance easily." obtained by burning upon silver. The constituents of the ashes of ferment have been * but as the analysed by Mitscherlich special of investigation was beer ferment. cent. only the object . He found 7 '65 per 7'61 in ashes in the "upper ferment. rendered it the water limpid. Erdmann's Journ. The precipitate obtained by acetic acid from the alkaline solution.
and when brought into contact with sugar. Prom what wine ferment. Both possess albuminous contents.88 FERMENTATION. and enclosed in the cells. and peculiarly so in tartaric acid. more so in vegetable So much of acids. for both consist of which are formed out of gum. has been said about the composition of it is sufficiently evident that it does not essentially differ membranous cells from beer ferment. cause it to ferment . or vegetable mucilage. But during the decomposition of ferment. . which exude through the walls of the cells. The formation of ferment diminishes the gum or vegetable mucus in the grape juice. phosphate of magnesia. in which state cells. vegetable gluten and vegetable albumen (substances contained in the grape pulps) are withdrawn from the juice. these contents are soluble in water. and phos- phate of lime. less of its ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONSTITUENTS OF GRAPE JUICE AND THOSE OF WINE. the ferment In this manner it composes the walls of and the juice becomes turbid. and renders it insoluble. the albuminous substance as is soluble is decomposed products during fermentation. CONSIDERED IN CONNEXION WITH FERMENTATION. neutral phosphate of potash. ment are therefore acid phosphate of potash. and more or must be contained in the liquid.
then those substances decrease which are insoluble in common water. their albuminous contents tion. during fer- because the phosphate. sulphate. produced from the sugar contained in to the power of the liquid hold different substances in solution undergoes a great change. The continual increase of the quantity of alcohol in the liquid causes the precipitation of sulphate of potash and tartrate of magnesia. and the cellulose and sugar be carbonic acid. but fine state which can be held in suspension when in a of division . in a soluble form. . and lactate of lime. The in result of this process liquid. There is a diminution first in the mucilaginous and saccharine contents of the juice. this result we ascribe to the foris But as soon as alcohol it. phosphate. the gum serves for the resolved into alcohol and liquid. and mation of ferment. sulphate. spirit is an alcoholic instead of a is watery Cream of tartar much less soluble than in water. for example. therefore. or tartrate of potash and magnesia. If.FEBMENTATION. and this is a third cause of the turbidity of the juice which is gradually weak becoming resolved into wine. undergo decomposiand some of the constituents are retained in the wine. During fermentation the liquid becomes turbid. tartrate of lime are being continually precipitated. formation of ferment. then the which was rendered turbid at so first by the and formation of ferment. will continue mentation. and sink as sediment to the bot- tom. the cells are 89 emptied.
is afterwards decomposed. cream of tartar. in which forms in wine. more than 61 per cent. smaller will be the proportion of these salts At the same time. besides 5 per cent. occur. are and in separated. albuminous matter. phosphate of lime. with the nature and quality of which we are at present. moreover. Braconnot is the only person first who has analysed It is the sediment which ture. but imperfectly acquainted. less of the salts which have been mentioned than the grape juice from which it is produced. however. The separation of these substances increases proportionately to the increase of alcohol. sulphate. tartrate of lime. and continues till fermentation is at an end. . therefore. a mix- both the above-mentioned salts and the ferment. These substances at first turbid. the rest alumina . which has been separated. 6 per cent. phosphate. He found 21 per cent. and tartrate of lime.90 FERMENTATION. make the wine Young wine contains. the albumen and the gum (the latter in the form of cellulose). 2 per centa sulphate of lime. the products of that decomposition enter into wine in the shape of extractive matters. and. and the poorer the wine is in gum and sugar and the richer it has become in alcohol. but speedily deposit themselves at the bottom as a crust. and form raw tartar. . double racemate of potash. sulphate of potash. the namely. and appear partly as ferment of the albumen which. and tartrate of magnesia. after being converted place into ferment.
greenish. is quite unlike that which is produced during the first few days much less . which lasts all nesia than the grape juice. complete. these cells which keep up after fermentation. phosphate of ammonia and that magnesia must be precipitated. however. By the time first is from 10 to 14 days. in which it undergoes slow clear.fermentation. ferment has dis- appeared from the surface and sunk to the bottom with the aboye-named salts. having exuded through cells. when drawn ferment off. and produce fermentation. The wine is now transferred to other casks. and the wine. and it con- of what is known raw tartar. albuminous matter sists is mixed with the as salts. The wine. salts therefore which are insoluble in alcohol. will contain much the less phosphoric acid and magfermentation. are found in young wine in a soluble form. 91 wax-like fat was found in this Kquid. Its principal constituents are. It not. and magnesia and phosphoric acid being found in the grape juice.FERMENTATION". indeed. I cannot suppress the observation. is far from it the is cells floating in it render turbid. therefore. It follows necessarily that the deposit formed in the wine during after. ammonia being developed during the formation of ferment. . as fermentation. white. In conclusion. salts which have been separated in consequence of the increase of alcohol in the liquid . the but their contents which.
and so freed from sediment. takes place. for example. is set free) the wine during after-fermentation is several and times transferred into other casks. In these respects the wine differs from the grape juice out of which it is prepared. tannic acid. and that in proportion to the quantity of alcohol formed out of the sugar. and in order to prevent them from being brought within the range of decomposition (which happens when the admission of air changes the tannic acid into apothema. a diminu- some and an admission of other constituents In the first place. When tion of the skins are allowed to ferment. In the manufacture of the best coloured Burgundy and Champagne the skins remain in the liquid . tannic acid The tannic acid is precipitated with other substances which were held in solution. whereby a new spring of chemical action. sets free the albumen.92 FERMENTATION. the water of the wine may dissolve some substances from the crushed grape If the action of the skins. often injurious to the wine. the wine cannot be bottled until this ceases. and colouring matter extracted from the skins will also be dissolved with the tannic acid. The transfer into fresh casks must be re- peated so long as deposit of raw tartar forms. water be assisted by alcohol. which is thus rendered less astringent and of a lighter colour. In red wine a portion of colouring matter and of is withdrawn by these salts. the solution will be stronger.
by which means the alcohol is acid. for exposed to the influence of the air under circumstances resembling those which facilitate the rapid formation of vinegar. . and in this case the wine has a very dark colour. in that of Medoc 6 days. a superficial covering (chapeau) upon the wine speedily forms. The greatest care must be taken to prevent the wine from becoming during fermentation by the escape of carbonic acid. this superficial To prevent the formation of covering (cliapeau). the skins must be constantly stirred. 14 days is the longest time. which are especially meant for the table (vin ordinaire). 8 days in those prepared in the south of Prance.FEEMENTATIGN. 93 from two to three days.
as well as the frequent transinto other casks. dered turbid by the ingredients of ferment is not New wines must therefore be treated until they become as clear as if they had been filtered. immaterial whether the sediment has deposited itself. . The wine which is renfor should durable. THE fer of clearing of wine.CHAPTEE III. as well from their insolubility in alcohol. still As far as the deit is composition of the wine is concerned. and albumen and isinglass are added. Light-co- loured wines are preferred. which concerns the alteration of its colour. CLEARING OF WINE. as there is sugar in spite enough to cause new fermentation of the quantity of alcohol already formed . they would tend to the production of another chemical change. or still whatever can contribute to profloats in the wine mote after-fermentation must be removed. and is practised upon red wines. any such fermenting matters remain in the wine. as long . which. all is young wine undertaken with the view of removing minous matters may the sediment in which albuoccur. There is another reason for undertaking the clarifying of wine. as from their combining with tannic acid.
95 form a spongy flocculent sediment. and more or less so in water and tartaric acid. in which but little tannic acid is contained. and a very light-coloured wine be obtained. colouring matter is soluble in alcohol and tartaric acid. The colour of wine. as to render the wine very light coloured. alcohol. so that by adding them in large quantities. tannic acid may be entirely withdrawn. again is effected by means of albumen and isinglass. in which case. so large a quantity is precipitated. can only be abstracted by adding a solu- tion of tannic acid. Albumen and isinglass alone could not have effected such a change. The chemical ticles of between the paraffinity colouring matter. previous to the addition of albu- men of colouring matter or isinglass. For when both these substances are added to port wine. and such albumen or gluten as has been precipitated by means of alcohol and tannic acid. by means of which a larger or smaller quantity of colouring matter. which exists . Clearing may also be undertaken in order to diminish the tannic acid contained in the wine and this . is withdrawn from the wine.CLEAEING or WINE. which a mixture of water. The cause of this phenomenon will be made quite clear when we come to treat of the colour of wine for . and tartaric acid possesses of retaining colouring matter in solution. tannic acid and colouring matter are continually abstracted from it. in proportion to the quantity of albumen or isinglass which has been applied. is more or less overcome by the power.
34. however. little dissolved the others are purely mechanical. other means are resorted to. powdered marble is mixed with white wines. only act chemically upon the wdne. however.96 CLEARING OE But wine may. do not readily sink. is not so much the removal of tannic acid and colouring matter. Where. Isinglass produces much greater discolouration in wines which are poor in alcohol and tartaric acid. soluble in alcohol and water with many. then used as a clarifier gum is imperfectly dissolved in weak spirit. the viscidity of gum may easily remain in * A Traite sur les Vins de la France. fact. these particles and gypsum or sand is used in other countries. and amongst them Batillac. that the colouring matter of wine tartaric acid. . still float in the wine are precipitated with albumen and isinglass Of the means mentioned. and the theory of that discolouration of wine w hich occurs r during clearing. and such particles as it. p. being in a state of minute division.* have been led to entertain very erroneous views respecting the nature of the actual colouring matter of wine. the object in view in clarifying. as the separation of such of as. In Spain. easily remain in the wine arabic is and Powdered gum . In warm climates the use of albumen and isinglass is generally avoided. By overlooking this is namely. the wine. than in others. be rendered saturating its free colourless by acids with a base. inasmuch as a portion of these substances might spoil it.
when used in the clearing of wine. tannic acid. Ed. Albumen. pletely precipitated be comis. soluble in water. is not rendered insoluble by the alcohol in the wine. as we have seen. dissolved in water. depends on the quantity of tartaric acid. It in weak spirit. and but a small quantity of colouring matter will be withdrawn from the wine. which at once imparts the power to isinglass of * Dingler's Polyt. either by boiling which acid holds the albumen in solution. 97 will be thereby increased. however. Ill. add a little extract of nut-galls to the wine. Journ. and alcohol present in the wine. however. the precipitate obtained by means of isinglass will be inconsiderable. 147. The precipitate of tannate of albumen thus obtained. So that the use of isinglass will only render the colour of wines containing much tannic acid lighter. is. H .C LEAKING OF WLNT E. for the tartaric cipitated. If but little tannic acid be contained in the wine. From this we learn that albumen. also chiefly useful because it forms a precipitate with tannic acid. mixed with tartaric acid. How far the discolouration of wine may be carried by means of albumen. To render it useful as an application to other wines we must first. cannot be preor by alcohol. Isinglass cannot. Vergnette Lamotte* prefers isinglass to albumen. and recommends it as better adapted to the purpose. s. with excess of tartaric acid. there- fore. but by the formation of tannate of albumen.
No. durable wines. Por Burgundy wine contains but little tannic acid. which. Bussy. are often rendered more easily decomposable in consequence of clearing. or albumen. easily is cleared . as Clearing. Burgundy wine. and the process of clearing. makes wine more but when isinglass or albumen have been Burgundy employed. this is not always the case. may . removes at the same time the ingredient which would have rendered inert the albuminous substance of the wine. In some countries extract of grape stones. Too large an admixture of solution of gelatine.* speaking of the clearing of application of extract before gelatine is used. little Vergnette Lamotte recommends the use of a tannic acid. Before this method was known. putrescible. 1300. . a general rule.98 CLEAKOSTQ OF WINE. which are readily decomposed. contain a large proportion of tannic be used instead of nut-galls. since all the tannic * Moniteur Industriel. urges the of nut-galls to the wine. 44). it was impossible to render Burgundy quite clear without exposing it too much to the chance of spoiling. 1848. and capable of exciting decomposition in gelatine or other substances. we have seen acid. brings the germ of decay into the wine which since they are both organic bodies. If too much albumen has been added. precipitating tannate of gelatine and colouring matter. by freeing it still more from this. as (p.
is though not thereby made insoluble (as is the case in it tanning leather). p. add a little common salt to the wine. Industr. in yet rendered less susceptible of decom- position." Tannic acid tends to produce stability by combining with the small quantity of albuminous matter which is found in the wine. Some. . whilst clarifying with albumen or isinglass.CLEARING OF WINE. j isinglass. 101. gelatine. If lime be mixed with wine in order to abstract tartaric or acetic acid. and in a low temperature dried blood. which is sold as powder. a precipitate is first formed in the which carries down a larger or smaller portion of the colouring matter of the wine (if red). Milk and cream may also be used as clarifiers. or An very often replaced by addition of tannic acid is also recommended in the case of those white wines which occasionally become "lang. since the caseine contained in milk combines with the tannic acid of the wine. acid 99 was withdrawn. and albumen. which is said by Batillat to be useless. a proceeding. is now and then used instead of albumen . * however. and acts in the same as manner albumen or isinglass. such as is thoroughly taste- / ^ Blood should be made use of in clearing wine. is occasionally employed. and which. instance. But none of these means are applicable to good wines." what the French call "graisse. since the tartaric acid keeps solution. Only the best less. * Mon.
Lime. produces The discoloration. is always capable of imparting to wine the same property which is given by albumen or isinglass the wine is rendered less astringent by the precipitation of tannic acid. since it gives a sweeter and less astringent taste to the wine. From Lime. if employed in excess. these two causes the use of lime in the preparation of wine has become much more general. and an appearance of age. though insoluble in excess of lime. acid. in the first instance. and becomes at once less acid to the taste. alkalis. if sufficient lime be added to saturate the liquid. turns . therefore. forming tannate of lime a salt which. but it also combines with the tannic . remains in solution. like other wine brown. therefore.100 CLEABING OF WINE. lime.
in order to distinguish between such as are genuine and adulterated. no standard when suspicious wines. the unpleasant smell and taste of the sulphurous acid may be clearly perceived in it. are examined. If wine has been too strongly sulphurised. The absorption of oxygen changes sulphurous and forms a compound which tation. which also combines with albumen. is into sulphuric acid.CHAPTEE IV. is increased. incapable of fermen- Sulphurising is bottles or casks. SULPHUEISING. and by attracting to the oxygen which is necessary to decomposition. the process of sulphurising deserves particular notice. effected by burning sulphur in and instantly pouring in the wine. As it is often necessary to ascertain the amount of sulphuric acid in wine. which have been sulphurised. which absorbs the sulphurous acid thus formed. . By it the sulphuric acid in the wine is. and its quantity therefore. SULPHUROUS' acid hinders fermentation by combining with the albuminous substances present in wine. itself and thereby rendering them inert.
is that it prevents the formation of mould. that in old times the Dutch exposed the casks.102 SULPHURISING. are easily decomposed. In the process of sulphurising. and but amount of tannic acid. destroy the smell of the sulphurous acid. although they may well impart a peculiar odour to the wines. however. as has been sedulously transcribed. in which they exported wine to the East Indies. cestors were no their profit. and antimony. It it is stated in many books. the wine thereby rendered arsenical. . cloves. cinnamon. in the sulphurising of which they are employed. to the fumes of sulphur. I doubt this exceedingly. is If the sulphur should contain arsenic. Sulphurising wines. One great advantage gained from sulphurising the casks in which wine is to be stored. thyme. which. lavender. but I am is of opinion that often the case. They cannot. arsenic. for our anfools. and other aromatic substances. which. The same process applied to red wine makes them rather lighter coloured. is particularly applied to sweet white possessing an excess of sugar a small and albuminous matter. originated in a misprint. which afterwards imparts a musty taste to the wine. are sometimes put with the strips of linen which are dipped in melted sulphur and allowed to burn. especially in matters concerning and this was not likely to be promoted by the addition of arsenic to wine.
Another method that is employed in some districts of sul- France. acid. and added to a certain quantity of the wine which is to be sulphurised. Sometimes a portion of the wine strongly sul- phurised. which answers the same phurising is. but I do not know how this acts. Sometimes sulphurous and sulphite or bisulphite of potash are occasionally used for the same purpose.SULPHURISING. . purpose as hinders the fermentation of sweet wine. is employed . dissolved in water. It consists in putting njVo pulverized mustard-seed into the wine. and preserves the greatest amount of sugar. 103 Wine intended for exportation to warm is countries is in general more strongly sulphurised.
but some kinds acquire. days. A if alcohol. by saying. contained in time will still produce an effect. yet the effect of what has been carried on during hours. we may say.CHAPTER V. and buildings erected. dissolved into but chemical change is ever going on." to wine. as a first consequence . "Everything which born dying." the cause of its destruction is to be looked for in itself. and no longer exists as wood. Tou do not see the wood from which ships are built. and withdrawn as much as possible from external influences but even . " Everything which is ! organic perishes. CELLARING OF WINE. which complex means that chemical mixture. is perceptible at the end of years. "That every wine bears within itself the germ of corrup" tion As a rule. EOGIEB lives is applies the proverb. be it. be spoilt . a substance peculiarly opposed to decay. rest is impossible in a Though the action cannot be observed at any moment. complex mixture of organic substances may be enclosed in hermetically sealed vessels. So all wine must eventually gas. and months. and at the end of years or centuries it has become volatilized.
it is fit and poured into wooden vessels and and we must now endeavour to . having been for use clarified in casks. Journ. time. little and possess tannic acid. p. They become or undergo some other This occurs in the case of Ehine wines. and only dug up 40 years since. bottles. of Science. and which is neither more nor less than the chemical alteration in their constituents. . which contain but little alcohol and all those wines change. 136.D. or but cannot be kept long. though nearly 200 years old. and with the circumstances which may expose wine to its influence. * little tannic acid. i. properties which render them more agreeable both to smell and taste. make ourselves acquainted with the operation of that slow process to which I have already alluded. was found perfectly good and well flavoured. 105 of the operation of that cause which afterwards destroys them. vol. which contain much sugar. wines which have retained a con- siderable portion of albuminous matter. As but a general rule. Some Malaga wine which was buried during the conflagration of London.CELLARING. 1666. the few analyses we possess of this nature are of extreme value. it As it is very seldom possible to analyse wine after has attained a great age.* "We have traced the chemical from its first history of wine beginning to the time when. A. . cannot resist the influence of acid.
mering's result to be received with modification. and the same result is obtained by for both leather and keeping it in wooden vessels : wood are . but more from water. Sommering's experiments rendered alcohol this very intelligible since. 1854. The ancients knew that wine improved if kept in leathern bottles. "We must begin by considering the change which takes place in the wine. In these. and the wine consequently becomes freely richer in alcohol. more easily penetrated by water than by evaporation ensues from both. so that the simple evaporation of water is no longer spoken of. though proportionately porates with the water. cellared are those Wines which can be prove.106 CELLAKING. Gaz. those wines are stored which do improve with age. or to speak which im- more correctly. . 420. odoriferous substances are formed. by putting weak spirit into a bladder. eva- Even supposing equal quantities of alcohol and water to be evaporated. the wine becomes less acid and better tasted. and is coloured often deposits a if the wine be stored in casks. and hanging it in a warm place. as all the other constituents would remain undiminished. the wine would still be improved. p. there constant increase of alcohol. since it has been ascertained that a certain quantity of alcohol. less. . But Graham* a short time * since Chem. such as considerable is amount of sediment. he increased Later observations have caused Somits strength.
CELLABING. The vinous components being more upon and this alone would account for the improvement of the wine. 37. Liebig's Annal. and chiefly water which is its loss made up by adding wine. concentrated. Ann. s. and the spirit be concentrated. whether mixed with alcohol or not. and convert the alcohol evaporated. the water would really evaporate. Here we have a general statement of the causes upon which the difference between new wine and that which has been stored in casks mainly depends. are hereby increased. Bd. Bd. t Wine stored in wooden casks loses therefore in water. But if the loss evaporation affects the contents of the cask. . which contains less alcohol than water. All the constituents of wine.* on the contrary. s. otherwise would turn the wine into acetic acid. f s. it does not follow that wine. 34. are better able to act chemically each other. and the wine becomes not only stronger. 128. but better flavoured. Bd. with the exception of water. Even if be so. asserts that wood allows a readier passage to alcohol than to water. s. that spirit of it wine loses strength when in a wooden cask. the action of the air must be repaired. . 409. 35. 29. Consult Wackenrader's Archiv. It is is sour. should allow proportionately equal quantities of each to evaporate. Schubert. 77. * But the change 16 is carried Pogg. Bd. proved that if 107 diluted alcohol were put into a bladder. and maintains as proof of this.
which had been seveii times (in cask) to the East Indies and back. Madeira. that whilst in casks containing 200 quarts. causes a constant increase of tartaric acid in the wine. or rather. and such warm countries to improve. That which is increased is tartaric acid. cellars moist. The quantity of wines cannot. Wines which are poor in sugar may easily become too sour. and all for. and truly such nectar was unknown to the gods of the ancients. therefore. the evaporation only amounted to 2%th. 320. the evaporation made with = ^th . is the diminution of water. further . and not insoluble cream of like wines. The drier the atmosphere is which surrounds the casks. the greater will be the evaporation. the smaller will be the sur- face in proportion to the contents. are sent to tartar. tartar in the alcohol. being insoluble in alcohol. in casks holding 4716 quarts. the concentration of the wine. keep the wine stores or The larger the casks. s. Journ. render it air-tight. . this process. I have had Madeira. the continual increase of alcohol precipitates it. care To avoid and to must be taken air of the to prevent draughts. The observation has been respect to Sauterne wine. place it with its neck down * Sidiel in Dingler's Polyt. which is soluble in undergo wine is not increased.108 still CELLABI3S-Q. which continually replaced by wine. it has been recommended to fill a bottle with wine. 89. this.* In order to replace regularly the wine which is lost from the cask by evaporation. Bel.
Vincent* recommends that the bottles in which wine put should not be corked. which causes it to turn sour. Chenrie. thoroughly contents of * false. And the reason that this change cannot be more frequently effected is. wooden casks. many I do not deny that the alcoholic old wines is considerable. a great deal more sediment is deposited than at a later period. Young wine. But I am not aware that any one else has ever tried the experiment. + Pulyt. 790. because in every transfer the wine becomes saturated with air. combined with an albuminous body. p. comport themselves very first goes off. river sand is also used 109 the contents Well washed when St. .) . Centralbl. of causing such chemical action as shall be injurious. Pelouze and Frerny. 1849. is there is not wine enough to fill all the casks. in is The opinion that wine which has grown old bottles has therefore become richer in alcohol. and tannic acid. but I t. and older wine. but closed with a bladder. and equally beneficial results would be obtained. because the water would evaporate as slowly through the bladder as through the casks. Gen. is For when fermentation always found in this sediment and as this compound is capable. (by the change of tannic acid into apothema. in order to free it from sediment. in the opening of the cask. when placed alike in differently.CELLAEING. p. iii. the wine is drawn off" into other casks. 432. renewing so as to keep pace with the evaporation.
even when it is not covered with resin and sealing-wax. Therefore. will be better understood when we particularly the colouring regard to the fact just mentioned. Bed-wines. is in too insignificant a quantity to evolve . for example. I will only observe that the diminution of free acid in the wine (be it tartaric or acetic) is always connected with this appearance. The ex- which must be mentioned in order to plain this change. port. is The simple explanation of our in alcohol finding old wine rich is. and the weaker ones cannot resist the effects of time. and to be in bottles). and the de- . the formation of alcohol in the bottles impossible. deny that the wine being kept in bottles increases it. generally amount of tannic details. for the red hue is the effect of free acid. that only the stronger wines can be preserved. that wines which are not rich in tannic acid to come consider more matter of wine. grow darker. which contain no large acid. alcohol by means of fermentation and in old wine. the opening of the bottle causes no escape of carbonic acid. deposit a sediment. but such wines as are rich in tannic acid.110 CELLARING. for example. Evaporation is very much hindered by the cork. The sugar which exists. in red wine. The colour of wine change which it is materially affected by another it undergoes when cellared (I am sup- posing wines becomes darker. The colour of liqueur- become lighter. With acquire a darker colour.
and the sweetening of wine (supposing to be cellared in bottles). in a temperature of 85 C. afterwards allow the wine to cool. whether such artifices impart . the manner in which the acids are altered in the course of time. and upon that which consists in keeping the bottles for a certain time in a warm place. we may say that the development it of aroma. in treating of the odoriferous constituents of wine. An increase in the saccharine contents it is not to be thought of. though. which could scarcely be imitated by art. I am willing fill the bottles. it has been recom- mended to place bottles corked. how could be effected? Diminution place. In order to increase the appearance of age in wine speedily. enough to set much store upon this means of im- proving wine.). As a general rule. (185 F. and "Wine containing much spirit thus the flavour and aroma of that which has acquires been cellared ten or twelve years. Warmth is the only means with is which I am acquainted. are very closely connected.CELLARING. I shall endeavour to explain more fully. which really useful in producing the like results. It is still a question. in the quantity of free acids must therefore take and can only occur by the acids being either decomposed or combined with new non-acid substances. for two hours in warm water. crease of such acid allows the Ill colouring matter to appear more purple. this Both these alterations are the result of a slowly progressive chemical operation. but not quite filled with wine.
acquires by Those odoriferous constituents which are speedily developed by heat. or increase the sweetness of It relates to the decomposition of tartaric acid. as those It seems reasonable. sugar should be formed from tartaric but \ . to which are engendered by the lapse of make use of it is heat to diminish the acidity of the wine. may not be exactly the same time. and the increase of the quantity of odoriferous constituents. and the sugar increases in quantity. a decomposition which occurs quickly upon the ripening of the fruit. Both these that facts seem to indicate the conversion of tartaric acid into sugar. but proceeds gradually in the wine It is generally known that in the course of time. fruits size. I will only allow myself to say a word in support of the opinion that cellaring in bottles helps to diminish the acid. In warm countries the quantity of contained in the grapes is insignificant. do not ripen this is and they have attained their full Becertainly the case with grapes. till fore they are ripe they appear to contain malic tartaric acid in excess. 1 and but whilst ripening the acids tartaric acid I decrease. wine. in treating of the odoriferous constituents. As I mean to enter fully upon the diminution of the acid taste. just as rendered less acid by time. not so as to all make it necessary acid. and in cold ones the saccharine contents are proportionably small.112 CELLARING. it precisely those qualities to wine which time. however.
. but the sugar increases still more in proportion. Ann. de Ch. the acids increase. which maintained by Liebig. 1844. Pogg. as cherries and pears. This transformation. Mars 1845. in bottled That wine in casks containing a great deal of * Journal de Pharm. The quantity of cannot increase in weight. But this opinion loses all support when we remember that Berard found t that although the acids in fruit diminished a little during ripening. Bd. p. t Phys. and the change wine. Scheikunde. such diminution was by no means proportioned to the increase of sugar. it and if the tartaric acid be converted into sugar. evident to the taste when tartaric acid is decomposed. FremyJ ing. 70. but Crasso's experiments (p. p. but it becomes more sugar all. p. 132. Med. iv. is of opinion that a larger quantity of base saturates the acids in the fruit at the time of its ripen- assertion. and old wines always gained in sugar. we are now discussing takes place torn.* has been supposed to affect the sweetening of the wine. In some fruits. J Journ. 900.CELLAEING. 85. but this separation cannot be perceived in bottles. furnishes an additional reason for the increased sweetness. 17) contradict this Schubert has tried to prove that the sweet- ening of wine proceeds from a separation of tartar. All bottled wines which improve at appear to have become sweeter. 113 so that at least a portion of grape sugar might be formed from is tartaric acid.
203. It still remains a question. cream of must be precipitated. what occurs in bottled wines which become less acid by keeping. and the alcoholic contents of which cannot be increased. and converted in a short time into carbonate of potash. 78.114 cream of tartar. increases. the saccharine contents are not diminished. citrate. und Pharmacie. however. though under circumstances differing widely from each other. and little free tartaric acid. and on this account alone must be less acid. tartar beyond a doubt. the alcohol and as a necessary consequence. and may be acted upon either by ferment or by other substances. it would Ann. and con- stantly re-filled after evaporation. If the free tartaric acid contained in wine were slowly converted into non-acid * products. CELLARING. since the same kind of results may as often be obtained from a slow process as from one which runs its course quickly. since such sugar as is present in the wine needs ferment to set it in fermentation ? And with regard to the sweet taste of cellared wines. is may become sweeter. Bd. and cannot.* that tartrate of potash in acetate. for water is evaporated. possess much salt is insoluble in alcohol). der Ch. to mention it here. It is well known by Buchner's experiments. be brought to bear upon what takes place in I thought it right. "Wines. wine. which less tartar (since this are rich in alcohol. The solution decomposition in which Biichner perceived this transformation was actual putrefaction. therefore. therefore. s. .
would not require to be transformed well to observe that tartaric acid Lastly. It is. of that thickening which is effected in wine by time. become darker in colour as they sweeten. I can treat better. may be converted into gum or We shall consider. in another place. in treating of the odoriferous constituents of wine. more than any other and thereby . therefore. is a substance containing C and HO. less free tartaric acid (however the effect be produced). and renders it like syrup. Such wines as contain. induces the formation of cellulose fact. the important part played by tartaric acid in the improvement of cellared wine.115 alone be sufficient to render the wine sweet . in consequence of being cellared. the tartrate of potash into carbonate. because a smaller proportion of free tartaric acid allows the blue colouring matter to be- come more evident. this explains the that in test bottles the solution of tartaric Cellulose. if red wine. it may be dissolved in water contributes organic acid to the production of mould. like sugar. and therefore gum and when vegetable mucus. possible wine has been long in cellar that among other changes tartaric acid vegetable mucus. acid requires frequent renewal. I must here mention the unfavourable results of the cellaring of wine. and next to alcohol this acid may be looked upon as the most important constituent of wine. will. particularly when it is | .
Praticien. though easily soluble and ether. and other qualities of wine. colour. or may be. vegetable mucus. and obtained wax. gall-extract. Quercitron (the yellow colouring matter) is of importance if we would know the action of the wood of the casks in which wine is stored. it But albumen is also present in the oak-wood. it will unite with the albuminous matter.116 CELLABTNG. Wine dealers have learned to understand effect and distinguish the produced in this manner upon the gation. quercitron (a yellow colouring matter). The excellence of the wine is necessarily affected by the wood of the vessels in which it is preserved. all It found in kinds of oak-wood. and Faure* has given us a detailed investi- He pulverised the it commonest kind of oak wood. and cannot be entirely without influence upon the wine. and as soon as the watery ingredients of the wine have dissolved the tannic acid. tannic acid. 125. . Eigaud has ana* Agricult. 1852. strength. since many different properties of wines are. exhausted with ether. alcohol. which already exists in in larger or smaller quantities. p. is but sparingly so in water. If wine be put into oaken casks there will be an increase in the tannic acid. affected by this circumstance. since it has a peculiar odour. and adhere to the wood. and bitter extractive matter. quercin. preserved in wooden casks. Quercin in is alcohol is a substance which. albuminous matter. and water. taste.
and but sparingly soluble in water. and their taste was rendered so astringent by the dissolved tannic acid. 90. As effect far as the properties it is of wine are concerned. der Ch. much altered by it. brandy. Lubec. and can be resolved by the absorption of 2 sugar. though they acquired a certain bitterness which was only perceptible when powder was employed. Bigaud found that quercitron =C H 36 20 21 . powder destitute of taste and smell. American oak has but little effect on the white wines of La nor smell were Grironde. destitute of odour. Oak-wood from Dantzic affect the colour of the and Stettin did not much white wines of La Grironde. not when the wine was brought into contact with whole * Ann. colour excepted. and alcohol. and has a weak bitter taste. lysed it. All three suffered alteration. Bd. neither colour. 283. taste.* It is 117 therefore. u. . Pharm. H O. s. Quercetin is likewise easily dissolved in alcohol. value. met with in American oaks. that the flavour of the quercin could no longer be perceived. a lemon-coloured in alcohol. The same white wines when treated with oak-wood from Memel. into C 12 H 12 12 grape and C 24 H 10 O 11 quercetin.CELLARING. and Riga. of no Faure tested the of oak-wood upon wine. and easily soluble thdugh but sparingly so in water. only found in the quercus tinctoria. by distilling the powder with these liquids for eight days consecutively. but a little dissolved quercin imparted to them a pleasant balsamic flavour. and is. were much coloured.
CELLARING. have either . which already of tannic acid. Old which have already been used entirely. not suited to wine-casks. but such of the constituents of the wood as impart flavour and odour may pass into the wine. Faure does not approve of previously treating the wooden casks with alkalis. instead of this he recommends sulphuric acid with water (A sulphuric acid). a distinction between old and new casks.118 pieces of oak. it gives a good deal of tannic acid to the The case is different contain a certain proportion increase in this' ingredient. The Bosnian oak (from the shores of the Adriatic) affects white wine so strongly. by imparting to it a large portion of tannic acid. since alkalis render tannic acid darker. French oak (from Angoumois) is less injurious. water. All light-coloured wines suffer greater or less alteration. and the casks afterwards washed out with In considering the action of oak upon wine. with red wines. This wood is. and we shall speak more particularly about them also in considering the colouring matter of wine. that exposure to the air will often turn such wine black. and affected by a slight The colouring matter of whose quality cannot be much the wood is fixed by the colouring matter of the wine. to be left standing 24 hours. therefore. or in great for the same purpose. although wine. we must distinguish between coloured and noncoloured wines. "We must make casks.
impart a good deal. improved just as casks. No. This wine remained free from lime. effect In order as to preserve the wine from may be produced by the casks. and the reservoir dried before being filled with wine. much as in wooden The reservoirs are furnished with lid.CELLARING. and has obtained now. or even by only rendering the tartar acid.t the best means of pre* t Archiv. cement. for some years. that wines which spoil easily. 1272. 1848. 150. namely. the tannic acid of the cask either precipitates or renders inert the superfluous albuminous matter of the wine. 70. may be materially improved by remaining for some time in new open casks for . and if we may trust the reports. be injurious to wine on another account. a custom has been introduced by the wine dealers of Burgundy. an opening. Pharm. by decomposing such tartar as is deposited. In this case it is advisable to wash out the any such casks with milk of lime. s. Moniteur Industr. Bd. whilst new casks.* The hard stones are cemented and coated with is Eoman which is pumped full of water. Hence it follows. Old casks may. unless they have been cleaned. of preserving the wine in walled-in reservoirs. lost those substances which they could impart to wine. however. d. . The trough then removed. and fastened with a wooden According to Stiimcke. on account of containing too much albuminous matter. 119 degree.
All wines which have been long in bottle This acquire a flavour which we ascribe to the cork. is as great a mistake. paring casks for brandy which is to be exported colourless. and is air. Doubtless the same method of cleansing might be applied to wine-casks. after which it let stand for eight days in the casks. it exported. is fundamentally the same. The taste and smell of wine is. the developement of mould plants. On this account old wine casks must from time to time be . The smell may be distinctly perceived in almost every warehouse in the country. under such circumstances. equally with the wood of the wine-cask. what we call musty. But as it occasions considerwould only be of real advantage in cases where the best wines were to be cellared or able expense. The mould grows from the outside it to the and should reach the inner side of the cask or cork it imparts a taste to the wine. The mould of cork differs of is course from that of wood. as if we attributed the flavour of wine which has been long cellared to the cask. which it is must afterwards be washed thoroughly with hot water. to a hogshead). one side of which is in contact with the allows. The moist cork. and dissolve soda in it (31b. and the taste conse- quently not exactly the same. it till through may be then conduct chlorine gas present in excess. is to fill them with water. The cause.120 CELLAEING. identical with that of many other mouldy substances. inside. in both cases. though the accessory circumstances may differ.
that a small quantity of a be stirred into the wine. Yergnette Lamotte. that the wine became turbid before the point at which ice melts was reached. t Bulletin de la Societe d'Encouragement. Wines which have been long in bottle often acquire an unpleasant taste from this mouldiness they are brought out to do honour to a guest. and Boullay and Chevallier same opinion. though not prevented. It really seems strange that in this age. . 172. who tried experiments with Burgundy. p. and 121 put into the bottles. when so many other means can be employed. fur Pharm. cork should still be made use of to stop bottles. Bd. begins to solidify Geiger's Mag. colouring matter. observed. 1848. rosin or sealing-wax. . cleansed outside and inside. new corks must be even when the old ones are is If the inside of the cork be covered with cut off. are of the * fatty oil Poumier recommends. and praise is expected which cannot honestly be given. in order to free it it sometimes acquires from from the unpleasant smell the cask. Lamotte. 220.CELLAEING. Many kinds of wine are improved by time and warmth. and Boussinsome statements respecting the improvement of wine is gault f have given us manner in which the effected by the action of cold. and cold in some cases imparts superior qualities to wine. * Wine 27. the entrance of air and the formation of mould hindered. and he found it deposited tartar. s. unhurt. and a nitrogenous substance.
).122 partially CELLAEINGL (50 F. and the wine which remains liquid becomes stronger. say 10 The ice formed consists C. best kind 1837 . and the amount of the ice which was separated. Bed Burgundy. (53-6 F. but contains some alcohol. principally of water.).) or 12 some degrees below (32 F. Lamotte gives the following estimates of the alcoholic contents of the wine before and after freezing.
but confine themselves to the effect on the amount of alcohol. an objectionable quality in such as It must be remembered that cream of tartar is a necessary ingredient in good wine. Wine which deposits stone does not improve by retains the cream of tartar in solution. does not improve the The crystals being once separated. by the name of stoney deposit. . and Boussingault make no mention of the flavour and other qualities of frozen wine. and the tartaric acid of this salt is one of the most important substances in wine. and the wine is remains thick. are at best but imperfectly dissolved when the wine is again exposed to a bottled. warmer temperature.CELLAEIKG. this. does not either principally or entirely determine the properties which render the flavour of wine agreeable. 123 flavour of wine. however. keeping nearly so well as wine which Yergnette Lamotte.
