## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Florentin Smarandache University of New Mexico 200 College Road Gallup, NM 87301, USA

ABSTRACT. First, we consider the equation (1) ax2 - by2 + c = 0, with a,bcN* and ccZ*. Here,

It is a generalization of Pell's equation: x2 - Dy2 = 1.

we show that: if the equation has an integer solution and a$b is not a perfect square, then (1) has infinitely many integer solutions; in this case we find a closed expression for (xn, yn), the general positive integer solution, by an original method. More, we generalize it for a Diophantine equation of

**second degree and with n variables of the form: n i=1 aixi = b, with all ai,bcZ, n m 2.
**

2

1991 MSC: 11D09

1

INTRODUCTION. If a$b = k2 is a perfect square (kcN) the equation (1) has at most a finite number of integer solutions, because (1) becomes: (2) (ax - ky) (ax + ky) = - ac.

If (a, b) does not divide c, the Diophantine equation has no solution.

METHOD OF SOLVING. Suppose (1) has many integer solutions. Let (x0, y0),

(x1, y1) be the smallest positive integer solutions for (1), with 0 < x0 < x1. (3) We construct the recurrent sequences:

xn+1 = !xn + "yn 9 yn+1 = #xn + $yn It results in:

**setting the condition that (3) verifies (1). a!" = b#$ a!2 - b#2 = a
**

2 2 a" - b$ = - b

(4) (5) (6)

having the unknowns !, ", #, $. We pull out a!2 and a"2 from (5), respectively (6), and replace them in (4) at the square; we obtain: (7) a$2 - b#2 = a .

2

We subtract (7) from (5) and find (8) ! = + $ .

Replacing (8) in (4) we obtain (9) b " = + - # . a

Afterwards, replacing (8) in (5), and (9) in (6), we find the same equation: (10) a!2 - b#2 = a.

Because we work with positive solutions only, we take: xn+1 = !0xn + (b/a)#0yn 9 yn+1 = #0xn + !0yn , where (!0, #0) is the smallest positive integer solution of (10) such that !0#0g0. Let the 2x2 matrix be:

⎛ α 0 (b / a )γ 0 ⎞ A = ⎜ ⎟ c M2(Z). ⎠ ⎝γ 0 α 0 Of course, if (x', y') is an integer solution for (1), ⎛ x0 ⎞ ⎛ x0 ⎞ then A ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ , A−1 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ is another one, where A-1 is ⎝ y0 ⎠ ⎝ y0 ⎠ the inverse matrix of A, i.e., A-1$A = A$A-1 = I (unit matrix). Hence, if (1) has an integer solution, it has infinitely many (clearly A-1cM2(Z)). The general positive integer solution of the equation (1) is

' '

(xn, yn) = (|xn|, |yn|), with

3

⎛ xn ⎞ ⎛ x0 ⎞ (GS1) ⎜ ⎟ = An $ ⎜ ⎟ , for all ncZ, ⎝ yn ⎠ ⎝ y0 ⎠ where by convention A0 = I and A-k = A-1 $ ... $ A-1 of k times. In the problems it is better to write (GS) as: ⎛ xn ' ⎞ n ⎜ ⎟ = A ⎝ yn ⎠ ncN, and (GS2) ⎛ xn '' ⎞ n ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎜ y ⎟ = A ⎜ y ⎟ , ncN*. ⎝ n '' ⎠ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎛ x0 ⎞ $⎜ ⎟, ⎝ y0 ⎠

We prove by reductio ad absurdum that (GS2) is a general positive integer solution for (1). Let (u, v) be a positive integer particular solution k0 for (1). If ≥k0cN: k1 ≥k1cN: (u, v) = A (u, v) = A ⎛ x0 ⎞ $ ⎜ ⎟ , or ⎝ y0 ⎠

⎛ x1 ⎞ $ ⎜ ⎟ , then (u, v)c(GS2). ⎝ y1 ⎠

⎛ ui ⎞ Contrarily to this, we calculate (ui+1, vi+1) = A-1$ ⎜ ⎟ for ⎝ vi ⎠ i = 0, 1, 2, ..., where u0 = u, v0 = v. for all i. Clearly ui+1 < ui

After a certain rank, i0, it is found that < x0, but that is absurd.

x0 < ui 0< x1 or 0 < ui

0

**It is clear we can put ⎛ xn ⎞ ⎛ x0 ⎞ (GS3) ⎜ ⎟ = An $ ⎜ ⎟ , ncN, where & = + 1. ⎝ yn ⎠ ⎝ ε y0 ⎠
**

4

We have now to transform the general solution (GS3) into a closed expression. Let - be a real number.

