Results-Based Management Training Workshop for Civil Society Organisations in West AfricaWorkshop Report
Aicha Araba Etrew 8/26/2011
RESULTS-BASED MANAGEMENT TRAINING WORKSHOP FOR CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS IN WEST AFRICA Introduction WACSI is a spin-off of the Open Society Initiative for West Africa and the George Soros Foundation. WACSI is engaged in training, research, documentation, and policy dialogue for civil society organisations (CSOs) in West Africa. The focus of the Institute is to create strategic opportunities for dialogue and to strengthen the operational structures of CSOs. The Institute’s activities provide a forum for exchanging ideas, sharing experiences and bridging differences between policy makers and CSOs. WACSI in its bid to strengthen the operational structures and managerial capacities of CSOs organized a three day training workshop on Results-Based Management for Civil Society Organization in West Africa. The training workshop which took place from the 24-26 August, 2011 attracted both programme officers and directors from CSOs across the sub-region. The workshop was structured into five sessions. Each session was meant to satisfy a particular objective and meet the expectations of the participants’. The training workshop focused on enhancing the capacity of CSOs to define strategic goals which provides a focus for action; specify expected results which contributes to these goals and align programmes, processes and resources behind them; monitor and assess performance, integrate lessons learnt into future planning; and improve accountability, based on continuous feedback to improve performance. RBM Methodology, Monitoring and Evaluating for Results, Results Based Management for Managers/Understanding SMART Results, and Communicating Results were the major topics discussed at the workshop. The delivery was participatory and activity centered. This reports documents the proceedings at the workshop.
Opening Charles Vandyck, Training & Capacity Building Officer, WACSI Charles Vandyck, the Training and Capacity Building Officer of WACSI, opened the workshop with a brief introduction and update on the work undertaken by WACSI since its establishment and coming into force in 2007. The Institute was established to bridge the institutional and operational gaps uncovered at the end of the needs assessment carried out by WACSI among CSOs in the sub-region. To this end, the Institute has designed specialized training programmes tailored at reinforcing the capacities of CSOs in the sub-region. Charles reiterated the objective of the workshop which is strengthening the capacities and enhancing knowledge of the participants’ in results-based management. Louis Kuukpen, a
Consultant for the United Nations Development Programme was introduced to the participants’ as the facilitator for the three day training workshop by Charles.
Louis Kuukpen, Facilitator Louis Kuukpen welcomed the participants. Louis highlighted on the participants’ expectations for the workshop which they outlined on their application forms, stating that, he hopes to meet their expectations at the end of the workshop. Louis indicated that the expectations would be catalogued and posted on the wall to serve as a point of reference. The facilitator briefed the participants’ on the workshop agenda, stating that the mode of learning would be basically through interaction and experience sharing, group work and presentation. Louis also gave the participants’ the opportunity to get to know each other, network and address each person by their preferred names. Thus the participants’ took turns to introduce themselves and gave a brief profile of their organizations. The facilitator handed out five different coloured cards to the participants’, giving them a range of 1-100% he asked them to assess themselves using the following benchmarks: Knowledge, skills and experience in project management Knowledge, skills and experience in planning Knowledge, skills and experience with performance management system. Knowledge, skills and experience in monitoring and evaluations Knowledge, skills and experience in RBM The results of the self assessment are presented in the diagram below: Diagram 1.0: Self Assessment
This table illustrates the results of the self assessment undertaken by the participants’ using the aforementioned skills as benchmarks. The various colours represent a particular skill and from a range of 0-100 the participant chose the specific number that best suited their level of experience. The colours yellow, pink, orange, green and peach represented skills in project management, planning, performance management system, monitoring and evaluation, and RBM respectively. Session One: Workshop Expectations/Objectives/Ground rules Workshop Objective The workshop sought to provide the participants with knowledge and skills to establish and apply monitoring and evaluation systems to ensure achievement of project's goals and objectives.
Methodology The facilitator adopted an open discussion, case study, role play, brainstorm, group work, and presentations techniques in delivering the workshop.