The diseases of wine have been classed under different heads. either suddenly. UNDER this title we do not understand such altera- tions as are effected in producing a less by time. strictly speaking. and is peculiar to young wine. though the flavour of others is rendered less agreeable. and we must not expect that every change induced by time should be agreeable. a condition in which the wine has become so altered and unfit for use. This disease shows itself under certain conditions of the weather. as to have lost its distinctive character. and which may result agreeable flavour. or in a very short time. If the . THE TURNING Or WINE. Por many wines are improved.CHAPTEE VI. and we shall consider them in order. DISEASES OF WINE. The colour of the wine becomes darker and its taste insipid. By the term "diseases of wine" is understood.
and may at length disseminate foetid gases and leave an acid liquid. since this disease from that which turns wine sour. In wine which is diseased in this manner. the wine and of a disagreeable taste. gelatine can no longer precipitate purpit. In this manner the disease commences . That such decomposition takes place is known. and which consists partly of the colouring matter of wine. 131. p. The quan- The colour of the becomes at the wine is first affected. and so the colouring matter of the wine altered and turned brown. one of the colouring matters which he discovered in wine. disease increases. becomes brown. it is then transmitted to the other constituents of wine. remains the same.DISEASES OF WINE. and the taste same time insipid and disagreeable. Wine differs affected by this it disease does not at first contain more acid than tity of alcohol did previously. Carbonate of potash is formed out of cream of is tartar. the colour 125 turbid. but we are ignorant as to how it originates. which transforms both tannic acid and apothema of taunic acid into sub* Traite sur les Tins de la France. This disease is caused by a decomposition of tartar. . Batillat's and partly of an apothema of tannic acid. mistake consists in considering effect for cause. Batillat* unjustly ascribes this disease to the decomposition of purpit. and eventually turns the alcohol into acetic acid. or apothema of tannic acid. since the acid tartar has been converted into alkaline carbonate of potash.
only the red wines are liable The decomposition begins at the bottom of the cask. and causes decomposition in the tannic acid. and render the wine saleable. acid. and if aided by the The wine air. oxidises it to carbonic acid and water. for the carbonic acid either escapes. therefore. the quantity of alcohol continues the same as in good wine. and in the fatty acid compounds of the wine upon which its aroma depends. Experience teaches that sulphuric acid and alum. if used early enough. for in these constituents is a substance which causes tartaric acid to decompose. be used for the distilling and preparing of brandy. The addition of it tartaric acid to the diseased wine does not restore the original colour to the wine. but makes rose-coloured. subject to this disease to it. and is doubtless occasioned by the decomposition of the organic constituents of the wine fer- ment. stances which can no longer be precipitated by gelatine. It is here that the germ of the evil must be sought. If the disease has not lasted too long. by the use of alum and tartaric and sulphuric French white wines of good quality are not . The disease begins by resolving tartaric acid into carbonic acid. . cannot. or combines with the potash of the cream of tartar. therefore. and these diseased wines may. become acid. Every endeavour is made to remedy this disease. The carbonate of potash thus formed changes the red colour into blue and brown.126 DISEASES OF WINE. will prevent or arrest this disease.
). mucus. (212 !\). C 24 H 24 O 24 .DISEASES OF WINE. et de Phys. C H . Vauquelin made this discovery. This flowed so slowly. This disease consists in the formation of vegetable 24 19 O 19 from the sugar of the wine. The same transformation may be remarked in beetand in the juice of the carrot. the manner described by Appert .) to 40 (104 F. and many if they are exposed to a temperature of (86 E. flavour. part of which had been deposited from the liquid. other plants from 30 bonic acid * may be observed. and the bottles closed. de Ch. and the wine can be used only for distilling brandy and it may proceed so far as to convert : the alcohol into acetic acid.* He received some bottles filled with the juice of the sugar-cane from The juice was put into the bottles in Martinique. colour. and was. 93. in which case putrid fermentation sets in. Cane sugar tome xx. onion. THE ROPIKESS OF WINE. and aroma are for ever gone. . therefore. water being at the same time separated. it could hardly be poured out root. is trans- Ann. 127 But if it spreads. that of the bottle. and another portion was still dissolved. not gum. it was heated for a few minutes at a temperature of 100 C. p. The sugar was almost entirely converted into a tough mass. an escape of car.
are.) to 40 (104 E. Mag. equal to sugar minus water.). has 1 equivalent oxygen less than sugar. . As those wines which are subject to this disease are * Phil. and the vegetable 24 mucus. but swelled up very much when left in it. lactic mannite. p. may be pro- duced at will by boiling beer ferment or gluten with water. 50-0 49-9 24 21 21 50-0 This substance was insoluble in cold water. and vegetable mucus. dissolving sugar in it. and keeping it in a temperature of from 30 (80 F. They found it more than vegeReckoned. The lactic acid. and sugar disappears entirely when carbonic acid ceases to be resolved. C H O 19 . formed into grape sugar. 43-3 6-8 C. C 6 H 7 O6 . together. which consequently become oxidised. 19 C6 H 5 O 5 . Maclagan and Tilley* have analysed the substance which is produced in ginger beer by this disease. vol. which is called mucus fermentation. to contain two equivalents of water table mucus. xviii. this alteration. Three substances in particular are thus produced acid. 12.128 DISEASES OF WINE. 43-9 H. According to Desfosses and Pelouze. 43'7 6-3 namely Eq. lent oxygen The mannite. 6-1 O. and this equiva- may have passed over to the albuminous matters of the vegetable juice. but only a trace of alcohol. and which is identical with that in wine.
fur Pharm. Era^ois ascribes this ropiness to an excess call of gluten it (Dumas f and other French writers it is glaiadine). and sometimes may be removed by the addition of tartaric acid. A acid in water quickly becomes mouldy mucus. as a preventive. p. the com- position of which ( is 84. Bd. 129 principally such as are deficient in tannic acid. Sweet wines are more particularly liable to this disease. Burgundy wines are particularly exposed to this disease. by No one can doubt but that tartaric acid has a great effect in causing the wine to solution of tartaric become ropy. are more liable to the alteration of their tartaric acid. acid of the wine from spoiling wines which are poor in alcohol. * + Geiger. BITTERNESS OF WINE. which some- times disappears without the use of remedies. 515. is converted into cellulose. tome vi. 97. 33. s.DISEASES Or WINE. The result is as if a second fermentation had taken place. K . Mag. a timely addition of this is recommended. tartaric that is. although is well known that Beccaria's gluten gliadin and zymon. inasmuch as a large quantity of carbonic acid is evolved.) The analogous to that of vegetable alcohol of the wine protects the therefore. Chimie appliquee aux Arts.
which may be removed by mixing them with younger wines. Erlangen.130 DISEASES OE WINE. and is.800 gallons (400 hectolitres) of Burgundy. "Whether or no this view be true. actual oxidation.* added. Or young wine is ether. 1854. and he says that he restored in this manner 8. Techn Chem. ascribed to the for- which is very bitter. Schubert. it is caused by the sediment. . THE ACIDIFYING OF THE WINE depends upon the conversion of alcohol into acetic This disease acid. Batillatf recommends that first tartaric acid. and hence. and then bicarbonate of potash. may be stopped bonated * at its alkali . 361. should be mixed with the wine. which being rich in cenanthic But where does ? the citric acid come from is equally bitter. t Traite sur les Vins de la France. bitter is The wine becoming mation of citric ether. therefore. which had become bitter. p. drawing off the wine into other casks will sometimes put a stop to it. commencement by adding carbut the colour of the wine will be 8. This disease often disappears of itself. 189. I cannot say. (See the Odoriferous Constituents of Wine). decomposes the citric ether. Old Burgundy wines have mostly a somewhat bitter Tartrate of oxide of amyl taste.
DISEASES OF WINE. however. is not known. principally to their being . is formed. and imenough. THE MOTJLDINESS OF WINE. C4 H 6 2 + 4 =C 4 H4 O 4 + cellulose. a disease in which mould plants are produced on the surface of the wine. is favourable to this gress. 2HO. which they do pitch and gypsum are added to them. Bd. and * Arch. they are turbid. which con- This is sists principally of cellulose. and spoil very easily. very Greek wines are at present. generally speaking. 292. . which acetic acid then becomes 6 is C4 at H 4 O 4 =C 24 H 21 21 + 3HO. which. It is certain that the admission of air disease. s. improbable. or in any other manner. or that the alcohol is once converted into cellulose. is and that alcohol disappears during its proThis seems to indicate either that the alcohol oxidised to acetic acid. bad. In order to prevent very easily. 70. der Pkarm. lost. to "Weak wines are apt to turn acid imparts a disagreeable flavour to if allowed come in contact with air at a high temperature. Landerer* ascribes this perfectly cleared badly prepared. 131 and the alkali the wine. them from becoming acid. whether out of acetic acid which has been previously produced from the alcohol. How this mould.
prove that all (creosote. however. according to the difference of circumAs a rule. One cause of their may be thus explained. hence they are often called pitch wines. which devel opes out of other bodies odori- . &c. and which can decompose themselves. Such adulterations do not. since alcohol prevents chemical alterations. and weak wines The addition of pitch and tar to the wines is no modern invention.132 DISEASES OF WINE. which under certain circumstances causes the wine to become diseased. are equally liable to spoil quickly.) . the wine is improved by this albumen. all An albuminous substance to be found in wines. and a portion of which remains is the wine. the cause always to be found in substances which are contained in the wine. There is no occasion to seek further tity of that substance we find a certain quan- which has converted the sweet in juice into wine. and occasions a variety of diseases stances. when they are not protected from the air. and cause decomposition in if others. for the They pos- sess so little alcohol that they are scarcely available being so easily Spoiled manufacture of vinegar. the wines which need them were originally weak for turbid wines. for the ancients often drank wine tar in prepared in this manner. They made use of pitch and order that the combustible oil contained in them sition might hinder chemical decompofrom taking place in the wine. spoil easily. disease of wine Whatever the is may be.
. active in the origin as in the decay of bodies.DISEASES OF WINE. and other substances. are dragged into annihilation with them. Albuminous bodies are the causes of movement in the organic kingdom. ferous and well-flavoured 133 substances. They have no repose till they are annihilated. in the living plant as in its products. either to their advantage or disadvantage.
Acid. "Wines containing tannic acid. but poor in sugar. or because so large a quantity of alcohol was evolved as to hinder the further action of the ferment. alcohol. or from evaporating a portion of the must such as Malaga. which then coagu- . In liqueur-wines the excess of sugar. WIKE may be 1. 3. Except as containing less 4.CHAPTEE VII. they resemble the last. Some of these have no excess of sugar as. for instance. which characterises them. Champagne and others.wines. and others again are prepared from dried grapes. Madeira others are . Tokay. divided into the following kinds : Sweet or liqueur. which we have considered already (p. or harsh wines. to which most French wines belong. Effervescing wines. enriched with sugar by the method employed in preparing them. 5. acid. Portuguese and Burgundy. CONSTITUENTS OF WINE. 51). . They are rich in tartaric Ehine and Moselle wine. Spirituous wines. may have been derived either from the grapes having contained too little albumen to set all the sugar in fermentation. 2.
and flavour. But fermentation has not yet quite ceased. this purpose grape juice ought to contain 50 per cent. harsh wines have most bouquet. The sweet fresh condensed in the wine. since they are saturated with carbonic acid Since the preparation of effervescing wines needs scarcely any chemical explanation. sufficient carbonic . on the contrary. the bottles are placed with the necks down.CONSTITUENTS OF WINE. Such affected as contain tannic acid are also considerably by time. a portion of the must. we have not dwelt particularly upon it. and and in order to ensure its ferment is deposited. and not poor Spirituous wines. lates. general rule. supposing them to be good. are apt to undergo in the course of time a considerable change in colour in alcohol cially heavy. The corks are withdrawn and re- placed by others. As a that is. 135 By drying the grapes. 31). and lose their flavour. more espeloaded red wines. and Fermentation still continues. being deposited against the cork. and this proceeding is continued till the wine remains clear. and a richness is and may be imparted to which they did not derive from the grapes. would continue to ferment. in alcoholic or saccharine contents sugar. sweet wines may evaporating be prepared from all kinds of grapes. and this it does not (p. or precipitated. wine still in a state of fermentation is it drawn off from the casks in which at once bottled. and sugar. Effervescing wines generally remain good only for a short time. For them.
or not In the last-mentioned. salt. Lastly. whether or no the skins are allowed to ferment. especially in cellared wines. racemic. and only a trace of tannic acid in the former both are present. . substances which im- part aroma. Alcohol and water are . The composition differs according as the wine is red. a peculiar substance which he calls osnanthine. which contains own volume of carbonic acid. according to Eaure. malic and acetic acid. and albuminous matters. In red wines and in many others. several times its and cause the wine. then free acids. of lime. tartaric. tartrate common and of potash. as oenanthic and acetic ether. and produce eject the cork the moment the tension enough to string is cut. then extractive such as sugar. sulphate of potash. a statement given (p. to pour foaming out. An approximation to the composition of wine may be deduced from the general statement of the composition of grape juice given (p. 5). little iron.136 acid is CONSTITUENTS OE WINE. gum. and traces of phosphate of lime also. and of magnesia. in variable proportions. and other volatile matters of which shall hereafter we speak more particularly. 26). some alumina may and according to the also be detected. the best wines contain. Effervescing wine may be prepared from every good kind of grape juice. . also among the principal ingredients. no particular colouring red. and from the change which it undergoes during fermentation. matters are found. evolved to saturate the wine.
. is still others again greater. "We now examine each of these bodies effect particularly. The quantity of some tity is so insignificant. The quanarid of of some may be determined by weight. which exist together in it that is. alcohol.CONSTITUENTS OP WINE. trace its upon the excellence of the wine. In will every case they are the chief constituents. tartaric acid. and its quantity determined. and point out the methods by which it may be detected. putting aside taste and smell as standards of comparison. . and water. Most of the properties of wine depend upon the sugar. that the sub- stance almost disappears during analysis. 137 These ingredients vary exceedingly in proportion.
The ferment is engendered out of the albuminous matters which exist in the grape juice. so that grapes containing a great deal of saccharine matter need not necessarily be dis- tinguished by their peculiarly sweet taste. the product of the fermentation of the sugar in the grape juice. The sweet flavour of the grapes is not a test. IN WINE. . and upon these. The quantity of alcohol produced in the wine must always be in exact proportion alcohol is The to the quantity of sugar contained in the grapes.CHAPTER VIII. for the genuine flavour may be masked by a large quantity of acid cream of tartar. that is. Eut the amount of alcohol in wine is not entirely determined by the amount of sugar in the grapes. in the THE AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL WINE first obtains its distinctive characteristics instance from the alcohol. Ferment is necessary in order to convert sugar into fixed alcohol. a certain proportion of ferment to a amount of sugar. the quantity of alcohol partially depends. therefore. which exists in every kind of wine. Three cases may here be considered. of grape and fruit sugar.
Where much sugar. sidered here. But a still greater distinction must be made. The opinion that wines containing a great deal of alcohol must necessarily be it also sweet. ferment to resolve carbonic acid. in which case the wine retains something of each. and the wine will remain slightly acid. the proportion of albumen to be resolved into ferment is greater. all their sugar into alcohol and But there is another point to be conEven when sugar and ferment are present in sufficient quantities. and Burgundy the third. Or.wines exemplify the first. has been de- being asserted that they do not contain a sufficient amount of the constituents of cidedly contradicted. be proportionably less strong. it is not possible by means of fermentation to produce an alcoholic liquid . the wine .AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. and it will be weak only a small quantity of either be present. E/hine wine the second. and a large quantity of the substances from which ferment are formed are present. the quantity of sugar and of substances convertible into ferment are equal. Liqueur. tation. alcohol will if the wine will be strong and rich in the amount of when less of these substances exist. since it still contains Or. and is not acid. 139 albuminous matter which sugar. Either the amount of sugar exceeds that of the is to be converted into and then the wine remains sweet after fermen- undecomposed sugar. and then nearly the whole of the sugar will be decomposed.
If. may be is of any strength that tain wished. the case with wines which contain more than 20 per cent. and the tartrate potash. for instance. the grape juice contains too much of tartar. and become insoluble. exists. since the ferment has lost the power of exciting fermentation in the strong alcoholic liquid. too A . and acting as such. when the liquid has become too rich in alcohol. by volume. when present in excess. after which fermentation is impossible. Experience teaches us. Albuminous matter and sugar are therefore to be found in all wines. this will hinder fermentation by rencream dering a portion of albuminous matter inert. the further activity of the ferment hindered by even when an excess of sugar is This is still present. this may be considered as a maximum.140 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. so that the fermenting matters coagulate. oppose and malate fermentation of The substances which principally are acids. that is to say. therefore. that if the amount of alcohol has during fermentation fully reached to 20 per cent. There are also substances in wine which oppose and these. and thus causing some of the sugar to remain undecomposed. even when sugar still may prevent a portion of the albumen from being converted into ferment. fermentation. and therefore inert. All sugar which is still left remains undecomposed. When it a cer- amount of alcohol has been produced. certain quantity of acid or super-salts is of use . by volume of pure or absolute alcohol.
and that consequently during the fermentation of grape juice and the production of alcohol. we know that such a difference does tions which govern it But. for example. the this. and during decomposition of yeast. Lastly. that fermentation takes place as well during the formation as during the decomposition of ferment. namely fermentation during formation. have never yet been made the The influences which might check the formation of yeast differ. from those which hinder its The decomposition. There are many interesting circumstances congladly nected with these facts with which we would be acquainted. It is well known. the two points must be kept distinct. amount. we mast not overlook the when the composition of the grape as fact that even juice its is such favours the formation of alcohol. great. must be considerably affected by depends the weather. and a proportionate quantity of sugar will remain unde- composed. but which must be the subject of future investigation. at least partially. tannic acid appears If the quantity of these acids albuminous matter its will be too much checked to allow of conversion into ferment. as also by the temperature and other external circumstances. which factory upon the maintenance of satisfermentation. the condi- subject of research. much be too is 141 injurious. formation of ferment is in every case affected by the .AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. although exist. Besides to check fermentation.
fermentation will certainly ensue. as is the case with but the fermentation will differ fibrin. since albuminous matter is enced by the quantity of of itself sufficient to cause fermentation. gelatine. but who can explain the difference ? "We are acquainted with the varieties occasioned by an unequal admission of air. (Pp. and we are quite in the dark as to many of those properties of wine which. though intimately .142 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IX WINE. 55 to 60. essentially from that in which ferment cells are normally engendered in sufficient quantities .) of the I have only been able to take a superficial view many circumstances which affect the produc- tion of a larger or smaller quantity of alcohol. (P. ferment quantity of the substance of which the walls of the cells are composed. &c. for which purpose it is not necessary that any portion of sugar should be expended. a few of these circumstances can be yet only with respect to many others we fully explained know that they exist without being able to account amount of alcohol As . .) That the formation of ferment is affected by the weather in a different manner from is its decomposition known. with- out being converted into ferment. 64. and which must be considered if general idea of the causes in the any one wishes to form a upon which the variations in different wines depend. for them. and it is decidedly influ- gum existing in the grape If during the development of the grapes but a juice. small portion of gum has been formed in them.
among which. the original quantity of alcohol . In general. canis not be derived from the alcohol which present in wine. "We may observe with respect to the alcoholic con tents of effervescing wines. it may be considered as a fact. and more flavour and aroma is which are weaker. that in wines which contain an abundance of alcohol a large amount of albumen and sugar may be supposed to have existed in the grape juice. u . possessed by such wines than by those I say. A generic connexion between the peculiar qualities of Rhine wine and the small of alcohol liarities is amount as undeniable as that between the pecu- of Madeira and the larger alcoholic contents. is generally clearly understood thus the more albuminous matter and sugar are contained in the grape juice.AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. that they contain some- what more alcohol at the time when they are poured out than they did a short time before. If actually we confine ourselves to a general statement we may say that in Ehine wines. in spite of many varieties. and the greater the facility with which other substances may be developed in it. 143 least as their origin connected with the formation of alcohol (in so far at from alcohol is concerned). a general resem- blance is less may be found. many exceptions to this rule. the more perfect will be the development of the fruit. in general for there are . In the fermentation which immediately precedes their use. than in Madeira wine these two kinds of wine differ considerably. and its real value .
Substances heavier than water are found in salts. less thick this is often the case with With respect to the alcohol of wine. &c.. it is no longer necessary to put the question which in the time of Fabroni was answered in the negative namely. and it contains a portion of the water from the wine. wine. from whatever kind of wine it may be as obtained. the alcohol is obtained anhydrous by repeated distillation with unslacked lime. and of such volasubstances as are contained in wine. the value of any other liquid. such as sugar. is besides alcohol. the flavour of the liquid was altered.144 little AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. &c. and a little ferment thus after a few seconds the clear wine be. and on the amount of alcohol contained in . as little The composition of wine can be by its determined specific weight. liquid depends mixed weight of such a on the kind and quantity of the specific The first-mentioned ingredients.. The alcohol purified in this manner is exactly the same. this best. vinegar. beer. formed comes more or champagne. distillation with animal charcoal. whether alcohol (as such) was found in wine? one of the reasons given among when spirit distilled others for denying it being that from wine was added to it again. can be so de- cided. which lighter than water. The latter tile are is known under the common name removed by renewed of fusel oil . sugar is decomposed. Alcohol is obtained from wine by distillation. it. be it milk.
and determine If. and terminate in a cylin- shaped cubic centimetres. Of course one of the first things to be considered is. like a bottle.AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. = 11. for instance. glass retort and water bath are used in does not boil. drical measure-glass. especially in the case of strong wines. and when a distilling. and one small apparatus was arranged by but the simplest apparatus which can be used is a retort. and be kept sufficiently cool. Some content themselves with one-third. alcohol evaporates better in general to allow L . must be bent at a right angle. advisable to over more than a third. Various instruments have been constructed to effect this purpose. so that The tube it may be kept filled with cold water). Care must be taken to prevent the alcohol from evaporating. with a tubular refrigerator (consisting of a glass tube fixed in the centre of a tin jar. the I consider it If the wine more slowly. divided into how much of the wine should be distilled over. determine its specific gravity and quantity. in the distillate 33 parts out of 100 are composed of alcohol. distil however. Gray-Lussac . the alcoholic contents from that. and everything except the retort be kept cool. for ^It is. as also that the apparatus be securely closed. the quantity of alcohol in the wine will be 11 per cent. 145 The simplest method of ascertaining the quantity of alcohol contained in wine is to distil the spirit from the wine. and compare it with the quantity of wine which has been employed.
glass may be 100 parts of 200 cubic centime- wine be distilled. one still simpler has been sought. for if cylinder measuring. a mixture of alcohol and water always at a lower temperature than water alone. is nevertheless founded on the same prin- Alcohol boils at a low temperature. Conaty. to determine the density. give the exact alcoholic contents of the to wine. though differently put together by Brossard-Vidal. and that in . however. and sufficient water be added it after distillation is over to make it again 200 C. at a uniform temperature. the specific gravity of this liquid will.. or when the areometer is to be employed. ciple. instrument has been recommended which. a method by which the result desired may be more For this purpose an speedily attained is necessary. continue till distillation to at least half is distilled If the density of the liquid which has been distilled is such as to give 25 per cent. and Lerebours.146 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. as it is to read it less easy accurately it when the liquid is very watery than when contains more alcohol. alcohol at the above-mentioned temperature. Simple as this method of determining the quantity And of alcohol is. water at a higher. then 25 divided by 2 over. This last process is not. perhaps when many kinds of wine are to be examined. C. The bottle-shaped dispensed tres of with. advisable in the case of weak wines. gives the alcoholic contents of the wine at 12-| per cent.
A thermometer tube is made use of. and the above-mentioned thermometer tube be placed in it. filled with quicksilver in such a manner as to show all the varieties of temperature be- tween boiling water and a boiling mixture of 75 parts water and 25 parts absolute alcohol. and capable of being turned ex- by a screw in either direction. 10. the mixture of 95 parts water and 5 parts alcohol must then be boiled. The space between 0. 147 proportion to the quantity of alcohol. and the end of the column of quicksilver then be marked with 5. are marked. and the tube marked 10. water and 20 alcohol. 75 water and 25 alcohol pressure of 760 millimeters Let water be boiled in a copper vessel at a (29*9 inches). alcohol. and 25 in 75 parts water and 25 alcohol. The same process must be repeated with the mixture of 90 parts water and 10 alcohol. the thermometer may be first dipped in boiling water.AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. . 5. so that in every periment where the atmospheric pressure is different. 20. 25 may be equally divided. and the part to which the extreme point of the column mometer tube being again placed of quicksilver reaches must be marked O. 15 at the point to which the quicksilver mounts in a boiling mixture of 85 parts water and 15 alcohol 20 in that of 80 parts . 80 water and 20 alcohol. 15. . upon which the degrees must be connected with the tube in such a scale The manner as to be moveable. The therin the vessel. Then let the following mixtures be made 95 parts water and 5 parts alcohol 90 water and 10 alcohol 85 water and 15 .
the thermometer (ebullioscope) should be dipped into wine which is in a copper vessel. If the first half minute be allowed to pass. (that is. and the experiment becomes . and before it boils. gives directly the alcohol. In this manner the instrument may be used to test wine. First. of the scale placed exactly level with the and the end of the column of mercury. that the solid matters which wine do not perceptibly raise the boiling point . the experiment must be repeated with another liquid. not during the experiment) and secondly. which originally served for graduating the I will experimentally examine both points. If this should reach the divi- sion 15. and that the temperature of wine containing 15 per cent. and of a mixture of 15 parts alcohol and 85 parts water. In order to determine the alcoholic contents of wine. absolute alcohol exists in It will easily be understood that success depends upon two exist in points. in noticing the height of the mercury. The point which the mercury thermometer tube. that as when the wine begins to warm. much alcohol and water is evaporated as during the experiment. since in that case too much alcohol evaporates. then 15 per cent. It is necessary to be very watchful and quick whilst graduating the instrument and whilst examining any It is wine. may remain stationary for a minute.148 AMOUNT OE ALCOHOL IN WINE. reckoned that half a minute may elapse. tube. alcohol. and then it should attains in the be made to boil quickly. amount of the the wine.
It is scarcely necessary to re- mind the reader that upon these details. lutely necessary. valueless. A uniform source of heat. the liquid boils. it would in the latter case cause relatively to evaporate before the liquid more alcohol than water boiled. and in whether the evaporation from alcohol before when boiling begins. which will is cause the liquid to boil quickly. and that is the moment for observation. of wine do not so in- modify the boiling temperature as to render the strument inaccurate. and attention must likewise be paid to everything that tends to promote equable boiling. and this occurs in the same manner in the experi- ment which serves to graduate the thermometer. If it be irregularly conducted. as when the instrument is made use of to analyse wine. and secondly. its applicability must depend . One great difficulty here is how best to apply heat. be as great it is wine as in alcohol whether the solid constituents and water. 149 experi- It is also necessary that this ment with wine should be made in a vessel shape and of the same metal as that in .AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. therefore abso- That alcohol evaporates before the liquid boils is certain. The points which I have endeavoured to investigate are. and the alcoholic contents of the wine would then be esti- mated too low. first. which the thermometer was graduated further. that the bulb of the thermometer (ebullioscope) must be placed in the middle of the fluid. now quickly and then slowly.
. which gives a difference of six parts by weight in 10000.150 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL TN WOE. extract. The loss in 20 cubic centimetres wine was Ditto in alcohol and water . a difference of 0*012. and 19*9 (306 grs. and the same amount of time be used in bringing the water to a boiling point. contains 1*64 per cent. a liquid therefore containing the same amount of alcohol as existed in the wine. The quantity of solid con- . in which the temperature taneously was rising. This difference may. . The first point was easily examined. however. It was necessary to examine the effect produced upon the boiling temperature by the solid constituents held in solution by wine.) for the spirit. T268 1*280 Therefore in 20 CO. it being never allowed to remain boiling more than a minute. and the whole were weighed. After both had remained at boiling point one minute they were immediately cooled and weighed. . be neglected.) for the wine). alcohol was poured into a flask. 20 cubic centimetres of red wine. if exactly the same method of heating be employed. Thermometers were then placed in these flasks. 19'5 grammes (300 grs. which contained 10*5 per cent. and into another flask of equal size water with 10 5 absolute alcohol was f put. The wine in the one flask boiled 10 seconds before the alcohol and water in the other. I am now only speaking of wine which. They were then plunged simulinto an oil bath. like that employed in this experiment. (that is.
boiled speedily in a platinum ves- And Burgundy-Pommard freed by distillation from alcohol. cent. and boiled more strongly at 212.. White Ber- . or at 211-55 F.. 100 25 C. sufficient to it "We shall see further that the specific gravity of wine the alcohol of which has evaporated. but whether the difference between the boiling points be unless it render the ebullioscope useless. the residue of Ehine wine. varies in different kinds of wine. with 25 per cent. and it is not neces- sary to examine whether water. 99 25 C. and more strongly at 212*45 F. And give the alcoholic contents within 1 per cent. boils if at 210-65 F. The following are the results which have been ob- tainedwater sel. 5 C. left T80 per cent.9 F. at 211-75 F. the wine. boiled at the same time in the same platinum vessel at 212 F.1030.AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL stituents varies IN WINE.. 100 100 C. for this is well known. and 1. cream of tartar.. The wine gave 2-87 extract. varies between 1-0083. and the original volume of which has been replaced by water.. sugar. treated in the same manner. 151 it from 1 to 25 per and more. must certainly be considered useless. and reduced again to its original volume. &c. extract. after evaporation. boiled 75 C. 99 Eoussillon wine. At what temperature does such a liquid boil ? shall By examining this point we be able at once to determine the influence exerted upon the boiling point by the solid constituents of wine. boils at a different temperature from pure water. the residue of white Bergerac.99 75 C.
at 212-9 5 C. 102 5 C. since sufficiently known that no con- stant temperature can be maintained in any boiling liquid. The wine gave 26-81 extract. this Nothing more can be required for the rejection of method. 2-87 212-45 F. 26-81 2165 F. water not excepted. found in the Let us take the highest temboth of water and of wine without alcoperature hol. and more strongly at 216-5 F. 103 C. Those who maintain that the temperature of boiling water in a vessel can be determined within half a degree. after it has been reduced by water to its original volume. 99 75 C. when placed in a platinum vessel. . 100 "Wine. 99 75 C.152 AMOUNT OP ALCOHOL IN WINE. glass vessel boiled at Pure water put into a At the same 217'4 F. F. The water boiled at 211*55 F. is But another source of inaccuracy solid matters of wine. 100 25 C.. from the bottom of the For this reason the scale of the thermometer is not graduated by placing the bulb in boiling water. it boiled at 211-55 F. gerac boiled at 215-6F. or have not used the thermo- meter sufficiently. with 1-80 extract. 102 5 C. 102 C. have either never watched the process of boiling closely enough. but by exposing it to the steam. And a thermometer in the fluid and falls rises rises according as more or less hot vapour vessel. The experiments made were scarcely it is necessary. time.
sugar has no effect upon the boiling point of water. Pohl. boils at the same temperature as a mixture of 10 parts alcohol. at 760 millimetres. even 15 per cent. has made use of the ebullioscope. that Pohl gives us the weight per cent. and 75 parts water. Each of these temperatures in is 153 higher than given by water. Fixed ingredients in wine raise the boiling point if deducted from it. and 90 parts water.. estimated too low. (29 9 inches) barometric pressure. Jahresber. liquid and afterwards (supposing the mixture to contain 146 grammes. . it rises gradually a little. s. and that in proportion to the amount of the extractive matter.* like Groning and Brossard-Yidal. during which the thermo- meter remains stationary. of alcohol in the mixture. * Liebig and Kopp. consequence which remain in wine when freed from alcohol. 15 parts sugar. stationary when it first boils only remains then at a fixed point for a short time. if of the fixed ingredients But its these solid matters raise the boiling point of wine which has been freed from alcohol and restored to original volume by the addition of water. learn from his statements that a mixture We of alcohol and water. will be . 1850. It is in this last period. and a mixture of 10 parts alcohol. according to him. the alcoholic contents. and. (2253 grains)) remains at a fixed temperature for from 4 to 16 seconds.AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. they must have the same effect upon wine in which alcohol still exists. 455.
Absolute Alcohol.154 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. Temperature. .
But then we overlook the uncer- tainty of a whole degree in the temperature in the first place. was superfluous. the effect of the solid matwine.. 92 C. its specific 155 . 50 C. we will describe as simply as is A . the construction of which possible. and dipped into a liquid warmed to 77 F. This spirit first in gave the same platinum at vessel gave the sign of boiling 197-6F. the liquid warmed to 122 F. Then let the apparatus be rises filled . He from the point that heat renders alcohol much more elastic than water. useless = in cases where accuracy is Silbermann has made use of another method of ascertaining starts the alcoholic contents of wine. in wines containing a great deal of sugar. and makes use of an instru- ment for determining the quantity of alcohol. rise to 2y degrees C. 8 degrees E.AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. likewise and the point to which the water then marked. and might. gravity was taken it exactly 10*5 per cent. containing 10'5 alcohol. alcohol. thermometer tube with a bulb filled with water. These are the same temperatures at which wine boiled. extract So far one might imagine the ebullioscope could be trusted. 93C. which amounts here to half a degree. and boiled completely at 199*4 F. and 1*64 per cent. the point at which the water in the tube stands is marked. For these reasons I have been led to consider the ebullioscope as required. ters of the and secondly. 25 C.
with pure alcohol.. 50 C. The halymetric method contents of wine was first of analysing the alcoholic one portion is dissolved in pure water. the alcohol should stand at the lowest point before attained by the water.. dipped into a being three The stand higher than the water did at 122 F. the wine will rise in the tube just in proportion to the amount of alcohol it contains. <fec. and the apparatus warmed to 122 F. another in any liquid that may be chosen . which dissolves less in proportion to the amount of . will a temperature of 122 F. The use of this instrument assumes that the non- volatile constituents of wine (sugar. 50 C.156 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE.) do not inter- fere with the expansion of the liquid.. by Fuchs upon beer. another in wine. 50 C. and afterwards by Zierl upon wine. If the instrument be now filled with wine to the point which the water reached at 77 F. 25 C. 50 C. Pure powdered common salt is taken and divided into fixed quantitried ties. must be divided into 100 equal parts. I shall pass over in silence the easiest manner of arranging and filling this instrument. 25 C. so that at a heat of 77 F. the alcohol times as much expanded by the heat. interval between the point reached by the water and that attained by the alcohol at If the instrument be now medium of 122 F..
AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE.
and another portion in wine which has been
down, and restored by water to its original volume, and in this the amount of salt dissolved is
proportion to the foreign substances dissolved
in the boiled wine.
examining how much salt is dissolved in wine, and how much in wine that has been boiled and
we may determine
approximately the extractive and alcoholic contents of the wine. The method is, however, very imperfect.
another means of determining the alcoholic
contents of wine, which especially recommends itself on account of its simplicity. It is employed by Tabarie,
and may be applied to beer as well as to liqueurs, and
other spirituous liquors. The specific gravity of the wine to be tested is ascertained, half its volume is
evaporated in the open air, sufficient water is then added to the remainder to restore its original volume, and the specific weight is again determined. Tabarie
has constructed a peculiar areometer for determining specific gravities, and called it an osnometer. It is not
necessary to dwell upon this subject, but we may just observe that an areometer which exhibits densities
divisions, is sufficient for
ranging from 0'990 and 1-104, having therefore any kind of wines, for
is no wine of less specific gravity than O990, and none of greater specific gravity when freed from alcohol, and again diluted with water than 1/104.
AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL
take three decimal points, for the
observations cannot be
alcohol decreases, arid non-volatile sub-
stances increase the specific gravity of wine. alcohol be allowed to evaporate, its quantity
determined, as far as
by ascertaining the
ference between the specific gravity of the wine and
that of the residue to which water has been added.
self-evident that even this
method cannot be
absolutely accurate, since the solid constituents are
differently circumstanced in wine, according as alcohol
present or non-present. The only question of importance here is, whether the method be serviceable
whether the strength of the wine can be determined by it with sufficient accuracy. Experience has taught me that it is applicable, and I have no
hesitation in preferring
to every other method,
of wines are to be examined.
only necessary to
off a certain quantity of
wine with a pipette, the contents of which are known, and to ascertain its temperature and specific gravity (which can be done, if preferred, by an areometer),
then place this wine in an open glass in a water-bath, about half has evaporated water must then be
it till its
be reduced again to
thence the alcoholic conspecific gravity ascertained, the wine can be learned. And indeed the tents of
AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL
which need not be reckoned exactly according to time) may be completed by the use of the areometer
in the course of a few minutes.
as accurate as that obtained
ascertaining the specific gravity of the distilled liquor. In using this method it is necessary to allow for the
specific gravity of
wine which has been evaporated and restored to its volume, and the specific gravity of the wine originally,
by subtracting the one from the
as they exist together in wine.
then gives the specific gravity of the alcohol and water
Suppose that at 10 C. 50 F. the specific gravity of wine =09953, and that of wine freed from alcohol and
by means of water
to its original
1.0080, subtract 0*0080 from 0'9953, and the remain-
C., expresses 9 per cent, absolute at 59'5 F. and 15 5 C. which is therefore the alcohol,
50 F. 10
alcoholic contents of the wine.*
The following experiments, made
between 9 and 10 C. 48'2 and 50
at a temperature
especially of the peculiar suitableness of
has a specific
distilled in a retort to
determinations I have followed
be found in Gerhardt, Traite de Ch. organ, torn,
AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL
The spirit which passed over, being diluted p. 145). with water to 200 CO., had a specific gravity =0'985S.
The wine remaining in the with water to 200 CO., had a
Specific gravity of
wine 0*9951, minus
0*9862 gives 10*3 per cent, absolute alcohol, whilst the specific gravity of the spirit which was distilled
over=0'9858, and this gives at 95 5 F. 15 5 C. 10-6
per cent, alcohol.
Thus Bordeaux wine contained 10'5 per cent, alcohol
by volume, showing a difference of 3- per cent. The experiment was repeated upon the following
of water to
and restored by the addition volume = 0*9763. original gravity of the wine, freed from alcohol,
and diluted by water to its original volume = T0205. 0*0205 = 0-9765, which, at a temperature of 9970 from 48*2 F. 9 C. to 50 F. 10 C. (at which all these experiments were made), gives 20 per cent, alcohol in the wine, whilst 0'9763, the ascertained specific gravity of
cent, alcohol. Here, then, is a
J per cent., which, however, in expeof this kind may be safely disregarded.* riments
sp. gr. all through were made by weighing a glass pear, a description of which is given in the investigation of sea water (Scheik. Onderz. deel. 6, p. ],) and the weighings were made with a balance which was
here observe that the determinations of
sensitive to O'l
milligramme (O'OIO grain).
AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL
Madeira, specific gravity
and restored again by water
to its original volume, has a specific gravity of 0'9782.
The wine freed from
and reduced to
volume by water, has a specific gravity = 0-0181 0-9971 0-9790, gives at 59*5 E.,
15,5 C. 17^-per
specific gravity of the wine, would give 18 per cent, alcohol. Here, again, is a difference, as the spirit
showed a higher rate of
= 0'9945. specific gravity
Spirit distilled (as above), specific gravity =0'9790.
= 1-0151. sp. gr.
0-0151=0'9794, which gives
exactly 17 per cent, alcohol, whilst the specific gravity
which was found to be 0'9790, gives the alcoholic contents of the wine at 17 per cent.
Ehine wine (Eiidesheimer) Spirit, as detailed above
representing alcoholic per cent., whilst 0'9881 the specific gravity of the distilled spirit, gives 8, that is, a difference of f per cent, in the alcoholic contents.
AMOUNT OE ALCOHOL IN WIFE.
Let us now compare these
AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE.
ought not to be evaporated too
in that case
a portion of the substances held in solution in wine are precipitated, and the result obtained is conse-
quently less accurate. In expelling the alcohol it is of use to conduct the steam of hot water through the
volatile matters (alcohol
and water excepted)
which appear in wine, are too insignificant in quanIn determining the alcotity to affect the results.
holic contents of the
wine from the
must be met with.
Mayer,* using Malaga wine, ob-
tained very different results as to the alcoholic contents according as the wine was distilled, or the
alcohol calculated from the residue left
wine had been evaporated and restored by means of water to its original volume. He found
from 14 to 19 per cent, extract, and it becomes a question whether wines of the same kind as Malaga
can be tested by this method.