**Det(A - -$I) = 0 involves the solutions -1,2 and the proper vectors v1,2 (i.e., Avi = -ivi, ic{1,2}). ⎛ v1 ⎞ Note P = ⎜ ⎟ c M2(R). ⎝ v2 ⎠
**

t

λ1 0 n -1 ⎞ ⎛ ( λ 1) ^ n 0 ⎞ Then P-1AP = ⎛ ⎜ 0 λ 2 ⎟ , whence A = P $ ⎜ 0 ( λ 2 ) ^ n ⎟ $ P , and, ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

replacing it in (GS3) and doing the calculation, we find a closed expression for (GS3).

EXAMPLES. 1. obtain:

n

For the Diophantine equation 2x2 - 3y2 = 5 we

⎛ xn ⎞ ⎛2⎞ ⎛5 6⎞ ⎜ y ⎟ = ⎜ 4 5 ⎟ $ ⎜ ⎟ , ncN, ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ε ⎠ and -1,2 = 5 + 2ª6, v1,2 = (ª6, + 2), whence a closed expression for xn and yn: 4+&ª6 4-&ª6 xn = ----- (5+2ª6)n + ----- (5-2ª6)n 4 4 3&+2ª6 3&-2ª6 yn = ------ (5+2ª6)n + ------ (5 - 2ª6)n, 6 6

5

for all ncN. 2. For the equation x2 - 3y2 - 4 = 0 the general

**solution in positive integers is:
**

n n xn = (2+ª3) + (2-ª3)

1 yn = -- [(2+ª3)n - (2-ª3)n] ª3 for all ncN, that is (2, 0), 4, 2), (14, 8), (52, 30), ... .

**EXERCISES FOR READERS. Solve the Diophantine equations: 3.
**

2 2 x - 12y + 3 = 0.

Remark:

n

7 24 ⎛ xn ⎞ = ⎛ ⎞ $ ⎜27 ⎟ ⎜y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ n⎠

⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ?, ncN. ⎝ε ⎠

4.

2 2 x - 6y - 10 = 0.

Remark:

n

5 12 ⎛ xn ⎞ ⎛4⎞ = ⎛ ⎞ $ ⎜ ⎟ = ?, ncN. ⎜25 ⎟ ⎜y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ε ⎠

5.

**x2 - 12y2 + 9 = 0. Remark:
**

n

7 24 ⎛ xn ⎞ ⎛3⎞ = ⎛ ⎞ $ ⎜ ⎟ = ?, ncN. ⎜27 ⎟ ⎜y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ 0⎠

6

6.

14x2 - 3y2 - 18 = 0.

GENERALIZATIONS. If f(x, y) = 0 is a Diophantine equation of second degree with two unknowns, by linear transformations it becomes: (12) ax2 + by2 + c = 0, with a, b, c c Z. If a$b > 0 the equation has at most a finite number of integer solutions which can be found by attempts. It is easier to present an example: 1. The Diophantine equation:

(13) 9x2 + 6xy - 13y2 - 6x - 16y + 20 = 0 becomes: (14) 2u2 - 7v2 + 45 = 0, where (15) u = 3x + y - 1 and v = 2y + 1. We solve (14). Thus:

un+1 = 15un + 28vn (16) vn+1 = First Solution. By induction we prove that: for all ncN we have: vn is odd, and un as well as vn are multiples of 3.

7

8un + 15vn, ncN, with (u0, v0) = (3, 3&).

Clearly

v0 = 3&, u0 = 3.