Participants’ Expectations To build capacity in project administration and management; To enhance knowledge in effective project management and also be in a position to assist my organization to monitor programme implementation processes well; To gain knowledge and skills on managing M&E systems, looking at it from a more holistic perspective to inform programme planning; To learn, upgrade my skills and knowledge on Results Based Management; As the Programme Coordinator, I have interest in getting the programme staff to work on the concept of results-based management/monitoring. I would therefore like to have an in-depth understanding of the concept myself; To enhance my management skill for successful project implementation and produce better result; To learn new approaches and methods;
To build new partnerships; To be a member of WACSI/OSIWA network; Upgrading my knowledge and skills to impact on the performance of my job; To learn new things to effectively manage the administrative affairs of the organization; and To keep pace with the latest information, technological research and discoveries in reproductive health and HIV/AIDS profession that will enhance international exposure, professional fulfillment.
Ground Rules: The participants’ agreed on a number of rules to follow in order to ensure a successful delivery of the workshop. This includes the following: Mobile phones should be on silence or switched off; Laptops should be used during break hours only; One person talks at a time; and Being Punctual.
Session Two: RBM Methodology Objective: Understand project management cycle; Understand the historical background of RBM; Understand the benefits of RBM; Understand the driving forces of RBM; and Understand the logical results framework.
What is a project? A Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specifications. Endeavors of any size may be a project. Large and small projects demand different handling. Temporary Distinguishes projects from operations, whereas Unique means it is not the same old thing. On the other hand, emergency response to operations problems such as callouts- repairs and troubleshooting, and routine operations support- maintenance of equipment, minor modifications and tuning of equipment do not qualify as projects.
Why is Project Management Important? Organize your approach; Generate a credible schedule; Track progress and control your project; Identify where to focus your efforts; Identify problems early – before they are crises; and Saves you TIME….MONEY.
Project Management Cycle Project identification Project formation Appraisal Implementation Monitoring Plan revision Evaluation Feedback Below is a pictorial presentation of the project management cycle. Being a cycle the facilitator indicated that it has no order of importance, thus every step is necessary for an effective and successful management of a cycle. Diagram 1.1: Project Management Cycle (PCM) Evaluation
Eight steps for Project Design Matrix in PCM Stakeholder Analysis SWOT Analysis Problem Analysis
Objective Analysis Project Selection Project Design Matrix (PDM) Workplan Monitoring and Evaluation
What is RBM- Basics of RBM? RBM is a management philosophy and approach emphasizing development results in planning, implementation, learning and reporting. It seeks to focus an organization’s efforts and resources on the achievement of results. It is a primary performance measurement tool used by both private and public sector institutions. Briefing the participants on the historical background of RBM, the facilitator stated that the concept began with Peter Drucker and MBO in 60s and evolved into the Logical Framework for the Public Sector in 70s. It was then adopted vigorously by UK and New Zealand in 80s and USA and OECD countries in 90s and formally became one aspect of New Public Management in 90s. RBM is now being adopted to direct and justify increased development aid. RBM is necessary because it- focuses on tangible results to be delivered; clarifies clients and mandate of organizations; promotes benchmarking and performance analysis; emphasizes valuefor-money; the public want better services; ensures a more effective resource allocation; and CSOs wants to perform more efficiently and effectively. In addition, RBM ensures credibility and accountability; effectiveness and efficiency; a culture of rigorous PM; and sustainability of development results. Furthermore, the facilitator noted that, RBM is not simply about doing the same things a little better; but rethinking many of the things we do. Table 1.0: Drivers of RBM Resources are shrinking Increasing needs to improve efficiency and accountability for results It is a global trend “Aid fatigue syndrome” Need to improve statistical support for monitoring
Principles of RBM Partnership Accountability Transparency Simplicity Learning by doing Broad application
Areas of Application of The Building Blocks of RBM RBM Project Management M&E system Programmes Leadership Management resources Policy implementation capacity Transparency & accountability HRs: Integrity, honesty and professionalism