The experiment was
tried in the following
A solution of sugar was made, with which alcohol was
9 C. to 50 E. 10 C. a
was thus obtained, having, at 48*2 F. Of specific gravity of T0407.
from this liquid in a closed
200 CC. were taken. was
apparatus, and water then added to the distilled and to that remaining in the retort, till both
15, s. 20]
AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE.
the specific gravity of the and that of the spirit,
At the same temperature,
solution of sugar
This last would give 16| per cent, as the
alcoholic contents, at 95-5 P. 15-5 C., whilst 1-0407
= 0'9805, gives an alcoholic per centage of 16.
There is, according to this, a difference of f per cent. I consider, for such determinations, that this is sufficiently accurate.
must be remembered that
we would have
distilled by spirit alone, the wine must not be but the process must be carried on after the
addition of chalk.
Inaccuracies will always occur in such determinabut for all technical purposes I consider the
method of evaporation sufficiently accurate though I must confess that neither this means nor the distillation of spirit can give the exact amount.
the wines mentioned.
Blaanderen has obtained the following results from The determinations were all
C. and 50 E. 10 G.
made between 48'2 F. 9
AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. . 165 Madeira twelve kinds. Specific gravity of the wine.
Specific gravity of the wine. Rhine wine* eleven kinds. .166 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IK WINE.
. (48-2 to 50 F. 167 The following wines have been examined in the same manner at a temperature of from 9 to 10 C.) by Vlaanderen.AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE.
alcohol. Some of these numbers are inaccurate. The quantity of alcohol. It cannot be otherwise.. for example. but in order to avoid repetition. But among such Rhine wines as give 11 per cent.168 AMOUNT OE ALCOHOL IN is containing 19 per cent. varies only between 9^ and 11-g- per cent. Vol. (French Wines. we find the specific gravity 0'9953 0'9948 0-9940 0-9939 0-9934. In order to make my summary as complete as possible. I was obliged to put them together here. FONTENELLE. Kivesaltes 10'8 10'9 Banyules Collioure Salces 10'7 10-1 . in the Rhine wines. more par- ticularly because they have been obtained by means of an inaccurate method. 0-9971 0-9970 0-9966 The same holds good in respect to other wines. I have selected sueh as are most generally known. I subjoin various analyses of the alcoholic contents of wine. specific gravity of wine does not depend entirely upon the alcoholic contents. 0*9999.) East Pyrenees. whilst their densities range from 9934 to 0'9960.volatile constituents. alcohol 0-9984. per cent. 0-9961. with which other determinations are occasionally given these we shall understand better byand-by. but is more or less The affected by the non. found to be.
.9*6 10' 1 Carcasonne 8'5 Departement de 1'Herault... . Vin de Lunel St. . . .16 15'2 Jura9on (white) (red) 13-7 13'7 . 5'8 7'3 Bordeaux (best) Toulouse 5'9 These determinations are all too low. . Vol. . .. Porto et Madera 20 .AMOUNT OE ALCOHOL IN WINE. per cent. . Lacryma Christi Grenache (old Madeira) .. George. per cent. . Xeres.. Departement de 1'Aude. . 9'3 9*1 Montagnac 9'6 9-1 Meze Montpellier 8 ' 7 Lunel Frontignan Hermitage (white) 8'9 8*4 8*3 7'3 Bourgogne Graves Champagne non mousseux Champagne mousseux (white) Champagne mousseux (red) . . Malaga. Bagnouls. ..17 . Payen gives the following numbers :* Vol. . Cyprus * . Nissan Beziers . 169 Fitou et Leucate ' 10*1 Lapalme Sigean 10'4 10'2 9'9 .6*1 ..15 Chimie industrielle.. . . . 6'9 6'9 .. Xarbonne Lezignan Merepeiset. .
87 12*9 9'9 9'1 Saumur Tokayer Khine wine Chatillon Verrieres 11 a 11'9 .. .11*8 15*5 Hermitage (white) Cote-Botie 113 15 12'2 Sauterne (white) Beaune (white) Barsac.2 . . Vol.. .. 1 121 13'7 2 3. . ...7*5 6'2 .. ..... 13 10'25 9'85 Blaye Libourne Saint-Emillion Parsac 9'18 9'45 LaReole Cubzac . 8'50 8-75 8'7 9'3 Chateau-Lafitte et Chateau-Margaux Chateau-Latour Giscours et Leoville 9 l 9'8 9'2 9'9 9' 7 - Laroze-Kirwan Cantenac Tronquoy-Lalande Saint-Estephe Volnay 11 Macon Champagne mousseux Cher Coteaux-d'Angers 10 10 a 1T6 . . .. 13 121 Claret (Bordeaux exported to London) .....170 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. per cent.3 Poudenzak. .. Vauvert 13'3 Frontignan . 1 14'7 12-6 ..
. 326. Macaire (Gironde) (red) Joue (red) .. white Saint-Piere-du-Mont Molsheim Bosheim Barr 9'2 8'6 Ergersheim . de Chim.. 436. per cent. Common Wine White Wine (from Forst Shervilles (lower Ehine) .... . . Med.. Vouvray (white) Entre deux mers (white) Cher (red) St.. .. : 6'9 6 According to Malland. . la Vendee) 8'8 Wachenheim (Rhine) ...13 ... 9'2 11 12 9'8 .. 9'0 8'0 8'3 8'0 Anjou (white) * lO'O p.. .. Gay-Lussac* here) : 171 omitted (Payen's statements are Vol. Juin 1842. torn... 7*7 fol- Macon (red) 7*7 7-1 (white) Blois (red) 7'3 9'7 .t French wines have the lowing alcoholic contents Bourgogne (red) per cent... . Chateau-Haut-Brion Chateau-Destournel 9 9 9 9*3 9'1 Brannes-Mouton Lalagune Therme-Cantenac * Phelan .. ... t Journ. . iii. Pelouze et Fremy. Good Burgundy Angers (coteaux) Vins de poids (from the South) ...AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. . ..11 10 12'2 II' 5 Westhoffen Bomme.. p. 1T9 11-5 .
. 10'7 8'3 7' Chinon (red) Orleans (red) Sanserre (red) 8 8'3 Selogne (white) Saint. 9'0 6'7 7'3 Aignau (red) Tonnerre (red) Bergerac (white) Tavella 13'7 14'0 Chablis Ponilly 75 9'0 Most of these numbers are too low. Piccardan (white) Blaye (white) Gaillac (Tarn et Garonne). Faure* has analysed the wine of La Gironde. lO'O 8'3 .172 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. and the following tables are extracted from his statements. 8'7 ll'O .Christol (red) De la Cote Chalonnaise. . . red . (red) St. Per cent. WHITE WINE. .
...AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL WINE.. 0'994 0"997 0-997 0'996 Cos destournel ISrannes Leoville ...nl Lonoi ' Solution Of gelatine * required...... Alcoholic contents of wine at 15 5 C... Gr. 50'9 F.. .. r-nV. grammes precipitated 1 gramme chlorine water was prepared in the usual manner... according to Brande.. . mouton .. 0'997 Kirwan Cantenac 0'997 0'997 0'996 Giscours .........) tannic acid..... .......... ---- Gr. St. Haut-Brion .. Thenne-Cantenac ____ Tronquoy-Lalande . ---- 0'996 margaux O996 0'995 Latour ........... Chateau Lafitte ... Lalagune . Estephe Phelan ---- 0'998 0'997 0'998 The The solution of gelatine was so prepared that 100 (15*49 grs.... la Rose . ....... 173 1840 Sp.
Saint Martin Millas Salees Riversaltes .. 25. s. . 0'993 . . . 15*11 minimum Tinto (red French) 11*95 Burgundy maximum .. .. . 15'2 Brandes Arch. 12*9 14*6 (Plaine) ... (white) (red) 11-84 10*64 Rhine wine maximum 13*31 8*00 10'46 13*5 minimum Tokay Nice Schiras 14*4 . Mauri Saint Paul . Frontignac Marsala maximum .. . . 0'994 0'998 0*991 13 14*6 t .. .. Sp. 0'994 0'996 14*93 14*5 Baixas Calce . Alcohol. 222. . 12*32 12*32 11 '00 minimum Graves (Bordeaux) 11*84 Champagne. . minimum Malmsey Bucellas . Corbere Pia (Hortolanes) 0'992 0'994 10'27 14*23 Tornilles (Crete) Corneille de la Riviere (Crete) . . . Bd. . .. . Cotes-Rotie (Bourgogne) . 0-989 0*993 14*7 13*7 . ...11*8 15*9 14*2 15*2 17*1 Bouis * wine from the East Pyrenees. . . .. 1837 0'993 15 15*4 0*994 0-994 14-57 0*994 15 14'8 13*6 13*9 Tressere Palla 0'994 0-994 0*999 ... Perpignan (Labanera) Baho (Garrique) Boges Trouillas .174 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. . Ceret (Cote Saint Fereol) * . . Bordeaux (Claret) maximum . . .gr. 0*992 . 0*993 1*006 14*2 14'2 Espira de 1'Aigly . .11*4 .. . .
Claret ordin. .18 20 .. strong) Teneriffe (long in Calcutta) Cercial . . Port wine. Ammontillado Claret. 16'27 14'53 Rhodez Vinca Finesbrat Trades Villefranche Olette .? .. .AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. 1838 J837 0'999 1'040 0'993 15'9 (Garriqne) . 1837 0*989 1'002 15 13'7 16'1 .. East Indian) de Xeres . weak average of 7 kinds (strong) . .... . 1815 Rosau. Madre (strong) (average of 9 kinds. . Sp. Sijeau .. . (best kind.. 13 Christison has given us the following analyses of the alcoholic contents of wine.18 20 21 18 17 (weak) Sherry (weak) .. .. .. gr.. ... . Aoles (Cote au sud) Argeles ( Saint Magdalaiue) Collioure (Saint JuUien) Raugals sur mer Ille 175 Alcohol. 20 16 10 10 1811 1825 Chateaux Latour. . 0'987 0-988 . O988 0'993 . In volume. 0-994 0*993 Narbonne .. 10 11 11 Rivesaltes Malmsey Riidesheimer (best) (ordinary) 16 10 9 y Hambacher (best) .21 . (average of 13 old wines) . . . 14'27 14'43 13'87 13'6 13'6 .. 12-6 11-3 Fitou . 0'992 0-994 0'993 . Madeira (long in East Indies. (weak) 17 17 18 Lisbon sec. ]8 21 ..
the temperature is not given.176 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. Liebig's Annales. I subjoin some of his state- ments : Wine fror . I have used round volume calculated from Chris tison's and given the In weights. principally with the view of ascertaining the effect pro- duced by the weather during the summer upon the wine of different years.* from which I have taken these statements. Filholf has analysed the wine of the Upper Graronne. numbers here.
Extract.AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. Extract. Pract. as a standard the consistence of pills. from 19 to 25 per cent. in per. 1-9 2-1 0'9960 10-1 9-3 9-3 0'9940 0-9940 9'8 9'5 1-8 0-9940 0'9971 0'9911 8-5 2-0 1-9 13-2 10-1 8'8 Forster Kiesling lO'O 9'4 9'9 1-8 Markobrunner 0'9910 0'9910 0'9938 0'9930 2-1 1-8 10-1 8-5 Oppenheimer Celtinger 7'3 1-8 1-8 1-5 10-9 Pisporter 6'7 7*9 10-6 lO'l 9'5 Brauneberger Steinberger 0-9940 0'9960 6*7 6'8 8'5 7'2 1-9 Ungsberger Eodelseer Leistenwein 0'9970 0'9944 1-9 1-9 8-6 11-8 10-9 16-0 15-0 10-6 0'9994 1-9 Naumburger Griineberger O9975 0'9976 l'020l 6'4 6'5 2-3 2-1 Tokayer 12'1 10'6 G-eiger. Pharm. s. to saturation per cent. 1-0025 Alcohol. 177 He finds in every kind.gr. 10-9 12-7 11-6 12-6 Rudesheimer Markobrunner Geisenheimer Liebfrauemnilch 1'0025 0'9985 0'9935 5'4 0'9939 0'9925 10-6 9-8 2-3 Dienheimer * 2-2 Journ. 24. of this extract evaporated to the consistence of pills. But what is this consist- ence ? He it I think has also analysed the ashes of wine.* Medoc Bourgogne Haut Sauterne Haut Bomraes HautCenous Niersteiner Ammon. Ludersdorf. and phosphate of lime. s. f.f Steinberger Sp.gr. + Magazin Chem. c. 7'4 calcium. . 266. Bd. 19. Bd. f. 102. Richter. but unnecessary to state more than I have done. chloride of Alcohol Sp. He found sulphate of lime and potash.
.* Wine from the Palatinate. . Fischern.178 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. Weinheimer Bingen (Scharlachberg) Wiesbaden (Nersberg) .
Choice . gravity of: 0'98G6 0'9861 Madeira. 2 . Names of wine. two kinds Sauterne Claret. the grape sugar as free from water. From this summary we may infer that the saccharine : contents of the grape juice were originally from 1 24*5 per cent.. 1-0070 Diez. 1852 .t a short time since. o & 'S Forst. O9820 0'9951 two kinds American Wine 0'9949 .AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. 0*9886 . three kinds London particular . Port wine. The acid is 179 calculated as tartaric acid. undertook the analyses of many Rhine wines.3 26-3 24-1 28'5 4 Beek * found the (Sercial) sp. .
. 1852 1846 1834 1846 Hochheim 1848 Pisporter . Scharlachberg .. Name of wine. 02 I Markobrunner... Oppenheim Ungstein 1848 1853 Wachenheim Laubenheim Kauenthal Steinberger .. 1842 1848 Assmannshauser Oberingelheimer 1846 .... 1842 Nierstein 1835 Bockenheim Edenkoben 1850 Johannesberg ..... Choice Kudesheim Geisenheim 1822 1848 1846 1848 1842 1852 Gimmelding Euppertsb 1849 1848 1834 Durkheim Hattenheim Musbach Neustadt Ahrbleich 1852 1849 1834 1842 1852 ..180 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE... ..
Gr.AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. Palatinate haly metrically. and therefore. Sp. Forster . . inaccurately. Zierl * has determined the wines of Bavaria 181 and the Extract. Alcohol.
182 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. Riesling .
83 183 .AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE.
: Mitis* others.184 AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE.. 703. . ... 10*7 10-6 8-3 Hundestrahl ... Bd. 176. . . Jl 1822 10 8 9 1822 10 9 10 4'2 2'5 Hosier Chateau-Margaux St. lias analysed the following wines. 1 T0083 1-0086 31 3-0 18 2 17 * Baiersch.. C... Ext. . gr... Gewerbebl. ... 12'1 9'6 6'1 Delberg Dietersheimer (Landwein) . Sp. 37. Mainzerweg .. p.. u.. Kunst. Phil.. Journ. 10 10 2'6 3'3 8 1822 10 4'4 2'5 Maurer Kahlenberger Gritzendorfer 1834 10 10 10 2'6 2'6 2'6 2'7 3'7 3'0 3'0 Bisamberger Gumpoldskirchner Haslacher Frankenwein Esfchendorfer Heinrichsleutner . New. Estephe 2'6 3'2 ll'l 10 Good Champagne Effervescing Champagne Sicilian (Marsalla) . 11 9 12'6 4'5 17 Hitschok t has obtained the following results from an analysis of the wines of eastern countries: Wine from Hebron . Alcohol. t Edinb.. .. . 1884. Wine from Greece Brunnerwein Weidlinger Neustedler Wine Grinzinger 1811 10 9 4*8 2*9 1822 1834 . among and given us the alcohol in weight Alcohol. 1838. Extract.
. Wine from Libanon 185 .AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL IN WINE. from Syria from Cyprus from Rhodes from Corfu from Samos . . 1 year 6 years . from Smyrna ..
is a no other wine of course. although the results obtained by the different analyses may at first sight is seem to vary. obtained. ashes. Grinjal has stated that genuine Port wines never contain more than 12*75 per cent. It is difficult to But Ginjal's out of Portugal. all proof of the genuineness of Malaga wine. and tannic The great quantity of acid. since from is it obtained in like abundance. How is to ask one question. pronounce upon this opinion of we may be permitted it that all who have analysed Port wine have found from 17 to 21 per cent. alcohol ? Is there no wine except such as is adulterated with alcohol exported from Portugal ? And . phosphate of magnesia which may be precipitated from wine by means of ammonia. or were unable to determine accurately the strength of the alcohol. as double salt.186 AMOUNT OE ALCOHOL IN WINE. 1*147 1*139 per cent. as a precipitate Mayer 1*129 by ammonia. we we are able to determine them. is Port one of the wines which richest in alcohol. phosphate of ammonia and magnesia. and is of opinion that those who discovered more in such wines either analysed a wine which had been adulterated with alcohol. If we confine ourselves for the holic contents of the find that even thus moment to the alcoshall most excellent wines. pure alcohol. and also sulphuric acid. though poration must wines which have been exposed to evayield more than such as have not been subjected to this process. lime. and 0*38 per cent.
11. Rhine wine from generally from 9 to 10 per cent. all contain from 12 to 15 per cent. as a rule. 6 to 12 per 11 per cent. stronger than red wines . Red French wines contain from 9 to 14 per cent.. . Liqueur wines are. really belong to those not very strong wines which only contain 13 per cent. in which respect they differ but little from each other. 10. cent. although his experiments were made in Por- Eor my tugal. which is 187 recognised as the strongest wine in the country which produces it. alcohol.AMOUNT OP ALCOHOL IN WINE. does Port wine. Madeira ranks next to Port wine. 10. Benicarlo. "With regard to the alcoholic contents. alcohol ? part I hesitate to accept Ginjal's statement. Grood Bordeaux contains 10. Juran9on. 11 per . and Sauterne. cent. . less and more. Champagne. Lachryma Christi. 9. 12 per cent. Burgundy.
CHAPTER IX. though so easily produced from tannic acid Its absence need not. IT has already been observed that not a trace of is to be detected even in the juice of the tannic acid purple grape. and its amount is in proportion to the depth of the colour. the addition of salt of oxide of iron does not produce a dark colour. thus a trace of tannic acid can be always detected in old and colourless wines. and such admission is not allowed in wine. This fact may be easily ascertained . a proof that gallic acid does not exist. . know nothing about the it is existence of gallic acid in wine. If the tannic acid of red and other wine be precipitated by means of isinglass. by adding a clear solution of isinglass to the wine in the coloured wines it forms a strong precipitate. and filtered. in the others is usually a scarcely perceptible one. that this acid is principally found in coloured wines. The addition of salt of oxide of iron makes the precipitate more I evident. however. so that light-coloured liqueur wines contain very little. TANNIC ACID IN WINE. surprise us. since free admission of air is necessary to the conversion of tannic into gallic acid.
may easily "We have seen that no tannic acid exists in the If it grape juice. . Nevertheless. Champagne.TANIQC ACID IN WINE. or dietetically. It may also proceed partially from the fruit-stalls. scarcely perceptible trace A was detected by means of chloride of iron in Bordeaux Sauterne it was more perceptible in Cham. may be wholly disregarded when considering tity is The amount of tannic riffe. I acid 189 am of opinion that a trace of gallic occur in wine. as is well known. to tannic acid. if these have been allowed to ferment. or from such sparingly soluble substances as passed into the juice during the pressing and crushing of the grape-skins. wine. acid in Madeira. of astringency in their a question. a trace as contain but little sugar do not least partially. or colourless proceeds either from the skins which were allowed to ferment. since they contain a good deal of tannic acid. Ehine. them medically. flavour. whether such wines however. because I was not acquainted with any method of accomplishing it in such a manner as to be largely and generally useful. or from the grapestones. It is. found in I can safely assert that traces of tannic acid may be all white wines. it is found in liqueur. for the quantoo insignificant to affect even their flavour . at least the wines we are now considering have not. TeneMuscadel. owe their flavour. and other wines which are not red. at I have not attempted to determine the tannic acid contents of wine.
much indeed but Faure as mean gives only twice as in 10. Judging from the colour produced by chloride of iron and the precipitate formed by isinglass in red wine. still TANNIC ACID IN WINE. than the Dark. .000 parts wine he found six parts tannic acid in white Castillon. it). and found from 4 to 6 parts in 10. Teneriffe. and only seven parts in red Haut Brion. The same may be said with respect to the determining the amount of tannic acid in red wines. more so in Madeira. among the near it darkest.000 parts of wine must This appears to me to be too much. The difference between red Burgundy and red Bordeaux in respect to the tannic acid they contain. Faure has determined the amount of tannic acid in the white wines of la Grironde by means of isinglass. also standard solution of gelatine. though many French wines come As far as is known. the former always containing less latter. is very perceptible.coloured wines deserve especial notice with Port wine is regard to the tannic acid they contain.190 pagne. young wine contains the greatest quantity of tannic Port in point of colour. and I doubt whether so insignificant an amount of tannic acid could be accurately determined by a (p. and Rhine wines. I much should expect in general to find four or six times as tannic acid as in liqueur wines (which mostly contain . and proportionally strong in Muscadel and Lachryma Christi. 172).
acid. but dark violet. make it often difficult to dis- tinguish Port wine by the colour alone from Madeira. contains in proportion but a small quantity of free acid. If these wines are left in casks which are kept properly the alteration takes place contained in Port and more quickly than in bottles. series of years. length yellow at last that of liqueur wine as to then yellowish red. or present in the bottles or casks. when drawn clear. oxidises this tannic acid to a sub- stance which is sparely soluble. and at the colour agrees so exactly with red. the clearer will be the colour of the wine. The violet hue which it had when young becomes . 191 in solution. The more copious the deposit. becoming dark yellow instead of red. The alterations which Port wine and other wines. This colour is well known filed. is A great deal of tannic acid The oxygen of the heavily loaded Bordeaux wines. air which is either dissolved in wine. undergoes are such as are common in a greater or less degree to all other heavily loaded wines. . Young Port wine.TANNIC ACID IN WINE. and the colour of the wine rendered lighter. and in all such a deposit is formed. and is called by Berzelius apothema. or precipitate of tannic acid. in strong old cellared Bor- deaux wines. and off into bottles. and during a a sediment of organic matters which may be loosed from the lower parts of the bottle in complete cakes. and holds the largest amount of colouring matter The wine is not red. and deposits without intermission.
but no yellow colouring matter place. when put into wine. just as albumen and gelatine. But although albumen or gelatine. which. unites with the colouring matter. to if it copiously added young Port wine. diminution takes place both acid and dissolved colouring matter contained in apothema of tannic acid. if isinglass remains in solution. in wine colour it yellow. As much apothema remains is in solution in old found in Madeira. . whilst becoming insoluble.192 TANNIC ACID IN WINE. and by precipi- tating the colouring matter. a yellow colour is distinctly perceptible after a precipitate of tannic acid and colouring matter has been obtained by the judicious application of isinglass. almost deprive is of colour. In the first same be carefully added to very young Port wine. deposit. this result not possible if the colouring matter be precipitated with the apothema of tannic acid. cellared. This explanation entirely agrees with all the reactions which might here serve as illustrations. and such liqueur and the colour of the Port wine becomes the wines. such as is possessed by old Port and further. Port wine as as that of these liqueur wines. as. in Port wine which has been long wirie . coagulate. tannic acid and colouring matter may indeed be precipitated. for example. discolour the wine. enough remains in the wine to Whilst Port wine is forming a in the tannic it. which is intimately combined with the colouring matter of the The deposit is wine. This substance. . Apothema is not quite insoluble in weak spirit.
In order to . They were taken from very old Port wine. filtered from some of the insoluble constiliquid. it deposit was extracted with warm was sufficiently soluble to impart to the liquid a colour which. and had undergpne all the alterations which were possible to them under the circumstances. a plain proof that the I obtained results like the above from analysing the cake-like deposits of Port wine. and decomposed by means of sulphuretted hydrogen the water passed through clear. is 193 the and the older the Port wine the more apparent This is yellow colouring.TANNIC ACID Iff WINE. was deprived of colour by means of basic acetate of lead. first necessary to examine whether the colour of the old Port was attributable to these yellow It was substances was still that is. treated with boiling water. bined with oxide of lead. imparted to colour. tuents. . yellow colouring matter did not originally exist. when The cool. and all the yellow substance comThis lead precipitate was. after being washed. the above-mentioned alcohol. whilst the sulphide of lead. it a yellow solution. ascertain this. suspended in water. but is afterwards formed in the wine. exactly agreed with that of Port wine. soluble in water. when exposed to evaporation. whether a small portion of them held in solution in the wine. deposited No precipitate was obtained from this solution when The watery o . a dark-coloured substance.
however. it. and then the whole of the brown substance was contained in the precipitate. and the solution evaporated. that the yellow colouring matter of the Port wine agreed exactly with a portion of the sediment deposited in the course of time. undergoes when exposed to heat for. may. but it was necessary to add acid. the precipitate washed. The result obtained was. air.194 TA1O1C ACID IIS" WINE. After and the sulphide of lead had been boiled with water. after a time. the addition of solution of gelatine was not sufficient to produce a precipitate. suspended in water. tannic acid becomes brownish yellow when exposed to the air and any one who chooses to expose solution . not only is colour changed. acetate of lead. but gallic acid formed. These properties agree entirely with those which Berzelius has published as peculiar to apothema of Pelouze found that a diluted solution of tannic acid. at the usual temperature. to be considered exactly the same as that which tannic acid . perceive the alteration in the colour. and the discoloration may be viewed as partial decomposition of the sugar of tannic acid . Exactly the same substance may be obtained from Port wine was precipitated with Port wine itself. This change is not. mixed with solution of gelatine till after an acid Lad been added. through sulphuretted hydrogen conducted and the liquid afterwards filtered. which appears darker or lighter according as the solution is more or less con- o? tannic acid to the centrated.
otherwise it might perhaps have been discovered. unless an acid be added. is which. solution cannot be precipitated This by means of solution of gelatine. case. is What apothema of tannic acid. Here. substance combined with tannic acid. washed with water. when after yields a dark-coloured solution. and therefore like is thereby precipitated. following inferences a. and in the sulphide of lead a dark-coloured substance is deposited. which it is best removed by the use of ammonia. or 195 some similar substance. the precipitate dissolved in water and decomposed by means of sulphuretted hydrogen. into ulmic acid.TANNIC ACID IN WINE. and soluble in water. Up to this time gallic acid has not been sought in that solution of tannic acid which has been rendered deep brown. by being heated during exposure to the air. it acid which can only be the sugar of the tannic gives rise to a humus-like substance. which gives rise to a brown gelatinous precipitate. called a humus- Berzelius : has given the following method of analysis Let the dissolved tannic acid which has become brown by the action of heat be precipitated with sugar of lead. The tannic acid remains in solution in the water. the : may be deduced That the yellow colour of old Port wine is the . Erom all that has been said. and evaporation deposits a blackish brown sub- stance almost tasteless. I regain the term apothema. in this combines with a portion of the tannic acid. although the substance is really of the nature of humus. also.
That the liqueur wines. That in manner the old Trench wines becom- ing yellow e. by the formation of a small quantity of apothema of tannic acid. since tannic acid sarily is found in all wines. nothing.196 TANNIC ACID IN WINE. no peculiar yellow substance is to be found in 2>. and cannot therefore form a precipitate. and this change in their colour may. That this cake-like sediment is apothema of tannic acid. That only such wines as are produced from dark purple grapes (which contain a great deal of tannic acid). that is. perhaps. can form cakes of sediment. That excepting a trace of yellow-coloured substance. small quantities of which are soluble in weak spirit. effect of apothema of tannic acid. the skins of which were allowed to ferment. be accounted for in the same way. and this was formed from the tannic acid air. which neces- becomes apothema. and which therefore contain tannic acid in excess. when the fermentation is completed. namely. which originally contain but little tannic acid. That therefore no peculiar yellow colouring matter need be sought for in red wine which has been cellared. by the oxygen of the . this and this apothema must colour the old wine. which could proceed from the grape skins. is sufficiently explained. c. nevertheless become yellow in the course of time. the excess of which could not be dissolved in the wine . Port wine. /. g. d.
when we have is considered the colouring matter of wine. must not be deprived of too much tannic acid by means of albumen or gelatine (p. The preservation of the wine in a great measure to be ascribed to tannic acid. about this matter. "We shall be able to speak still more and in detail. 197 clearly. 98).TANNIC ACID IN WINE. Wines therefore which are intended for exportation. for the albuminous matters. and the colouring matter in this manner withdrawn from the wine. It has been observed that if red wine be put into well-corked glass bottles. a flocculent precipitate is obtained. but a large quantity always present in all is unnecessary. are thus prevented from decomposition. especially if sufficient air be admitted. The apothema thus produced is insoluble. and the principal cause of the wine spoiling is thereby checked. and withdraws the colouring matter from the wine by virtue of the so-called surface attraction. It would be impossible for light to act in this matter unless a sufficiency of air were dissolved in the wine. or to be long cellared. flavour first and aroma of the wine do not is suffer. Light promotes the production of apothema from tannic. and some air is wine. and exposed to full daylight. which are always combined with tannic acid in wine. The The phenomenon easily explained. .
"What we call red in wine is violet. I say reddish. . namely. deira. "We will now direct our attention to the cause of this variety of colour. the reddish and the yellowish colour. but for the sake of convenience we shall continue to call them yellow. which have been boiled. yellow wine is not yellow. and which.CHAPTEE X. can is only be made to change into the red colour produced by the action of hydrochloric acid on litmus. but pale For who has ever seen yellow wine ? Macall and such like wines. : such as Tinto. and the like. "We do not in chemistry speak of the reddish wine as red. but designate its hue by the term wine-colour it is the colour which . they are all varieties of two. a mixture of blue and red. "What we brown. Besides these. are brown. imparted to litmus by means of boracic acid and carbonic acid. for we know no kind of wine that is actually red or yellow. there are wines which every one calls brown those. COLOUEING MATTERS IN WINE. according to Malaguti. by the addition of large quantities of these acids.OUGH there are almost innumerable shades of difference in the colour of wine. ALTH.
we must endeavour to explain whole series of varieties and as red wines vary less from more or crimson to the darkest purple red. may not be superfluous to d\\ ell a little upon these points. darker. will still cause a The addition of a single mil- legramme wine makes it redder. a variation in the quantity cause. is But the quantity of colouring matter able . since a fixed quantity of acid is necessary to make the colouring matter In order to understand of wine red. salt. also vari- an equal amount of acids being assumed. it will be advisable in treating of it to begin with the facts derived from experience. ('015 gr. the colour of the wine will be its excess. of cream of tartar. it and yet become yellow in the course of time. and malic acid in some wines. and in proportion to darker. free tartaric acid is found in many. 199 As we riety less to the find among so-called yellow wines a va- which extends from such as are almost colour- this dark brown. owe their colour to one and .) of cream of tartar in a bottle of In proportion to the will amount of free tartaric and malic acid found in be the red- ness of the wine. without distinction. Endless variety may result from one and the same Supposing the amount of blue colouring matter reddening by means of acids to exist in equal quantities in all red wines. But besides cream of tartar. The same holds good with respect is to acetic acid which all wines. that all red wines. or vice versa. this subject clearly. and hence. or of an acid difference in the colour.COLOURING MATTEES IN WINE. first.
care must be taken to keep in mind the difference occasioned by the fermenting or non-fermenting of the skins. that no peculiar colouring matter is found in liqueur wines. the same blue colouring matter and second. stalks. In considering the preparation of wine. the Italian wine. the skins of which were permitted to ferment with the juice. pressed together renders it impossible but that a admixture of the components of the grape skins should occur. shall endeavour to treat these two points rather We in detail. Liqueur wines are obtained from white grapes. "We have seen that white wine may be prepared from purple grapes. since what has already been scientifically stated with respect to them is either inaccurate or incomplete. . Among clear as water. red or yellow wine would be obtained. "Wine produced from grape juice alone is colourless. . and passes into the wine.200 COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. and in this manner a portion of slight the tannic acid contained in the skins is dissolved. such as are nearly as may be especially mentioned. The fact that the whole mass of grapes is or white. and stones. least positive colour. according as purple or white grapes were used. But if the skins were allowed to ferment. vino cebedino. Perfectly colourless wines are never met with a tinge of yellow may be found even in such as have .
suffer a like common temperature. is not to be found in any particular substance which deserves the name ill of colouring matter. expect to find in colourless "We may therefore wines. since it constitutes the principal a substance spread over the whole vegetable kingdom. a less perceptible yellow colouring the result of the slow oxidation of a substance known by Scheele as soapy-matter. It is 201 obvious that the cause of the slight yellow colour which may be discerned in such wines. and giving off carbonic acid. and capable of assuming. to which Yauquelin first gave the name of extractive matter. when they have been prepared from grape more or juice alone. or heated. is but in a diluted state substance which is called yellow. and with which the chemist acquainted.COLOURING MATTEES IN WINE. for vegetable juices. as De Saussure observed. a brown colour. by abpart of medicinal extracts sorbing oxygen. but in every part of vegetable products. and when brought into contact with the air becomes more and . without any admixture of skins. well or when in contact with the air. preserved. It becomes gradually browner and browner. It is this present in grape juice. can. when brought alteration at a into contact with the air. Those subcolourless stances which impart a brown tinge but little to vegetable juices when allowed is still to evaporate. when This substance is found not only in the juices of the leaves and fruits. never appear perfectly colourless. exposed to the action of air and heat.
coloured. then. and from is become brown. on the contrary. as we learn from the white grapes which have dried in the sun. It is not necessary that the grape juice should ferment in order that this extractive matter may oxidize and acquire a brown tint . and this is the case when wine preserved in casks. it is acid. we discover one reason for the pale brown colour common to wines which are not red. besides alkali. rendered insoluble by continued exposure to the air. necessarily renders it darker in the course of time. This body is of a humus-like nature.. though colourless having formed is spirit.. and resolved into a substance which is called by Eerzelius deposit (absatz^or .202 COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE.apot^SBMIi^-wu^.. a substance then soluble in water and which. Is any one acquainted with white raisins ? The extractive matter being oxidized. possessing other qualities in or carbonated precipitated common with humic from which acids. especially if free access be allowed to the air. a brown colour in may again be by means of It sparingly solu- ble in alcohol. and frequently drawn off into others. as at every transfer it is saturated is with air. The substance described above being always con- tained in fermented grape juice. its oxidation appears to be rather checked than promoted by fermentation. more deeply Here. that of dissolving with alkali. If the wine be evaporated by heat before fer- .
and the colour of the wine becomes actually brown. of their qualities. grapes ferments. and bears of the substance from which it originates hence the slight differences in talk. apothema of tannic acid. these are Whilst the juice of these dark the white grapes. extracts tannic acid from the skins of yellow. and their colour will be dark in proportion to the heat to which they were exposed. 203 mentation. But even wine that is almost colourless yields. is a humic acid. &c. &c. Such a wine must in course of time acquire more . known as liqueur wines. Every frequently so-called apothema traces . when allowed to evaporate extract. therefore. Tinto. perhaps it is apocrenic acid. indeed. are much yel- sometimes. such as Malaga. in the air upon a water bath. the wine.. We the apothema of extractive matter. Evaporated grape juice leaves as residue a dark brown substance.COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. and holds it in solution. grapes. without possessing any peculiar colouring matter. or the length of time during which they were in contact with the air. Boiled wines (so called on account of the evaporation they undergo). which is in process of formation. are thus rendered brown. skins have been allowed to ferment. apothema will form in it very quickly. in which the Wines prepared from white lower. a dark brown the colour of which must be attributed to the above- mentioned causes. What kind of humic acid it may be is not yet deter- mined.
is to be entirely ascribed to the undergone by tannic acid. the darker the colour originally was. a brown matter. of exIf the solution contain but little tractive matter. Precisely the same observations may be made with is re- spect to our wild chestnuts. It is there- fore eventually resolved into a sediment. common with tannic acid. which are covered with a perfectly white skin. and more Every solution of tannic acid. colour. that the less the colour produced colour in any wine by the addition of chloride of iron. The dark colour of mahogany is derived from the apothema produced from the tannic acid contained in the wood. alteration thus Eor in these yellow or dark-coloured wines. Champagne. substances.204 COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. if much. "Without maintaining that the yellow colour of Muscadel. so long as the seed protected by the husk. par- ticularly when combined with other organic acquires colour when exposed to the air. which possesses some properties in the above-mentioned apothema. much darker. This reaction holds so true in general with respect to all liqueur wines. and even of Teneriffe and Madeira. but when this bursts. Pure Ehine wine is generally considered to be ex- . become dark brown in the space of a few hours. the colour called yellow may become dark yellow. the more intense is the given on the addition of a salt of iron. the lighter its colour originally was. it is true that the yellow hue is in great part to be attributed to this and the extractive matter before mentioned. or actually brown. apothema.
according as many or few grape skins are allowed to ferment in the juice. pure French brandy. and not from the juice. is assumes. water. as a colouring matter. air is dissolved in bottled wine. "We learn brown yellow colour of that the same cause makes these Atmospheric is wines in bottle gradually become darker. and hence that when alcohol mixed with water a great deal of atmoIn a mixture of alcohol and spheric air is expelled. exported in oaken casks. teaches us that oxidized tannic acid the principal cause of the dark yellow or even wines. converted into apothema This example of Cognac. we can readily understand that tannic acid. in consequence when salt of oxide as the tannic acid. is sufficient to oxidize so much of . consequently in wine. whereby a little tannic acid passes from the is wood which into the wine. since it is coloured by nothing is else. sugar of which has been converted into humic acid. the of iron added to it. The oxygen of this air and that which is quite full contained in the upper parts of bottles not of wine.COLOUBING MATTERS IN WINE. decisive. more air will be dissolved than in water alone. and by the oxygen of the is air. cellent in proportion as it 205 agreement of its is and a perfect found to subsist between the colour of is yellow. since alcohol absorbs it far more is air than water. Now. is derived from the grape skins. The colour depends upon the same cause which determines that of Cognac. the wine and that which it larger contents of tannic acid. may be employed in regulating the colour of liqueur wines.
indeed. why this Neues Journal der Pharm. and so the wine seems to darken year by year. precisely the same amount of tannic acid must have disappeared. The French wines in which he per- ceived this occur were Haut. 119. the tannic acid of wine to apothema as shall insure the wine's becoming darker. for. and when again canexposed to it very quickly became dark. find more tannic acid in the wine. St. The insignificant only effect is quantity of tannic acid contained originally in the wine decreases in the same proportion. Brassac. The produced very slowly. In some wines the alteration in colour speedily effected. 2. The wines which Trommsdorff mentions had been protected from the air. the colour of which in a very short time nearly He thought he should equalled that of old Jurancon. and at last disappears entirely.206 COLOTJBING MATTEES IN WINE. We But the question was not * effected until the change wine was exposed to the is. S. We are not quite this in the dark as to the causes of phenomenon. not doubt that in this case tannic acid was resolved into apothema. whose colour when exposed to the air quickly became so dark as to rival that of Malaga. and Haut Sau- terne. is very Trommsdorff * gives us instances of white Bordeaux and Rhine wines. for if the colour was really produced from apothema of tannic acid. but of course he did not. 24. only a very small quantity of oxygen is necessary to effect this. but he once saw the same thing in Liebfranenniilch. . Bd.
may be wood of the casks. if we colour which confine our attention to the variety of may be produced in pure colourless wine. 118). In these latter the resolution of colourless tannic acid into brown apothema is checked by the sugar. Xow. that so much tannic acid as is necessary to turn wine sufficiently black the wine from the when exposed to the air. in speaking of Port extracted by "We have wine (p. and had not been frequently drawn. Faure has observed the fact commented upon (p. during been very little in contact with had been very soon bottled. quite certain that these wines had. and not have altered at once on coining in contact with air. 190). air. solubility in a by a difference in its weaker or stronger alcoholic liquid. they would gradually have acquired more intensity of colour. by means of a small portion of a brown substance. seen. by a difference in its solubility in a liquid con- . In wines which are rich in sugar and poor in alcohol. since the sugar hinders its formation.COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. that the oxidizing action of air on the tannic acid of wine is stronger in proportion as the amount of tannic acid exceeds what is commonly met with in liqueur wines. the production of apothema is slow. air. the wine becoming deep yellow. acid this is In wine poor in sugar and rich in tannic quickly chaDged into apothema. 207 It is their preparation. If at an earlier period they had been exposed to the air. we must allow that such variety in the colour may be fully explained. secondly. first.
no peculiar colouring matter contained in and the causes mentioned concur in producing in Several after a time. were rich in sugar and gum. it.208 COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. is . and lastly. which Teneriffe. a colour resembling that of Madeira and other wines of the same sort. But since it is impossible to prepare white wine. phenomena indicate apothema of tannic acid as the principal source of the yellow colour of white wines. taining had originally and as a rule most tannic acid and extractive matter. and such wines are produced. unless the new oak casks (which washed. not in the juice). and gum. sugar does not promote its solution. just as Cognac when put into casks it. the wine does not remain white. in . like is is colourless. produces this effect. it does its mixing with the liquid in the form of particles which cannot be looked upon as dissolved ticular. the shorter the time during which the juice and the skins are allowed to be in contact whilst undergoing pressing (the tannic acid is con- tained in the skins. the more colourless will be the wine. 118). contain for tannic acid) been carefully the tannic acid is contained in the cask passes into the wine and dissolved (p. more or less sugar. This and apothema if dissolves as well in water as in alcohol. in parThe grape juice from . by a difference in the quantity of apothema existing in such wines. And have besides this. Madeira. In the first place. Those wines which eventually become darkest. Muscadel. if they are prepared from white grapes.
which could not be attributed to the apothema was obtained. from the very first. The precipitate of sugar of lead. contains principally the colouring matters of Madeira and Teneriffe. If it be suspended in water. Madeira and Teneriffe wine were precipitated with sugar of lead. and filtered. Its intensity did not to one-tenth amount of the colour of Madeira or This yellow tinge can be ascribed only to those mixed organic substances which render wine Teneriffe. of tannic acid. extract so dark after evaporation. portion as it is air. and freed it from the obscurity which encom- passed it.little is 209 shall be found. stituents is One of its con- apothema of extractive matter. both apothemata. was to be ac- counted for by a peculiar colouring matter. and one of the soapy matter. so long as we were taught that every shade of colour. either from the skins or the wood of the casks. the wine-grower's experience teaches him that the wine will remain white in proexcluded. which no trace of tannic acid . In truth. A faintly coloured yellow liquid. and sul- p . one of tannic acid. as some always absorbed. in white or liqueur wines. represented the cause of the colour of wines which are not red. in the simplest possible form. there are at most only two colouring matters. which is brown.COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. All this agrees exactly with what we said of the cause of the yellow colour of liqueur wine. I believe. from the necessary to the formation of apothema of tannic acid. which is I have.
However. a brown substance may be extracted from the sulphide of lead. at present we will only observe. A tincture of the original colour of the wine is thus obtained. that . which is soluble in am- monia. Both. was re-precipitated by means The above-mentioned experiments of sulphuric acid. the progress of decomposition entirely destroys all tannic acid reaction in acid. however.210 COLOURING MATTERS IX WINE. imparts a brown colour. which. we this shall enter upon certain details which belong to subject. and the sulphide of lead contains nothing more. which are both distinguished by equal intensity of In considering the extractive matter of wine colour. after further decomposition it loses this reaction. the whole is not dissolved (a). phuretted hydrogen conducted through it. but a is portion remains undissolved. and the residue treated with water. it easily soluble in diluted ammonia. are. The brown substance (a). no precipitate can be obtained from it. and the apothema of tannic acid becomes exactly like apothema which has been produced in a different manner. by means of alcohol and tartaric acid. apothema of tannic When it is first obtained by the addition of gelatine and acid formed a precipitate may be but . to which fore. If this tincture be evaporated upon a water-bath. apothema of tannic acid for by gelatine and sulphuric acid. but both want the reaction of the . thereapothema. sufficiently contained in prove that no peculiar colouring matter is the above-mentioned liqueur wines. but not in water.
and no longer yields a precipitate when mixed with acid and gelatine. The two precipitates of sulphide of lead. by the action of the air . I turn to red from such as are called yellow. by means of alcohol and sulphuretted hydrogen a brown substance will be dissolved which comports and tartaric acid. which. their colours must be ascribed to apothemata. itself in precisely the same manner as that which was deposited in the sulphide of lead previously mentioned. Prom white and liqueur wines. may be precipitated by means of basic acetate of lead that if this precipi.COLOURING MATTEES IN WINE. alcohol. tate be suspended in water. 211 the pale yellow colour of the liquid which flowed from the precipitate with sugar of lead. which have been produced from tannic acid and extractive matter. passed through it. that no peculiar colouring matter is to be detected in the two liqueur wines mentioned above . The apothemata as tartaric acid. or reddish. that apothema of tannic acid has here lost its distinctive character by the continued action of oxygen. whether very dark or bright coloured. as the conclusion of the whole in- vestigation. when they ammonia. are soluble in and such acids We may remark. I have never seen them. differ entirely There appear to be some few kinds of grapes which under a purple skin conceal a red juice. out from the sulphide of lead. were afterwards extracted by means of yielded nothing more. but have found it stated that wine is pre- pared from such grapes without any closer descrip- .
is During fermentation the weak spirit which formed extracts not only tannic acid. and the young wine is rather blue than red. 91). This wine must. it The fermentation and formahence there is tion of alcohol proceed.212 COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. seldom sufficient redden the blue colouring matter. be prepared without the skins being tion or analysis of them. is brought into contact with grape juice. therefore. is wine prepared from either black. be red. even if it permitted to ferment. the juice of which is colourless. as does also the solution of the blue colouring matter tartaric acid to . as well as albumen colouring fermentation and apothema of tannic acid. is precipitated. new wine now undergoes after (p. and the skins of which are allowed to ferment. and may be called dark violet. and may afterwards be rendered more matter decidedly red by the formation of acetic acid. As the small amount of blue colouring matter becomes red. during which a great deal of matter and red tartar. In the meantime the formation of acetic acid . the change of colour undergone by red wine periods must be distinguished. but blue This blue colouring is colouring matter from the skins. purple. which has an acid reaction. blue colouring liquid matter begins to be extracted from the skins. tinged more or less red by the tartaric acid of the wine. The loss of the colouring matter causes the wine to become lighter. or red grapes. This. What we call red wine. is In five As soon as alcoholic formed during fermentation.
COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE.
begins, and at a later period increases
the amount of
not thereby diminished, but the of acid in the liquid reddens its colarger proportion lour. Another period now begins, during which the
is slowly converted into apothema, whereby red colouring matter is again precipitated out of the it thus gradually liquid, for example in Port wine
diminishes, and finally, after a length of time, disap-
from the wine, which then remains
tible variety in the colour of
that difference of time causes percepred wines of the same
thus explained by the various circumstances
in which the colouring matter finds
"We are only acquainted with one kind of colouring matter, and there is no reason for supposing that
more than one kind
of colour in wines
however great the variety Let us now consider the
variety of circumstances which may influence the colour produced by one colouring matter, before we
proceed to describe the colouring matter itself. If a particular wine obtains by fermentation only 10 per cent, alcohol, whilst another rises to 16
then supposing a sufficient quantity of colouring matter present in the skins, the
than the former, since colouring matter dissolves far more readily in alcohol and tartaric acid, than
COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE.
purple grapes, which are rich in albumen and sugar, impart a darker colour to the wine. As a rule, young
dark-coloured wines are stronger than others. The darker they are the more tannic acid was originally contained in them; and these are the wines which
become yellow in course of time, and
their tannic acid
lose almost all
by the formation of apothema, which withdraws the colouring matter from the liquid. This
the case with Port wine, whilst in many French wines relatively more colouring matter than tannic
contained, in consequence of which, though
they give rise to apothema, yet they never become yellow without retaining a considerable tinge of
bluish red colour.
The colour must
also necessarily be affected
free tartaric, or acetic contained
in the wine.
yellow, and the
perceptible difference in colour is likewise occasioned by a small difference in the
amount of cream of tartar contained in the wine. But the difference of colour does not depend entirely upon these causes. The amount of colouring matter
and of tannic acid
even in purple grape skins
so dark as to be nearly black, others again
are light purple, and of course light and dark wines
Lastly, the skins
be respectively produced. may be left for a longer or shorter
COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE.
time in the liquid
(p. 92), all, or
a portion of the skins
may be allowed to ferment, and white and purple grapes may be mixed, pressed, and allowed to ferment
darker, in the
latter a lighter
of which will,
be obtained, the colour when the wine has been some time
medium between red and
So that, although only one colouring
be found in red wine.
to be detected, variety of colour,
may As when examining white and
found that their variety of colour was to be ascribed to a humus-like body formed in them, so in red wine
the like variety
may be explained by the single colouring matter which, with the apothema, explains
therefore contemplate this subject,
which presents so many
point of view.
from a single
Here I must premise a question has seen every existing variety of wine ? or, who
an opinion upon
qualified to pass
kinds of grapes ? Therefore, in ascribing the red colour of red wines to two substances, one blue
and one brown (apothema), and finding in
substance the origin of the colour of white and liqueur, I must be understood to speak of wines
which I have seen and examined
as are sold
such wines, that
and used in our time and country. now consider more particularly, and in de-
the actual colouring matter of red wine.
COLOURING MATTEB3 IN WINE.
This colouring matter is not a product of fermentait tion, nor is it in any way altered by fermentation
and may be extracted from them with precisely the same qualities as from any kind of wine as has been already menexists in the skins of purple grapes,
tioned (p. 42).
was as follows
which I was most successful in pre-
paring pure blue colouring matter from Bordeaux wine
by means of sugar of
and the dirty pale blue deposit collected upon a filter. As the liquid which passes through possesses an acid/
reaction from acetic acid,
A little is
by washing; but when the liquid employed for washing becomes neutral, what flows through becomes
This precipitate is suspended in water which sulphuretted hydrogen is then conthrough ducted. The sulphide of lead is filtered off, and the
which then contains much
tartaric acid, flows
through tolerably red, and it is so when washed with water but when the liquid becomes neutral it remains
with oxide of lead
"Whether or no blue colouring matter be combined may be doubtful but it is certain
lead, it is
not chemically combined with sulphide of held back by this in the same manner as by
this blue colouring
by boiling sulphide of lead with water.
GOLOTJKING MATTEBS IN WINE.
only slightly coloured yellow by a little apothema of tannic acid, which still remains in it; and in order to remove which, boiling with water is
After boiling, the colouring matter is found nearly Tartaric acid, gum, pure in the sulphide of lead.
sugar, tannic acid, &c.,
withdrawn, but not the
Since colouring matter
insoluble in alcohol,
not separated by boiling sulphide of lead with alcohol.
is completely insoluble in alcohol may however be dissolved in alcohol with acetic acid, and still
better in alcohol and tartaric acid,
beautiful red tincture.
If the sulphide of lead be
entirely freed from red colouring matter
by alcohol no apothema of tannic acid can be by means of ammonia, since it has
already been dissolved out from the sulphide of lead
by the boiling water.
I will first endeavour to prove that no apothema of tannic acid exists with the red colouring matter in the alcoholic tartaric acid extract. If the tartaric
acid in the red alcoholic tincture be carefully saturated with ammonia, tartrate of ammonia will be
The liquid when nearly saturated with ammonia, and freed from tartrate of ammonia by the addition of alcohol, has the colour of a pale solution of chrome
alum without a tinge of brown.
It cannot be evapo-
COLOURING MATTERS IK WIFE.
rated without decomposition, and even at an ordinary temperature the colouring matter of wine cannot bear
any excess of alkali, nor even of ammonia, without becoming speedily brown. It cannot therefore be isolated in this manner.
only one method by which I have been
able to obtain pure blue colouring matter of wine
Sulphide of lead, freed from apothema by means of boiling water, is extracted with alcohol and strong acetic acid. The colouring matter is sufficiently
though more sparingly so than in alcohol
alcoholic liquid containing
acetic acid is then evaporated,
red like wine; then, after evaporation, violet; and lastly, if a little acetic acid be present, of a singularly beautiful
same time separated.
liquid be now evaporated to dryness, the fat extracted with ether, and a trace of the oxide of lead with acetic
acid, the colouring
matter remains perfectly pure. bluish black, like black lead I have
never been able to obtain
insoluble in alcohol, water, ether, chloroform, sulphide
of carbon, olive and turpentine oil. "Whatever has been maintained to the contrary, it is perfectly insoluble in
I have already said that it blue colouring matter,
into alcohol with a trace of acetic acid, yields a sin-
gularly beautiful pure blue liquid;
"We may become acquainted with
COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE.
when combined with an
means of the solution
a perfectly pure state
perfectly soluble in alcohol
though only in small quantities, and disyet, after being dried, it required some hours to It then yielded a singularly beautiful red solve.
circumstances in which it
and thus we may study its deportment in the It is then is found in wine.
insoluble in ether combined with tartaric acid,
chloroform and sulphide of carbon.
therefore the solution in tartaric acid be agitated with
one of these three
they remain colourless. If any dilute ammonia be added to the solution in
tartaric acid, it will, after complete satura;
above-mentioned colour of chrome alum.
The blue colour
with the greatest caution, potash, soda, or lime-water and the addition of an acid will restore the colour.
the blue precipitate is obtained by means of basic acetate of lead, and sugar of lead, we have here
to deal with.
The oxide of lead
supplants the acid which made the blue colouring matter red. The colouring matter of wine, which is
pure blue, forms a blue compound with oxide of lead. And thus the colouring matter is a body capable of
replacing a base or an acid
displaces the acetic acid,
lead, unites with
which had combined with oxide of
COLOURING MATTEES IN WINE.
and may be dissolved with a red
this as a blue salt,
colour in acetic acid and alcohol.
more ammonia be added to the red
tion of the colouring matter in alcohol
which a moment before was blue, If an acid be now added, the red
restored, but is not so bright as before.
acts for a few
it becomes brown. The green colour was a mixture of blue and pale brown, which exhibits itself
had therefore already
occurred in the colouring matter. tinued operation of ammonia render
colour cannot again be restored to
brown, the red
by means of
Hence ammonia decomposes the blue colouring
This property, possessed in a
higher degree by
added in excess, indicates
an alteration similar to that undergone by tannic acid, Quercitrin, a grape sugar, and many other bodies.
yellow colouring matter, and
many others, including prepared from quercitrin, are easily ammonia. *
of this fact
given may be easily decomposed by alkalies, and must content ourselves with this knowledge.
the colouring matter of wine
we now understand why wines which
Kigaud in the Ann. des Pharm.
are darker coloured. the apothema was removed. the brown retained. Nitric acid when not too strong renders the colour brighter. which (194). If oil of vitriol be dropped into tartaric acid. since Faure deduces that two colouring matters exist in wine.COLOUBINa MATTEES IN WINE. but dilution with water restores the pure red. but heat decomposes it. If chlorine water be carefully dropped solution this it into the loses its colour and becomes brown. This peculiarity from is important. have become turned. proceeds from the pure colouring matter of wine. Chlorine acts first upon the red colouring matter in the same manner as brown when exposed alkalies. Faure ascribes to two colouring matters. and 221 why a copious addition of potash or lime. which cause it to turn to the air. alcohol. red colouring matter and apothema of tannic acid But in preparing the blue colouring matter. and becomes bright and strong red excess renders the colour rather violet. and the reaction. and becomes bright yellow. completely destroys the colour of wine (p. The first operation . In new form if is it is to a certain extent constant. 125). for even no more chlorine water be added. the colour . Though the colouring matter by alkalies. it is is thus easily affected solution in proportionably insensible to strong its acids. There may be two coloured substances contained in it it. the brown substance is discoloured. whilst in case of a further addi- colour tion.
he has viewed the make it two distinct operations of chlorine upon the pure colouring matter. and further oxidation of the newly-formed brown substance be occasioned by the addition of more chlorine. may The same holds good of tannic acid . those obtained by in the liquid under the influence of the stronger acids it. is occasionally formed by some silver. chlorine and alkalies brown. as a proof of the presence of two bodies. is very remarkable. nitrate of lead brighter red. subnitrate of mercury does not alter at all chloride of tin makes it darker red and slightly "With the ex- violet. . sublimate makes it rather paler . a excess of acetic acid being present in all . and with acetate and phosphate of soda. which tartaric acid salts. in order to see if fall it would with the precipitate. is likewise a first oxidation. it It remains dissolved in a solution of nitrate of .222 of chlorine COLOTJHING MATTERS IK WINE. under the operation of some salts. The alteration in colour undergone by the colouring matter of wine. but remains of . I have taken the concentrated alcoholic tartaric acid solution. Faure's conclusion. alum produces no change in It comports itself very differently with acetate of little alumina. drawn from this reaction. sublimate the preception the colourcipitates of tartaric acid salts are white ing matter is not precipitated with them. these give it a violet hue very much resembling the colour . is however incorrect. and becomes of a deeper red .
a mixture of red and blue. it is not red but violet. if the two ingredients be perfectly pure. the quantity of tartrate of lead present in pale blue. is more or less soluble in acetic acid and water. "We shall understand what is here meant better if we remember what was said p. of wine . the compound will be blue. and at the same time acetate of lead. it renders it Pure colouring matter combined with pure oxide of lead yields a pure blue precipitate. 223 in a dilute solution. Hence.COLOUEIKG MATTEES IN WINE. tate acetate of alumina is employed. and it. It is this same colour which remains dissolved with- out "becoming turbid in acetate of alumina. like wine is and water. the violet colour a little deeper. that it is chemically and yet not entirely combined. which acetate of lead yields in red wine. It teaches us that the blue colouring matter of the wine is half combined with alumina and half with acid. but the bright red hue of the colouring matter "When is of wine gives place to a violet shade. Apothema is found in and therefore it is no longer pure pale blue. that sugar of lead in red wine yields a pale dirty blue precipitate. But when it flows from the precipitate. is obtained from the precipitate Red colouring matter of sugar of lead in red wine. 216. which remains quite clear. no precipiobtained from the liquid. This circumstance is of great importance in the theory of chemical affinities. But a liquid containing acetic acid. .
is mixed colour. as for First. is exactly like that of one equivalent of tartaric acid in cream of tartar. tion is Perhaps a double combinaformed of colouring matter. half. as it exists in the liquid containing oxide of lead and acetic and in that containing alumina and acetic acid. colour of the colouring matter of wine in these combinations. acetic acid and oxide The deportment of the half-blue. that . we could obtain any more satisfactory explanation of It follows from the peculiar colour of red wine.red of lead. what has been wine is the Hue colouring matter in divided between tartaric or some chemically said. If tannic acid be . two other recommend great caution in using reagents for the sake of detecting adulterations in red wine. and a substance which acts as a base just as it is divided between acetic acid and alumina It in its violet colour in acetate of alumina. or of colouring matter. since the least difference in genuine wine. therefore. or in the reagent employed. other free acid. which retains its acid reaction. that this We acid. I have dwelt upon these circumstances not so much on account of their intrinsic value. but red. that divides or contends with acetic acid for the com- it bination with the base. acetic acid and alumina. neither free nor combined. does not dissolve in tartaric acid with water or alcohol with a pure wine colour. in order to reasons. may perceptibly and secondly.224 COLOUBING MATTERS IN WINE. learn. to see if in this way affect the colour . but half-and-half.
I have never been able to obtain pure wine colour by adding one or many of the compo- nents of wine to a red solution of colouring matter it . as is the case with acetate of alumina. added it 225 remains red. The addition of this water makes the colouring matter less soluble. the genuine wine colour is produced. The case is simpler here. Hence some of the constituents of wine have no effect upon its colour. therefore. and which can at least act instead of a base. juice itself acids. From 10 to 20 per cent. tartaric acid If the solution of colouring matter in alcohol with be diluted with water. alcohol is contained in am speaking of red wines. acid. In short. since it is able to neutralise the strong tartaric and acetic acids of the wine. and even if the colouring matter be chemically divided among the ingredients of wine. therefore. acetic acid is added to tartaric Sugar added to red solution of colouring matter has no effect upon the colour. "We must not forget that grape has an acid reaction. and contains free and that in wine. was and remained red. If a trace of gum or albumen be added the colour remains bright red. the cause of wine colour in wine.COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. wine I . the fact that Q . The free acids or the cream of tartar cannot retain the colouring matter in complete solution. be produced by some body possessing basic properties. The colour must. and gives it a colour differing from what it has when more completely dissolved in pure alcohol and tartaric acid. and this is not.
is colouring matter but sparingly soluble in alcohol and water sufficiently explains the peculiar colour it has in wine. by dissolving more completely make it redder thau tartaric acid. removed. as sulphuric the colouring matter. not a bright red. litmus tincture. though not entirely.226 COLOUEING MATTEES IN WINE. acids. but neither is able completely to over- power the other. boracic and other weak acids. Muriatic acid overpowers ammonia -in litmus. they take part in the combination. Bo"What remains of the blue racic acid does not. the effect of the ammonia is almost. These weak same relation to the ammonia of matter as do acetic acid and the litmus colouring alumina to that of wine. and are. impart to so-called blue vegetable colouring matters a wine colour. and is also affected by the quantity of substances which compete with acids. e. give us a large view of the endless variety in colour of which red wine is capable. The details respecting the colouring matter com- mon to all red wine. I must here insert the following remarks. as do muriatic acids stand in the and sulphuric acids. It is For the same reasons strong nitric acids. that is. for it partly depends on the quantity of free acids. which have thus been narrated. like . colouring matter is insignificant in quantity. g. and known that carbonic. but may be easily distinguished. The colour is not determined entirely by the quantity of colouring matter present.
Moreover. which has become I have convinced myself that no other red colour- ing matter can be found in these two liquids than what can be extracted from sulphide of lead by means of alcohol and acetic acid. Bordeaux. The amount found greatly. loss sustained both prepared in the manner indicated when the liquid is filtered from the precipitate by sugar of lead. reaction to be though is if above. and when the sulphide of lead obtained from the precipitate of sugar of lead is washed with water the loss being in . when extracted from Burgundy. this case occasioned free. by tartaric acid. therefore upon the greater or less alcoholic contents of the wine in combination with larger or smaller contents of free acids.COLOFBING MATTEES IN WINE. and Port wine. in order to explain more particularly its relations with wine. the colours of wines depend not only on the existing apothema of tannic acid. but more especially upon the greater or less solubility of the red colouring matter. 227 them. exhibits precisely the same properties. I have confined myself to the properties of the colouring matter of wine as it appears when dissolved in tartaric acid and alcohol. that the colouring if prepared in this manner may easily have . or cream of tartar. capable of combining with colouring matter. in various kinds of wine varies A few bottles its of ordinary Bordeaux furnish enough to allow studied. matter I must remark in concluding. Colouring matter.
after being washed. If it be treated with warm alcohol and tartaric acid.228 a little COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. the liquid will be tinged with pale yellow. a obtained of the original colour of Port wine. The sulphide of lead. sulphur and oxide of lead mixed with it. after sulphuretted hydrogen has been conducted through it. if this be washed. If the precipitate. and other such wines as have been and were originally dark. is boiled with water and filtered. The . when well washed. while the red colouring mat- . a colour- less liquid flows from it. then treated with till the last traces of acid reaction disappear. the following method must be adopted Let Port wine be precipitated with sugar of lead. be digested with chalk. one of which is the red colouring matter of red wine. is found to contain both red colouring matter and apothema. which is redder if the wine be young. or browner if it be old. and a dirty deposit is obtained . two colouring matters may be distinguished. If this liquid. the apothema ob- tained as a brown liquid. In order to detect both and : separate them. and the other the apothema of tannic acid. The colouring bodies are found tincture is mixed in it. be suspended in water and filtered. which removes the fat little acetic the latter with water. evaporated upon a water water-bath and allowed to dry. to which a been added. first is dissolved with ether. acid has cellared In Port wine. which contains both tartaric acid and alcohol.
COLOTJBING MATTEES IN WINE.
by means of alcohol and
tartaric acid, can
extracted from the tartrate of lime, which remains
from Port wine, extracted with
acid, gives a yellow tincture
warm alcohol and tartaric
like very old
If this tincture be treated
with chalk, boiling produces no brown solution, the apothema has become insoluble, as is the case with
humic acid and humin
water, and the former sparingly soluble.
If the sul-
phide of lead (from the precipitate obtained from Port wine by means of sugar of lead) be treated with warm
water, the apothema of tannic acid
the sulphide of lead be then extracted with
alcohol and tartaric acid, the colouring matter of the
with a red, but not a Port wine
obtained from old Port wine, the
is very insignificant the younger the wine the more red colouring matter it yields.
justly be raised as to whether the alte-
ration in colour undergone
by Port wine and other
oxidation of tannic acid and extractive matter, and of
the precipitation of blue colouring matter, which is carried away with the apothema, which has become
Pure blue colouring matter may, however, be prepared from the precipitate in Port wine, which does not by precipitation suffer alteration.
That the colouring matter does not necessarily
undergo alteration may be proved in other ways. by the fact, that the removal of tannic acid
isinglass, causes colouring
by means of albumen, or
matter to be deposited, as in younger wines that is, that colouring matter which does not combine with
ample may be given. Henry has observed that the colour of red wine may be altered by quinine. Quinine combines with the tannic acid of the wine, and
forms an insoluble
ing matter with It cannot be
which precipitates the colour-
doubted that colouring matter and tannic acid are combined in the wine. Colouring matter combines with acids, and certainly with tannic
undetermined how far
from the chemical combination of quinine and tannic acid, and how far it is the consequence of the socalled surface attraction.
But the experiment with
quinine as explanatory of the change produced in the colour of Port wine, in consequence of the formation
of apothema of tannic acid by which the colouring matter is withdrawn from the wine, is of sufficient
importance to deserve our attention. Red wine needs only to have powdered quinine mixed with it, in order
become perceptibly discoloured, and to deposit a precipitate in which both blue colouring matter and
tannate of quinine are found. Two circumstances must, however, here be con"Wine which has been much discoloured by sidered.
COLOUBIffG MATTERS IN WT2TE.
not pale red, but violet coloured.
combines with tartaric
dient the colouring matter
held in solution; tar-
trate of quinine, having lost the capability of retaining
then of necessity precipitated.
the alkaline quinine, although so feebly alkaline, will have some action on the colouring matter of wine,
so easily affected
not one, but three causes for
the action of quinine upon red wine. Burgundy, when treated in the same manner as
precipitated with sugar of lead, the
decomposed with sulphuretted hydrogen,
the sulphide of lead which is separated, washed, and extracted with alcohol and acetic acid, yields a tincture
differs neither in
colour nor reaction from that
which has been described in speaking of Bordeaux that is, supposing the sulphide of lead to be previously
freed from the
did likewise in Bordeaux.
Burgundy does not, therefore, deupon a peculiar colouring matter,
or the admixture of a foreign element, but principally upon smaller contents of free tartaric, or acetic acid.
shall see that
Burgundy contains exceedingly
than any other wines which have been analysed. A darker and bluer colour is connected with this smaller amount of free acetic
in fact this
proved in Burgundy.
COLOUEING MATTERS IN WINE.
free acetic acid varies
darker colour cannot
be regarded as one of the principal
It is well
the same manner
Burgundy is not affected in by time as other dark-coloured
amount of tannic
wines, Port, for example.
in this wine
on account of this the
apothema (by which the colouring matter of wine is precipitated out of the solution) is formed by time in it.
amount of oxygen contained
account for Burgundy wines being darker, and remaining so, if they can be preserved for a length of
I think the colouring matters of wine have been now sufficiently discussed, and it only remains for me to
consider the best analyses, and compare
them with the
pass over liqueur-wines at once, since there are no analyses of them worth noticing.
Eaure's Analyses, given in his " Analyse chimique et comparee desYins du Departement de la Gironde,"
speaks of two
one blue, which dissolves easily in water, sparingly in alcohol, and is insoluble in ether and one yellow, which is soluble
colouring matters in red wine
COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE.
m all these liquids. A solution of the yellow colouring
matter in ether being at
after evaporation, if left to itself,
but slightly coloured, and espefirst rose-
exposed to the rays of the sun, coloured, then reddish, and at last violet.
In proportion as one or other of these colouring matters preponderates, the colour of the wine will
Eaure says that he was able to decompose the
blue by chlorine without altering the yellow. When tannic acid preponderates over the colouring matter,
the wines become discoloured by gelatine when the contrary is the case they retain a rose-colour.
mistaken respecting the solubility of blue
colouring matter in water and alcohol. He probably employed water with the addition of an acid or salt,
seems that he was not acquainted with colour-
ing matter in a pure state.
in wine he considers to be a
The yellow colouring matter which Faure* detected compound of two subwhich he confounds with one another.
overlooks the apothema which is found in all red wines and secondly, is of opinion that the blue
colouring matter which,
chlorine becomes brown,
a constituent of wine
really the product of oxidation of blue colouring
(p. 222), which if further decomposed addition of more chlorine, becomes pale yellow.
how Paure came
to imagine that blue colour-
ing matter could be decomposed without the yellow
COLOTTEING MATTERS IK WIFE.
which Faure has said about the colouring matters of wine is proved to be incorrect.
Batilliat, in his
"Traite sur les Vins de la France,
two colouring matters in red wine, rosit and purpurit. The first is rose-coloured, soluble in water and alcohol, but not in ether, and cannot be precipitated
out of water by gelatine or albumen found in the sediment of young wine.
blackish dark red, of astringent taste, soluble in water and ether, but not in alcohol soluble in sulphuric
and may be precipitated out of
gives a precipitate insoluble in
alcohol and water, which
may be found
in the deposit
of old wines.
solubility of the two substances in alcohol and water, or ether. Rosit gives a coal which is hardly com-
and leaves a small amount of alkaline
Batilliat never obtained it quite pure.
It dissolves in
concentrated sulphuric acid, and is precipitable with gelatine. It was obtained from the first sediment of
wine when extracted with
and the residue treated with water in which
and not the purpurit was found,
The watery solution is freed from tannic gelatine, and evaporated.
pure substance can, however, be obtained in Batilliat would have obtained nothing this manner,
* P. 73, 1848.
COLOURING MATTEES IN WINE.
had not the sediment contained a
probably he had a mixture of
being in the sediment, are soluble in alcohol and water, except tannic acid, which he precipitated with
According to Batilliat, nearly the whole of the sediment of old wine is composed of purpurit. After
combustion, lime, iron, and potash are found in it. This purpurit exhibits itself so evidently as a mixture of blue colouring matter and apothema of tannic acid,
that no further proofs are needed.
the colouring matter of wine
"What, therefore, Batilliat has adduced respecting is likewise inaccurate.
would be by no means a useless undertaking to compare the colouring matter of wine with that of
other plants or fruits.
almost necessary to a
thorough acquaintance with wine, especially if adulterations are to be detected. I should not have hesitated to
make the attempt
sible to obtain fruits for this
purpose at that season of
the year in which these analyses were made, but I must now defer it to another time. I consider it not
improbable that the same blue colouring matter be met with in other fruits.
dergoing rapid transformation
colouring matters have the property of unwhen exposed to the
Berzelius* notices the alteration under-
gone by the colouring matter of cherries and black*
coLOUBitfa MATTEES IK WINE.
berries, and, as far as possible, lie excludes the air
examining them. "We have not found the colouring matter of wine variable, at least not when combined
A watery extract of purple grape-skins beafter being for a
few days exposed to the
remained pure red.
in all the
instituted a like result
The colouring matter cannot
in the least bear a raised
temperature or the action of alkalies.
I interpolate these remarks for the sake of explaining how colouring matter remains unchanged in all
does not origiit
nate the sediment which forms in red wine, since
deposited with another substance, which gradually becomes insoluble. It has the same properties in young and old wine.
These observations are of value when considering the manner in which the colour of some red French
wines become gradually darker in the course of time. If the colouring matter of wine were gradually to
pure, and this
would be impossible to separate
become darker, owe the change in colour to the diminution of their acid contents, and the quantity of acetic acid which has been converted into acetic
decomposition of tartaric acid or its which we have already conclearly proves the durability of the
sidered (p. 110).
crude tartar. though less and free tartaric acid exists . since tartaric acid readily than oxalic acid in wine. but it can tity. it than the possibility of extracting red. and In concluding. decomposes tannate of iron. pure from old. . on a trace of tannate of iron wines. by no means give the wine the colour of ink.COLOURING MATTERS IN WINE. I must just make an observation salt which occurs in most when only present in a very small quanadds something to the colour of wine. colouring matter of wine 237 when in contact with air.
we take more every day in meat." It is a pity that the quantity of iron is too small to . a soutenir les vieillards cette reputation : comme si bien acquise est demeuree sans rivale ce serait a la presence du sel ferrugineux qu'il faudrait la rap- le reconnaissons volontiers avec notre porter. (p. 1844. nous confrere et nous nous felicitous avec lui de voir entrer dans et la la therapeutique ce produit que la raison. p. 172). reporter of Faure's works. de Pharm. IRON IN WINE. des vins de Bordeaux propres a fortifier les enfans. vegetables. FAUKE detected minute quantities of tartrate of is iron in French wines. a ranimer les convalescens.CHAPTEE XI. &c. Let us now hear what Durozien. " M. speaking of this homoeopathic quantity of iron. but this iron salt probably not found in Faure found three parts tartrate of iron in 10. the says in the Journ. Faure rappelle la vieille reputation qui le premier en a signale 1' existence. bread. vi. 208.000 parts wine to be the maximum it. torn. le gout mode elle-meme adopteront sans doute avec une egale faveur.
to a certain extent. depends. we generally ascribe the dark colour it assumes to the ferruginous contents of the water justly . 239 it But is sufficient to colour red wine. entirely on the quantity of free tartaric acid contained in it. 321. s. which contains very little free tartaric acid so as to make it darker. which becomes the more unsightly in acts pro- portion to the preponderance of the alkali. 2. "When red wine is mixed with a chalybeate water. and so destroys the red colour but the action of the alkali upon the colouring matter produces . it retains the black colour. be ascribed to the tannate of oxide of iron for if . and to give to white wines. a darker tinge than tannic acid alone can produce. Journ. which contains but little free tartaric acid. which contain tannic acid. the dark colour of the wine may. The car- bonate of potass of the water saturates the free acid of the wine. The wine being coloured by tannate of oxide of iron or not. a dirty hue. Ed 13. 218). but Bischof * has contradicted this erroneous view. . In Burgundy. st. * it upon the colour- Tromsdorff N. justify this admirable sentence. a little tartaric acid be added to a diluted solution of chloride of iron and tannic acid. therefore.IEON IN WINE. and the length of time during which ing matter (p.
it would only be necessary to extract it with ether. If the only point to be considered were the preparation of the fat. and must be removed wine (p.CHAPTER XII. that is. cer- tainly. as. since the water used for washing does not wet it. therefore. considers The fat separated from thic ether is found in wine. 82. p. is which resolved by sugar of lead into lead soap. He the amount present too insignificant to affect the wine. a fatty acid contained in the wine. but forgets that only iowo of cenana fatty oil. to 6 parts in 100.000 parts wine . in the form of and ascribed it to the grape stones. not enough. pale blue deposit exhibits itself as fatty. wine the . was found by Oudemans to amount to O105 in 1875 grammes. the colouring matter remains impure. Traite sur les Vins de France. . There is. for any one to grow * fat upon. Batilliat* separated fat from must. for sugar of lead precipitates it out of the This fat exists in wine as a fatty acid. IN describing the pure blue colouring matter of 216). otherwise. ON THE FATTY MATTEK OF WINE. the sulphide of lead by means of ether. from it by means of ether. I mentioned a quantity of fat which adheres to the sulphide of lead.
In such a case. therefore. acids are found in all. acetic. where the larger proportion of sugar conceals the free acids. and. more or less masked by sugar. indeed. the presence of a con- siderable quantity of free acid in any kind of wine with a proportionate amount of sugar." I include the acid equivalent of cream of tartar and other soluble bitartrates found in wine. we shall. very materially improves the flavour of the wine. FEEE ACIDS IN WINE. even in sweet wines. such as insignificant tartaric.CHAPTEE XIII. and acid. besides such acids as are quite uncombined. reserve to a later period the question as to B . much smaller quantity is often found in acid wines. and the amount of free tannic clusions as to the since a Flavour alone will not lead us to any just conamount of free acids in the wine. malic. To determine the quantity of free acid contained in wine is of sufficient importance for us now . Under the term "free acids. as a rule. and in larger quantities than one might be disposed In almost every case the free acids are to expect. than in sweet ones.
p. 5 6 7 2 3 4 8 220 232 244 201 244 230 191 No. but in a few 0-990. so that 100 C.) Madeira No. for the sp. gr. kinds rises to 1*09.242 PEEE ACIDS IN WINE. who has reckoned in anhydrous soda the amount of soda solution used. of wine is never less than and seldom exceeds TOOO. found in 100 C. must not be taken at 100 grammes. so that not only such acids as were quite uncombined. 9 2 3 10 11 7 8 257 244 226 x I |% f 4 213 Port wine No. salts were Griming. the following results in milligrammes of anhy- drous soda (100 C. 5 6 No. till the acid reaction of the wine was completely destroyed. C. 9 x I 10 11 f > ^8 f * 12 Rhine wine No. 167. wine. 9 10 11 4 Teneriffe 220 267 240 226 244 226 263 261 197 226 207 187 186 180 7 8 12 232 288 232 263 244 213 232 251 N / ^ * ^ j J No. C. A soda solution of a certain strength was used. and added drop by drop to the wine. represents from 99 to 100 grammes. C. 5 6 226 225 244 25] No. what acids they are. 1 No. but half the acids of the acid neutralized. 9 10 11 213 201 207 \ I J >< g2 4 8 Bordeaux ordinary Sauterne 232 238 . 1 No. 1 No. 1 2 3 213 232 No. 5 6 7 2 3 209 182 201 194 No.
36). Burgundy Beaune Hermitage Lachryma Christ! Muscat Rivesaltes Benicarlo 243 194 Eoussillon . . and by Giining. . Evaporation must not be allowed to proceed too far. Ehine wines as gave an average acid were selected.320 The grape-juice which we have made use of was procured from the purple grapes of our country. Such wines among Madeira. Langlade Cotes White Bergerac do Old Burgundy Pommard Grape-juice 232 226 226 307 288 269 320 339 275 256 288 282 1. It must not therefore be looked upon as a standard for the juice of grapes from which wine can be prepared. acid contents examined with soda solution Port. and is the same of which the extractive contents are given (p. TenerifFe. The amount of free acids in wine is that which can be : saturated by means of soda or any other alkali acetic acid has a place among them. 248 F.FREE ACIDS IN WINE. amount of I may here remark that some difficulty occurs in determining the volatile acids. . otherwise even at 120 C. and the and its liquid which distilled over was collected. part of the extractive matter would . . It was distilled in an oil bath. . St.. George Narbonne Tavella . .
244 FREE ACIDS IN WINE. ( 154 gr. is Wine extract very easily decomposed. and acetic acid formed. this extract retains acetic acid strongly.) was found. determinations were The following made with the necessary caution : In 100 parts of wine a quantity of acetic acid. On the other hand. Acetic Acid in . which sufficed to saturate the following amount of anhydrous soda in milligr. be decomposed.
102 351 Rhine wine Port wine Bordeaux ordinary . especially in the red wines... . Burgundy Beaune Bordeaux Sauterne Hermitage Lachryma Christi Muscat Rivesaltes Champagne Benicarlo Roussillon St.FREE ACIDS IN WINE. in 100 grammes wine expressed Madeira Teneriffe in milligrammes. Hence we have tartaric acid C4 H 2 O 5 . Tavella has the largest. another acid. George Narbonne Tavella Langlade Cotes White Bergerac do Burgundy Pommard 480 283 390 477 207 364 336 357 408 545 545 414 606 699 510 390 448 525 So that from 2 to 7 parts perfectly free tartaric acid are found in 1000 parts of wine. remark that these last I must. of which we shall speak more particularly hereafter. appears in small quantities. and where besides. easily calculate the 245 amount of this tartaric acid from the quantity of soda which remains for saturation after what was necessary for the acetic acid has been deducted. where tannic acid helps to saturate the soda solution. however.... all numbers are too high. and Bordeaux Sauterne the smallest amount.
of acids with may be saturated. while Fusenius (p. and which are percepto the taste. From the analyses that have been already made we learn that a considerable quantity of acetic acid is contained in wines. as the flavour of the wine very much de- pends on the preponderance of the one or the other. all . "We have already made some mention of is which the amount of free acids (p. 183) found in the wines of the Bergstrasse from 0'6 to 0'8 free acids. belongs.246 FBEE ACIDS IK WINE. give no fixed quantity of acids. It is particularly necessary to keep a distinction between acetic and tartaric acid. and do not even distinguish acids. Most of them. is yet very variable. The quantity of which tible acid. that is. acetic from non-volatile dorff (p. acids in wine. however insignificant it may be. Dietz found in Ehine wines (p. 177). and to which the equivalent of tartaric alkali not combined with potash in wine. and contain about ^ per cent. however. 178) considers that the best Ehine wines generally agree with one another. in speaking of the different estimates of the alcoholic contents given by different analyses. 176). and the maximum of average O8 and Kersting (p. and that their harsh flavour is by no means entirely to be ascribed to tartaric acid. but very little difference exists According to Liidersbetween the French and Ehenish wines with respect to the total acid contents. whilst Schubert found the acid to be 0*45 and 1*35. 178) from 0'33 to 0*78 acids grammes potash necessary to : saturate all the free free 0'9.
because we shall discuss them in treating of the odoriferous constituents of wine. whether any other free acids.FREE ACIDS IN WINE. found free in Bordeaux. forms a alcohol. combined with water. and. acetic. which lime. besides tartaric. The may be either I pass over the fatty acids. in which and which may be obtained from the red it is found by means of a process which will be described in the following chapter. volatile or non. . salt easily soluble insoluble in wine.volatile. exist in wine ? We must acids consider this point with attention. and tannic acid. In the is first place I must indicate malic in acid. 247 The question now is.
but not enough of the latter to them racemate of lime will be precipitated. A There was indeed but little evidence of citric though we examined red Bordeaux with it. all the acids remain- ing in the liquid separated from the sulphide of lead were saturated. the express purpose of discovering Bed Bordeaux was precipitated with sugar of lead. AND RACEMIC IT is scarcely necessary to draw attention to the tartaric and raceinic acids in wine. the deposit suspended in water. special investigation was necessary for the detection of citric and malic acid. water. XIV. and citrate of . ACID. racemate. Tartrate.CHAPTEE MALIC. decomposed by means of sulphuretted hydrogen. When milk of lime was added. If chloride of calcium and ammonia be now filtering. and the further addition of ammonia will give rise to a precipitate of tartaric acid. . conducting sulphuretted hydrogen through a little and evaporating it. acid. CITKIC. Any one may convince himself of the presence of racemic acid by precipitating the wine with acetate of lead. added to the saturate acids. suspending the precipitate in it. and the sulphide of lead washed with water.
be obtained by Citrate of lime might still be present in the filtered liquid. AND RACEHIC ACID. we infer that citric acid is not contained in wine. or when warmed. It gave a precipitate with alcohol. but malate of lime soluble. -when the method described above was used. is Acetate of lead gave a precipitate which soluble in excess of acetate of lead. the slight salt these reactions indicated the presence of malic acid. The insoluble lime salts were dissolved with muriatic acid. and if This gave racemic acid had been present racemate of lime would also have been deposited. mercury gave a white precipitate Since. whilst nitrate A it. and ammonia was then added to them. rise to a precipitate of tartrate of lime. we adopted the following plan : Wine was till digested with chalk upon a water bath the acid reaction completely disappeared. solubility of the lead prevented us from obtaining the malic acid. 249 lime remained insoluble. by acetate of all of silver and sub-nitrate of . however. green liquid. but no precipitate. which is a sign of the presence of malate of rise to lime. The liquid which flowed from the milk of lime was accurately saturated with acetic acid. is obtained from copper. and precipitated by means was dissolved again in water and re-precipitated by means of alcohol. but as no precipitate could filtering and evaporating the ammonia.MALIC. but separates again when boiled. and this process precipitate The . CITRIC. The filtered watery liquid was of alcohol.
sulphuretted hydrogen conducted filtered. in water. con- The liquid (a) tate of lead . AND EACEMIC ACID. unless had been previously warmed with hydrochloric tate acid. which may be precipitated by alcohol. malate of lime was present.250 MALIC. with acetate of lead. could be reduced by the substance still remaining in when a test solution of oxide of copper and it potass was used. malate of lime confirm All the tests which have been hitherto applied to its presence. was first which was separated from the precipifreed from lead by sulphuretted hydrogen it contains a considerable amount of gum. gypsum. till it was sufficiently The malate of lime would now be found in purified. the liquid filtered and neutralized with acetic acid. and then The precipitate. the sulphide of lead the liquid warmed in order to expel sulphuretted hydrogen. JSTo tannic acid could be now found in but if malic acid exist in the wine. sugar of lead added. it. With . was repeated several times.. might likewise It was dissolved filtered (a). was then sus- pended through in water. No copper the liquid. no other distinguishable substances remain in the liquid. was obtained. and we therefore is assume that a small quantity of malic acid tained in red Bordeaux. but tannate of lime. the precipitate with alcohol. exist. then a considerable precipi- the exception of acetate of lime. CITRIC. : and then cooled again it was then fully saturated with milk of lime. &c. it.
ployed. 3'72. Hoffmann. it it. that and when he allows sugar to ferment with a large quantity of yeast. of the nature of extract.. and compared by them to glucic acid. * Liebig u.CHAPTEE XV. By filtering and evaporating the liquid this cent. which had a bitter taste. and 3 per cent. by volume. of the sugar thus employed as an extractive matter. besides carbonic acid is Eedwood. 2. More than one substance was discovered in although sub-oxide. he always obtained 4 per cent. but no sugar. of this substance. they obtained 4*4. show of sugar which and alcohol. 3 7 per and more might have been had a larger quantity of yeast been emprocured. was acid. THE experiments tried by Graham. is f to a solution of sugar. Thenard has already recognised says. of wet yeast. substance was obtained as a dark brown matter. . and owing to the lactic acid contained in it. 1852. was able to reduce oxide of copper to a this substance. GLUCIC ACID. Kopp. Jahresber. and that. s. 801.* By adding 1^. another substance is formed during the fermentation no longer capable of fermenting.
per cent. the acid will be found in the liquid which has been filtered from the lime salt precipitated by alcohol. given If glucic acid be really present in wine. is be saturated with chalk. separated from the neutral salt. and the wine be treated in the manner described (p. off. are soluble in alcohol. 248). The precipitate of basic acetate of lead was sus- pended in water. nearly all the tannic acid. The alcoholic liquid. water. sulphuretted hydrogen conducted through it. from which no precipitate can be formed by alcohol. comes very near the by the above-mentioned chemists. milk of lime added in order to separate the tannic acid which was present in large quantity as a basic lime salt. the presence of sugar was indi- cated by the copper test. The alcohol was distilled. an acid salt formed. carbonic acid conducted through then warmed. 3' 7 4 per cent. the residue dissolved in lead. contains not only all such acid glucate of lime as may be present. as was the case here. cominsoit bines with it and forms a neutral . under these circumstances. which was drawn After the lead had been removed from the liquid. and such other substances as. If the it is glucic acid be saturated with caustic potassa. liquid was filtered. The it. the liquid warmed in order to expel sul- phuretted hydrogen again.252 GLITCIC ACID. and precipitated with basic acetate of which gave rise to a copious precipitate. which luble in alcohol but if. and . but likewise the sugar of the wine. salt.
knowing how the sugar in wine (which is so undergo change) may be resolved into glucic acid. however.GLTJCIC ACID. no glucic quickly and easily liable to on the contrary. If glucic we should find it Sugar could no longer exist. . But glucic acid. I do not. glucic acid is present in wine. even when combined with lime. here. 253 acid were contained in the wine. again filtered in order to remove the chalk. The liquid when warmed with test solution of oxide of copper and potash showed no reduction. I consider it highly probable it does exist. but it is difficult to prove it. and then masked by the colouring matters of the wine. may very easily be resolved into apoglucic acid. therefore no glucic acid was found in red Bordeaux wines. venture to assert that acid exists in wine . shall I speak again of this matter in treating of the decomposition of wine I do not therefore deny that .
so we may conclude that no aldehyde is present in it. and ammonia. THESE two although acids have not yet their suspected it I have not been able to detect formic acid in Port. lactate of lead is soLactic acid must therefore be sought in the obtained by precipitating the wine with sugar liquid of lead. FORMIC AND LACTIC ACIDS. This deposit. and then luble. brown colour was produced by means of caustic potash. in which there was a good deal of sugar. for may be justly nitrate of silver Madeira or Teneriffe wines by distillation. presence in wine has not yet been proved. (obtained from red Bordeaux) from lead by sulphuretted hydrogen. and freed with alcohol from sugar and . has been freed filtered and evaporated. been mentioned. filtering. basic acetate of lead. "With respect to lactic acid. and when and a little ammonia were added to !sTo the distillate no silver was reduced.CHAPTER XVI. the residue is easily soluble in "When this liquid alcohol. was digested with carbonate of zinc upon a water bath.
None was found.FORMIC AND LACTIC ACID. . and hence we infer that not even a trace of lactic acid exists in red Bordeaux. present If lac t ate of zinc were would be found in the watery solution. 255 soluble The residuum. other ingredients. which was it was treated with warm water. in alcohol.
And besides this. we remember further that tannic acid is found in red wines. of which. however. are separated in the form of an insoluble body.CHAJPTEB XVII. may be found in the sediment of newly- made wine. according to Braconnot. even is when much diluted with water. we shall see that the largest quan- tity of albuminous matter will not be found in red wines containing much tannic acid. infer from this that no albuminous body in any form can be found in wine. and that this acid has a chemical attraction for albumen. not only in grape-juice. alcohol. as much as 2O7 per cent. not. able to precipitate most albuminous . but in the juice of every other fruit we know that the fermentation of grape. but only conclude that but little of any kind of "We must albumen If will exist in it. juice must be caused by an albuminous body. and. we have learnt that during fermentation the albuminous matters of the grape-juice and pulp are resolved into ferment. ALBUMINOUS MATTER WE have seen that albuminous matter is contained.
therefore. This gives rise to a s . but tartaric acid neutralises their and retains the albumen in solution. proved by beer. poured out. though frothy and clear as water when . in which. 257 and they will. we must consider that albutartaric acid. even when alcohol and this. more easily the larger the proportion of water in the liquid. in which a considerable quantity of albumen may be dissolved for freshlydrawn beer. bodies .ALBUMINOUS MATTEE. tannic acid co-exist. be found but sparingly in wines containing In opposition to men is soluble in much alcohol. These last two substances render albumen insoluble. and the action. 144) as occurs Champagne and other effervescing wines. The it free tartaric acid contained in wine renders it possible for an albuminous body to exist in is in a soluble form. if any left from the previous alcohol exist in will fermentation. that is. If no tannic acid and but little any fermented This is liquid. soon deposits a very considerable sedi- ment in of newly -formed ferment. after the clear wine has been poured out. no tartaric acid be re- quired to keep the albumen in a state of solution. which sufficiently proves that albumen exists in them. ferment is formed. I may here mention that many of the wines I have examined contain a perceptible though small amount of albumen perceptible. it I drew attention to this fact (p. dropped into liqueur wine. if chlorine water be .
though in Madeira and Teneriffe the amount is certainly small. and yet the quantity contained in it is such that it can hardly escape the examiner. As to it many wines which have not been subjected evaporation this precipitate is not observed. I should not dwell so long on the existence of this trace of albuminous matter. this trace of Considering the matter dietetically. and in which the presence of free tartaric albumen from coagulating a copious precipitate of chloride of albumen by heat. and therefore no longer O belongs to the unaltered albuminous bodies which ' appear in the plant itself. that it gives us . may assume that it arises under We the influences of ferment. in difficult to is determine the amount of albumen Still present in wine by weight. the exact nature of the albuminous body indicated by such traces. will be the result. 37). Liebig entirely denies the presence of albumen in wine. which agrees entirely with the acid has prevented the statements already made in treating of grape-juice (p. flocculent precipitate possessing all the properties of a compound of chlorine and albumen (albumen-chloride). were not its presence of importance on two accounts first. I consider the deter- mination by no means unnecessary. the presence of albumen in wine might be completely and I have not yet been able to ascertain disregarded. If chlorine be conducted through fresh grape-juice which has been filtered.258 ALBUMINOUS MATTER.
any one undertaking to imitate artificially the quantity (be it smaller or greater) of albumen precipitable by chlorine. i. prepared from the juice of other fruits will give too much or too little albumen. would en- counter great difficulties. which if air be admitted it oxidises.ALBUMINOUS MATTER. perhaps. as the case might be. like many other components of wine. be imitated. since all albuminous bodies undergo chemical change. Alcohol hinders such changes. and yet. and peculiar to every kind of wine. which are less to be expected in strong wines. is its capability of spoiling wine. to the complete exclusion of albuminous matter. or not. one more means of detecting adulteration are analysed with this view. changes the alcohol which had previously been converted into acetic acid. and turns into acetic acid. is present in genuine The second point which causes the presence of any albumen to be considered important. But albumen effects changes even in alcohol. into vegetable gluten and . however. and are capable of transferring this motion to such other bodies as may be brought into contact with them. and it even makes wine mouldy. and other varieties will occur in wines imitated in a different Wine manner in some. 259 when wines This ingredient may. The quantity of albumen rightly belonging to each kind of wine may be easily learned by determining what wine. e.
and those sweet wines which contain a great deal of sugar. possess in that sugar an element which hinders the action of albumen. checks its action. posing action of little albumen but in wines containing tannic acid and alcohol. Excess of sugar. brought into contact with a small portion of albuminous matter. to the for- mation of acetic acid from alcohol. And albumen is necessary. rally Sugar may genebe employed to preserve such substances as abound in albumen from spoiling. . the small quantity of albumen contained in them continues to act upon the other ingredients so as to produce decomposition. as do also alcohol and tannic acid. should be produced quantity of albumen is by no means much tannic acid and in wine in so short a time.260 ALBUMINOUS MATTER. for instance. though in but small quantities. but it is found in the copious precipitate caused in wine by acetate of lead. and Such such wines will not. Rhine wines as are able to defy time are richer in alcohol. that is. keep long. therefore. and also of mould. plants. it would be impossible that any^ mould existence depends fungi. such. as the less excellent Ehine wines. since injurious to wines containing both these substances check the decom. In conclusion. whose upon albumen. mould into cellulose. I must observe. that nitric acid does not precipitate albumen out of wine. as occasionally occurs. A considerable alcohol. If no trace of albumen were found in the wine.
but may be pitated preci- by tannic acid. is insoluble in alcohol. or mineral acids. much at least as is not precipitated by alcohol.ALBUMINOUS MATTER.* and not quite insoluble in weak spirit. It is a substance which has lost every characteristic by which albu- minous bodies are distinguished. This ferment extract. In other words. and this spirit. 261 If the albuminous matter present in wine be small. I found this extract to have the following composition in four different kinds of ferment : c . for out of the albumen much ferment has been formed. such components of ferment as are soluble in weak be found in great abundance. will gives its soluble constituents to the wine. what we have hitherto called ferment extract. so may exist in the wine. if obtained by treating ferment with cold water.
and the residue dried at 110 C.262 pure.. I feel myself competent to give an opinion as to the quantity of these substances existing in wine. 1*48 ex- tract. extract.. would be a very expensive undertaking. is was found. St. after which the amount of nitrogen was determined according to the method pursued by Will and Yarrentrapp. The wines mentioned below were used . 0*991 gave 0*157 platina . since it is ALBUMINOUS MATTER. In 100 parts of wine 2'87 extract in 100 parts There Eoussillon. Old Burgundy-Pommard. for this purpose being allowed to evaporate. a mixture of various ingredients. . 1*079 gave 0*072 platina 2*20 and 0*021 nitrogen in 100 parts of wine. and it must be found in wine in small we only know that quantities. 1*375 gave 0*0985 platina. wine. and 0*40 nitrogen in 100 parts of wine. White Cotes. 1*81 extract. I have not attempted it. which gives 0*029 nitrogen in 100 . 230 F. but depending on the determination given by Vlaanderen respecting the nitrogenous contents of wine extract. that is. G-eorge. which gives 0*026 nitrogen 3*11 extract. Narbonne. 0*657 gave 0*074 platina. . 1*80 extract. 0*023 nitrogen in 100 parts of wine. To determine the composition of the albuminous matter of wine. consequently 0*020 nitrogen in 100 parts wine. or the ingredients of the ferment extract which appear in it. Benicarlo: 1*734 A gave 0*105 platina. 0*849 gave 0'063 platina parts of wine.
singularly enough varies little in . is But this it amount a minimum. 2'2 Benicarlo Roussillon 17 19 13 24 16 St. If we reckon all this as albumen. tract. the quantity of which it must... nitrogen. This nitrogen or to a 263 may either belong to ferment extract compound of ammonia. and reckon 12 per cent. we may calculate or we may take it the albumen in Ferment extract. as ferment ex10.. nitrogen. must but be subtracted from this estimate. be exceedingly small.George Narbonne White Cotes 14 15 . or to may belong this at some albuminous substance. Albuminous bodies. or from 1 3 parts ferment extract in 1000 parts wine. and 15 '5 per cent. though quantity. however. from 1| to 2^ parts albumen.000 parts wine. 17 19 Bourgogne Pommard 26 33 That to is. The amount of nitrogen arising from ammonia. or other nitrogenous substances found in wine.ALBUMINOUS MATTER.
than by boiling in water. this title Eaure first described a substance which he maintains he found in the best French wines. (Enanthin exercises a very great influence upon the flavour of the wine aromatic wines in which it is . into mucic or oxalic Faure did not find wines. wanting are on that account less palatable. yields ammonia. To this he ascribes the substance and body of the wine. it this substance in indifferent was found in small quantities in moderately it good wines. and elastic. GENANTHJN (GUM). but in the best wines always appeared. more be precipitated by solution of tannic the water acid. which is . nor does it render Mineral acids colour it without much Sulphuric acid does not reit altering its properties. ropy. a property which is highly valued in good Medoc wines. soluble in water to warmth. spirit. nor can nitric acid convert acid. dissolves when exposed and then swells if the heat be great. and weak It can no acid. solve it into sugar.CHAPTEE XVIII. The cenanthin itself is described by Eaure as viscid. though in very variable quantities.
it is equally useless to precipitate the wine first with ism- . weak and it alcohol and tartaric acid it is partially cannot be included in a coagulum of tannic acid and isinglass. indeed. Faure. but clings to them tannic acid. which takes up such substances as have escaped the isinglass. or albumen. 172. dissolves the extract in alcohol of 85 per cent. Nor possible to render the wine perfectly colourless by adding isinglass and The reason of this is very clear. . The wine becomes very is it pale. for example. as was known. it is re-dissolved in weak alcohol and pre- cipitated by alcohol of 85 per cent. the matter of wine does not combine with isincolouring and as it is glass or albumen. or even by boiling it in excess of albumen. in order to obtain this cenanthin. But if wine cannot be freed from colouring matter by isinglass. amount of cenanthin (P. precipitates the colouring matter and tannic acid with isinglass. is 265 greatly im- proved by the fact that their flavour proved by the addition of cenanthin. even when it is coagulated by boiling. whilst the cenanthin collects together as a sticky mass. soluble in dissolved. We have already given Eaure's estimate of the in different wines. It is. to Eaure. but not colourless.T <ENA1S TEIN GUM. impossible to free red wine from colouring matter^ by means of isinglass or albumen.) In preparing oenanthin in the manner previously recommended difficulties will occur. evaporates the colourless extract to the thickness of extract.
and re-precipitated it in alcohol. particularly convinced that cenanthin cannot be precipitated by tannic acid which is soluble in alcohol. therefore. and as the colour was principally absorbed by the spirit it became paler every time. I obtained every time a powdery precipitate. and as possible alcohol added to free salts. precipitated the residue with alcohol. it was possible to procure it in this manner. and this process I repeated several times. Disregarding. which were mixed with and colouring matter After this treatment had as pure as it is been repeated several times. it. As soon a little as the viscid substance is. dissolved the precipitate in water. glass in order to prepare its cenanthin.! evaporated the wine. Prom this powdery precipitate a coherent mass could be collected. and precipitated with a little alcohol. it was obtained little it was purified. in which cenanthin is insoluble.266 CENANTHIN GUM. if not impos- add only just so much isinglass as is neces- sary to precipitate tannic acid. whilst the crystalline precipitate of the salts again separated a quantity of viscid matter which was again obtained when the crystalline precipitate was re-dissolved in a little water. an excess would adulterate the cenanthin with gelatine. that was dissolved in a it water. to this. his suggestions. it is extremely difficult. as is Faure Besides sible. The quantity of cenanthin found in ordinary Bor- . as much from the tannic acid.
I have been at great pains to ascertain these neither albumen nor vegetable gluten. found the substance easily soluble in boiling But its transwater. is and we are now sure that the substance before us one of Neither albumen nor it. it loses its liquid. in which for a time. brittle. 267 considerable enough to be looked on as one of the ingredients of red wine. but if (Enan- thin cannot be precipitated by tannic acid. for they are soluble and there was only a vegetable gluten can appear in in alcohol and tartaric acid. like Eaure. as we have seen. Unlike Eaure I discovered no nitrogen in it. contradicts his assertions. (Enanthin is. formation into sugar when warmed with sulphuric or muriatic acid. It is soluble in water. namely. and this did not belong to the chief substance present. but not in alcohol.(ENANTHIN deaux is GTJM. that the greater consistence which marks old wines. soft- and coherence. exhibits only a very faint trace of ammonia. and becomes hard and soaked in water regains its viscidity. a . arises from it. and the peculiar characteristic assigned to it by Eaure cannot be admitted. or which have been long in cellar. and is an ascertained fact. clamminess. nor their nitrogenous products. If subjected to dry distillation it gives rise to a strongly acid liquid which. trace of a substance yielding ammonia. facts. if left ness. and not coagulatable by heat. if saturated with potash and touched with a rod wetted with muriatic acid. I.
it was dissolved in water and filit. since it is impossible by such means to get rid of all cream soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. a considerable gives us amount of sub-oxide of copper. among other components. and acetate of lead was added to a portion of This gave rise to a copious precipitate.268 CEtfANTHIN GUM. to obtain tered. tained. The method of preparation described above the oenanthin substance in a very impure state. was vegetable mucus or a gummy substance resembling dextrin. in which. (This oenanthin solution can easily be obtained pure by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through the liquid which . or vegetable mucus. These are the properties peculiar to gum. tartrate of lead was con- The liquid which passed through the filter was precipitated with alcohol. mixed substance. they have the reaction of so-called oenanthin. and yields when warmed with diluted sulphuric or muriatic acid and mixed with test solution of oxide of copper and potass. In order to be sure whether the cenanthin mentioned by Faure. and easily resolved into sugar. its solution was warmed with test solution of oxide of copper and potass. fluid was obtained by basic acetate of lead from the watery which flowed from the sugar of lead. in a pure state. in one word. but the addition of ammonia gave rise to a copious precipitate. it of tartar and other such vinous ingredients as are In order pure. dextrin. for it still retained But little precipitate what Faure calls oenanthin. which may all be precipitated by alcohol.
in order It to dissolve the acetate of potash). the name is indifferent. which may not be likewise discovered in the pure oenanthin described by Faure. no quality peculiar to gum or dextrin. "When in the impure state. vegetable mucus. its sliminess coherence give it the -character of vegetable . unless it has previously been resolved into sugar by muriatic acid. if the nature of the substance be sufficiently understood.(ENANTHIN GUM. therefore. 269 flows from the precipitate with sugar of lead. therefore. easy solubility in water causes it to resemble gum its power of reducing oxide of copper is know that there are as many kinds like dextrin. by being warmed with an acid. or dextrin. was imme- diately reduced to suboxide of copper. allow this substance a place in science as a distinct and peculiar body. and we cannot. one which had the reaction of dextrin . evapo- rating it and extracting it with alcohol. in which it was when prepared by Faure. We must remember that one kind of gum has al- ready been mentioned (p. it is a mixture of different bodies . which does not reduce the copper in a test solution of oxide of copper and potass. I cannot undertake to decide whether called it should be and gum. There is. its . mucus We of gum as sorts of sugar . without being previously transformed into sugar. 248) as existing in wine. It was therefore a question whether two kinds of gum existed in wine.
will be found resolved into dextrin. resolved in a few minutes into sugar. prepared. and another which does not has been resolved into sugar the action of an acid. since he worked with a very impure subthe consequence of a stance). till it by saturating the free acids whilst the O3nanthin described by Faure is obtained from the evapora. "With respect to the amount of cording to Faure. according to Faure' s method.270 with the copper give this reaction (ENANTHIN test. this fact. that is. even if proved (which not. and cannot be justly called by that name. therefore no ground for assuming that two kinds of gum are present in wine. tion to of wines alone. Solution of to heat. 248) was obtained by evaporating wine with chalk. that it in the unaltered form in which it actually appears in wine. has the when separated by chalk. The gum of which we spoke (p. To this question I reply in by the negative. is gum w hich. so also the gum of wine. gum when exposed for a short time and acted upon by tartaric acid. and afterwards into grape sugar. The gum of wine There is when reaction of dextrin. and therefore it is exposed the influence of free acids and heat. when treated with sulphuric acid and heat. . (p. but is. would be either gradual resolution of the sugar of wine into gum. which has been evaporated with tartaric acid. passed into dextrin. shows no reaction of dextrin. r ac- greater in old cellared wines it is than in young ones. is The gum mentioned 248). GUM. arabic.
who can assure us that the old wines did not originally con- tain a larger proportion of gum ? That vegetable mucus is produced from sugar. and identity in combination of cellulose. we have discovered that wine becomes sweeter and more con- sistent. and vegetable mucus or gum. is well known. 271 speedily effected. or gum were . analysis of . 113) as regards the chemical composition stances. 114). is sufficiently important to deserve ex- although we can hardly expect that an wine will make us accurately acquainted with it for supposing a larger quantity of gum to be found in old than in young wines. It cannot be denied that some cellared wines increase till they resemble syrup. or vegetable mucus (p. when the wine becomes ropy (p. it . and the approximation in kind. which considering their greater consistence is not improbable. I alluded to the diminution of acids in wine (p. be effected by a large amount of may or vegetable mucus. of these sub- would make no difference whether sugar formed.(ENA^THIN which resolution is GUM. The subject amination. and if these substances are in consistency and sweetness This change gum how really it formed from tartaric is acid. 127) or of the transformation of tartaric acid into gum. . and cellulose from tartaric acid. and the de- crease in acidity of old wines is equally acknowledged.
In two kinds of wine. . and only very faint traces of ammonia are discernible. SALTS. Ehine and Teneriffe. No ammonia is to be it appears in wine must be found in grape-juice. we may safely assume its importance in wine to be quite secondary. have invariably found an insignificant trace of ammonia. and if it as a product of decom- posed albuminous matter. is decomposed during the fermentation of wine. Since Ehine wines are so constituted as to be more disposed to slow decomposition in consequence of the resolution of albuminous matters. AMMONIA OR AMMONIACAL THE fact that a considerable portion of albuminous matter which had previously passed into ferment. than stronger wines. which I examined by mixing them with potash. deira not the smallest vestige of it could be detected. leads us to expect with more or less certainty the presence of ammonia combined with some acid in wine.CHAPTEE XIX. but very great care was required to place in Port wine and Maits existence beyond a doubt I . and then testing them with a rod moistened with muriatic acid.
by him. he detected ammonia indicates . and adding chloride of platinum In the wines thus examined to the distilled liquid. when it had been allowed to ferment in a vacuum. 60. and concentrated to the thickness of syrup. of whatever kind the wine may be . which required 0*81 grammes (12*5 grs. no more ammonia could be formed than in 0*05 is contained mistaken. the addition of potash will always develope traces of ammonia. . ascribes it to the formation of ammonia which they think occurs daring fermentation.) of ammonia were necessary to neutralise the same quantity of must. P. he would be to add 0'81 much to ammonia T . we mentioned a test used by De Saussure. and the existence of actual ammonia is by no means proved. 273 If wine be evaporated upon a water bath. whilst only 0'76 grammes (11'7 grs. which yields ammonia when treated with potash and such are both albumen and ferment extract.) of must. The but difference here = like 05 (*8 grs. If now any one should imagine that during the decomposition of the ferment of 375 grammes of must. by distilling the wine with potash. grammes It was necessary of sal-ammoniac. Dobereiner endeavoured in another way to deter- mine the presence of ammonia in wine. is insignificant. but this method only the presence of a nitrogenous substance.) De Saussure. but the quantity nevertheless appears to be very insignificant.) of ammonia to saturate the acids in 375 grammes (5787*7 grs. Dobereiner.AM^IONIA AND AMMONIACAL SALTS.
we have seen that it really is tion produced (p. the fresh must in order to neutralise the tartaric acid of the must. then as 05 grammes ammonia more might be formed by the decompoas at least - much sition of ferment. less acid reaction than before it was Hence from De Saussure's test we must not conammonia is formed during fermentaon the contrary. so that the liquid after fermentation would have a tested. . acetic or This acid continued to exisi If now. any other organic acid should be formed in the vacuum. But as phosphoric acid and magnesia exist in grape-juice.274 AMMONIA AND AMMONIACAL SALTS. 67). after its formation is separated out of the fermenting juice as phosphate of ammonia and magnesia. the ammonia immediately clude that no .
in a high degree. and when mixed in right proportion with the volatile base restores to it the vinous aroma. mixed the residue with water and unslaked lime. The taking care to have the volatile base which passes over has a strong alkaline reaction. the smell of wine. he obtained from the distillation a volatile acid. torn. and compounds of ethyl with acids. and at 469 an extract " 1852. re-distilled it. "Winckler' s works. is 374. ODORIFEKOUS VOLATILE ALKALI OF WINCKLER. neutralizes acids. and saturating it with sulphuric acid." The matter may be Winckler and shortly stated as follows : distilled off all the volatile substances of wine. receivers well cooled. p. which had a very agreeable smell. but also a substance of an alkaline nature. By filtering the liquid which remained in the retort. according to Winckler. We find this subxxiii. p. given from zur genauen kenntniss Beitrage der chemischen Constitution des Weines. de Pharm. to which he principally ascribes their aroma. Landau. stance mentioned in the Journ. .CHAPTER XX. not only acids. AEOMATIC wines contain. and possesses.
that it contained either ammonia or volatile alkali. and during evaporation it lost a little of its colour. Oudemans. O'OIU ammonia would by distillation with lime. this alcohol had a strongly alkaline reaction. It was saturated with muriatic acid and evaporated. Our researches have been prosecuted in the manner suggested by WincMer. and 0*0276 of platinum yield 0-0113 platinum. Crystals of some salt remained. As was to be expected. emits an odour it which distinctly indicates ammonia. which were dissolved in water and mixed with alcohol. following Winckler. distil- the smell of which was almost insupportable. has endeavoured discover a volatile odoriferous alkali. chloride The precipitate of platinum. when touched with a rod wetted with muriatic acid. ammonia was liberated from the albuminous liquid of the fermented raisins yielded . (running (who origin is now endeavouring first to discover the of raisin vinegar) obtained an alcohol. and added quick lime to the water that He .276 ODORIFEROUS YOLATILE macie Although the editors of the "Journal de Phar" drew our attention to these facts for two consecutive months. to evaporated red Bordeaux. The dried residue. we may venture to agree with them in their last publication in doubting them. when burnt. by ling fermented raisin juice with lime . ether and obtained was apparently ainmonio-chloride of platinum. and plainly indicated.
mixed with chloride of platinum. . (212 F. the presence of a considerable ammonia or some other volatile base. These tests appear to me sufficient to render any further research after the odoriferous volatile alkali in wine unnecessary. and dried at 100 C. distilled 277 over.distilling this a foetid liquid was obtained. ether. which had a strongly alkaline reaction. ether and alcohol. and evidenced.)> and 0-0165 of this gave 0074 platinum. which were dissolved in water. so the volatile alkali Ammonia would in this wine is ammonia. By re.ALKALI OF WINCKLEK. The wine was pure Bordeaux. and were left. but the alkali is always ammonia. and had an agreeable smell and flavour. and filtered then washed with . when tested with a rod wetted with muriatic acid. alcohol. With the ammonia a little of some odoriferous substance may distil over from the wine. amount of The liquid was now neutralised with muriatic acid crystals of salt and evaporated. give 0'0073.
Fehling. that it gives from J to i per cent. since there are other substances besides sugar in wine. or treated in the manner already pre- scribed for determining grape sugar. ferment added to and the amount of sugar calculated residue. fermentation a mistake of 4 per cent. as they have been sufficiently analysed by others who. . saccharine contents of wine freed from alcohol the wine has either been the by evaporation. Besides the saccharine contents of wine may be approximative^ estimated from the wine extract. which reduce the oxide of copper to a sub-oxide. who has repeatedly tried this latter method. SUGAR IN WINE. too much sugar.CHAPTER XXI. remarks. however. using a solution of copper. directly . 251). I never examined the saccharine contents of wine. which reduce oxide of copper to sub-oxide) and by the method of . mentioned by Thenard this. as is may be caused. (p. Two methods have been adopted for determining the . by a standard solution of salt of oxide of copper. loss from the of carbonic acid during fermentation it is (Tresenius). always obtained a constant error to the amount just mentioned (since there are bodies in wines besides sugar.
I refer to the passages quoted above. In order to give a complete view of the saccharine contents of wine. In Muscat Eivesaltes 24^ per cent. However insignificant the amount of sugar may . or more. sugar. or completely to discolour the wine by means of animal charcoal. six parts sugar and one part composed of all the salts and non-volatile substances. and to what will follow immediately upon wine extract. which must then be washed. and then into uncrystallisable sugar. but in red Bordeaux very little sugar is found. To determine the sugar either to in red wine it is necessary remove the colouring matter by means of acetate of lead. in seven parts residue. it would give one-half per cent. 178). This is true of Hhine wines.sevenths of the extract. in to exactly six. extract. in Hermitage 1*7 per cent. 279 We have taken Fresenius' determination as our rule and not those given by Fischern (p. which gives. common with Deitz (179). of which are perhaps sugar. the grape sugar of grapes passes first into fruit sugar.. If then one-third of this be sugar. extract are found. since he. 178). The sugar which appears in wine has the distinctive characteristics of uncrystallisable sugar.SUGAR IN WINE. extract is found in Bordeaux Sauterne (red). Not 1 per cent. This latter expedient completely answers the purpose. and Kersting (183). gives too low an estimate. 22 per cent. According to Fresenius the sugar in four kinds of Rhine wine amounts (p. as it is pro- duced under the influence of fermentation .
often contain not only a little uncrystallisable sugar. but fruit sugar. their flavour Unless red wines contain about half per cent. some of which owe nearly one-fourth of their weight to sugar. it is nevertheless of great importance both in diminishing the sharp taste of the free acids. appear in some wines.280 SUGAR IN WINE. sugar. . is not agreeable in some the quantity is . more considerable. and in imparting an agreeable flavour to the wine. Sweet wines.
No. the salts of organic and inorganic acids are left. extractive matters (still imperfectly known). albuminous matters. besides alcohol and water. as ether. or volatile oil. 230 E. 1 4'38 3-63 3-71 No. 4-54 4'34 4-04 3'36 8 385 3'18 3-41 12 4'43 3'73>. NON-VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF WINE. then disappear. . the non- volatile free acids. 5 6 No. Madeira No. wine at 110. The following amount of these substances added given by Ylaanderen after drying 100 C. 1 2 3 4 V94 211 2-00 No. until it ceased to lose weight together. 9 10 11 3'83 4'21 2 3 4 Teneriffe . a certain amount of solid substances is always left. is (which is effected slowly). whilst the sugar. 5 6 7 3'49 3-75 No.CHAPTEE XXII. which invariably acquires a darker colour if dried at a temperature of 110 C. 5 6 7 No. 230 E. 9 10 11 2 3 2-84 3-51 2 93 2'98 1 2-85 3-56 1'58 1-45 1-61 [ 4 3-08 8 12 3'45' 2'15 1-56 1-83 Rhine wine No. 9 10 11 7 V33 8 1-90 . gum. All such ingredients as are volatile. C. 1 No. IE wine be evaporated to dryness.
282 NON-VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF WINE. 1 . No. Port wine .
French wines 283 .NON-VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF WINE.
or may be chemically determined by evaporating a watery extract. in . a substance which remains over during the saccharine fermentation. however great the quantity of ferment may be in withdrawing a portion of sugar from its influence. first.284 effect NON. The sweetest wines evaporation. on the contrary.VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OE WINE. tannic acid. especially in the red wines. and may be so prepared as to serve for medical purposes as an extract. has a decided influence on the taste of the wine. . so as the better to compare them. the . a all substance which appears in many plants. The better wines. Secondly. it leave the largest residue after amounts sometimes to one-fourth of differ Besides these. contain as a rule more. is found in parts of the plant. they contain on an average 2 per cent. and invariably succeeds. extractive matter which is present in the grapes. it serves when combined with sugar to soften a little the sharp taste of the acids the albumen is of no importance to the flavour. Thirdly. However small the quantity of gum may be. the Lastly. ordinary Rhine and French wines but little in the total amount of solid matter . their weight. a soluble substance formed during the decomposition of ferment. We have already spoken of all these substances. and have now only to consider the wines with a view to that which is left after evaporation. the colouring matter of red wine and of the apothema of tannic acid is less decided on the other hand. only three substances are left . on the taste of the wine whilst the influence of .
made no attempt to answer the question so frequently and so uselessly put. strength .NON. contents. materially promote the excellence of the wine. for different people use different measures.VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF WINE. which has been suggested for determining the amount of wine extract. dient. "Why one kind of wine is better than another?" Every I have purposely alcoholic constituent helps to promote excellence. In good cellared it may rise from 2 to 10 per cent. bouquet. not a standard. and restored to its original volume by means of water. then the areometer. 4. The amount per in rise to 3. or anything else by which the specific alcohol gravity can be determined. and the amount of the so-called wine extract. or 5 cent. from the specific gravity of wine which has been freed from by evaporation. If this be so. taken collec- Rhine wines tively. 285 consequence of the evaporation they underwent whilst in cask. would equally determine the amount of substances left after evaporation. which .. All the substances found in the extract. a third simply because of of a considerable The importance amount of non- volatile ingredients in wine is taught us by the intimate connexion between the value attached to certain wines. aroma its flavour) . it is But I may here insert a remark upon the value of a very simple method. and One wine is when we consider the connexion between nose (and is every non-volatile ingreliked on account of its aroma and mouth. in Madeira and Teneriffe may Port to 4-| or 5. another on account of its flavour.
The method used was this a certain quantity of sugar was dissolved in a certain proportion of water. . end of the first volume. * Gahrungs-chenrie. 5 C. . . and it it must not be forgotten. 1-012 1-016 1-020 . . easier than it is. would render the process much. a scale x>f sugar is formed. Balling* has shown in detail that a solution of sugar and a solution of wine or beer extract. . . so that by determining the specific gravity of another liquid in which an indefinite quantity of sugar is contained the amount of sugar in the unknown solution might be ascertained that is. gr. .TILE CONSTITUENTS OF WINE. .286 NON-YOLA. . evaporation is for always a very tedious process. so that not even the greatest care can ensure a pure result. . 1-024 1-028 1-032 .. that during evaporation acquires colour. 63'5 F. 1-036 1-040 1-045 1-049 . the specific gravity was then determined. The wine extract dries slowly. when they have the same specific gravity. . and that in the following proportions. Sugar or extract per cent. J'004 1-008 . contain like quantities of sugar or extract. at 17 Sp. 1-000 .
therefore. extract. The Port wine varies from 1*0167 to 1*0227 (p. 165). Ehine wine has from 1-0083 to 1-0097. gr. and should. Teneriffe. and yet we cannot impugn the experiments. 4'54 (p. specific gravity (p. 1-0179 1-0179 1-0179. must give 3 to 4 per cent. 165). gives from 3*75 282). still greater difference becomes apparent if we look more closely into the details of the various estimates. we find 371 . 165). freed from 1-0122 to 1'0164 Balling. whilst in the extract 3 754-34 (p. we find the specific A gravity of Madeira freed from alcohol 1-01701-0172 Further. 3'83 4-21 3'93 (p. and should therefore contain from and it 4 to 5'5 per to 5'24 (p.NON-VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF WINE. has a (p. extract and we find 2-84 to 3'73 (p. 166). extract. and restored by water alone to its original volume. cent. we should find in this from 4"25 to 4-75 per cent. 281). and the corresponding extract cent. (p. -1*0170 per sp. has a specific weight of from T0169 to T0192 (p. 287 We will now select a few examples of extract ob- tained by direct evaporation and weighing. According to Balling. 281). Madeira. 281) ..* and we find 3'64 from alcohol. according . of specific gravity to This. Thus. "VVe thus find everywhere lower estimates than those given by Balling. 165). 281). 166). the three being equal (p. contain 2 to 2-5 per cent. and it yields from 1'33 to 2'15 specific gravity of (p. for example. freed from water and alcohol. 281).
gr. is it to employ the saccharometric method to base the calculation upon the amount of or. estimates which either too low or too high. The agree- ment does not exist which is given by Liebig in his Handw. 281) . whilst . Muscat Bivesaltes contains 24r5 per cent. as it contains proportionably less of other substances. acThe case is cording to Balling. extract (p. all such substances as appear in wine. may easily be found When must is found. I. specific gravity of The Teneriffe=l'0152 3'51 10152 3'41 1-0152 (p. of this wine freed from alcohol is T0805 (p. 282). one word. the less or just the reverse. s. inasmuch as this method has been adopted in making many estimates not only of wine extract. 167). quantity. gives 19*6 extract. in Lachryma Christi large. 20-12 per cent. The less sugar is present. and few salts or other matters. and the extract 2-84 and the same in other cases. for instance. in sugar) in order to determine the quantity of tartaric and other acids. tartar and other salts. whilst in examined closer agreement will be more sugar and wine there is either a great deal of sugar.288 NON-VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OE WINE. extract (p. 165). the If an error can occur amounting to % or ^ of the whole method of different analysis must be useless. The remarks appear to me of importance. and by Balling in his " Gahrungs-chemie" for beer and wine. which. 779 for beer. (p. when the quantity of extract is "We find. 282). but also of the soluble constituents of wine must. The sp. possible (that is.
extract.VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF WINE. 167). is wine freed from alcohol to whilst the wine freed from alcohol is 1*0946 (p. We conclude. this 289 1*0805 (p. and too high for small quantities of extract. that Balling's esti- mates are too low for large. 282). which. Muscat Balling. gives 19*6 extract. according Eivesaltes contains 24*5 per cent. therefore. extract (p. .NON. according to Balling. gives nearly 23 per cent. which. 167).
of which we shall speak more particularly below. . which w^hen once deposited in the form of crystals cannot be again dissolved. seems to indicate the presence of phosphoric acid in them. evaporated. indeed this may be looked upon as one of the distinc- If wine be . or at least Besides this. and remark at the same time that the difficulty same kind. The crusting which occurs during winter is really separation of cream of tartar.CHAPTEE XXIII. first with wine ferment. of salts in wine is indicated by manifold reactions. ALTHOUGH during the transformation of grape-juice into wine a large portion of the salts of organic as well as inorganic acids contained in it are precipitated. which occurs in burning the ashes white. the presence but very imperfectly. tive marks of genuine wine. as the amount of ash varies but little in wines of the I subjoin a table of the quantity of ash in some few kinds of wine. INCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTITUENTS. and what remains over a certain quantity of ash will be obtained burnt. vet something of each remains dissolved. and afterwards with tartar.
.. No.) : the ashes are expressed in milligrammes (. 9 10 11 320 294 266 248.... 5 6 177 204 No.. wine (which is nearly equal to 100 grammes.) Madeira No. from 100 C. 1543 grs. . 5 6 7 257 266 195 No. and Moesman. .. 9 10 11 257 168 186 195 Rhine wine. 7 8 240 231 4 Teneriffe .. 1 No. 291 The following amount of ashes was obtained by Messrs Gorkom. ...015 grs. . 1 311 No. 5 6 2 3 7 4 8 213 Port wine . white Bergerac 204 186 257 204 488 417 160 524 604 215 417 231 204 204 391 Burgundy Pommard 204 . ordinary Sauterne .INCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTITUENTS. Champagne Benicarlo Roussillon St. No. 8 231 Hermitage Burgundy Lachryma Christi Muscat Rivesaltes .. .. 12 No. .Viltman. 1 2 3 284 266 294 231 No.C... 9 10 11 231 222 213 Bordeaux... 9 10 11 329 2 3 320 4 275 354 240 204 177 222 8 302 294 168 160 186 266 302 12 No.. 5 6 7 275 311 No... 1 2 3 4 240 240 231 257 No. . George Narbonne Tavella Langlade Cotes..
. . . magnesia. and chlorine and iron in a good many. O24 0'71 0'29 Tartrate of alumina iron . Paure. Filhol and others have are contained in every wine. O'OO (HO 0'26 0'04 . . classed the acids. . organic constituents with the inorganic The Paure largest amount of salts present is. as far as a knowledge of wine is concerned.292 IKCOMBUSTIELE CONSTITUENTS. . greater uncertainty as to grouping the constituents of the ash. Oil (V004 Phosphate of alumina . We have already spoken of alumina (p. 0*26 . prevails which are otherwise of no importance. incombustible ingredients taken collectively. I may observe that every analysis has tended to prove that potash. O'lO O'OO Chloride of sodium . Bitartrate of potass Tartrate of lime . 26). according to In white wine. 0'14 potassium Sulphate of potass . and silicic acid. soda. Curiously enough. lime. . And first. . phosphoric. 0'66 0'06 1 "97 . been already stated respecting the inorganic tuents of wine. sulphuric. from which the carbonic acid produced of all The sum . in 1000 grammes : of wine of the Grironde In red wine. what has consti- Ib will not be superfluous to subjoin here. It attain is better at once to acknowledge that we can no certain results with respect to the grouping Still of such complex mixtures.
|th to Toth per cent. 11 that is. 291). Benicarlo Both wines are rich in tartar. o-28-t. potash is the most important. . 0'16 per cent. Roussillon yielded 0*5 per cent. and compare the ash with that of a genuine wine of the same kind as that under examination. 293 during the combustion of tartaric acid must be deducted. as agreeing exactly Chamgiven of eleven kinds of Rhine wine (p. as it saturates a part of the tartaric acid. Bordeaux pagne gives somewhat less. and remains in a state of solution.INCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTITUENTS. between 0*28 and In 100 parts of Rhine it varies.the wine. from . Let any one who wishes to convince himself whether a particular distinctive As wine is adulterated or not. its have no great influence upon smell. Most of them have no great effect upon the taste . direct his attention to this point. colour or marks of the genuineness of the wines. therefore. with an average the estimate Sauterne 0'19. is as follows : according to Diez. together with the of common and other salts in.o-ii___Q. per cent. = 0'6 The influence of the incombustible ingredients of wine has been spoken of already in several places.|c^ "We get. and must therefore leave a good deal of carbonate of potass in the ash. equalling had the largest amount Rhine wine. flavour. they are of the greatest value. But tartrate small amount and phosphate of lime.
CHAPTEE XXIV. we have at least a satisfactory acquaintance with much that we wish to know. although Faure tried to carry it out eight years ago. this is not the most suitable grammes of the manner most for discriminating their nature. ODORIFEROUS CONSTITUENTS OF WINE. endeavouring to separate the odoriferous constituents. however. . and out of 4 or 5 first destillate kept as cool as possible. by distilling 500 grammes of wine. Since. The attempt has often been made to separate the actual peculiar odoriferous ingredient out of aromatic wine. they being ethereal oils. and although . years ago it seemed as if the cause of the multiplicity of agreeable odours diffused by wine A FEW would long remain enveloped in obscurity but happily light has been shed upon this subject. Even were a minimum of the ingredients which diffuse aroma to be thus obtained. Th^JfcCjaJlfiA light fy&$ p [1 a are those which have shed upon this subject. we know that of the most important by weight of these odoriferous ingredients ojooth only appears in wine. we are still far this or that kind of from being able to say with certainty wine owes its peculiar character to such a substance. this plan may be given up.
and belonging to the wine. n 295 mixture of several liquids in which the solid substances called fatty acids are dissolved this mixture : may be wine (as obtained either by distilling large quantities of in brandy distilleries). which have already fermented with the In this manner substances juice. bodies being separated. such as depend proper to all wines entirely on the peculiarities of the places in which the grapes were grown. and their individual conThe result has shown of these ingredients that many . sumed though not exactly proved. I shall distinguish . or by subjecting the grape-skins. For without giving a general view of the relations of these sub- hardly have spoken of the great and abundance of odoriferous ingredients which variety either have been or may be found in wine. stances. were obtained in such abundance as to allow of the mixed stituents separately analysed. may yet be prein this or that kind of wine. In treating shortly of these important bodies. those which are developed in wine after a length of time. actually existing in. may be artificially imitated and those who adulterate wine have there- fore attempted to improve the less aromatic wines by the addition of some odoriferous substance. to distillation. .ODORIFEROUS CONSTITUENTS OF WISE. I have taken into consideration substances whose existence. 1st. I may here observe that this chapter differs in arrangement from the former part of this treatise. those substances which are 2nd. 3rd. I could .
and is also Holland obtained by distilling the " corn wine. by simple distillation. Archief. is they resemble each other. " literally malt wine. when obtained . which renders it clear that the bouquet of aromatic again wine cannot be ascribed to cenanthic ether. both cases thp smell The substance and is of the destillate. 5." called in is second destillate. in disagreeable. I separated the same liquid from the fluid from which moutwyn is distilled.* one can find it agreeits able . prepared not from the first portion but from that which comes over in the case of moutwyn. This * shows that oenanthic ether Moutwyn. is the vinous odour (alcohol exceptc. that the ethereal ingredient which imparts to the grapejuice. it exactly resembles the liquid which imparts peculiar odour to After the oenanthic ether of wine had been examined by Liebig and Pelouze. but is nevertheless true." We retain the designation moutwyn. from the residue spirit has been distilled from the liquid. d) No moutwyn. as in other qualities. after fermentation. last.296 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY FOUND TO POSSESS A Y1NOUS SMELL." Translator's note.t and Pelouze has since permitted me to compare the liquids and in combination. p. This remark is of some importance. t Nat. It may appear singular. en Scheik. inasmuch as it after weak is not very volatile. 103. deel. " .
If dis- however wine be distilled. cannot possibly impart an agreeable odour to the wine. its vinous parts aroma. which diffuses a smell of fusel long after the disappearance of alcohol. at the end of the distillation. a higher boiling point. It may be distinguished by its smell alone. and has acquired. or in the moutwyn. which imto it. It is paration of brandy from wine.A. conjointly with oenanthic ether. That which re- and has an unpleasant smell. a smell Gn?oithic differing from that of oenanthic ether.wine. it over from brandy or moutwyn. great extent be ascribed to oananthic ether. and principally in that portion of the wine which has been freed from alcohol by distillation. or in the fermented liquid. That smell which is peculiar to all wines must to a mains after distillation. If cenanthic ether be diluted spirit (as it is with a good deal of weak when it exists . yet. or in the first destillate. in quantities that can be collected a certain quantity of the ether then will . wine has no fetid smell. is partly alcohol. clear It is that a volatile body appears together with and imparts to it O3nanthic ether in wine. though the mash smells most disagreeable. VINOUS SMELL. always distil ing to this. Accordmust exist in wine. Tiie volatile substance existing in. It is oananthic ether. ether is found both in wine and in the liquid from which moutwyn is distilled. all 297 found in the pre- ether is present in wine. the resMue smells as agreeably as the fermented mash. as a watery fluid.
because I have dwelt more particularly upon these details. In moutwyn this substance is a peculiar volatile oil which does not appear in wine. oenanthic ether and corn This corn C 24 H 17 O. though not exactly that of wine. r derived from oenanstated that the w hereas I have already from moutwyn. which contains an insignificant quantity of oenanthic ether. weak oil is spirit. spirit out of wine. and which I have called oleum siticum (corn oil). which. it We will had not the slightest smell of wine. The peculiar smell of mout- wyn is that of a mixture of oil.298 in wine) an SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS aroma is imparted to it. that is. and this liquid. . all the books which treat upon this subject is maintain that the vinous smell thic ether. Brandy. has not the smell of moutwyn. must therefore contain some other substance whereby the vinous smell is masked. rally and is gene- composed of water and alcohol. ether from wine which I obtained from Pelouze smelt like fusel oil When diluted with water. approaches it much more nearly than does that of simple oenanthic ether. now consider this substance more closely.
and after the potash compound had been decomposed by an acid. which. and potatoe in considering it we are justified as a product of the fermentation of sugar. who obtained an oil by the distillation of quinces (Pyrus Cydonia) with water. when treated with potash. the grape-skins. which. consists of C H 3 H . and 14 13 O 2 + C 4 5 O. deny the statement made by Mohler. but something like wine which has been exposed to evaporation. It is a fetid ethereal liquid. C 18 H O + 17 C 4 H 5 O that pelargonic ether. It is very possible that this ether exists in quinces. confirmed by me. This point still remains unde- cided. so that oil of wine. (Enanthic ether is found in the fusel spirit.A VINOUS SMELL. coincided with cenanthic acid. that if only a few drops of wine be left in a bottle. so far as he could judge of it. however. which. 299 ETHER and imparts to them such a distinctive character. having the agreeable odour of bouquet. rnoutwyn. become possessed of O3nanthie ? which is never absent . separated a fatty acid. but it does not exist in grape- skins. the fatty acid is all extrated from how could wines prepared from grapeether. I do not. accordiog to analyses made by Liebig and Pelouze. however. not. it will retain the vinous smell for days and exists in all wines. juice however. weeks. of is. according to Delffs. If.
It flows at last from the first destillate. is (Enanthic ether procured in the same manner during the preparation of moutwyn. As. is A large proportion of oenanthic acid contained in the ether which is first obtained.300 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS GEnanthic ether is prepared in large quantities by mixing the sediment of the wine with water. but one or several are found combined with osnanthic ether in aromatic wines. product is. the first raw spirit never yields more than TWQO of this ether. but a of fermentation. It an ingredient of the grape. and can thus be collected. and then A weak spirit is thus procured. and may be presumed to exist in wine. it has been calculated that not more than 4oio6 is contained in the wine. is re-distilled. the following those which impart aroma to it may be reckoned among are either found. They do* not all exist in every wine. I will more particularly of cenanthie enumerate shortly THE ODORIFEROUS SUBSTANCES DEVELOPED IN WINE IN THE COURSE OF TIME. however. which distilling it. which are originated in by fermentation. or wine. Besides the substances already named. They are compounds of oxide of . and towards the end of the is distillation the cenanthic ether obtained. not Before speaking ether. therefore.
a colourless Caprylic ether. butyric. ethyl). it is a volatile pleasant 3 3 4 5 a compound of C 4 O. H +C H . fluid. Acetic ether may be prepared by distilling an acetic acid salt with alcohol and sulphuric acid. This ether always exists in freshly distilled brandy. which is thence so A H +C H fragrant. 8 IF O 3 + C 4 5 O. pelargonic. its fragrance is most evident when it is strongly diluted. 301 acetic. acetic ether is regularly sold for this purpose. C acid be present. If another Butyric ether. and is found also in wine vinegar. perhaps in all I will mention each of these shortly and separately. and is developed in them by time. and know how to make use of it . This ether is very mucli used by the English confectioners. smelling liquid. ethyl.A VINOUS SMELL. This ether aromatic wines. who apple oil. fragrant like pine-apple. caprylic or capric acid. The adulterators of wine are well acquainted with this fact. with Acetic ether (acetate of oxide appears in most. like other aromatic substances. or propylene. call it pine- 3 4 5 15 16 O. of. caproic. by which means their bouquet is very much improved. and added in proportionably small quantities to wines which are not aromatic. though. in this case with alcohol. This is a thin volatile liquid. amyl. propionic. and butyric acid be mixed with alcohol. H it may easily be resolved into butyric ether (ether butyricus). C with the fragrance of pine-apple. very few drops are sufficient for a bottle of wine.
fragrant liquid. t Ann. was found by Winckler very fragrant. r Capric ether. It is sometimes found in moutwyn. which. Bd. This liquid. 160. Pelargonic ether. an oily strong smelling liquid. a peculiar oil found by Eowney in the fusel of I may Q20 jji9 o 3 here notice acetate of capryl. Bd.302 SUBSTAKCES EOTOD TO POSSESS a very fragrant liquid. smelling like wine. which boils at 109 C. and has been detected Its presence * in the fermented in juice of beet-root. C8 H 10 O3 . 228-2 P. C 20 H^ O + C 4 H O 3 5 . and has nothing in common with potatoe starch. -j- H is commonly called potatoe fusel oil : it appears as a product of the fermentation of sugar. a volatile fluid. s. whose existence . which behaves like a true alcohol. in the destillate of this wine. 197. C II O 0. der Ch. found by Wurtzf in the of the beet-root. p. C 12 Hn O + C4 3 H 5 . potatoes. 85. Journal de Pharm. xxii. according to Frankland. H may be presumed in some wines. These last two ethers were found by Miiller* in the destillate of fermented juice of beet-root. qo 11 Hydrated oxide of amyl (amylic alcohol). . C 4 O 3 -h a singularly fragrant liquid. C6 H5 O 3 + C4 t H 5 O . 93. Propionic (metacetonic) ether. in Bergstrasse wine the acid. torn. having the smell of melon and golden Caproic ether. Serie 3. und Pharm. at least. reinette. C 18 H" O + C 4 Ii O 3 5 . is found in remarkable quantities in Irish w hisky. This ether is also Eutyl fusel oil alcohol. may be assumed s. 107.
. as does oxide of ethyl in salts of oxide of ethyl. and first Hofmann spirit used to give the smell of cognac to inferior kiiids of and we may expect this substance to appear in .A VINOUS SMELL. or H any other acids. xxxvii.f of amyl has as disagreeable an odour as cenanthic ether. s. Oxide of amyl forms plenty of fragrant combina- tions. capric. 81. accurately of its He had not enough of it to ascertain chemical composition. either free or combined with acids. der Ch. Since Breunlin J has made us acquainted with amylou. They appear in old cellared wines. * Comptes Kendus. but some of the compounds Hydrated oxide are very fragrant. + Ann. proso that the oxide. Bd. butyric. u. combines with acetic or with caprylic. 314. p. C 13 H 14 O. Bd. insoluble in water. s. and known as caproyl alcohol. pelargonic. torn. Bd. 308 many kinds of wiues. der Ch. remarked that a liquid was sold in England under the name of grape or cognac-oil. pionic. French wines. in Ann. Pharm. J Ibid. 91. whilst hydrated oxide of amyl must be sought in younger wines. C 10 11 O. a colourless pleasantly aromatic fluid. s. 88. 325. the more sparingly volatile ingredients of this liquid. but found oxide amyl in it. caproic. 90. oil Chancel found that in wine-fusel prepared from grape-skins more than half consisted of hydrated oxide of amyl and Faget* has detected in . Pharm. 730.
having I H H A liquid may pass over almost in silence butyric acid. torn. haviDg a bitter taste. which make up the most volatile portions of the first destillate. We and acid reaction. HO. et de Phys. Amylo-malic acid. 294. caprylic have already mentioned the tartaric acid compound. the composition of which is C 6 H? O. * An. More than half of the eighteen litres of fusel oil which were expended . K Balard* has taught us that hydrated oxide of amyl must appear in many wines. + C8 4 H 0. and propy line. hydrated oxide of butyl. described by Breunlin. He obtained it from the residue of wine mixed with distilling cenanthic ether after brandy. Cio Jin O or Ca 0. Chancel has discovered in the fusel oil of wine a propyl alcohol. on this experiment were hydrated oxide of amyl in the other half Chancel discovered aldehyde. and may therefore appear 3 3 in wines containing these acids. and capric. pelargonic and propionic oxide of amyl. since to a very great extent they agree with compounds of these acids with oxide of ethyl. is like amylo-tartaric acid fixed. Serie 3. . but also amylo-bartrate of potash and of lime. we may expect to find not only this.304 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS tartaric acid. caproic. O + C 10 11 0. C 4 the same odour as acetic ether. Hydrated oxide of propyl. He also first drew attention to the compound of oxide of amyl with tartaric acid. Acetate of amyl. xii. which is a syrup-like liquid. p. de Ch.
This wines.. * Journ. and hydrated oxide of propyline. and also it may therefore be found its Labens* has announced wine. aldehyde in fusel in wine. This Butyrate of propyl. which possesses the purest pine-apple smell. At any rate they give some flavour to the wine. presence in 4 O3 ) is a pleasant smelling liquid. de Pharmacie. C B7 O + C compound. 37. was obtained by Chancel by means of butyric H and muriatic acid. etherised tartaric acid. 305 Hydrated oxide of propyline boils at 965 C. compounds of oxide of ethyl with tartaric. 4 Aldehyde in a diluted state (C H . Acetal appears to be principally found in Hungarian present. and malic acid appear in wine according as the acids are found. and also in water. but some of them are scentless. 3 7 6 8 O. But if it be found in wine. and as they are constituents of wine they must not be passed over in silence. must be a hydrated oxide of acetyl and oxide of ethyl. Tartaric ether and water.A VINOUS SMELL. Aldehyde. Besides these. is This substance soluble in alcohol. many of which have the characteristic smell of acetal dissolved in diluted alcohol. and is insoluble in water. C4 is H 3 O + C4 H 5 O+ H O. has by no means an unpleasant vinous odour. I will describe them shortly. 1835. I remarked before that Chancel found oil. an ethereal liquid of very pleasant odour.. X . 206 F. p. and others have no agreeable smell. Janv. racemic. but a very small quantity can exist in it and then also Acetal.
as into alcohol and distillation with water resolves it citric acid. therefore. no means of de- tecting its presence in wine. and this acid combined all with oxide of ethyl will therefore be found in wines. It crystallises in is rhombs. coincides in equally decomO. having itself the smell of sweet oil.) 2 O4 + C4 Malic ether.-This is yellowish oily liquid. (Compare 130. is formed at an ordinary temperature. It would make Burgundy 0. though we 4 feel convinced that it does exist. Fumaric ether. and has a sweet sour taste if it be produced from free acid in wine. C 8 2 H O + C4 10 H 5 O. In other respects it entirely corresponds to it it will . although a C4 H 2 O4 + C4 H 5 O. Distillation with water converts tartaric acid. it into alcohol and "We have. The presence of this ether compound in wine cannot be proved. C 4 most points with citric ether. This substance is distinguished from the pre- ceding by containing one more equivalent of water. C4 HO + 3 C4 H 5 . cannot certainly impart fragrance to the wine. HO. . Citric ether. and H H 5 is posed by distillation. HO. Eacemic ether and water. be found in wines containing racemic its presence also cannot be proved. This ether wine bitter. destitute of smell. p.306 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS 4 C8 H O 10 + C 4 H 5 0. the wine must become sweeter. acid. This is the case in wine. if tartaric acid be brought into contact with alcohol. which.
we are at least certain that wines containing malic ether will furnish fumaric ether to the alcohol distilled from them. O + 0. wine. three. we must first study the formation of ether. if action of other acids.* Margaric acid was found by Grlassford in the fusel oil of Scotch whiskey. Bd. These are the substances whose presence in wine may be assumed. and by Kolbe in moutwyn. . * is it be readily decomposed by the Liebig's Ann. C found margaric acid in fusel oil. s. But this substance is a solid colourless substance and can add nothing either to the smell or taste of the wine. present in wine. 104 . and now another. a compound of oxide of ethyl with an acid. itself. aromatic substance is found in . or from the products of distilla- Time will perhaps discover more. Eowney Margaric ether. 53 (Kolbe). but the odori- ferous substances already mentioned are sufficient to since account for the immense variety of bouquet one. and sometimes two. s. 41. 54.A YINOUS SMELL. 307. fruity it is and a pleasant If we have no right to assume that consistence. it is indifferent what kind of ether produced. or which have been obtained either from the wine tion. or even more in are the above-named substances formed different variable proportions. Bd. How now in wine ? In order to understand this clearly. compound has an oily smell. and we may therefore 3* H 33 3 OH 5 presume that margaric ether will exist in wine.
. and cannot. Free tartaric acid is contained in is As soon. may be effected more slowly without such assistance. Its taste. and left it standing at a temperature of from 40 to 50 (104 to 122 F. in order to obtain a clear idea of the origin of the substances existing in wine. time before any ether is formed from it. however. Etherised tartaric acid is easily decomposed.) After it had stood for some months he found oxalic ether by heat till it and oxalo-vinic acid in it. without causing any actual increase of sugar. as alcohol formed out of sugar. hippuric ether in the same Hippuric But benzoic acid requires a much longer manner. impart any fragrance to the wine. without the assistance of heat or any other body. u. may render the wine sweeter. therefore. der Ch. This is the first point we have to consider. etherised tartaric acid. etherised tartaric acid will also be produced. grape-juice. Ann. which indeed can hardly be assumed after the wine has been bottled (p. therefore. 113). Pharmacie. when in contact with alcohol. being much less sharp than tartaric acid. or other agents.% 308 It is SUBSTANCES EOTJND TO POSSESS well known that such chemical operations as are speedily brought about by means of heat. acid forms Tartaric acid has the power of forming rapidly. and when the watery solution it is kept resolves itself again into tartaric acid * and alcohol. This body is destitute of odour. and remain dissolved in the wine. Liebig* dissolved oxalic acid in alcohol was saturated.
and impart a peculiar kind of fragrance to old wines. by separation of the tartaric acid. phovinate may may the ether. During liquid is this period the peculiar vinous smell of the developed. acid thus thrown off may serve for the reproduction of etherised tartaric acid. to the liquid which imparts vinous odour to all wines. The formation of osnanthic ether in wine is pre- ceded by the production of many fatty acids. so another acid. may. 309. for it can be so obtained by distilling the sediment) it will decompose the scentless etherised tartaric acid. . before the liquor has acquired any vinous odour. This occurs during the first days of fermentation. a very rapid formation of etherised tartaric acid may be expected. During the fermentation of grape-juice. and the tartaric originate the ether of the new acid . either during fermentation or at a later period in any other manner. If the oenanthic acid exist in the wine (and it is partly contained in it in a free state.A VINOUS SMELL. and thus the whole process begins again. second period now begins. that is. we have now to seek after the origin of cenanthic acid. and give rise to oenanthic ether. combine with Just as the decomposition of one sulgive rise to another sulphovinate. freed from tartaric acid. 91). most of which are formed in the course of time. and as this must be attributed to oananthic ether. On this account every acid produced from wine. which we have dis- A tinguished by the name of after-fermentation (p.
are thus furnished with infallible fat. Fat exists in the and more fat is especially in the stones (p. It is known that sugar gives rise to fats. is much fat. but which is the real one ? is a question which cannot be immediately grape-juice. and the fat of the grape stones is more than sufficient to furnish the fatty acids necessary for the ethyl and methyl compound in wine. even in that of wine. But it is possible that this acid formed from a fat existing in the juice. This 34 the more probable. H O 4. when plums fruit. as margaric acid. formed from sugar of the might be accounted for The by This origin of oenanthic acid either of these causes. answered.310 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS is How now The oenanthic acid produced in wines in process of formation ? existence of this acid. moutwyn and is potato in dissipates every idea of its being present grape-juice. C 34 exists in all fusel oil. starch which passes into sugar. . or stones of the grape. skins. There is . and also in potato flour is and moutwyn. Wax is partially formed from grape sugar (honey) animals which get nothing but starch without fat. as was proved experiments a few years ago. not only in the fusel oil of wine but also in that of spirit.there was proportionably The white wax upon purple grapes and and it is fat. 44). Avequin ^Jby found a kind of wax (cerosine) on the sugar-cane. Much not required to originate the odoriferous substances found in wine. there was less sugar.
and 20 times . If fat is 311 found in the we remember that in animal bodies compounds of fatty acids containing 8. stances. this may. The same oxidation would take place by the resolution of margaric into cenanthic acid. and caprin. The sidered difficulty here is.. 240). which contain 8. But as very little fatty acid exists in wine an excess of oxygen would be always present in the air held in solution in the wine. caproic. are formed out of margarin. if fat be known to exist in the fermenting subfat of itself. whether the stones. capron. since sediment of the wine (p. capryl. from the juice wine proceed from the it or from the skins. and may as easily undergo If the oil of the grape alteration here as elsewhere. 16. 240). stones contain margarin.A YIXOUS SMELL. yield as butter does butyrin. &c. from butter. 4 . devote our time to the fatty substances of grape skins and juice since it is absurd first .capron. whether it be considered . CH + O (p. and be the primary source of the many fatty acids. 12. butyrin". faint traces of whose presence are found in wine. C 36 36 4 32 4 O could by abO and stearic acid. we must to search for a fat as the product of fermentation. during fermentation. whether margaric acid. takes part in the fermentation. con- 32 by Heintz as a mixture of palmetic. C II alone form butyric. caprylic sorbing oxygen and capric acids. H . with glycyl oxide (glycerine). even more than enough. and 20 times CH + O 4 . 16. 12. Now.
C 18 H 18 O 4 . u. Bd.) which is at the same time developed. Ann. Bd. et de Ph. J Pharm. bodies are principally formed of cellulose. or as Delffs* writes. x. and in wine this cannot be otherwise. s. appears to An me of importance. at a temperature of from is 30 to 35 (86 to 95 p. 80. during fermentation. and not the fat of the cellulose which resolved into butyric acid. has never yet been ascertained. 434. torn. der Ch. examination of this subject Fatty substances are easily resolved into one another. p. But Pelouze and * Gelis J saw butyric acid formed u. . freed by water from Carbonic acid yield butyric acid in three days. Another explanation of the origin of fatty acids in may be found in the supposition that they are products of the fermentation of sugar or other fermenting substances. 49. Grated potatoes (that is. Pharm. may be mentioned in connexion with the formation of fatty acids. then attention should be paid to this matter in every case in which the pulp or skin is allowed to ferment in wine since both of these .312 to be is SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS C 14 H 14 O 3 . Ann. der Ch. t Ann. that I can here state nothing positively. cellulose). An observation of Scharling's. 313. really the cellulose If in such a case it is ferments. wine. or butyric acid. potato all starch. s. &c. de Ch. since the transformation of margaric into oenanthic pelargonic acid.t which concerns the production of butyric acid. 290.. or perhaps of one of the components of ferment itself.
. is The change of sugar into butyric acid : generally thus represented 1 equiv. same effect upon the reaction if oxygen . . If the production of a copious amount of butyric acid does not check the simultaneous formation of alcohol. C 12 C H^ 0*2 O H H* O* O8 is the same thing of the cellulose of grape-pulp in wine.. from dextrin as well as from 313 different kinds of sugar. is imhere. . alcohol is among of great importance the products of this fermentation. of the total amount of gas was hydrogen. then it is certain that during the formation of wine (even before much alcohol was formed).. . and sometimes does not occur. at first only and hydrogen from 10 to 15 per cent. The formation acid. and allowed to The gluten behaves just like caseine.A VINOUS SMELL. but afterwards equal volumes of each. . Such a resolution of sugar. of butyric acid developed carbonic gas. vegetable gluten in water and chalk. or what during the butyric It has the acid fermentation is sometimes quite imperceptible.. 1 sugar butyric acid 4 carbonic acid 4 hydrogen gas . . what for our purpose. the conditions necessary to the production of a fatty acid from the sugar of grapes might exist.. But the development of hydrogen gas probable.. when these substances were mixed with caseine and ferment. They afterwards found.
because none is obtained if ferment be added to sugar to induce fermentation. state of the case is this : The real during fermentation.first fatty acid found with oxide of ethyl immediately after its formation in wine. and other acids formed at a later period. thereby establishing that the fatty acids of wine are not necessarily derived from the fatty substances of the stones and skins or of the grape-juice. and hence in turning our attention to it butyric acid. The . however. I have considered not as a primary but as a secondary substance in wine. under the influence of the ferment which is undergoing change. When potato syrup is fermented (to make spirit). Butyric acid is it becomes not. and forms one of the odoriferous ingredients of old wine . it is usually originated at a later period. which removes the hydrogen as free and combines with it. It has been asserted that oenanthic acid cannot be a product of fermentation. fact must. however. but this does not prove that this acid is not produced when ferment is forming.SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS be added. is cenanthic acid. no oenanthic acid is obtained. the fatty acid first formed in wine. we must devote some attention to it. The well-ascertained be stated that butyric acid is formed out of cellulose and sugar. . but may come from a source which depends entirely on the decomposition of the sugar. I consider this point of sufficient importance to merit special consideration. Since oenanthic acid appears to be the source of the butyric. caproic.
it contains oxygen than does albumen. 2G1 of this work. and It it albumen. In both cases much consider that sugar and water mixed with ready-formed ferment yields no oenanthic ether. . we If we must connect fermentation with formation of ferment and of oenanthic of ferment. but not with the decomposition We is know that ferment. This subject deserves and to a closer investigation. supposing no excess of air to be present. 315 only a very small portion of ferment can be formed. energetic formation of yeast takes place during the preparation of wine and moutwyn. 2. cells A substance is found in the ferment is is no longer what a which can be extracted with water. the contents of the cells cellulose. and at a later An period a like oenanthic ether decomposition.A YIMOUS SMELL. is formed. 55). of amyl is originated. p. promoted by but may forming oxygen from the sugar and produce oenanthic that is. may easily be subjected Sugar dissolved in water ferments * if brought into contact with vegetable gluten d. easily withdraw acid. is composed of albumen and which here indifferent. Onderz. 456 . that is. originally was the oxygenous contents of which substance bear the same proportion to the mother substance more (albumen) as 3 to 2. at least. and but little cenantkic ether. ether. Much hydrated oxide since but little malt is added. Scheik. and p.* formation of ferment whilst the ferment is is it On this account the air (p.
and out of this mixture ferment can be And if under these circumstances oenanthic it would be because oxygen had been withdrawn from the sugar by the formation of that ferment matter from vegetable gluten. . that is. in water and richer in oxygen than vegetable gluten. is the peculiar vinous smell developed. which is soluble acid be formed. If oenanthic acid be pelargonic acid. is otherwise the air furnishes the oxygen which pose the ferment... oenanthic .316 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS formed. then we have Sugar Pelargonic acid Alcohol C 24 H 24 O 24 Carbonic acid C 18 H 18 O* C 4 H6 02 C2 O4 Ox3 gen abstracted for formation of r ferment. Whoever wishes to test this formation must let sugar ferment with yeast... C 18 H 18 O 4 .... O 14 I have given the two formulae on account of the doubtful composition of the oenanthic acid. and dextrin.. then we should have for example 2 equiv. air being excluded. sugar (Enanthic acid Alcohol Carbonic acid . for C 24 H 24 O 24 C 14 H 14 O 3 C 4 HS O 2 C<5 Water H the forma- 4 O O4 O3 15* Oxygen abstracted tion of ferment . necessary to decom- Soon after the formation of oenanthic acid in wine. If oenanthic acid be C 14 H 14 O 3 .
manner the formation of the acetic ether. The oxygen of the air dissolved in wine. and existing in the bottles. it in absolute alcohol. wine. and form acetic ether. in different wines. as it is diluted in wine. explained always found in old cellared wines. which ascribes vinous odour to oenanthic ether. in which exist. A decomposition . that all into acetic ether. 2 . "We most commonly find acetic ether in aromatic old wines. is certainly incapable of separating a portion of oxide of ethyl out of alcohol. assisted by the It is tartaric acid.A VINOUS SMELL. is perhaps the acetic acid. doubtless by the decomposition of existing etherised tartaric acid. in proportion to the amount of the abovenamed substances formed in them. did not previously is But the alcohol we are treating of here not absolute. since oenanthic acid. It can decompose which is hence found in ether. ether is 317 originated. which is fatty and nob very acid. But time developes aroma. might here conclude our considerations upon We the origin of the odoriferous constituents. etherises a portion of the alcohol. first C 4 4 H 3 4 O . C 4 H6 O 2 . after a time. In which this is . changes alcohol. into aldehyde. osnanthic separate cenanthic acid. by progressive oxidation of this aldehyde in C H O3 H 0. varying. exist together in wine. if our only object were to pursue the subject to the point reached by the present state of science. well known that acetic ether is formed.) and thus. (which may is.
compound like that of the metacetonic acid. Aufl. After filtering the liquid. Bd. not improbable. decomposing the neutral tartrate of potash with gypsum. The aroma increases. which quickly resolved itself into butyric and acetic acid. and placed it in the sun. Among wine is the volatile substances which may exist in one which. but with quite different properties. as in proportion to the formation of acetic and compound ether (of which will we have still to treat) in old wine be the diminution of osnanthic ether. aceto-butyric acid. The formation of acetic acid and acetic ether in wine may. on several accounts. 4. in order to procure tartrate of lime. deserves to be It is ISTollner's mentioned here. s.f Carbonic acid and a soluble lime-salt were developed. Lehrbuch der Chemie. but according to Nickles. and the disagreeable odour decreases. be very different. Bd. out of which by sulphuric acid a volatile acid was separated. 5 256.* acid from raw tartar. should be called a 5 C6 O 3 HO. 61. . which detail he mixed the tartrate of lime which had been obtained (and which contained the organic matter of wine ferment) with water. by Mckles.318 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS of oananthic ether by means of the oenanthic acid in wine seems to me. however. Berzelius. however. 343. The examination instituted by Nickles renders * t it Liebig's Ann. a peculiar compound of both acids = H . s. which has been examined in JSTollner prepared this he boiled with water and hydrated lime.
If aceto-butyric acid forms a compound ether. The decomposition of tartaric acid in wine can no longer be doubted. then we perceive that butyric and acetic ether may be produced by the change of the tartaric acid in wine into butyric and acetic acid. as we see. There is. 111. therefore. contain. sufficiently 319 clear that this is a peculiar monobasic acid. which occurs in the course of time. which nevertheless fully expresses the com6 6 C 4 4 O 4 + C 8 8 O 4 that O 4) pound. (Compare p.A VINOUS SMELL. hydrated acetic and butyric acid.) Butyric and acetic ether are odoriferous components of wine. without state. 2 (C H = H H . . tartaric acid is thereby less acid. is. a large after a amount of acetic acid. . the wine becomes wine ages. "When we now bring this to bear upon what we have already said respecting the facility with which etherised tartaric acid is formed. known that tartaric and citric acid. according to the ordinary. Acetic and butyric ether appear in cellared wine they may. is must be sought among the constituents of wine. not the double for- mula. and dissolved in water in a pure time. it also It lime. a real connexion between the gradual sweetening and increase of aroma in wine. be formed in combination from the decomposition of tartaric acid. If this be the case. then and this is observed to occur as the decomposed. This acid is formed out of tartaric acid.
capric acid (C 20 H 20 O 14 4 more 8 caproic acid (C 12 H 12 O 4 ). in course of time. . acid If oenanthic acid he pelargonic acid . 4 H however. it strengthens every acid that forms in wine. remains in wine. or 18 18 O ).. if for example. and by its power of etherising. atomic weight. how do the fatty acids arise from oananthic or pelargonic acid ? will give a sketch of both. are formed out of cenanthic acid (C 14 H 3 ). The question is. independent of cenanthic ether. The formation of oxide of ethyl in wine presents no difficulty. H 6 O 12 H4 O 8 C" H" O C H O4 C 36 H 36 O 8 C 20 H O 4 C 16 H * 0* C C4 5 <> 4 18 18 2 <> 1 C^H^O C8 24 5 capric acid 1 butyric acid CIOORIOOOSO . ... therefore.. . . pelargonic acid (C Some tartaric acid always. more oxide of is is which necessary to saturate this acid if the fatty acid hereby originated has a lower atomic weight. . oenanthic acid 2 capric acid 1 caprylic = . therefore. . and this may serve to be resolved. pelargonic acid 1 capric acid caprylic acid or 6 pelargonic acid 1 . . . and less if it possess a greater if. or butyric acid (C 8 H O O 4 ). into other ethers of the fatty acids. . . We Let cenanthic acid be 4 equiv.820 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS Acetic and butyric ether may be formed. C" H" . . Here we must make a ether ethyl is distinction. 2 equiv.. When cenanthic resolved into another fatty acid. Less. .. H 8 O4 . ).
capryl. since forms quickly. in wine needs as little explanation as does that of 5 O HO. 321 And many lution other formulae might be given. . potato fusel oil. acid C 4 H 4 O 4 . carbonic acid water . . like it.. I now turn to the consideration of the manner + in is which hydrated oxide of amyl. but in the experimental proof as to the origin of the oenanthic ether.A VINOUS SMELL. . C be said. . HO. and the newly-formed acid remains combined with oxide of ethyl. and butyric acid C 8 H 8 O 11 4 . as we have already mentioned. C 60 H6 4 20 12 . caproic. oenanthic ether. C 10 produced: this liquid H O HO. and capric ether are formed in wine. . O6 O8 O 40 H^ O 12 <> tioned as it This hydrated oxide of amyl deserves to be menmuch as the oenanthic ether in wine. undergoes a peculiar change in wine. with butyric . composes the greater part of and also appears in wine. Of the latter it may propionic acid. not in explaining the changes they undergo. which is the origin of all... The reso- of the homologous fats is easily effected artificially. hydrated oxide of amyl. As butyric. and we may represent it thus 5 equiv. O C 20 H>8 . . That this is an sugar .. and combines. that it holds a middle position between acetic The formation of oxide of B C 20 H 19 H 3 . O. body is a product of the fermentation of sugar ascertained fact. difficulty is The This. caprylic. diminishes.
and its formation is acid. The following formulae deserve notice. . C 24 H 24 O 24 Hydrated oxide of amyl of propylene . rise to hydrated oxide of amyl. are found in wine. &c. . to a certain amount.. and compounds of butyric. but many others appear in different wines.. Carbonic acid Water . We salts of oxide of amyl are odoriferous mentioned acetic amyl ether (p. Hydrated oxide of amyl may also be formed from alcohol. and acetic oxide of amyl are formed... . . and caproic and with . may be formed thus 2 equiv. tartaric amyl compounds appear in but small while alkaline and neutral solutions give proportion. 2 6 . of butyl. O 10 H 12 O'^ C 6 H8 O 8 C8 O 16 H4 O 4 .. Hydrated oxide of ethyl. Most of these liquids...322 SUBSTANCES POUND TO POSSESS acid. in which stopped by the addition of tartaric acid to fluids it would otherwise be produced in great abundance.er acetic acid. water being separated. and of amyl.. which. caproic.. of propylene. alcohol .. sngar . 303). . 5 equiv. hydrated oxide of amyl water C 20 H 24 O4 H O6 6 I must observe here that the compounds ol oxide of amyl in wine never preponderate over the compounds of ethyl that in wines containing free ...
laurostearic acid is formed. * Pogg. pelargonic acid. of amyl.. and usually in the following manner: 1 1 equiv.. C 34 H 34 O is again pro4. V* H^ O^ 0* H6 C 12 C8 H 16 Water 2 equiv. margaric acid. is Thus. 2 equiv. His opinion. that is. I must draw attention to an observation made by Eichhorn. . C 24 H 24 O If this last acid combines with [24 O 3 + HO. oxide of amyl acids in fusel is that occasionally gives rise oils. solanostearic acid. 1 1 omanth. Ann. Bd. pass in course According to Eichhorn the fatty acid compounds of of time into a new fatty acid. C 24 C 16 C8 H2 H 24 O 2* H 20 0* O 16 H* O* O2 O4 O 16 O2 Water Lastly. hydrated oxide of propylene Carbonic acid 323 . If this cenanthylic acid combines with oxide of 4 amyl.34 oxide C 10 H n O. H 14 O 4 . laurinic acid. .... acet.* who analysed the fat of potatoes. which deserves consideration. oxide of amyl acid C 10 H 11 O. s. oxide of amyl. margaric acid. to the fatty and therefore in wine. oxide of 14 amyl C H 14 O4 butyr. duced. Together they are cenanthylic acid = C*4 H 13 C 14 3 + HO.A YINOUS SMELL. for example.. sugar Alcohol 2 equiv. caprinic laurinic I C 18 H 18 O 4 C 24 H 24 O 4 C 30 Ipo Q 4 C 34 H 34 O 4 = = =1 = =1 1 1 1 equiv. 227. = 0. 87. anhydrous acetic C 4 H 3 O 3 . oenanthylic acid. sugar 2 hydrated oxide of butyl Carbonic acid .
supposing a sufficient quantity of oxide of amyl to be present. acetic acid acid.- These observations merit future consideration. . animal charcoal. Org. . that is. C 6 H 8 O 2 + C 10 H 12 O 2 + S C O 2 + 4 H O. Chemie.324 SUBSTANCES EOTJND TO POSSESS . Propyl alcohol and alcohol Butylalcohol Propyl alcohol and amyl alcohol Capronic alcohol and alcohol 2 .C o C24 H23 O 3 + C 10 ] HH O = C 14 H O 3 + H O = C 24 R23 O + = C 34 H 33 O + H 13 11 3 11 3 HO. all are C 24 H 1 24 . 351. are. C^K 14 O 2 + C 4 R6 O 2 + 8 C O 2 4 H 0. Yery sweet wines obtained from grapes which contain either very little free acid. 2 equiv. and the through cler Lehrb. -* Lastly. s. 2C8 H O 2 + 8COM-4HO. anhydrous grape sugar. in general. This confirms the opinion I have given as to the influence of the free tartaric acid in the formation of the compound ethers. metameric substances be converted into one another ler in the course of time. I must mention that as a rule the most odoriferous ingredients predominate in wines contain- ing free acids tartaric acid. for acetic acid would eventually become margaric and oxide of amyl are C 4 HS O 3 + C*o C 14 H 13 O 3 4. HO. or have this acid softened by excess of sugar. C 6 H 8 O 2 + C 4 H6 O 2 + 8 C Oa + 2 H O. 1855. Delffs* gives the following summary formation of so-called alcohols. HO. then. The following experiments deserve juice be filtered * If grape notice. considered to arise from OH O 24 respecting the 2 n+ + O 2 . for example. much less fragrant than some Prench or Rhenish wines.
s. The mannite which is thus formed from sugar is 6 7 O 6 . Pelouze found that hydrogen gas was evolved during the fermentation of these vegetables. lactic and found mannite. and does not appear to belong necessarily to this fermentation. Eraconnotf first examined this subject. 127). have . a wine with- out aroma is obtained. 1854. and Pelouze. but during fermentation yield no alcohol. Chemie. because the formation of vegetable mucus generally renders the liquid thick (p. and examined these products in detail. as. but it is often wanting.A VINOUS SMELL. torn. If grape juice be mixed with olive oil. Techn. Ixxxvi. 352. vegetable mucus. onions.* There are vegetables which contain sugar and ferment. the lactic acid and the gum have the cornC H * t Schubert. the for example. If they do furnish alcohol. 97. Erlangen. If grape juice be evaporated. liquid then allowed to ferment. and the juice fermented after the oil is separated from it. p. Ann. amount is not in proportion to the quantity of sugar contained in them. and allowed to ferment. a wine without bouquet is again obtained. Kirchner found that the composition of the mucilaginous substances discovered by Braconnot and of gum was the same others. de Chemie. and acid among the products of fermentation. a scentless 325 wine is obtained. Jules G-ay-Lussac. the residue mixed again with water. . which is called mucous fermentation.
ODORIFEROUS SUBSTANCES WHICH DEPEND ON THE PLACES WHERE THE GRAPES ARE GROWN. according to Schmidt. v. 124. . Under this head. of.* for the production of succinic acid.326 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS Sugar therefore forms mannite. this gives rise to non-hydrogenous products. As the opinion that in all the different periods of fermentation the sugar of grape juice undergoes only one transformation. 3. Fogg.) no hydrogen be evolved. which he found in all liquids fermented in this manner. parts of vege- and even in fruits. that the careful analysis of large quantities of wine will discover new varieties of substances in different kinds of wine. and appear in tables. we may expect. case when the temperature of the fermenting liquid is kept between 30 and 40. and accounts. besides those sub- stances in wine which determine the nature of the odoriferous ingredients already treated cularly ethereal oils. and vegetable mucus and if. as is often the . muscadels. single grapes. that into alcohol and car- bonic acid. position of sugar. has been found utterly erroneous. I understand. more parti- which exist in abundance in the all vegetable kingdom. for * aroma com- Handworterbuch. Bd. lactic acid.. (86 and 104 P. s. in future. We perceive in the juice of instance. viz.
for resemblance in odour does not justify us chemically in concluding . is however. which has already been used scientifically. therefore. is so insignificant that it will probably be a long time before we are thoroughly or accurately informed concerning them. not the effect of fermentation. are to be found in plants belonging warmer climates. originated during fermenta"We are now treating only of such pre-existent substances. therefore. no wonder that wine prepared from such grapes should This bouquet is. How should they be separated or examined ? There is one other means of discriminating these substances. The amount of volatile oil existing in grapes and imparting aroma to wine. is a product of fermentation and not a pre-existent substance. The aroma which the wines pro- duced from such grapes possess. This method is. It is. indeed. retain the aroma of the juice. nor the pro- duct of a substance tion. But fragrant oils are mostly met with in the grapes of warmer districts. fruits. 327 bined with agreeable flavour. for it first existed previously in the juice. by no means satisfactory. They abound in flowers and in pine apples and our reinettes and peaches are well provided with them.A VINOUS SMELL. As a rule they are seldom found in the grapes of our colder districts. of the volatile And. the larger proportion oils. which fill so important a place in to organic chemistry. and that when the identity of aroma in such liquids prepared in large quantities.
and may fearlessly make use of it here. the leaves of the spir&a ulmaria (meadow sweet). we them the quality of those volatile sub- stances which exist in grapes in such small quantities that it is necessary to increase them artificially. . it has become customary to put violet roots and the roots of the Florentine iris in other wine. They con- bouquet of good Bordeaux to tain an agreeably-scented stearopten. which Dumas oil found to be =C H O 4 8 1 .328 that there SUBSTANCES POUND TO POSSESS is is no difference in kind. the As learn from these plants can be independently examined. lime and elder flowers. * Arch. the blossom of wild vines. "What kinds of ethereal oils are employed to increase the bouquet of different wines ? Portions of fragrant plants are mixed with must in order to extract their ethereal oil. thirty kilogrammes This example yielded. Probably the odoriferous ingredients actually exist in the In order to give the juice of some of the grapes. Bd. less agreeable wines. only 5 grammes. s. Dif- ferent plants are resorted to for different wines. and we have rose leaves. der Pharm. and perhaps the sal via setacea (sage ferment oil of the centaury. These and others are commonly added to improve the aroma of wine. 248. the peel of quince pears. 13. leaves of or clary). however. But we know that science greatly indebted to this method. Bley* has separated a fragrant ethereal distillation by from raspberries.
since raspberries are a peculiarly fragrant fruit. is true not only of ethereal oils. We which makes it and apparently causes young wine to affect the head. sometimes in those of bad wines. but that the young wine contains excess of cenanthic ether. . and the most aromatic grapes scarcely possess Toy part of the aroma of the raspberries. is not fragrant. offensive. remarked that the juice of many grapes is already fragrant before fermentation. being no longer masked. that the aroma of the grape juice reappears. These are sometimes found in the fusel oils of younger wines. but also of those fragrant ethers which we have treated of above. and a free indulgence in it produces very uncomfortable feelings. but having its bouquet increased by original other aromatic ingredients. This fundamental fact that fetid oenanthic ether first is formed. and other fragrant ethers have been engendered from oenanthic ether. Let no one imagine that since fresh wine stances. This fetid oenanthic ether masks at first the fragrance of the aromatic ingredients. which pre-exist in grape juice. and masks all other aroma. and less of it can be borne. It is not till the wine has been some time in store. found in many wines.A VINOUS SMELL. it cannot therefore contain odoriferous sub- and that all odoriferous ingredients must have necessarily be products of fermentation. 329 of may show ethereal oil us must be how extremely small the quantity the compounds (if we except of ethyl and amyl).
The same holds good with respect to the delicate . example. and nothing more. or for a combination yielding a less agreeable odour. A thorough knowledge of chemistry not sufficient to explain everything which concerns the aroma of wine. They obtain the fragrance which characterizes them after the lapse of time. though in no very but they cannot impart aroma to wine is generally supposed to but the truth is. (Enanthic ether . prepared by or by dissolving peppermint : oil in water. FOUJSTJD TO POSSESS They are found large quantities an early period. it spoils until the greatest portion of the oenanthic ether is de- composed. I may further remark that competent judges are well able to distinguish between the scent of a distilled water. it boundary water. All waters freshly distilled from plants have at first a disagreeable smell. at in both cases finds Chemistry here finds Jits peppermint oil and least it cannot with certainty determine the cause of the difference. so that the original odour disappears at once. and although it gives rise to many of the aromatic ingredients of cellared wine. It is well known in pharmacy and perfumery that fresh distilled waters have not a pleasant smell. for distillation. so long as it predominates in the wine it is by no means is fragrant. occasion the vinous odour the bouquet. but rather for the decomposition of one.330 SUBSTANCES at . aqua menthcz (peppermint water). "We need not here look for the formation of a new substance. particularly if they are prepared from fresh plants.
Bd. &c. which depends as much upon fusel oil as other circumstances. which they owe to a volatile substance has been converted into peculiar to each. upon Pay en t observes rightly that all kinds of sago. 331 aroma of wines. Ann. may This Port at first be detected by its smell. alcohol * f produced from these substances by s. 489. 397. of fermented cane-sugar syrup. differing widely from each other. Eum and arrack have a peculiar smell and taste. to the other bodies present there. When.. . 77. after the starch is sugar. which according to Schubert* is added to Port wine in the proportion of one-twelfth. and by that time the smell of brandy has vanished this is likewise true of substances naturally existing in wine. torn. and arrack of rice flour ttidSfe moutwyn of wheat flour con- verted into sugar. which also require time to accommoif date themselves. wine is allowed to lie three years before it is pro- duced. 197. arrowroot. Pogg. Brandy. Among the series of fusel oils nothing is known of the substances which appear in rum and other desEum is the product tillates of fermented liquids. that of Cognac and moutwyn.A VINOUS SMELL. starch. p. the flour of different kinds of corn. such as potato-flour. J rJ resolved into sugar. although under Cherry water is a proof how destillate of a spirituous liquid is dependent the its origin. xxiii. I may use the phrase. have a distinctive fragrance. Comptes Rendus.
whereby an that water. 1854. which is found in the vine blossoms. In speaking of the odoriferous ingredients of wine and their origin. drying them little packet filled with them into the alcohol. This method was recommended by Linnaeus. by distilling the blossoms with and adding a little of the destillate to the wine. s. and the spirit distilled the bodies which impart odour must either be decomposed. 1533. on the ground that the flavour of a Smyrnian wine had been it. crushed the plant Gentiana centaurea. * According to Faber the bouquet of wine is much improved by ethereal oil. however.332 SUBSTANCES FOUND TO POSSESS off. generally have ethereal oil of vine blossoms much improved by added to improve their bouquet. to direct our attention to something besides fatty or other acids in combination with oxide of ethyl or other such like substances. The Greek wines. or contained in the destillate. and then distilled the liquid. Centralbl. They teach us. . ferment oils must be mentioned. and best imparted to the wine the blossoms which carefully. * oil was obtained differing entirely from obtained by distilling the fresh plant with Polyt. let it stand some time in water. He Eiichner first spoke of such ferment oils. fermentation. fall and putting a by collecting when shaken. must or. although neither their properties nor origin are accurately known. according to Faber.
from the pressed juice of and other apples. At any been made with respect rate these ferment oils deserve to be compared with the fusel oils. All these ferment oils have a strong odour.A YIMOUS SMELL. One from the leaves of Salix. but which will never have the smell of wine. reinettes According to Rossignon. . In the same manner a ferment oil 333 has been ob- tained from the leaves of the Quercus robur. The following observation deserves consideration in bouquet of wine. a ferment oil is obtained like which smells musk. Bley prepared another ferment oil out of herba having properties differing from that prepared from the fresh herb. gave 20 grammes another kind of oil was obtained from millifolii. that which remains in the retort after tillation will dis- always smell disagreeably of cenanthic . 46 Ib. If aromatic distilled so far as it concerns the wine be out of a retort a brandy is obtained having a pleasant smell. Plantago. and the skins are perhaps as well suited to produce it grape as the constituents of the grape juice itself.) from also 80 grammes. But no satisfactory examination has to grapes. yielding Another from Urtica urens. volatile aromatic substances The production of the fermentation of by plants is universal. loth (i oz. However fragrant the wine may have been. herba echii. 24 Dutch Ib. and Chaerophyllum sylvestre. 22 Dutch Ib. of the herb in blossom. having an agreeable odour and a specific weight of 0*795.
the original vinous smell is not regained.33i ether. G-eiger has observed that after some years such a mixture regains its bouquet. Aroma may have been produced in the wine men- tioned by Schubert. 77. SUBSTANCES POSSESSING A YINOTJS SMELL. a. . the bouquet is destroyed. volume remained. but since the alcohol was completely expelled. If now the brandy which has been distilled over be added to the liquid remaining in the retort. of opinion that the aroma of wine is a product of the action of tartaric acid on wine extract. Schubert * endeavoured to investigate this subject in another way. This view Schubert is is entirely opposed to the fact. which contained from 3 to 4 per had a bouquet like that of wine 100 years old. one can hardly imagine the formation of ether to occur. fifth He evaporated wine. * Pogg. a proof that it arises from a substance previously extant in wine. been carried volatile on in closed some portion of a very substance has escaped. 397. till only one- of its original it in a bottle. However carefully the distillation has vessels. that many compounds of oxide of ethyl appear among the odoriferous consti- tuents of wine. cent. Ann. 197. Bd. and then confined At the end of five years this liquid. To seems very strange that wine entirely free alcohol me it from should nevertheless possess vinous odour. acid. and that alcohol has nothing to do with it.
whereby. the existence of many ingredients may be recognised. phosphoric. potash. some wines and according to some analyses alumina Also. in traces of iron. passed by. be mentioned. magnesia. Alcohol and water need not The other volatile ingredients are either easily or . the use of chemical means. We this last method first. may be found. that of reagents alone. The evaporated wine burnt. IT cannot be out of place to give some short direcmanner of analysing the components is. soda. and 2. that to indicate simple analytical for every kind of wine. But these may be Organic ingredients. chlorine. ANALYSIS OF WINE. when an adulterated and means which are available genuine wine are compared. It is not easy to burn the ash white. sulphuric. By the use of the usual reagents. silicic acid. I suggest two methods of investigation: 1. tions as to the of genuine wine. by which the various constituents will treat of may be separated from each other. is Ashes. lime.CHAPTEE XXY.
yv As all wine has an acid reaction tartar). malate. and a portion of colouring matter in it. (if only from an acid liquid flows from the neutral acetate of lead which has been added. and the lead may ulti. If sugar of lead be added to wine. it contains free cream of acetic acid. and in this manner should large quantities sparingly volatile. in perceptible "We have already treated of these and the more sparingly soluble in speaking of the odoriferous constituents of wine. ^Acetate of lead may here be mately be removed by means of sulphuric acid. albuminous matters. Those which are easily volatile to Faure's method. fatty tartaric oils. substances hitherto unknown may perhaps be obtained quantities.336 ANALYSIS or WINE. carefully employed. albuminate. of aromatic wine be ever examined. the colouring matters. phosphoric and sulphuric acids. I will shortly indicate the object to be attained by it. according by smell. . tannic acid. is more or less soluble as are also tartrate. be partly detected may. (acetic acid ex- and other vegetable acids cepted). satisfactory result may be obtained by A this simple method. and part of the chlorine will be precipitated. and sulphate of lead are inso- and phosphate of lead. "We must now direct our particular attention to the non-volatile organic bodies. and especially chloride of lead. then as a basic salt then ammonia may be added. being first added as a neutral. Tannate.
We and the third by basic acetate of lead and ammonia. 337 more of the If to the liquid which has filtered off. the second a little colouring matter. z . a liquid remains in which organic bodies which had not previously been precipitated are found. of which the third contains nothing. If the liquid be again filtered. After these precipitates have been well washed. the precipitate will first contain the insignificant amount of colouring matter which has passed through. still above-named substances are dissolved. and chlo- and also a portion of the gum contained in wine. soda. in order to precipitate the lead. they are suspended in water and sulphuretted hydrogen passed through them. the second by basic acetate of lead. the trace of phosphoric acid rine. If the precipitate be washed. magnesia. and the precipitate then separated. containing the sugar and the rest of the gum. in order to expel the excess of sulphuretted hydrogen. a third precipitate is obtained. and again filtered. have thus three precipitates. the liquid warmed. together with potash.ANALYSIS OF WINE. and then the non-volatile vegetable acids. filtered. and lime. luble. basic acetate of lead be added. If this be now put into a filter. the first produced by__sugax of lead. and ammonia be added. Three liquids and three separate amounts of sulphide of lead are thus obtained. and sulphuric acid dropped in.
a dirty pale blue. sulphuretted it. and procured from the precipitate of sugar of lead. sugar. tannic acid. Eed Bordeaux was A filter. nor extractive matter could be found in the liquid in question. After that which remained upon the filter had been suspended in water. A diluted solution of chloride of iron indicated in strongly the presence of tannic acid liquid concentrated by evaporation. phosthe last phoric. placed upon a precipitate. pure Bordeaux being used for We the purpose. the red When of the nitric acid was added to another portion liquid in which the tartaric acid had been . The filtered liquid hydrogen was pale After evaporation it deposited a little sulof lead. After further phide evaporation it remained of a bright red colour. but sulphuric. a copious together with fatty acids. which was filtered off. supposing them to exist in Neither gum. was passed through red. and malic acid might be contained in the the wine. amount of colouring matter. violet red liquid passed through filter and washed. albumen. though would be principally contained in the precipitate of basic acetate of lead. and a trace of muriatic acid. tartaric. racemic. and the the precipitated with sugar of lead.338 ANALYSIS or WINE. will give an example of analysis of wine conducted in this manner. liquid. Besides a portion of red colouring matter. the first.
as all other substances possibly existing. After carbonate of ammonia and ammonia had filtered. neutralized by an alkali. In the original liquid chlorine gave a flocculent precipitate of albumenchlorit. it 339 gave rise to a white floccu- lent precipitate. 249). which. can be nothing else but albumen. and heated with hydrated-potash. The precipitate caused by the milk of lime being dissolved in muriatic acid and ammonia. been added. This would be proved by the solubility of the precipitate in alkali. tartaric and racemic acid were easily detected (p. are soluble in nitric acid. precipitate of malate of lime (p. and afterwards The liquid which flowed through was warmed. as well as by the yellow colour (Xantho-proteic acid) which it acquired under the influence of nitric acid and ammonia. then with ammonia. 248). If a portion of the original liquid be evaporated to dryness. The presence of albumen was thereby proved. The following means were employed : to determine the other organic acids part of the liquid was mixed with milk of lime. but no precipitate of citrate of lime was formed nor did filtration and addition of alcohol give rise to a filtered. copious fumes of ammonia were developed. A and filtered. the liquid was warmed and evaporation the clearer liquid left After a trace of a brown . . Another portion of the liquid was mixed first with acetate of lime.ANALYSIS OF WINE. which coloured red litmus paper blue.
ever. but evaposulphuretted hydrogen. sus- pended through and sulphuretted hydrogen passed a precipitated sulphide of lead being placed upon filter. howbe . 216). and deposited a substance . detail (p. was not examined. After alcohol had been added to the liquid which was was not evaporated. its colour was grey. substance. and afterwards brown. could contained in The liquid that had flowed from the sulphide of in order to It lead was warmed expel the excess of colourless. The so that the small amount of colouring matter This. and the fatty acid spoken of Basic acetate of lead was now added to the violet red liquid sugar of lead. so I pass over under the colouring matter of it. but weaker than . Placed upon a it. ration turned it first yellow. else still existing remained in the sulphide of lead. a milk-white fluid was formed.340 ANALYSIS OF WINE. was washed with water. it. which was too insignificant in quantity to allow of its qualities being investigated (compare the precipitate of basic acetate of lead with this and am- monia further on). a colourless liquid flowed from The precipitate in water. as nothing it. the former. which at last became clear. filter. was obtained obtained from the precipitate of Another precipitate. The sulphide of lead obtained from the precipitate of neutral acetate of lead has been treated in wine also 2. the liquid that flowed from it was colourless.
Citric acid does not. The tartaric acid of this salt was held in solution partly as tartrate of lead by the excess of acetic acid in the fluid which was filtered from the precipitate formed by the sugar of lead. It was precipitated with basic acetate of . Lime-water was mixed with another portion of the liquid. 38). and this warmed. B/aceraic acid was not present. but malic acid appears in the lead precipitate. Not a trace of pectin. tartaric acid combined with the lime.ANALYSIS OF WINE. 341 which appeared to be gum. for a precipitate was had not formed till after a portion of the acid liquid been saturated with ammonia. which was not reducible by means of the test solution of oxide of copper and potass. or any substance derivable from it. could be perceived (p. and solution of gypsum added to it. It gave rise to a copious precipitate of acid tartrate of lime. After evaporating what remained of the liquid a very small portion of a brown substance was left. no precipitate of citrate of lime it was produced. When alcohol was added gave rise to a precipitate of malate of lime. Another portion of the liquid was mixed with milk of lime. through When ammonia was added to the liquid which flowed from the tartrate of lime. filtered. it was and then carbonic acid gas was conducted it and warmed. exist in this wine. therefore. and could not therefore be glucic acid.
more and more coloured when exposed there was nothing present except a little gum. indicated by precipitation with alcohol. basic acetate of lead together with ammonia were again added. After this had been susprecipitate A pended through obtained. To the liquid which flowed from the precipitate of basic acetate of lead. No precipitate was obtained by adding basic acetate of lead to a portion of this liquid in a form . water. which Besides sugar and a trace of an organic substance. The quan- tity its was very insignificant. in it. dark-coloured and passing into glucic acid so that basic acetate of lead mixed with the solution gives . and dissolved in excess of the same. yellow flocculent was obtained. and filtered. 3. not sufficient to allow of properties being examined.342 lead. so that no glucic acid it. which when exposed to evaporation is speedily transformed into glucic acid. ANALYSIS or WINE. which allows of precipitation exists in Test solution of oxide of copper and potass indi- cated at once and without trouble the existence of sugar (uncrystallisable sugar). The sugar solution is so very easily decomposed that its cannot be evaporated without becoming . (as in the liquids previously mentioned) became to evaporation. a process which would probably be difficult in any case. sulphuretted hydrogen passed a liquid clear as water was which was freed by being warmed from sulphuretted hydrogen and ammonia.
It is well known that glucate when exposed to the air is speedily transformed into apo-glucate. analysis it escapes by resolving itself into apo-glucic acid. . duct of sugar which passes into air glucic and when exposed to the decomposed. 253). "What Scheele calls " extractive matter. which when further evaporated is resolved into apo-glucic acid. even when it is precipitated with lead salts. after becoming brown. but likewise that obtained from basic acetate of lead and ammonia become darker when exposed to the air. where only a little exists. Potash. and not to form from it glucic acid. rise to a 343 voluminous precipitate. lime. evaporation must not be employed. apo-glucic acid first . Knowing how very easily the sugar existing in red wine is resolved into glucic acid. I have carefully sought it for this acid. 4. contains apo-glucic acid (p. was freed from lead by sulphuric acid. soda. it is a proacid. and basic acetate of lead and ammonia. becomes brown and The liquid obtained after the separation of the precipitates with sugar of lead. If glucic acid be contained in wine. Here." contains. If therefore the object be to obtain the sugar. and magnesia might exist in it. Not only the precipitate of sugar of lead. but in vain. I think probable that the small quantity of brown sub- stance found in the liquid obtained from the precipitate of sugar of lead and basic acetate of lead.ANALYSIS OF WINE. the transformation must be very rapid.
to be neither sugar nor glucic acid. acids. and Evaporation rendered the liquid dark brown. which cannot at present be more accurately described. however. when warmed with potash it did not turn Lime water occasioned no precipitate sugar . so that some organic substance must be contained in it.344 ANALYSIS OF WINE. Its and with which we are quite insignificant. Nitrate of silver. of lead formed no precipitate in of lead did. red colouring matter. since brown. we have the following substances citric acid. no pectin. gum. It would be superfluous here to seek after the doubtful substance which figures under the extractive name of matter. uncrystallisable sugar. albumen. complete by special examination of each of those subwhich may be separately obtained in the way I have indicated. racemic. but no malic acid. It was proved. this did not decompose the test solution of oxide of copper and potass. a brown substance deducible in part from a small amount of glucic acid existing in the wine. unacquainted. many but neither sugar nor glucic acid. gave a reduction of silver. All other bodies were removed from it. tannic acid. If amount is we now consider what we have found. but basic acetate saturated to when But excess with ammonia. it. and tartaric. besides extractive matter. This sketch must be rendered stances. . and setting aside the inorganic substances volatile bodies.
If chloride of iron be added to an equal quantity it indicates tannic acid in the following pro- of wine. and may therefore be considered here. Lachryma Christi. Madeira.CH1PTEB XXVI. wines not red Eoussillon. We Hermitage. an excess of the same reagent was measured off. and white Cotes. some of the reactions of different wines as the foundation of a simple We method of determining adulteration. THE METHOD OF DISTINGUISHING WINES BY CHEMICAL EEAGENTS. WHEN terations. added. Burgundy-Beaune. . Teneriffe. or at the end of the experiment. Rhine. simple means are employed to detect adulthey serve at the same time to establish the genuineness of the wine. Muscat. Langlade and Tavella (two very pale red wines) . In every instance the same quantity of wine was Champagne. white Bergerac. and St. Burgundy-Pommard. and either a portion. further. and to determine the nature and here give quantity of many of its constituents. . have taken several kinds of wine by way of comparison: red wines Port. G-eorge Bordeaux-Sauterne. Comparisons serve to test a wine that is suspected.
Among red wines. Champagne. a very weak one in Ehine. Isinglass added to white wines gave rise to cipitate in Bordeaux-Sauterne. St. Eoussillon. St. the red wines (old) Port was least affected Among . white Bergerac. Port was least precipitated. G-eorge. G-eorge. Narbonne. Narbonne. then Hermitage. Ehine wine. in nothing more. Benicarlo. Narbonne. but Teneriffe and Madeira. then came Tavella. . Benicarlo.316 portions : METHOD OP DISTINGUISHING WINES white wines : in Bordeaux-Sauterne hardly any colouring. LangLachryma lade. next Among Burgundy and St. and Lachryma Christi were rendered much darker. George. Beniall. Bordeaux-Sauterne. Burgundy somewhat more. and Christi. Langlade and Burgundy-Beaune those most coloured were Bordeaux. Champagne Then follow a perceptible tinge. most so in red wines Tavella. white Eergerac. Hermitage. and . no pre- none perceptible in Teneriffe and Madeira . and white Bergerac a copious one in Lachryma Christi. ordinary Bordeaux . Burgundy-Pommard. Tavella and Hermitage still more decidedly Langlade. white Cotes. . last Burgundy-Pommard. A decidedly perceptible colouring was visible in Ehine "White Cotes. Muscat. and Port wine were most discoloured. Cotes. . Madeira. wine. Bordeaux. wine Champagne and Muscat. Burgundy-Pommard. which was considerable in Teneriffe. formed a precipitate in Muscadel. carlo and Eoussillon most of Chlorine water mixed with white wine.
white Bergerac least so Bordeaux-Sauterne. come in rotation. Benicarlo. Ehine wine. George. Benicarlo. After the decomposition of blue colouring matter. Langlade. Bordeaux. and most of all in Lachryma Christi. all somewhat diminished by the addi- tion of nitric acid. Burgundy-Pommard. whilst much chloride of silver remains undissolved in Benicarlo. TenerifFe. Tavella. all white wines brown.Pommard. in Muscadel. a very small preci. Tavella. Madeira. the last of which are very turbid. Bordeaux. and Muscadel more so. In all of them the . Burgundy. pitate is formed in Bordeaux. and most in St. Eoussillon. In the following gave rise to a dirty brown green precipitate. Burgundy-Pommard. Nitrate of silver added to white wine forms a very small precipitate in Champagne and Ehine wine none . George. to Port ammonia gives the colour of Ehine wine least in and Tavella. Burgundy. Christi quite Among wines it red wines. of all 347 Eoussillon. Narbonne. Cham. Langlade. the precipitate of Burgundy-Pom- mard most being almost re-dissolved. white Bergerac. St. Langlade and Port wine are rendered least turbid by a yellow precipitate then . In red wines.BY CHEMICAL REAGENTS. more in Hermitage. white Cotes. Benicarlo. Hermitage. a larger one in JSTarbonne. Madeira. Narbonne. Her- mitage. Bordeaux-Sauterne in Teneriffe more. Port. Burgundy. They are so. Eoussillon. white Cotes. Eoussillon. Burgundy. Ammonia makes pagne. and Lachryma brown.
Teneriffe. Port. give the least precipitate Among . next come Muscadel. Bordeaux. Langlade gives the smallest precipitate. and only when there is excess of ammonia does it become brown (p. Burgundy. and white Cotes. Oxalate of ammonia in white wines gives the smallest precipitate . George. wine is to Chloride of barium in white wines least precipitated Champagne Christi. George. and white Bergerac. An addition of nitric acid [Roussillon. Burgundy-Pommard. diminishes the precipitates.348 METHOD OF DISTINGUISHING WINES The effect of ammonia upon all red make the colour fade into blue. and still above. Bordeaux-Sauterne. Hermitage. then come Muscadel. St. and the residue remains as sulphate of baryta. Lachryma Christi Rhine wine leaves the largest amount. and above these Hermitage. George. Langlade. In the red wines Port leaves the least. Champagne then come Bordeaux- Sauterne. then increasing gradually. white Cotes. Muscadel. Teneriffe. Bordeaux. liquid is brown. Tavella. Bordeaux. Tavella. Benicarlo. E/oussillon. the proportions ranging in the following order Champagne deposits least. come. Burgundy. Madeira. red wines. gradually increasing. then into green. JSTarbonne. Bor: deaux-Sauterne. Ehine wine. the red. and Benicarlo. Madeira. Lachryma Of Christi. then come . Lachryma Rhine wine. Langlade. Bur- . Bur- gundy-Pommard. Teneriffe. 220). white Bergerac. St. and white Cotes. Madeira. is by it . white Bergerac. St. Narbonne.
which makes the red wines bright red. so that the alunot precipitated by it. Muscadel. a flocculent precipitate rather more in Champagne. tate of a dirty red wines. a very abundant dirty pale blue violet like. a precipitate of alumina more or less coloured appears in the white wines. Port.BY CHEMICAL BEAGENTS. Port gives the smallest precipibrown colour. blue violet All precipitates are soluble in nitric acid. invariably occasions least in Lachryma Christi. that when a good deal of alum may added. Burgundy. in St. in the others a dirty blue precipitate. still more in all B/hine wine. and Bordeaux- Sauterne. Tavella a more copious white one. Narbonne. mina is In the red wines. Greorge a dirty brown. Benicarlo. Burgundy.Pommard. makes the red wine redder. Madeira. This reaction must is therefore be entirely rejected. change. Sugar of lead. St. but entirely dependent upon the quantity of alum and potash which are added so . and Boussillon give a voluminous pale blue precipitate. George. and in white Bergerac. TenerifFe. otherwise there is no If potash be carefully added. Port wine and in Tavella a dirty precipitate. Hermitage. . Langlade. still more copious and darker Among is yielded by Hermitage. Boussillon. 349 gundy. in white wines. or even pale red. and most of and white Cotes. Alum in white wines produces no precipitate. Narbonne. Burgundy-Pomand Benicarlo Bordeaux. mard. the precipitate be violet. .
and which yet contains not a drop of Port wine. Chemistry in a position to detect a great many is of these adulterations. I should like for once to see such Port wine. and that when such is not the case a definite cause must exist which explains the is difference.CHAPTER XXVII. which experienced chemists take for Port. It is maintained without hesitation that Port wine i | ! I prepared in England. teration. great variety of different kinds of wine renders evident that it will never be possible to give definite chemical characteristics by means of which THE it each kind can be analysed with the view of ascertainOn the other hand. ADULTERATION OF WINE. Bufc to maintain that it able to detect every adulteration would be a complete mistake. is and know too whether it really possesses the aroma . and is more able to detect adul- means are discovered of multiplying such adulterations. certain that wines with peculiar and settled names. ought to coincide in their principal qualities. It is bad enough that in proportion as science advances. it is ing their genuineness.
351 and flavour of good Port. and London especially ap" pears to be the seat of the so-called wine brewery. and Alicant. and thus Portuguese. are imitated by fermenting sweet Languedoc wine. which. and French wines are counterfeited. I place myself Many of those unconditionally on the side of those who consider everything added to. look upon ordinary wine with great distrust." This manufacture is principally carried on in the sweet wines. they are sweet. which are not much prized in England. But other wines are also imitated. because there are such very numerous imitations which bear this name. little who are of opinion that the most wines are generally adulterated. are As especially used for the manufacture of wine. or taken from the fermented grape-juice (even the clearing it with albumen or ' / . is universally acknowledged that we drink genuine Madeira. by which process many of the properties Colouring peculiar to Cape wines are withdrawn. are more easily imitated than others. and this is so well known in our country. ferment is added to set the sugar fermenting. Cape wines. Madeira. and adding aromatic and colouring ingredients that it .ADULTERATION OF WINE. It is well known that the quantity of Port and Madeira drunk in England is larger than that imported. and aromatic ingredients are then added to the fermented liquid. as a rule. Spanish. Much depends here upon what is understood by adulteration. England is notorious for its manufacture of wine. Malaga.
ADULTEBATIOtf OF WINE.
Lsinglass, or the addition of substances containing tan-
/ nic acid in order to supply a deficiency of that acid), as adulteration. But as it is not generally so understood, I have
as I regret
upon the term.
as are supposed to be allowed,
I must also distinguish between adulterations, such and those which are
that such a distinction
purely arbitrary, and
added in order to give the
appearance of age to
cane or fruit sugar is added to sweeten it. means are used either to withdraw a por-
tion of tartaric acid from the wine, or to neutralize
free acetic acid.
alumina or sulphuric acid
accompanied by the simultaneous addition
of sugar, in order to improve the flavour of the wines. 5. When colouring ingredients are added to imitate
When inferior wines are mixed with others. When water is added to strong wines. When alcohol is added to weak wines.
In general, the addition of any substance with a
view to obtain some property peculiar to a good wine the counterfeiting wine by preparing it by means of
wine ferment or other ingredients obtained from wine,
or indeed out of other substances that are indepen-
ADULTERATION OF WINE.
dent of grapes the forcing carbonic acid gas into sweet wines, to imitate effervescing champagne. One of the first adulterations which must be named
for itself a respectable
It ought not to be called adulteration if
name, that of blending. two or three
wines of the same kind are mixed together in order to represent a wine of a general name, without any
other addition; for example, to an aromatic wine a
and a third which
orders Bordeaux wine, and gets two or three
mixed together, in the manner mentioned above, truly and honestly dealt by. An acquaintance with the art of blending is a capital method of satisfying the taste
of consumers, and of producing an
article suited to exportation
such a mixture of wines of uncertain names.
There are plenty of wines which, though not themmix very well. When wines of the
same kind are mixed, and no new name given them, it cannot be called adulteration. But when the name
even supposing good wine to be used, the does it is guilty of falsehood, and un-
he who cheats
indeed, no easy matter to restore its right
to an adulterated wine chemically to distinguish Cantemerle from Johannisberg, or Lafitte from Madeira, cannot be required but what is desired is
Cantemerle be really Cantemerle.
ADULTERATION OF WINE.
"We should speak untruly
by comparing an adulterated with a wine of the same name, to prove that the adulgenuine terated wine was made in imitation of the genuine wine.
Such things cannot be required from science, because no single kind of wine is exactly the same year
also to express it as accurately as
no two grapes in the whole vineyard is exactly alike. But if such kinds of wine as are distinguished in trading (and it is usual now to give different names
possible, because the composition of
to wines produced from vineyards lying close together)
were always of uniform composition, there would still be such resemblance between the sorts that are related
would render chemical discrimination impossible.
trifling difference in
the time of the vintage, in the
care with which the grapes are gathered, in pressing,
in the size of the fermenting vats, and in
senses, but connected with no real chemical difference. There may even be a difference in chemical composition,
but in such wines as we speak of this difference would be less than exists between different kinds of wine.
In such case the chemist, with his eyes open, finds himself in the same position as the genuine connoisseur of wine with his eyes shut both make mistakes,
and take a
I say this to shield science from the friendly reproach sometimes levelled at her, that she cannot do
ADULTERATION OF WINE.
Neither can the best prover of wine do
everything by bringing the constituents together. I may remark, in general, that in cases where this
character to wine,
undertaken with a view to give a parand where inferior and
better sorts are mixed, this mixture
must be compared
with pure wine, and their ingredients analysed, especially the inorganic, which appear to be most important. The qualities of wines grown in particular
places are generally peculiar and constant.
here said refers equally to wines of the second, and third quality, having a peculiar
mark, whether cellared or not.
"When we consider the endless
variety which obtains
among wines produced in we must also observe that
places lying near together,
so great a coincidence
be found between wines produced in very different places as to allow of their being mistaken for one
consider it strange, since that two or three causes of variety fact, seem, quality of soil, temperature, and kind of grape instead of supporting, to cancel each other, by restor-
We need scarcely
Constantia and the Vin de ing a kind of equilibrium. Paille, of Hermitage, are examples of great resemblance.
If the difference be great
young, time will sometimes remove
proved by Muscadel, Frontignac, and Malaga. have already seen (p. 49) that some kinds of
grapes are dried before wine
prepared from them,
ADULTEEATION OF WINE.
by which means an increase is effected in the saccharine contents, and indeed in the contents of all the ingredients of the wine to be prepared, and also that
the same end
tially concentrated by evaporation.
wines prepared in this manner adulterated, because they are not simply fermented, consider all Tinto and
Malaga wines as adulterated.
other times the grape-juice
but sugar, whether cane or
fruit is indifferent,
not evaporated, added
the cheapness of potato syrup causes
very much employed
can deny that this
method of preparation
unfavourable seasons or in places where the grapes are not sweet, that it has ceased to be considered
The sugar ferments and makes the
if a great impossible at a later period to detect that sugar has been added. " Only take care that your potato (Enologists say,
wine richer in
deal of sugar
but only sweeter
from copper and gypsum, and then
In the preparation of Madeira, Port, and other kinds of wine, an addition of brandy is employed.
is at first
thus be detected.
perceptible to the taste, and can only Alcohol is alcohol, and as a rule
that which is added is prepared by distillation from the same kind of wine, but of rather an inferior
ADULTERATION OF WINE.
one can separate
after a time the addition is able to
combine with the
ingredients of wine
no longer perceptible to the
ever be proved that alcohol has been
mixed, since no one can lend his palate to another. If now Madeira produces a grape which yields 14
per cent., and it is always estimated at 17, then 3 per cent, may be mixed with it, and after a time it will not
mixture of alcohol can only be conclusively inferred, if an excessive quantity has been mixed, and there is no reason why this should be done.
The adulteration of wine, particularly strong wine, with alcohol is by no means uncommon it is also
added to weak wines to increase their strength, and to such as have become acid, and had their acid neutralised
by carbonates of potash, soda, and lime. The quantity of alcohol may be absolutely too
for example, in
or just sufficient, even to
when an addition has been made
wine that has become
acetate of potash
and 11 per
cent, alcohol are co-
existent in red
Bordeaux wine, it may be assumed that much alcohol has been added as was abstracted for
the formation of acetic acid.
acid combined with potash
amounts to ^ per
11 per cent, alcohol is still found, it is impossible to determine whether ^ per cent, alcohol has not been
because the amount of alcohol in any kind not constantly the same.
ADTJLTEKATION OF WINE.
alcohol in wine varies as
The amount of
or 2 per cent.
in stronger wines, as Port, Madeira,
&c. up to 3 per cent. (p. 176). It is a very general idea that wines have something added to them, and yet the prejudice against the addition is as general.
the alcohol added differed
any respect from that which naturally exists in the wine It is not the interest of the adulterator to add
too much, and
if he only add as much as is usually contained in the wine then alcohol is alcohol. I
cannot imagine that this prejudice
founded on an
opinion expressed by Pabroni, that no alcohol exists in wine, but that it is first formed (not separated from
refuted by Brande) for such universal currency ?
view which has been expressly how could it have obtained
As to the effect on the body produced by wine, there can be no difference between wine containing 10 per cent, alcohol, and wine of the same kind in which
7 per cent, alcohol added.*
and to which 3 per
The same holds good of a stronger wine,
first it is
added to diminish
perceptible to the taste, but after a time
and unless too much has been added,
can no longer be discerned. In both cases, when either alcohol or water have
guish between them
but long practice alone can distinthe addition has lately been made.
ADULTEEATION OF WINE.
been added, examination by chemical methods is impossible, unless the limits by which the composition of
a particular kind of wine are regulated have been overstepped. The attenuation which the addition of water causes
the ingredients of wine (alcohol excepted) to
can never be sufficient to allow of a perceptible chemical difference between them and those in undiluted wine
would decide the
said that a certain variety exists
wines of the same character, and we have shown this in detail in respect of 4 wines Port, Madeira, Tene;
Experienced wine tasters
difference if water
this case it
however, a great
and alcohol have been mixed.
may easily happen that all the non- volatile components sink below the minimum of what is
usually found in genuine wine of the same kind.
"With respect to these two additions (alcohol and water), I may just observe that in order to determine
their presence, comparison with a
normal wine of the
necessary, and that not only with respect to the quantity of alcohol, but also of the non-volatile
Such an analysis must therefore include,
a determination of the specific gravity of the wine, of the specific gravity of the wine freed from spirit and
its original volume by means of water, of the alcoholic contents (the other two estimates serve to determine this, p. 159) evaporation of the wine, and
clay. of these adulterations. lighten us upon these matters. adulterations Among the less objectionable we must consider the employment of means . &c. and the use of such reagents as indicate chlorine. It will always remain doubtful whether alcohol or water have been added. . gluten and tannic acid. compare the quality of the wine to be analysed with a pure example of the same sort. and cream. of the ashes of the wine. or other substances. the wine also. for the purpose of clearing. All this must be effected in order to lime. not discolouring. I call many either to clear wine or to make it darker. The determination of the colour. though they are not generally so considered. as long as the limits of the normal composition of wine of the same quality have not been passed. but these subjective impressions cannot furnish any proof. determination of the solid substances remaining after evaporation. the addition of a tannic acid to preserve wine which threatens to become ropy the addition of albulittle .360 ADULTERATION OF WINE. must be combined with the foregoing. isinglass. comparative examination would sometimes enIsinglass. to lessen the too great acidity of young wine as pulverised chalk or marble. smell. and flavour. whether added immediately or later. tannic acid. gypsum. albumen. men. are so completely precipitated that they may A be sought for in vain afterwards. cream or milk. &c. sulphuric acid. .
and the flavour will and never be as good as before.ADULTERATION OE WINE. alcohol of the wine. If potash or soda of alkali will used to saturate the acetic acid in wines which have first alter become acid. ace- If chalk has been employed to combine acid. dissolves acetate of soda tate of potash. and in order to make the wine sufficiently strong.. and is preci. when wines that have become acid have their free acids removed by means of chalk. . 361 said of clay or sand when used Chalk or marble added to young wine for the purpose of withdrawing excess of tartaric acid cannot afterwards be detected the superfluous tartaric acid combines with a portion of lime added to it. or soda. whilst The case is different any excess of chalk remains undissolved. (In pure wine the acetic acid to dryness is free. if w hen the wine has been evaporated. and the residue distilled with sulphuric acid.) Or the wine is evaporated alcohol. the with the acetic wine gives a copious prewhilst genuine cipitate with oxalate of ammonia. . and if a mixture is to be called adulteration it is is one. a great deal of acetic acid is obtained. This adulteration is proved to have taken place. of 95 per cent. The same may be for clarifying. pitated. The wine becomes sharp The acetic acid has been produced from the salt. a small excess the colour. The alkali thus used remains in the wine. wine yields very little precipitate. potash. alcohol must be added r at the same time as the carbonate of potash. and treated with Alcohol of 53 per cent.
are found in such wines. often used to all Lead is now never used to adulterate wine. this method preferable to any other 3*5 grammes (54 grains) of this salt were required for 1 litre (1*8 pints) of old wine of 1811. may be ascertained by burning the ashes of the wine extract ashes. or lime can be present. . soda. more alumina. Sugar is mask acetic acid but sugar is present in . and the extract that remains acid. In any case the that all distillation of the wine gives the excess of free acetic acid. must not be forgotten wines contain a certain amount of free It acetic acid which is obstinately retained by the wine extract (p.362 ADULTERATION OF WINE. is Although an adulteration. The presence of alum. obtained by evaporation. 99). be found to contain free tartaric If wine be evaporated. wine it is can be discovered whether a ponderable quantity of sugar has been added. which is occasionally added to red wines to heighten their colour. Cream of tartar is thus formed. and lastly. . 244). First a larger amount of next more sulphuric acid. which crystallizes and is deposited. salt have already been mentioned Liebig recommends the addition of neutral tartrate of potash in order to free wines from excess of tartaric acid. no acetate of potash. Lime and common (p. only therefore by estimating the saccharine contents in good wine of the same kind that it .
wine and then thoroughly dried sulphuric acid. Lassaigne's test will be useless. lime. and recommends 1 gramme. Batilliat prescribes a very opposite 363 treatment for grs. If . but this by the use method cannot be entirely depended on. The method recommended by Lassaigne is also Half a strip of paper must be dipped in incomplete. (15'4 tartaric acid. Unless more sulphuric acid has been added than these bases can take up. The sulphuric acid added will saturate these bases and set free tartaric and even phosphoric acid.ADULTERATION OF WINE. to every litre is which means the wine (1*8 pints) of wine.) of Burgundy. warm to Lassaigne has made the observation that from -^^ths T^ths sulphuric acid are often mixed with French This wines. which generally suffices. may be partially ascertained of chloride of barium and nitric acid. . also in what has been dipped in the wine will be carbonised But potash. 130). as by the sulphurising of the wine sulphurous may be resolved into sulphuric acid. by the concentrated and magnesia are the wine. sulphuric acid may well be taken up in some kinds without a trace being indicated by Lassaigne's test. The best of all plans is comparison with a good kind of wine. or by diluting with water. by said to retain in a high degree the capability of bearing exportation to a climate (p. ashes are found in various wines (p. and from Ol to 0'3 percent. From 0*2 to 0'5 per cent. or by nitric acid and chloride of . either by determining the amount of sulbarium phuric acid. 293).
Indeed the colouring matter have been is no proof that the rest of the it is not very difficult to separate the colourmatter of wine in the manner detailed (p. and the same amount of turbidity is produced in genuine wine by chloride of barium as is perceived in the diluted adulterated wine. the volume of the wine has been trebled by water.er.364 ADULTERATION OF WINE. how much of this sulphuric acid must be ascribed to sulphurising. however. it wine is adulterated. people detect adulterations by have endeavoured to means of reagents which were to act upon the colouring matter. to see what comes of not fit to give an opinion upon adulteration. and also when the object is to impart to one sort of wine the shade peculiar to some other kind. But even if tampered with. This rough computation is It is still. Also in cases of Strangely enough. a question. are In the meantime much has been written about the colour which precipitates from genuine red wine ought . darker from light wine. Adulteration with colouring matters is very common. ing and then to re-act upon it. 218). And those who will not take the trouble to do more than to add alumina and potash to the wine. quite satisfactory in such a case. especially when red wine is prepared from white wine. spoiled wine. . and from currants. and have not even selected for this end the safest and most characteristic. it. then we may assume that the adulterated wine contains three times as much sul- phuric acid as the genuine.
it. but a greenish yellow colour in this pale red alcoholic tincture. a red tincture is obtained. is really dirty pale blue. Whether or that a it be that a little tartaric is acid clings to little acetic is formed. it is certain that the colour but bright red. tate in the watery extract. and acetate of lead then gives rise to a green precipitate in it. It must therefore be blue in pure red wine. everywhere asserted that the precipitate of sugar of lead in red wine. whereas it The mistake seems to have arisen from an alcoholic extract of purple grape skins being used instead of a watery extract. must be green. is the product of a blue and of a yellow preThe cause for blue and yellow give green. blue. it does not depend upon the colouring matter of wine.ADULTERATION OF WINE. Ammonia does not produce a blue. such changes take place in the reaction of an alcoholic extract from purple grape skins. The reason the precipitate obtained by acetate of lead from the alcoholic solution of purple grape skins that it is . of this I cannot explain. We generally see that a very red tincture of purple grape skins and alcohol turns pale in a few hours. If purple grape skins be extracted with alcohol. to 365 It is have. but upon another substance extracted by means of alcohol from the grape skins. and yet nothing can be more uncertain. a blue precipitate is obtained. no con- When . as when water is used. If -J- of alcohol be added to the watery decoction. if pure. cipitate is green. acid not Sugar of lead gives rise in this alcoholic extract to a green precipitate and causes a dirty pale blue precipi.
fidence can be felt in the reaction of the wine. .) Light green. .. and a comparison instituted between it and such foreign colouring mat- ters as are generally used. . and I repeat that the pure colouring matter must be separated.. that adulteration with the juice of elderberries cannot be detected by basic acetate of lead. . Bright violet . wood ebulus ) . Jacob* has observed. I must acknowledge that I do not give full confidence to any of the reactions recommended for detect- them from ing foreign colouring matters. and I therefore dismiss consideration. . . even when it is perfectly genuine. Dirty grey. if the juice has been previously fermented.366 ADULTERATION OF WINE. Weak Wine Blue grey. rose Slate grey Poppy Dwarf elder (sambucus Elder (s. nigra) Cornellian cherries (cornus inasc. respecting the colouring matter of red wine. 1814. dark blue. its relation to other substances analysed.. and obtained the following precipitates : Alumina and Cirbonateof S ammonia. Fevr. or beau- tiful green. Dirty green... without laying any great weight on them. 92. . Natural wine The same with logwood Brazil ^ f of Grey Dark - violet . Wines of Tonnerre he chiefly examined with alumina and carbonate of ammonia.. Blue grey .Dirty green Litmus * Blue green. de Ch. in order to complete what is tions to those already known respecting this matter. p.. They only serve as indica- who are very expert in analysing wine.. I add the following observations. Carmine. red. Blue grey. .. Journ. Med...
if cherries. to the wine. The colour of the to whether the juice precipitate yielded 367 by the fruits of the dwarf elder and sugar of lead. grey with the fruit of the dwarf violet . The pre- cipitate from the fresh juice was blue grey. pared with that of the genuine wine. though that caused by artificial colouring matters may. but so that the alumina shall not be precipitated. which gives a dirty grey more or less reddish precipitate. this was not the case. . the precipitate from the fermented iuice beautiful bright red. blue grey . the original colour may be When the potash used was stronger. which makes the colour bright It has been suggested red all then a solution of carbonate of potash. He is of opinion that potash it cannot be used instead of ammonia. beautiful violet elder. the liquid beautiful violet. with with bilberries. because. if tar- The colouring matter then becomes brown. varies according is fresh or fermented. or had acted for some time. by Ness von Esenbeck to add an equal volume of solution of alum (1 part to 12 parts water). violet .ADULTEBATION OF WINE. restored by means of tartaric acid. grey brown. Other varieties may also be observed when excess of potash is added to pure wine. and taric acid be now put to it the colour of genuine wine will not be restored. with logwood. If the wine was coloured with Brazil wood. with poppies. the precipitate rose will . Batilliat proposes to add ammonia to red wine. be coloured . although turns the wine brown. After twentyfour hours the colour of the precipitate must be com.
sandal-wood. indigo blue if the wine has been adulterated with Brazil wood. elder. that if potash be added to wine which has been coloured with Brazil wood it yields a elder-berries have red-brown colour. 306. de Cb. since the alterations occa. recommends adding. Miiller declares that carbazotate of potash gives a and produces a crimson colour without precipitate in such as has been coloured by means of poppies.368 Pelouze and ADULTERATION OF WINE. is The wine itself becomes colourless if the colour if caused by logwood or bilberries. or beetroot. p. which is green grey in genuine wine. Vogel also says. . sioned by it vary according to the age of the wine. first ammonia and afterAll genuine red wine wards sulphide of ammonium. dirty precipitate in genuine red wine. Fremy assert that basic acetate of lead which gives rise in pure wine to a grass greenish precipitate. if bilberries or Chevallier considers the discolouration produced by potash as unsatisfactory. Juin 1827. and that which has been artificially Iilhol coloured blue red. or bilberries. will become green.* rise Lime-water gives * to a precipitate which is Journ. if Brazil and wood has been employed. Med. but remains red elder-berries have been used. Yogel says that sugar of lead occasions a precipitate. and becomes green been used. indigo. or violet. is blueish if extract of logwood has been added. and red if the wine has been coloured with logwood.
bilberries and elderberries . mthbUbTries} Dwarf elder .Dark blue. green another looks upon as blue. in short things go on here as they generally do in the world. Dark green Bright olive green. continually com- partly to the incompleteness of the technical language of colour (a defect which science bating). and the treatment has undergone. -y Same . Grey Grey brown. but capable of with beet- being reddened by root. Chloride of Tin. in that coloured Orfila gives the following reactions Solution of : Alum. Upon such uncertain grounds Chemistry can pro- one calls nounce no certain decision.Dark blue.Dirty blue . Dark brown red. . * acids. Protonitrate of Tiuu . comparison ren- sufficiently clear that many so-called means of "What detecting are really methods of concealment. wood Litmus Blue red Bright blue . variety of colour which the same reagent may be ascribed partly to difference in the age it of the wine.ADULTERATION OF WINE. 369 yellow-brown in pure red wine.Bottle green. Dark steel greeu Cornelian cherry .Grey green. The great gives. . . Bordeaux Burgundy W Dark bronze colour. LOgW Brazil d ''Ire^tf ><*" Violet red ^rk brown. red-brown in wine coloured with Brazil wood green in that coloured with . and yellow. Nothing more need here be ders it said . and partly to the is fact that the chemist's eyes B B . The same Same Dark green DarkoliTO reen grey.
does not hesitate to put nitric acid and nitric ether into wine (p. we may expect a new series of adulterations of wine with aromatic ingredients. diffi- be opposed to their detection and if has been used except what may possibly exist nothing in wine. and such a proceeding would be very far from easy. The peculiarity of colour depends upon the eye. Ask they sell to the druggists the wine dealers. ADULTEBATION OF WINE. for so soon as an acquaintance with oxides of ethyl and other combinations which occur in wine spreads. the only will means of discovering adulteration be to analyse the relative proportions (as already shown in the case of alcohol and water).370 are subjective. in making wine as liqueurs or beer is made. how much acetic ether In our country these adulterations have not yet been practised to any great extent . Batilliat. culties will Insuperable . to which we have referred several times. golden reinette the smell of sweet spirits of nitre. and in general. That aromatic ingredients are very generally used to improve the quality of wine is a fact we cannot conceal. But we may prepare ourselves for a ter- rible future. Although he possesses a vineyard he sees nothing improper in selling such wine. 117). giving it a colour which would otherwise be imparted by time (pelure d'oignon) the other gives wines the aroma of the . who has written a book upon wine. not upon the light. The first speedily darkens the wine. in England they are far beyond us. If his .
"Whether or no this be true. Raisin wine. he is at least honest in confessing it since he thus puts people on their guard. plums. is Many even assert that the quantity used considerable. water. passing by in silence all the other named since in our country no one would allow to be set before fermented liquids from buch f raits him for wine. and exposed to sufficient heat. I have more than once been assured that raisin wine is prepared and drunk in our country. is His book shows done to wine in France. mangel-wurzel. the ingredients of the raisins will be dissolved by the ceptible). and which must indeed resemble wine. bottle Raisin vinegar is made and sold at a few stivers the for twice the sum a bottle of raisin wine may . since it is prepared from dried grapes. The most innocent preparation is that from currants or raisins. like being led astray in matters of this kind.ADULTERATION OF WINE. In England. . and fermentation will produce a wine which chemistry cannot distinguish from genuine wine nor will it ever be able to distinguish between them. business as wine dealer lie is 371 be dis- also a druggist honourable. and we will say a few words about fruits it. be procured sufficiently strong. where people seem to wine is prepared from raspberries. and if they are softened in rain water (in which scarcely a trace of a foreign substance is per- pounded. and even from beer. and enables them what to purchase wine elsewhere. it is certain that raisins are dried grapes. since .
and this can be restored to them is afterwards. s. Brandy is prepared from a currant wine. The juice of very carefully selected grapes. as exists in the wine which is . a fourth part of which is filled with pure brandy. As the wine prepared from these differs entirely from our ordinary wines. u. * Arch. method Greek wines 292. "When sufficient care has been taken to maintain such a proportion between the water. 70. raisins. The fermentation is immediately stopped. is taken. der Pharm. grapes. chemistry is flavour unable to detect the difference alone decide. 55 million litres of currants were collected in the Peloponnesus.372 the grapes ADTJLTEBATION OF WINE. the If the raisins have been made from white customary to add a little ferment from red wine. imitated. and aroma can in Greece Currant wine (dried currants). 57. and it colour of genuine red wine. we need not suspect that it is sold among us. either purple or white. is treated of. in which the . and the moment fermentation begins allowed to run into a cask. and colouring matter of wine ferment. Bd. when dried only suffer loss in water. which is also drunk there undistilled. and this gives the raisin wine the is wine white.* In Portugal a particular kind of wine called Yinho Greropica or Vinho Anglica is prepared without fermentation. out of which the red colouring matter is extracted. and highly esteemed. of preparing s. 167. This custom has spread so much that in 1852. Ed.
warmed with ammonia whilst alcohol precipitates malate of lime from the Cider contains a large amount of tannic acid. is Neither tartar nor tartaric acid found in cider is and perry rator the absence of these substances that the liquid contains no grape-juice. in ammonia. and as soon as the 373 wine has been long enough in the bottled off. Sweet apples when . The taste of the perry : The wine is . if for tartrate of insoluble. filtered liquid. and adding acetate of lime but may be precipitated. citrate of lime is soluble. and is prepared from sweet apples. In may be detected by warming with . residue is like that of apples and pears. and add amount of cream of tartar to the cider any case the fraud lime is the necessary or perry. The a sign adulte- may however know this. is obtained if sulphuric acid be added. and the smell of apples and pears is distinctly perceived if the The same result extract be thrown upon a coal fire. the blade will also that the speedily furnish tannate of iron (ink) . so that peeled apples quickly turn brown. It is well known that if sweet apples be cut with a steel knife. cask to get clear it is Deyeux recommends the following method of detecting adulterations effected by means of cider and evaporated in order to allow the cream of tartar to crystallise the process is repeated as long as any of this salt deposits.ADULTERATION OF WINE. tannic acid of sweet apples when brought into contact with air is rapidly converted into apothema. ammonia.
think it advisable to write more upon this subject. and other often employed as ferment. to which other substances are added. cherries. It is clear that in this manner natural wines may to a great extent be imitated. always indicate the of tannic acid. are used as ferment. are also Crushed currants. excess unless the adulterator has removed too much by means of isinglass. and so to propagate the knowledge of adulterations. Receipts for made wines are sufficiently common . I do not. /-Made wines are prepared from the cheapest sugar. Jthat is potato syrup. I will not repeat them here. however. in order to imitate this or that kind of wine. . therefore. fruits. The yeast of beer or wine. dissolved in water and mixed with / ferment. salt dried are on the same account always brown.374 ADULTEBATIOtf OF WINE. and sometimes the crushed grapes. An iron added to cider will.
The juice of every fruit which contains sugar contains also albumen in larger or smaller quantities. SINCE the name "wine" no longer designates exis applied to the clusively fermented grape-juice. all citric acid.CHAPTEE XXVIII. even when (as in the case of grapes. currant. perry. and the ingredients of the fruit-juice in a state of decomposition (just as in the case of grape-juice). Cider. Those influences which bring about fermentation cause this albumen to ferment and to yield a liquid which contains alcohol. but fermented juice of other fruits.. FRUIT WINES. is The juice of the sweet fruits thus in sugar than are employed generally and consequently. not . I must not be entirely silent respecting such fruit wines as are more or less used here and in other countries. are obtained in this manner. water. &c. ingredients which necessarily vary according to the nature of the fruits employed.wines. They almost contain malic. currant-juice) any sugar is added before ferment ation^ less rich fruit wines contain less all alcohol than wine.
but the wine is too may acid. not from the juice alone. 12 per cent. The wine is then of an ugly brown colour. and those generally not the they are crushed. but from the crushed fruit freed from kernels. and red currants are used wine. Sweet cherries may contain 18 per cent. for this The juice contains about 12 per Black. cent. sugar. The juice cent. used for this is expressed order to make a second kind. and allowed to ferment together. sugar. sugar. Cherries. sugar.376 Cider. The Plum-juice may contain 20 per centjuice is not always expressed. Raspberry -wine. are FRUIT WINES. and. sugar. a strong. other kinds less. and what is . mixed with water. Bohemia and the North of Prance are cider countries. but the plums are pounded. Plum-wine. This wine is also prepared. Apple and pear-juice are often mixed. if no sugar on an average. Perry. gives an insipid wine. and effervescing wine may be prepared from by bottling it before it has finished fermenting. white. and crushed again in Apple-juice contains. on an average.. is is added largely. maple. or allowed to ferment together. 8 per cent. Pear-juice has. and cocoa-nut wine are obtained by . Sweet apples. rine contents render the addition of sugar necessary but when it wine. Their great acidity and small saccha. Currant-wine. but unwholesome obtained. The juice ferments it slowly. scarcely is added to it. best. contain 10 per Birch.
is prepared in Poland.* or mead. and ferment. water. 377 fermenting the juices of the respective plants and cane-sugar and mangel-wurzel wine may be prepared in the same manner. . Honey-wine. and some other parts. . detailed and profound treatise might be written upon every one of these fermented liquids than that which I have here given to the reader. A far more. Gralicia.FEUIT WINES. upon genuine wine. Gahrung's Chimie. * Balling. from honey.
claret or champagne. ON THE ACIDITY. of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. . bitter beer or brandy should be taken. ethers. salts. (From the Proceedings AND STKENGITH OE DIEEEBENT WINES. . and which is most acid. In the Philosophical Transactions for 1811 and 1813. It would also be very desirable that the amount of but the salts and volatile ethers should also be known : .APPENDIX. spirits no further experiments would be required to enable any one to determine their comparative medicinal and dietetic values but wine and beer contain many other substances besides Acids. sugar. . large quantity of fluid requisite for the analyses renders the questions relative to these substances still more difficult to answer. Mr.} BY THE EDITOR. beer and if these fluids acted on the system only as stimulants. as well as which is most strong. before any satisfactory answer can be given whether port or sherry. Brande has given a table of the strength of wine. matter are all also present in varying proportions and it must at least be known which wine or beer is most sweet. SWEETNESS. and colouring spirit and water.
Tinta Pineau " j ^ 2'9 grs. 1811 contained 4'1 grs.380 I. ) Verdeilho Riesling Irrewang. and the quantity of test was determined by Clarke's tables. it alkali necessary for neutralisation test paper. In Dr. the acidity. Henderson's work on wine. gives Hattenheimer Marcobrunner Steinberger 2*4 grs. On the Acidity of different liquids. is by calculation reduced to the standard of tartaric acid in an ounce of . Choice Steinberger tables. Professor Liebig. Pineau Noir. 2' 6 grs. 4*4 grs. Johannisberger. Prout has given four determinations of the amount of acid in Rhine wine. Hitherto. 1-2 grs. APPENDIX. Tartaric acid by weight in an ounce of wine. of caustic soda . gives Verdeilho and la Follie 2*1 grs. a thousand grain bottle was filled with the fluid to be examined . so that each division of the graduated tube contained 0'15 grs. 1788 Kudesheimer. La and Muscat White Muscat Lunel Follie 2'8 grs. 2' 7 grs. 2'1 grs. very few observations have been made on the acidity of different wines. in the Annalen der Chemie. Ehenish Same 4-6 grs. 2'3 grs. 1'8 grs. gris Irrewang white Fresenius. though acid is as invariably present as alcohol. 1847. a standard solution of caustic For determining the amount of acid stated in the following soda was prepared. in a paper on Australian wines. was then weighed. In the accompanying although manifestly due to the presence of several acids. 2'5 grs. Dr.
fluid. . The nature of the acid was not absolutely determined. . . 2'85 to 3'90 we have Hence proceeding from the least acid wine to the most acid Sherry. to 2'85 Champagne . Porter. seldom present .. . 2*70 . which is not acetic acid and the action of polarised light shows that tartaric acid is . Whiskey Brandy . 0'07 . . . is most probably On the Sweetness of different liquids. The following general results were obtained The quantity of alkali required to neutralise equal to 1000 grs. . Khine wine. . 210 grs. . 315 2'55 2'85 to 3*60 to 4'05 to 4/50 In In In In In In In In In In Burgundy Moselle . . Geneva . 015 015 0-90 1-35 to 0'60 to 0*30 to 1'65 to 2-25 . . Champagne. . hence the fixed acid racemic. .APPENDIX. and perhaps malic acid. . . Brandy. The least acid fluids examined were Geneva and Whiskey then Rum. Moselle. of water was : a measure In In In In In In Port wine . to 1'95 2'55 grs.. . . Hum Pale Ale Stout Porter . Sherry Claret . . polarised light. . 2*40 2'55 to 315 . to 3'45 to 3'60 Madeira Khine wine . . 381 The particular wines and the number of each kind will be afterwards stated. different kinds is easily seen by the different effects of the same test . . Madeira. Port. Claret. There are three different kinds of which when present in different solutions in equal . 1'80 to 210 Cider . Stout the wines were all more acid than the malt liquids. . . Burgundy. . but a volatile acid distils over from wine. II. Ale. . . . . but the most delicate test That sugars are of is of all sugar. . . .
or Champagne that did not contain more or less uncrystallisable sugar (two samples of sherry excepted. with animal charcoal. or Moselle wine. or glucose. and afterwards. With the other sugars the results are not yet so fully established still at least the minimum amount will be obtained. I found no Sherry. Porter. and this sugar undergoes no change when again treated with acid. to it. left -< This is called uncrystallisahle sugar for if the solution be even evaporated to dryness. It is : be examined should be decolorised with one-tenth of a solution of subacetate of lead. Previous to the determination of the quantity of sugar present in these liquids. Usually spirits contain no sugar but one specimen of genuine French brandy had some cane sugar added . and Stout contain much Hard cider I found also to be perfectly free from sugar. Madeira. > By means of the saccharometer of Soleil. and with the polariscope. if requisite. Port. and thus the quantity of sugar in a solution can be determined with cane . Sweet cider contained uncrystallisable sugar. they were examined essential that the fluids to first by other tests for sugar. All kinds of Ale. which were free from any sugar. by the sulphate of copper test.) which was not free from every kind of sugar.382 APPENDIX. (excepting only . Burgundy. sugar alone the results are probably perfectly accurate. the degree of rotation to the le^t or right can be measured. one sample of Sauterne. The the . quantities rotate the polarised ray in different degrees and Cane sugar rotates the light to the right directions. Rhine. by the liquor potassae test. and if treated with acid for a few minutes it is entirely ^ changed into sugar which rotates to the . particular results will be given in the Tables general results may be here stated. it is changed into sugar which again This sugar is called grape sugar rotates to the right .) I met with no Claret. . glucose. when decolorised.
These have no sugar. . Claret. . 40 64 . 88 94 6 to to Cyprus . . 383 Amount Degrees. of Sugar in an ounce of fluid. The order.= . -= 18 12 . . 9-< In Sherry the sugar varied from 2 to 8 to 17 Port 3 to 10 Madeira 28 to 33 Malmsey Madeira . . . . . 23 to 45 to . the most saccharine Geneva. . This was effected by an alcoholometer. . . Geisler. = =102 28 44 40 64 . . . Champagne. . . Madeira. Cider. Stout. . On the Strength of different liquids. Thus : . . : Paxarete. fluid to wine. comparative experiments were made on the same of Bonn. . 8 to 9 to 14 . . which depends on the tension of the vapour of the be examined forcing up a column of mercury. . Whiskey. Port. 22 .47 . To show how nearly the results obtained by this instrument agreed with those obtained by the ordinary process of distillation. invented by M. to 16 to 18 grs.37 .51 . Samos. . Tokay. . Moselle. 6 to to 34 20 66 56 74 . to 130 to Porter Stout . = 23 = 45 to fluids examined may be arranged in the following commencing with. Sherry. and ending with. Having determined the acidity and the sweetness. Brandy. III. those which contain no sugar.. 12 to 130 >. Rhine. Rum. Cyprus. .APPENDIX. .44 . . = = = = = = 4grs. Porter. .. Champagne Sweet Cider Bitter Ale . . Malmsey. Tokay Samos Paxarete . . the strength of these fluids was the next object of experiment. Ale.. Burgundy. . .
from my experiments. Montilla . by measure. Witt) per cent. that the alcohol varied Per cent. 1834 . by measure. best 20-5 14'4 20-2 8-3 23-0 23-3 21-0 21-0 15-4 15-4 21-1 21'0 9-7 Marcobrunner 95 7-0 7-1 Home Ale . by measure. Per cent. to In Port from Sherry Madeira Marsala Claret 20-7 15-4 19-0 19-9 23'2 24-7 19'7 21-1 ll'l 91 10-1 9-5 Burgundy Rhine Wine Moselle 13'2 13-0 9-4 8-7 14-1 Champagne Brandy 14-8 50-4 53-8 . / 23'2 I i Port.384 APPENDIX. 6-4 6-4 9-0 Export Ale Strong Ale 7-0 6-9 10-7 10-8 Generally it may be stated. 22-46 Sherry. By distillation (Mr. 19-95 28-5 / 20-7 20-6 20-6 23-5 23-2 Madeira 22-40 Claret 10-0 Haut Brion Chambertin 111 iri 13-2 13-0 21'1 20-9 11-7 Low quality Sherry 20-7 23-1 Brown Sherry Amontillada Mansanilla Port. By Alcoholometer per cent.
72-0 77-1 . . . sweetness. Kuin Geneva Cider . . 7-5 Bitter Ale . . Per cent. 12-3 7-0 7-9 Porter . PORT. and strength. are recorded in the following tables : TABLE I. Stout The particular kinds of wine or beer examined as to acidity. 5'4 6-6 6-5 6'5 .APPENDIX. . 385 Per cent by measure.
386 APPENDIX TABLE II. SHERRY. .
III. .APPENDIX. MADEIRA. 387 TABLE MARSALA.
continued. TABLE IV. . CLARET AND BURGUNDY.388 APPENDIX.
. SPIRITS. 389 TABLE VI. LIQUEURS.APPENDIX.
PORTER.390 APPENDIX. TABLE VIII. . STOUT.
: . PRINTERS.LONDON REED AND PARDON. PATERNOSTER ROW.
642-3405 Renewals may be made 4 days prior to date due. Renewals only: Tel. . No. due on the last date stamped below. or on the date to which renewed.14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED LOAN This book is DEPT. Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.
GENERAL LIBRARY U. BERKELEY BDQDTSIDOM 3 i cr TP LIBRARY THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA .C.