For n + 1 we have: vn+1 = 8un + 15vn =

= even + odd = odd, and of course un+1, vn+1 are multiples of 3 because un, vn are multiples of 3, too. Hence, there exists xn, yn in positive integers for all ncN: xn = (2un - vn + 3)/6 (17) yn = (vn-1)/2 (from (15)). Now we find the (GS3) for (14) as closed

expression, and by means of (17) it results the general integer solution of the equation (13). Second Solution. Another expression of the (GS3) for (13) we obtain if we transform (15) as: for all ncN. we find: 52 11 xn+1 = 11xn + --- yn + --3 3 (18) yn+1 = 12xn + 19yn + 3, ncN, with (x0, y0) = (1, 1) or (2,-2) (two infinitudes of integer solutions). ⎛1152 / 311/ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ Let A = ⎜12 19 3 ⎟ , then ⎜0 0 1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ xn ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ n ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ yn ⎟ = A $ ⎜1⎟ or ⎜1 ⎟ ⎜ 1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ un = 3xn + yn - 1 and vn = 2yn + 1,

Whence, using (16) and doing the calculation,

8

⎛ xn ⎞ ⎛2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ n ⎜ ⎜ yn ⎟ = A $ ⎜ −2 ⎟ , always ncN; (19). ⎜1 ⎟ ⎜1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ From (18) we have always yn+1 h yn h ... h y0 h 1 (mod 3), hence always xncZ. Of course (19) and (17) are [The

equivalent as general integer solution for (13).

reader can calculate An (by the same method liable to the start of this note) and find a closed expression for (19).] More General. This method can be generalized for the Diophantine equations of the form: n (20) i=1 If ai$aj > 0, 1 < i < j < n, is for all pairs (i, j), equation (20) has at most a finite number of integer solutions. Now, we suppose ≥i0, j0 c {1, ..., n} for which ai $ aj < 0 (the equation presents at least a variation of

0 0

aixi = b, with all ai, b c Z, n m 2.

2

sign).

Analogously, for ncN, we define the recurrent

sequences:

(n+1)

n = i=1

(n)

(21)

xh

!ih xi

, 1 < h < n,

9

0

0

considering (x1, ..., xn) the smallest positive integer solution of (20). One replaces (21) in (20), one

identifies the coefficients and one looks for the n2 unknowns !ih, 1 < i, h < n. (This calculation is very

intricate, but it can be done by means of a computer.) The method goes on similarly, but the calculation becomes

n more and more intricate, for example to calculate A . [The reader will be able to try his/her forces for the Diophantine 2 2 2 equation ax + by - cz + d = 0, with a, b, ccN* and dcZ.]

References: [1] M. Bencze, “Aplicatii ale unor siruri de recurenta in teoria ecuatiilor diofantiene”, Gamma (Brasov), XXIXXII, Anul VII, Nr. 4-5, 15-18, 1985. [2] Z. I. Borevich, I. R. Shafarevich, “Teoria numerelor”, EDP, Bucharest, 1985. [3] A. E. Kenstam, “Contributions to the theory of the Diophantine equations Axn - Byn = C”. [4] G. H. Hardy and E. M. Wright, “Introduction to the theory of numbers”, Fifth edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984. [5] N. Ivaschescu, “Rezolvarea ecuatiilor in numere

10

intregi”, Lucrare gentru obtinerea titlului de profesor gradul I (Coordornator G. Vraciu), Univ. din Craiova, 1985. [6] [7] E. Landau, “Elementary number theory”, Chelsea, 1955. Calvin T. Long, “Elementary introduction to number theory”, D. C. Heath, Boston, 1965. [8] L. J. Mordell, “Diophantine equations”, London, Academic Press, 1969. [9] C. Stanley Ogilvy, John T. Anderson, “Excursions in number theory”, Oxford University Press, New York, 1966. [10] W. Sierpinski, “Oeuvres choisies”, Tome I, Warszawa, 1974-1976. [11] F. Smarandache, “Sur la résolution d'équations du second degré à deux inconnues dans Z”, in the book Généralisations et Généralités, Ed. Nouvelle, Fès, Morocco; MR: 85h: 00003.

[In "Gaceta Matematica," 2a Serie, Volumen 1, Numero 2, 1988, pp. 151-7; Madrid; translated in Spanish by Francisco Bellot Rosado: <Un metodo de resolucion de la ecuacion diofantica

ax2 - by2 + c = 0>.]