The Power of Results If you do not measure results, you cannot tell success from failure. In the same way if you cannot see success, you cannot reward it. Thus if you cannot reward success, you are probably rewarding failure, which implies that, if you cannot see success, you can not learn from it and if you cannot recognize failure, you cannot correct it. Simplifying the terminology to the understanding of the participants at the training workshop, the facilitator explained RBM to mean an approach aimed at achieving important changes in the way that organizations operate, with improving performance in terms of results as the central orientation. It provides the management frameworks and tools for strategic planning, risk management, performance monitoring, and evaluation. Its main purposes are to improve organizational learning and to fulfill accountability obligations through performance reporting. He then defined results as a measurable or demonstrable change derived from a cause and effect relationship, symbolized by Let Change/Results =(R), T2=Time 2, T1=Time 1, R= (T2-T1), if R=0 then T2=T1. The facilitator emphasized on the need to focus on results and indicated that to focus on results implies- bringing results to the center of planning and decision making, and continue to provoke implementation with questions like “So”, “Then” and “What” Table 1.1: Two Major Elements of Results Change Measurable transformation In individuals In groups In organization In a society In a country Causality Cause and effect relationship between the action and the results achieved
Table 1.2: The RBM System Elements Formulating objectives Identifying in clear, measurable terms the results being sought and developing a conceptual framework for how the results will be achieved Identifying indicators For each objective, specifying exactly what is to be measured along a scale or dimension Setting targets For each indicator, specifying the expected or planned levels of result to be achieved by specific dates, which will be used to judge performance. Monitoring results Developing performance monitoring systems to regularly collect data on actual results achieved. Reviewing and reporting Comparing actual results vis-à-vis the targets (or other results criteria for making judgements about performance). Integrating evaluations Conducting evaluations to provide complementary information on performance not readily available from
performance monitoring systems. Using performance Using information from performance monitoring and information evaluation
Session Three: The Result Chain A result chain is a logically linked set of results, some immediate, others more distant. Results at each level aggregate to produce the results at the next higher level. Below is a pictorial presentation of the Results Chain. Diagram 1.2: The Result Chain How? What do we want? Why? Resources Results Inputs
Funds, HR, Equipments, etc.
Behavioural/I nstitutional Change
Quality of Life
From the diagram above the facilitator explained that inputs are the financial, human, material, technological and information resources used for the development intervention. Examples of inputs include: Expertise, Equipment, Facilities, Supplies, and Services (i.e. travel, phone and accommodation). Activities are the actions taken or work performed through which inputs, such as funds, technical assistance and other types of resources are mobilized to produce specific outputs. Outputs are the products and services which result from the completion of activities within a development intervention. A change that is observable as you complete activity. Outcomes are the intended or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs, usually requiring the collective effort of partners. Outcomes represent changes in development conditions which occur between the completion of outputs and the achievement of
impact. Impacts are the positive and negative long-term effects on identifiable population groups produced by a development intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended. These effects can be economic, socio-cultural, institutional, environmental, technological or of other types. Furthermore, the facilitator introduced the participants’ to a typology of results and logic. This is a diagrammatical representation of a results-based planning. Diagram 1.3: A Typology of Results and Logic Results Like Focus Timeframe More Improved basic living conditions in rural areas Five effective functional regional authorities More effective fiscal If decentralization policies
Skills of 150 staff upgraded Set up system, Train 150, Revise Policy, Dialogue
Operational/ Skills, Abilities, Products and Services
Less 1 year
Characteristics of Results
Results according to the facilitator must be SMART and CREAM. By SMART it means the results must be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time bound. Whereas CREAM on the other hand means- Clear, Relevant, Economic, Adequate and Monitorable. In addition, the facilitator mentioned that words such as reduced, improved, enhanced and strengthened are common terms expressed in reporting results. For example Reduced open dumping of solid waste in all cities in West Africa or Increased expertise in urban environmental planning and management in West African countries.
Group Exercise: The groups were tasked to undertake the exercise below for 15 minutes after which they discussed their answers. What is a result? Draw the results chain in a logical manner. How many levels of results do we have, which of them can you take attribution for? List four principles of RBM. Outcome and Impact results are always positive long term effect. True/false After completion of the exercise, the class resumed for the continuation of the session. The groups reported and discussed their answers. In addition the facilitator elaborated on the presentations and provided clarifications were necessary. It is worth stating that, the groups exhibited confidence and understanding of the subject. They also availed themselves for critiques and contributions from either of the groups. The facilitator drew the participants’ attention to the theory of change which he noted was a strategy for change, stating that, the theory explains all the major things that need to be in place in order for development change to occur. Thus it is not about what the Agency must do, but what all partners and non-partners must do to make real change happen neither is it about projects, but all the different types of interventions necessary for change to happen. For instance, development work is about creating change in the conditions of people and countries. Hence before programme or project is developed, organizations must understand their strengths and weaknesses and what they can contribute. Also, the organization must have a clear idea on how change is created. The Facilitator emphasized that, creating change is more than talking about inputs, outputs and outcomes or creating a simple log-frame. In a question about the main challenges preventing CSO programmes from achieving better results, the following were identified as the key challenges: Inadequate stakeholder involvement & ownership; Inadequate staff time and/or capacity for policy and analytical work; Low amounts of financial resources; Project rather than result and impact focused; Weak partnership strategies;
Poor communication of results; and Inadequate monitoring and evaluation.
Focusing on what is Important At this stage the facilitator highlighted on the relevant things that CSOs needed to focus on to achieve results. The facilitator stated that CSOs need to structure and align their organization in a way that the staff works effectively together to achieve the results that matter; and put in place systems and incentives to ensure that the team stays focused on what is important. Again using relevant examples the facilitator showed the participants the language used in communicating results and change that is: the results language (action language) and the change language. The former according to the facilitator expresses results from the provider’s perspective, can be interpreted in many ways and focuses on completion of activities. The latter on the other hand, describes changes in the conditions of people, sets precise criteria for success and focuses on results, leaving options on how to achieve them. The table below illustrates examples of a change languages are presented. Table 1.4: Illustration of Change and Action Language Action Language Change Language Goal: to decrease the number of children dying Impact Result: Child mortality from AIDS and of AIDS and AIDS related causes related causes decreased from 100% to 40% by 2010 Objective: to promote the use of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) Outcome Result: at least 80% of people in endemic areas sleep under a long lasting Activity: train 1000 teachers in participatory Insecticidal net learning techniques Output Result: 2 teachers in 500 schools are Indicators: number of TV and radio jingles trained in how to teach other teachers in providing malaria education; number of participatory learning LLINs distributed Indicator: % of people who know that sleeping under an ITN reduces the risk of malaria; % of people who sleep under a long lasting insecticidal net Causality Analysis: The facilitator drew the participants’ attention to the need to understand the causes of the problems in the society before taking the appropriate action to resolve them; this implies clearly defining the problem. Causality analysis is important because it helps to identify the: Negative outcomes, manifestations of problems, unfulfilled rights; Immediate causes affecting individuals and households;
Underlying causes and capacity issues such as- policies, laws, budgets, systems for service delivery, behavior and practices etc.; and Root causes such as: beliefs, attitudes, culture, traditions, natural resources, natural disasters, political and economic systems, ideologies, conflicts etc.
The Problem and Objective Tree Approach The Problem Tree: the purpose is to identify the major problems and their main causal relationships. The following steps serve as a guide in undertaking the problem tree: Identify the major problems that the project will address. State problems in negative manner; Group problems by similarity of concerns; and Develop the problem tree, that is, choose a focal problem from the list and relate other problems to the focal problem; if the problem is a cause of the focal problem it is placed below the focal problem; and if the problem is an effect of the focal problem is goes above. The Objective Tree: This transforms the problem tree into an objective tree by restating the problems as objectives. Here, the problem statement is converted into positive statements; on top of the tree is the end that is desired; and the lower levels represent the means to achieving the end. The Concept of Risks and Assumptions Inferring from the UNDP handbook on RBM, the facilitator defined risks as assumptions that are necessary and positive conditions that allow for a successful cause-and-effect relationship between different levels of results. He indicated that when assumptions fail to hold then results may be compromised. Risks are factors that could negatively affect the results of potential events or occurrences beyond the control of the programme that could adversely affect the achievement of results. Risks should be assessed based on probability and impact. In an exercise the participants’ were tasked to identify one major problem for analysis; conduct a cause-effect analysis for that problem; review problem tree, restate main problem as a positive result and construct chain of results leading up to and from the main positive result. This exercise was carried out in groups of four and the presentations can be found in appendix I. Key Performance Measurement The participants’ were introduced to performance measurement as a guide in managing or reducing risks. They include: indicator, baseline and target. An indicator is an observable or measurable characteristic that shows, or tells the extent to which an intended result is being achieved. Thus a performance indicator answers the question, “How will we know achievement when we see it?” In addition, indicators make it easy to recognize success; clarify results; provides an outcome basis for monitoring and evaluation and ensures legitimacy and accountability.
There are two distinct types of indicators- Quantitative indicators measures of quantity, for example: Number of, % of, frequency of etc. and Qualitative indicators involve people’s perceptions about a subject, for examples: quality of, extent of, degree of etc. Furthermore, the facilitator highlighted the steps that organizations need to consider when selecting indicators. Below is a diagram that illustrates the steps involved.
Diagram 1.4: Steps in Selecting an Indicator Brainstorm possible indicators No Discard indicator or keep in reserve No Does the indicator really measure the result? Yes Can we get reliable data for this indicator, now and in the future? Yes Does this indicator permit us to measure the result over time? Yes Does it provide information upon which decisions can be based? Yes Can we afford to use this indicator? Yes Does this indicator make it easy to communicate the status of the result? Yes Is this indicator gendersensitive? Yes Sensitive to change Useful Valid
Gender Sensitive Confirmed
Baselines on the other hand establish a foundation from which to measure change. Without baseline data, it is very difficult to measure change over time or to monitor and evaluate, the facilitator stated. The following are some of the factors to consider when setting baselines: What
are the sources of data; What are the data collection period; Who will collect the data; How often will the data be collected; What is the cost and difficulty to collect the data; Who will analyze the data; Who will report the data; and Who will use the data? The facilitator defined target as a specified objective that indicates the number, timing and location of that which is to be realized. He stated that in setting targets, the following should be considered: Available baselines; Funding and resource levels; Timing (short term, medium term & long term); Political games and consideration; Flexibility; Setting firm targets for new indicators; and Realistic. For each measurement, the facilitator indicated that it was appropriate to have at least one target. Targets should stretch the organization to higher levels of performance. In addition incremental improvements over current performance can be used to establish your targets. Targets put focus on your strategy, thus when targets are reached, then the strategy has been executed successfully. Session Four: Monitoring and Evaluating for Results In this session the facilitator introduced the participants to the act of monitoring and evaluating programmes/projects/activities for results. The facilitator defined monitoring to mean, the process of collecting information or data, for example on the progress of a project or activity, in order to determine whether it is being carried out as planned and within the rules and regulations. Monitoring occurs in an ongoing way throughout the life of a project. According to him, evaluation refers to the systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed project, program, or policy, including its design, implementation, and results - (with focus on fulfillment of development objectives, development efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability). Again the facilitator introduced the participants’ to the Monitoring and Evaluation matrix, this is illustrated below: Table 1.5 Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix Indicators (with M&E Expected Baselines & Means of Event with Time or Results Indicative Responsib Verification: Resource Data Schedule and Risks (Outcomes Targets) and ilities Data Source s Collection Frequency & Outputs) Other Key and Type Methods Areas to Monitor Obtained From results How is data Level of Who is Systematic Estimate What are the from CPAP framework. to be detail that can responsible source and of risks and results Indicators obtained? be included for location where resources assumptions framework. should also Example: would depend organizing you would find required for carrying capture key through a on the the data the identified and out the priorities such survey, a practical collection and necessary committe planned as capacity review or needs. and data such as a d for monitoring development stakeholder In UNDP this verifying national carrying activities? and gender. meeting, information data institute, or out How may In addition, etc. can also be quality and Development planned these affect the other key areas captured in source? Information. monitorin planned
needs to be the Project g monitoring monitored Monitoring activities. events and such as the Schedule Plan quality of risks identified from Atlas. data? in the planning stage as well as other key management needs. Complementary Roles of Monitoring and Evaluation Briefing the participants’ on the relationship between monitoring and evaluation the facilitator outlined the following as the complementary roles of monitoring and evaluation. Table 1.6 Monitoring Clarifies program objectives. Links activities and their resources to the objectives. Translates objectives into performance indicators and set targets. Routinely collects data on these indicators, compares actual results with targets. Reports progress to managers and alerts them to problems Evaluation Analyzes why intended results were or were not achieved. Assesses specific causal contributions of activities to results Examines implementation process Explores unintended results Provides lessons, highlights significant accomplishment or program potential, and offers recommendations for improvement
The Evaluation Plan Elements of the Evaluation plan The following elements were outlined by the facilitator as key constituents of the evaluation plan. They include: Strategic: Clear logic and linkage to the results chain (outcomes and objectives) Alignment with national and donor/partner M&E and other evaluative work (reviews and rapid assessments); Coverage adequate: Covers key issues to generate information for decision making and accountability, and Includes all mandatory evaluations; Realistic: Resources are available (human and financial) and the number of evaluations manageable and allows for highly quality; Relevant: Periodic review and update of the plan.
Session Five: Communicating Results In this session the facilitator took the participants’ through the reasons why it is relevant for CSOs to develop communication plan in order to communicate effectively the outcomes of projects. The facilitator stated that a communication plan will ensure that development interventions incorporate political, social and cultural diagnosis in their design and implementation. He added that communication becomes a pillar of development that supports- better development outcomes, real political participation in decision making, the information base for policy design options, and an instrument for creating awareness of development priorities. Furthermore, the facilitator indicated that to effectively communicate for results the communiqué must be accurate and verifiable; coherent and clear; relevance and valuable; and remember the audience/targeted groups. In addition, he emphasized that the process demands- listening, public awareness, understanding, consensus, partnership and social ownership. More also, the communication paradigm should be in the following format- Dialogue, Participation (at different degrees), Two-way model (in addition to one-way) and Process-based (and analytical) rather than product-focused. To further get the participants’ to understand the contents of the communication plan and the formats, the facilitator used relevant examples to illustrate the aforementioned formats. He also noted that, there are different communication types to serve different purposes, amongst them are: Internal Communication (Creating a common platform for messages and programs.), Institutional/ Corporate Communication (Communicating what we do and how we do it; building trust in the institution and support for development.), Advocacy Communication (Issue campaigns to accelerate action on key global public goods – including at the country level.), and Development Communication (Integrating communication and assessing political and development risks for more effective strategy and design leading to better outcomes.). Following from the communication types, the facilitator stated that, some organization chooses to use logos peculiar to them, other uses stars or icons recognized nationwide or worldwide and or cartoon characters to communicate messages. The next stage of the session was the introduction of the concept of development communication which the facilitator explained as “a process that builds consensus and facilitates the sharing of knowledge to achieve positive change in development initiatives. It is not only about effective dissemination of information but about using empirical research, two way communications and dialogue among stakeholders. It is also a key management tool that helps assess socio-political risks and opportunities. By using communication to bridge differences and take action towards change, development communication can lead to successful and more sustainable results”. Development Communication Helps Overcome Obstacles to Change and Reform through: Twoway (cyclic) communication- informing and listening; Building consensus and active constituencies; Building local capacity to communicate development issues; and Creating social ownership.
In his explanation of the development communication the facilitator referred to a diagram illustrating the methodological process for a development communication. The diagram is presented below:
Diagram 1.5 Communicati on Based Assessment Communica tion Strategy Design Impleme ntation Evaluation Indicators
M& E Indicators
Identify/analyse /define: Audiences/ Stakeholders Risks Opportunities Needs Solutions Media/channels ME indicators
Select and design: Comm. Approaches Messages Learning systems
Carry out: Media Production Training activities Message Dissemination
Communication-Based Analysis, CBA This is a research method probing empirical evidence and stakeholders’ perceptions in order to assess the socio-political situation, cultural dynamics, identify opportunities, and risks. Main Features of CBA Identifies roadblocks for a project; Assess the socio-political and cultural environment around the project; Segments audiences based on their positions;
Assesses communication capacity of government, media, and others involved; Identifies partners and local communication professionals; Develops strategic guidelines for future communication plan.
Key Points to Consider Remember you have a multi-annual programme (and presence) so don’t shy away from telling a multi-annual story and including results that have ‘matured’ over the past year. Tell a compelling story where possible and utilize the link to the new Success Stories Remember the centrality of capacity development and touching lives to your donors. Don’t omit this dimension in your reporting. Don’t be inhibited by issues of attribution. Remember you have a multi-annual programme (and presence) so don’t shy away from telling a multi-annual story and including results that have ‘matured’ over the past year. Tell a compelling story where possible and utilize the link to the new Success Stories Remember the centrality of capacity development and touching lives to your donors. Don’t omit this dimension in your reporting. Don’t be inhibited by issues of attribution. Do try to write in a way that will be intelligent to non-stakeholders of the intervention Know you publics/readership or users of your reports Focus on the demonstrable, transformational change that has occurred Focus on high level results Try to involve entire organization Let report be succinct It is worth noting that in discussing the development communication, the participants’ discussed the communication strategies adopted by their organizations and outlined some challenges. Peculiar to the challenges is in relation to communication with the media. The participants’ noted that many at times they organizations or officers have been misquoted in media reportage and efforts to rectify this has been futile because the media houses refuse to send in reports for confirmation before publishing. Realizing that, it was a common trait within the media industry, the participants’ suggested that WACSI organizes a Development Communication workshop for journalist to build their capacities in that regard. The facilitator also emphasized on the need to establish stronger media relations and set up an effective communication team that would produce clear communiqué.
Closing The end of the session on development communication brought the three day workshop on results-based management to an end. The participants’ were given 15 minutes to complete an assessment form for the Institute. The training and capacity building officer of WACSI thanked the facilitator for delivering a productive workshop and expressed his appreciation to the participants’ for taking time to be a part of the workshop and contributing to the success of the workshop. The facilitator also expressed his appreciation to the WACSI team for the assistance and opportunity to facilitate the workshop, and to the participants for availing themselves and the willingness to share ideas and experience.
On behalf of the participants’, Mr Iddrisu Idi a participant gave the vote of thanks. The participants were each presented with a certificate of participation, training materials and a WACSI T-shirt. A group picture was taken and the training workshop was brought to a close.
Appendix I: Group Exercise Problem and Objective Tree High Mortality rate Increased school drop out rate Increase in OVC/Childheaded Household Burden on Govt. Scarce Resources Less Skilled labour
Problem Tree High Incidences of HIV & AIDS Among Youths
Risky Sexual Behaviour Low Knowledge of contraceptive Nonavailability youth friendly services Nonavailability of condoms Substance abuse
Negative Cultural Practices FGM & Male Circumcision Agegrade/Initiation
Gender Inequality Multiple Sexual Partners Permitted for Males Better Job Opportunity for Boys Low Educational Opportunities for Girls Low Negotiation Skills for Girls
An HIV free youth population in G-Accra Region with: Low Mortality Rate Students Retention/Comp letion of School Reduction in OVC Burden on Govt. Scarce Resources High Turn-out of Skilled Manpower
By 2012, Prevalence of HIV & AIDS among Young People aged 15-35 reduced by 5% in G-Accra Region Good Cultural Practices Promoted Sensitization & Promotion of Healthy Cultural Practices Gender Mainstreaming Preference for Girl-Child Education Advocacy for policy review Value Clarification Access to Equal Job Opportunities
Healthy Sexual Lifestyle Increased Condom Contraceptive Messaging/Pro Establishment of motion
Life Skills YouthTraining Friendly/ART Services Appendix II: Workshop Agenda DAY 1 WED 24/08/11 TIME 8:30 – 9:00 9:00-9:30 9:30-10:00 10:00-10:30
ACTIVITY Arrival, Registration Opening of Training: Session 1
OFFICER RESPONSIBLE WACSI
WACSI Louis Kuukpen
Introduction/workshop Expectations/Objectives Ground rules
Definition of RBM and its importance to achieving results Explanation of the RBM cycle: planning, monitoring and evaluation and the concept of planning with the end in mind Introduction to three key principles and challenges in results management Making strategic choices Selecting level of results to focus on Maintaining organizational focus on results/evidencebased decision-making
TEA BREAK Session 2: RBM Methodology
The Results Chain (programme logic) and the Results Strategy Map Creating Results Strategy Maps for Programme Outcomes – discussion and practical examples Identifying and managing risks and assumptions What are outcomes, outputs, activities, inputs? What makes them SMART? – examples from actual results frameworks
Session 3: Results Based Management for Managers/Understanding SMART Results
Tea Break END OF DAY 1 DAY 2 THURS 25/08/11
TIME 8:30-9:00 9:00-10:00 10:00-10:30
Recap of Key conclusions of Day One/ Questions, Clarifications etc.
OFFICER RESPONSIBLE LK LK
Session 4: Monitoring and Evaluating for Results
Introduction to monitoring
TEA BREAK Session 4: Monitoring and Evaluating for Results (Cont.)
11:30-1:00 1:00-2:00 2:00-3:00 3:00-4:30 4:30-5:30 5:30-
Strengthening national capacity to monitor (discussion and good practices) Monitoring at programme, outcome, and output levels
Session 4: Monitoring and Evaluating for Results (Cont.)
Creating and financing the monitoring plans
LK LK LK LK
LUNCH BREAK Group Exercise Session 4: Monitoring and Evaluating for Results (Cont.) The Balanced Scorecard as a strategy
implementation and monitoring tool
Group Exercise Tea Break END OF DAY 2 DAY 3 FRI 26/08/11
8:30-9:00 9:00-10:00 10:00-10:30 10:30-1:00 1:00-2:00 2:00-4:00
Recap of Day Two/ Questions, Clarifications etc.
Session 5: Communicating Results
Communicating results to internal and external stakeholders
TEA BREAK Session 5: Communicating Results (Contd.)
Review of good practices and examples
LUNCH BREAK Session 5: Communicating Results (Contd.)
Reporting - Strengthening ROARs (intro, to be dealt with more in session 13) Closing address by WACSI and Presentation of certificates
END OF WORKSHOP
Appendix III: List of Participants’: Results-Based Management Training Workshop for CSOs in West Africa
No. Applicants’ Name 1. Umar Nuhu 2. David Nkrumah-Boateng 3. John Nedjoh 4. Gabriel Gbiel Benarkuu 5. Iddrisu Iddi 6. Osman Abdel-Rahman 7. Rosemond Kumah 8. John Obuaba 9. Emmanuel Morna Organisation Afram Plains Development Organisation (APDO) Campaign For Female Education (Camfed) Care International Mission of Hope (MIHOSO) International School for Life (SfL) Position Programme Director M & E Manager M&E Officer Executive Director M&E Coordinator Country Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana E-mail/Contact email@example.com 0209004441/0266550826 firstname.lastname@example.org/ 054 960 7873 email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org/ 0208 500 975 email@example.com/ 0244 130 348 firstname.lastname@example.org/ email@example.com/ +233 244 722 308 firstname.lastname@example.org/ 233 244 710 538 email@example.com/ +233 244 047 692 firstname.lastname@example.org/ 024 / 026 448 3107 email@example.com/ +233 244 099 734 firstname.lastname@example.org/ 0244 992 422 email@example.com/gad firstname.lastname@example.org/ +2348063041951 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Ghana Developing Communities Executive Secretary Association (GDCA)
Ghana Developing Communities Programmes Advocacy/ Ghana Association (GDCA) Communications Officer Drama Network Project Officer Ghana CARE INTERNATIONAL M&E Advisor for the Ghana Agric and Food Security Programme in Northern Ghana Project Coordinator Ghana Construction Quality Ghana Manager Program Coordinator Nigeria Administrator Intern/ Rapporteur Facilitator Ghana Ghana Ghana
10. Albert Assogba 11. James Ayando 12. Adesunloro Michael
Hope for Future Generation Habitat for Humanity- Ghana Gbenga Kids & Teens Resource Centre West Africa Civil Society Institute West Africa Civil Society Institute UNDP
13. Katherine Adarkwa 14. Aicha Araba Etrew 15. Louis Kuukpen