11

- Colour by Numbers in Excel 2007
- VARSHU HEYMATH
- CM Batches Common Monthly Test Schedule, Syllabus and Pattern
- Topic 15 Algebra 2
- project 1
- LAB No 2
- Examen de Practica Polinomicas y Racionales
- Numerical Solution of Singular Differential-Difference Equations
- Magoosh_Breakdown_of_GMAT_Quant_Concepts_by_Frequency
- Mathematics Curriculum
- Differential Equations and Calculus of Variation- Elsgots
- Simultaneous Eq Test 1
- Galois and Diophantine Geometry
- Function Absolute Values
- 15-16 end of course content weights
- NM5 Curve s02
- Add Math Spm - English
- Robot kinematics
- L1_L2_L3_L4_Reader
- tmpF295
- Basic Highway Math Manual
- day 15
- Yearly Lesson Plan_form2
- oh high level math task
- MSC question paper
- Untitled
- file 1- lesson plans 2
- 2001bk1ch2supp.doc
- 9709_s04_qp_2
- Balancing

Skip carousel

- Aerodynamics
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2420.501.09s taught by Mohammad Hooshyar (ali)
- High School Mathematics Grade 10-12
- tmp516.tmp
- Computer Oriented Numerical Methods
- Answers to Philippine Civil Service Reviewer Problem Solving Items 1 to 20
- tmp568
- tmpAA43.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2420.501.09f taught by Mohammad Hooshyar (ali)
- Tmp 3371
- UT Dallas Syllabus for dmthd293.001.11f taught by Leszek Kisielewski (leskay)
- frbclv_wp1987-02.pdf
- Propagation Behaviour of Solid Dielectric Rectangular Waveguide
- UT Dallas Syllabus for eco6314.001.08s taught by Kurt Beron (kberon)
- ANALYSIS OF A TWO DIMENSIONAL RECTANGULAR FIN USING NUMERICAL METHOD AND VALIDATING WITH ANSYS
- Tmp 1353
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2420.001.09f taught by (txh081100)
- tmp4E81
- tmpE66E.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2420.001 06f taught by Grigory Kramer (gkramer)
- tmpB81
- tmp3183.tmp
- frbrich_wp90-11.pdf
- Adoption of Parallel Genetic Algorithms for the Solution of System of Equations
- tmpB096
- Rev Frbclev 196105
- tmpCA93.tmp
- tmp133
- tmpDF31.tmp
- 68627_1995-1999

- Paradoxist Distiches, by Florentin Smarandache
- Chinese Math, Vol. 3 (in Chinese language)
- Sci en Ti Am Agn a 2 No 3
- Paradoxism and Postmodernism, by Ion Soare
- Scientia Magna, Vol. 2, No. 2
- Neutrosophy in Arabic Philosophy [in Arabic language], by Florentin Smarandache & Salah Osman
- Outer Art, Vol. 2, by Florentin Smarandache
- Estetica Paradoxismului - Titu Popescu
- Chinese Math, Vol. 4 (in Chinese language)
- Scientia Magna, Vol. 2, No. 1
- The Art of Antiwar, by Florentin Smarandache
- Definitions, Solved and Unsolved Problems, Conjectures and Theorems in Number Theory and Geometry, by Florentin Smarandache, edited by M. Perez
- Trickster's Famous Deeds, children plays by Florentin Smarandache
- NonPoems, by Florentin Smarandache
- Scientia Magna 1/1
- Generalization of Andrica's Conjecture, by Florentin Smarandache
- Chinese Math, Vol. 1 (in Chinese language)
- Solving Diophantine Quadratic Equations, by Florentin Smarandache
- Chinese Math, Vol. 2 (in Chinese language)
- Generalizations Of Ceva Theorem, by Florentin Smarandache
- Partitions of Integers, by Florentin Smarandache
- Generalization Of Euler Theorem, by Florentin Smarandache
- Smarandache's Codification
- Set of Sequences, by Florentin Smarandache
- K-Nomial Coefficients, by Florentin Smarandache
- New Functions in Number Theory, by Florentin Smarandache
- GeneralizationsOfCeva
- Sequences and Sieves, by Florentin Smarandache
- Generalization of Jung Theorem, by Florentin Smarandache

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading