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Simple Bridge Design
• usmg
Prestressed Beams
An introduction to the design of simplysupported bridge decks using prestressed concrete bridge beams
BA
NICHOLSON
ISBN 0 95000347 2 X © Prestressed Concrete Association 1997
Prestressed Concrete Association 60 Charles Street Leicester LE 1 1FB
Typeset by B. A. Nicholson. Design by G. Ballantyne. Printed by Uniskill Ltd.
3 Serviceability Limit State 6.2 Design Bending Moments 6.2 Bridge deck types 1.7 Torsion CALCULATION OF LOADS Introduction Definitions Highway loading Wind load Pedestrian live load Temperature effects Shrinkage APPLICATION OF LOADS 5.6 Shear 6.5 Practical site considerations BEAM & SLAB DECK DESIGN EXAMPLE GRILLAGE MODEL 3.4 Standard sections 1.6 4.7 Longitudinal shear 2 3 4 4.5 Ultimate limit state 6.1 General 6.CONTENTS FOREWORD 1 2 2 4 6 6 8 12 14 14 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 26 26 28 32 32 32 36 38 38 38 40 44 44 44 46 50 56 60 66 1 STANDARD BEAMS 1.1 History 1.7 5 6 .3 4.5 Section properties 3.2 4.5 4.3 Choice of section 1.3 Input to Grillage Analysis PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN 6.4 4.1 Introduction 3.6 Edge stiffening 3.4 Prestress losses 6.4 Deck idealisation 3.1 4.2 Suitability of Grillage Analysis 3.1 Load Combinations 5.3 Grillage models for prestressed beam decks 3.2 Selection of Critical Load Cases 5.
7
FINISHINGS 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Bearings 7.3 Waterproofing and surfacing 7.4 Joints 7.5 Parapets SOLID SLAB DECK DESIGN EXAMPLE
68 68 68 80 82 84 86 86 88 90
8
8.1 Introduction 8.2 Grillage analysis 8.3 Design of transverse reinforcement
FOREWORD
For several years, the Prestressed Concrete Association has run a basic course on prestressed concrete bridge design. This one day course has been held in various parts of the country, and uses lecturers both from within the PCA member companies and from outside consultants. This book contains a development of some of the material presented in the course. The original course notes were prepared by H. 1. Lloyd, 1. M. Gibb, and A. E. Gamble. This book has been prepared by B. A. Nicholson based on the material in those course notes. The bulk of the book takes the form of a worked example of the design of the beams for a simplysupported single span beamandslab deck. The final section is a partial design example of an inverted T beam deck, included in order to illustrate the extra calculations required for a solid slab deck. By following the worked examples, together with the additional commentary, it is hoped that the reader will be able to design simple bridges using standard precast beams, whether they are of beam andslab, or solid slab construction.
" =zSIMPLE
BRIDGE DE5IGNPSING PREStRESSEDBEAMs~
1
STANDARD BEAMS
1.1 HISTORY
The use of precast prestressed beams in bridge decks in the post World War II era owes its success in the main to the foresight of the Prestressed Concrete Development Group, which in the 1950's developed the first standard beam sections to be available from the beam manufacturers. This enabled factory production of the beams on a large scale, and, with the dawn of major road construction in the late 1950's and its philosophy of grade separation for motorways and trunk roads, it gave bridge engineers scope to rationalise design procedures using uptodate load distribution theories. The standard beam sections available at that time have of course themselves been developed and modified, and in essence only one really remains today with any significant usage. This beam, the inverted T beam, is used in bridge decks in spans up to about 20 metres. With the rapid development of the UK motorway network in the 1960's, it was clear that there was scope for a standard beam that would enable larger spans to be achieved. Consequently, at the end of the decade a new beam was introduced for spans from about 15 to 30 metres. This was designated the M beam, due to its width and intended spacing. These beams were intended for use in pseudoslab bridge decks with a contiguous concrete bottom flange using transverse reinforcement located through lower web holes at 600mm centres along the beams. Eventually engineers realised that the M beam could be used more efficiently in beam and slab decks by eliminating the bottom insitu concrete and by spacing the beams apart at up to 1.5 metre centres. The limitation on this type of use proved to be the shear capacity of the beams, which have a web thickness of only 160mm. Other beams developed around this time were the U beam for beam and slab decks up to about 30 metre spans, and a U shaped variation of the M beam for use as edge beams in M beam decks. Eventually, with the very popular M beam being used in a manner somewhat different from its intended use, and bearing in mind the various problems and limitations this presented, a new beam was developed by the Prestressed Concrete Association in the late 1980's. This was designated the Y beam. The Y beam now has three variants: the TY beam, the Y beam, and the SY beam. Together these cover all span ranges up to 45m. It is expected that in due course inverted T beams and M beams will cease to be used in favour of the enhanced properties of the Y beam ranges.
STANDARD BEAMS 3 Inverted T beam M beam U beam TY beam Y beam SY beam .
Standard edge beams are available to complement the Y beam. Typical spans for this type of deck are similar to the pseudoslab decks above. Precast beams are incorporated into a voided slab type of deck by either adding an insitu bottom flange and top flange. being limited in the main by transportable beam components. . or by using voided beams (e. The space between them is then filled with insitu concrete. as with the original M beam decks. TY beams. this type of deck comprises individual precast beams at discrete centres with an insitu concrete top flange. These decks use standard TY or inverted T beams placed side by side. and an overall covering of 75mm completes the deck. pseudoslab decks. Beam and Slab Decks The most common type of superstructure for small to medium span bridges. box beams).g. With most of the standard range of precast beams the insitu concrete top slab is cast into permanent formwork which is located in recesses formed in the edges of the top flanges of the beams. SY beams. A voided slab deck is thus created without the inconvenience of temporary works and soffit shutters. M beams. Suspended spans using TY beams or inverted T beams can be lightened by introducing void formers into the space between the beams. Slab Decks Slab decks can be solid or voided.2 BRIDGE DECK TYPES Concrete bridge superstructures using precast prestressed concrete beams fall into three distinct types: slab decks. and provides a torsionally stiffer deck than ordinary beam and slab decks. and have the capacity to carry the extra loads from the parapet cantilever. Pseudoslab Decks This type of bridge structure is currently not quite so popular. and provide simply supported spans of up to 20 metres. and therefore are rarely more than 30 metres. and beam and slab decks.4 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRES I RESSED BEAMS 1. and M beam ranges. Continuity of these decks can quite easily be achieved by using reinforcement in the insitu concrete over the supports. TY beam. and U beams can all be used in this form of construction. Y beams. These provide a vertical visible face. Spans for this type of bridge deck are usually limited by the length of precast beams that can be transported to site.
This bridge deck uses seven Y8 internal beams at a spacing of I. and YE8 edge beams on each side. Service ducts are included in the infill concrete between the beams. Service ducts run under the footpath.275m. Service ducts run under the footpath. .This solid slab deck uses 19 T2 beams.72m. This bridge deck uses nine U5 beams at a spacing of 1. A carrier drain runs through one of the U beam cells.
The standard sections show where prestressing strands may be located. 1. Once the concrete in the moulds reaches the minimum transfer strength. Manufacture Precast prestressed beams are manufactured in long lines of several units using straight strands. In this situation it may be necessary to evaluate more than one solution. . and the standard sections enable a swift selection of the available ranges for comparative design exercises to be undertaken and cost comparisons made. These are debonded for varying distances at the ends of each beam within the mould.4 STANDARD SECTIONS Design Although the various types of standard beam sections are well documented in terms of dimensions and structural properties. The amount and magnitude of prestress applied to each beam is dependent on its individual situation. This is necessary to maintain the stress in the beam at an acceptable level as the selfweight bending moment reduces approaching the supports. and the beams removed the storage area prior to delivery to site. the strands between the beam can be cut.3 CHOICE OF SECTION For the types of superstructure indicated above. as they lead to economy and good workmanship. it is important to point out that these factory produced beams are standard only to the extent that they are manufactured using standard shaped sections. It is also possible within the standard range of each beam type to be in a span range that is covered by more than one specific beam unit. detensioning can take place. and must be determined by the designer prior to manufacture. but it is the responsibility of the designer to determine which of these are to be used. the beam manufacturers provide standard details of the individual sections and their ranges together with an indication of typical span ranges for decks incorporating these beams and carrying standard highway loads. There will obviously be situations where the choice of deck type is not clearly indicated by the available span. In their literature.1. the manufacturers give suggestions for good design details. In this situation it is usually cost effective to select the larger unit where there are no restrictive limitations on headroom. and it is also inevitable that there will be areas of overlap where the choice between inverted T beams in a slab deck or individual M or Y beams in a beam and slab deck may not be clear cut. These should be adhered to.
1300 1200 1100 1000 900 + + 800 + ++ +++ ++ + + + + + + + + ++ +++ ++++++++ +++++++++ + + +++++ 260 210 160 110 60 0 Standard positions for prestressing strands in a Y8 beam. taken from PCA literature. It is up to the designer to decide which of these strand positions to use. .STANDARD BEAMS 7 Span in metres: Yl Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Y8 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Beams at 1m centres Beams at 2m centres Beam selection chart for the Y beam range.
This necessitates the formation of a construction joint along the edge beam prior to constructing the fascia. It would therefore be impracticable to specify any limitation on camber values. One advantage of this is that the beam can be propped quite easily at the works. it is sometimes possible to construct the fascia as a second stage casting in the manufacturer's yard. thus enabling on site lifting to be achieved with either single or twin cranes to suit the site requirements.5 PRACTICAL SITE CONSIDERATIONS Handling Beams are usually manufactured with lifting loops.8 SIMPLR BRIDGE DESIGN OSING PRES I RRSSED BEAMS 1. Edge Details On site. Of course. this also applies to the route to the construction site which must allow the delivery lorries to manoeuvre their lengthy loads. thus enabling stresses in the precast beam section to be minimised. prior to delivery to site as an almost complete unit. Camber Variation in camber of prestressed beams is inevitable when one considers the tolerance in prestress force and location. However. . although a tolerance on camber variation between beams has been adopted. Access to Site It is of obvious importance that there is suitable access to the bridges in order for the beams to be delivered and lifted off the trailer by suitably located cranes. Alternatively. However. together with possible variation in concrete properties with maturity and climatic conditions. it should been borne in mind by the designer that an occasional failure to meet the specified tolerance on soffit level variation does not result in impossible construction conditions. TY beams and inverted T beams are usually lifted using a sling through the end web holes. construction of parapet string courses in one or more stages generally follows the construction of the central deck slab area. There is generally no problem in the transportation of beams of the lengths described in this book. The careful positioning of adjacent beams in a deck should nearly always result in an evening out of differential camber.
or alternatively can be cast onto the UM beam by the manufacturer so that the edge beam and parapet can be brought to site as a single unit. "' I First stage insitu concrete T2 Cast by manufacturer Two examples of edge details .. I Construction joint UM8 I I Second stage insitu concrete ....r< I This section can be cast on site as a second stage after the rest of the deck...
as lap lengths are reduced and handling becomes easier. it is normally better to place the transverse deck reinforcement at rightangles to the beams rather than parallel to the abutments. and is best prevented by blocking out the comer to give a local square end. An additional problem that presents itself with skew beams is that oflocating transverse reinforcement through the web holes. Transverse Reinforcement For the transverse reinforcement through the web holes of precast beams. Deeper beams. For some awkward skew situations it may even be sensible to use untensioned prestressing strand threaded through the web holes instead of reinforcing bars. Temporary Support It is important to ensure that the beams are supported so that they cannot topple over on site. where the formation of cracks can cause the comer of the flange to spall when the beam cambers during transfer. Firstly. it is usually better to use a number of smaller bars rather than a single large diameter bar. and may even affect the shear capacity ofthe section. the increase in cost for each unit and the problems that skew presents should be considered in detail at the design stage. must be assessed to eliminate this risk. . which would increase the cost of the beams significantly. It is recommended that the standard web holes permit reinforcement to be placed for skews up to about 35°. A change from say 30° to 31° increases the width by 12mm for an M beam. For high skew bridges. To rationalise a range of angles with a variation of 10°. would be a useful and economic possibility. The positioning of transverse deck reinforcement when using solid edge beams may require the use of couplers at the edge beam interface. Structural problems created by skew in the ends of precast beams relate specifically to the acute comer. this is undesirable.10 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN OSING PRES I RESSED BEAMS Skew Although it is possible to manufacture precast beams with skew ends. Higher skews than this would require special nonstandard web holes. as it is more flexible. Although not structurally significant. it should be remembered that even a very small change in skew angle requires a new stop end for the mould. say. particularly when being jacked to their final level and during bearing installation.
for diaphragm reinforcement Local square end to Mbeam 330 wide Diaphragm 800 wide M beam bridge deck with 45° skew.rtD~~~ Diaphragm ~ : I I I o I I I I I Mbeam L.___ __ ~ Web hole at end of M beam... . Diagrams show ends of M beams embedded in a diaphragm.
The example bridge has the following design requirements: Span Width Loading Surfacing 26.5 units HB 100mm thick (minimum) plus 20mm waterproofing The following materials will be used: Precast concrete Insitu concrete Prestressing strand feu = 50 Nzmrn' = 40 Nzmm? feu = 40 Nzmm' fei 15. This design example shows the typical sequential calculations necessary for the full design of a precast pretensioned concrete Y beam in a simply supported beam and slab bridge deck.61m single span 7.0m hard strip each side 1.2 mm diameter Dyform strand fpu = 1820 Nzmnr' Area = 165 mm' per strand The edge detail was chosen for aesthetic reasons. The right hand pages show the numerical calculations involved at each stage. .3m carriageway. plus 1.275m. This led to the beam spacing of 1. at about 1 metre spacing. and the outer beams placed as near to the edges of the bridge within this limit. Clearly alternatives would have been possible. it has been found that unless it is necessary to make the deck as shallow as possible. for example eleven Y6 beams could have been used. However. It is straightforward to interpolate from this information to make an initial selection of beam size. it is usually preferable to use fewer but larger beams. in this case Y8.5m footpath each side HA plus 37. The span charts for Y beams give spans for beams at 1 and 2 metre spacings. and the left hand pages contain explanatory comments and further information.12 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRES l'RESSED BEAMS 2 BEAM & SLAB DECK DESIGN EXAMPLE Sections 3 to 7 of this book consist of a design example of a beam and slab deck.
13380 Overllli ldtlr w Foot(lt1t/r 540 1500 fit1rd strip fit1rd strip root.Mtlr 1500 540 1000 1000 Crogg sect/Of! Of bridge deck for deslgf! e~#!I'/e .
• Modem PC versions have 'user friendly' input. No analysis method gives a rigorous solution. and use pre. • Programs are relatively cheap. searching and analysis. and some degree of error must be accepted. and allow for elastic supports and settlement. It was satisfactory for skews up to 20°. until the advent of computer techniques which enabled larger and more complex structures to be analysed more accurately using grillage. Of these three methods grillages offer the widest range of structures which can be analysed. often designed by engineers. 3. voided slabs or solid slabs.2 SUITABILITY OF GRILLAGE ANALYSIS The method can be used for structures with beam and slabs decks. This range covers hundreds if not thousands of bridge decks designed in recent times. Experimental data became available to determine the transverse load carrying characteristics of decks to determine the correct level of transverse strength provision and to distribute load more logically to the longitudinal members. usually ranging up to 10% or 20% depending on complexity. Grillage analysis has found favour as a bridge engineer's design tool because it is perceived to have the following advantages: • Grillage beams can be positioned to correspond with physical beams in the real structure. skew and curved decks. in the 1950's Morice and Little developed a Distribution Coefficient method which was a simple hand method based on experiments which allowed for the overall distribution of loads on a plate structure such as a bridge deck. and certainly covers all bridges with prestressed beams. and idealisation of the structural behaviour. • Familiarity of use in the design office enables rapid analysis and checking.1 INTRODUCTION Early bridge decks were analysed on a strip basis.and postprocessors to ease subsequent checking. For example. which is vital in a competitive market. thus making analysis economic. . or where maximum effects are anticipated. finite strip and finite element methods. These errors come from several sources. Abnormal and wheel loads were crudely distributed and conservative designs resulted.14 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRES I RESSEl) BEAMS 3 GRILLAGE MODEL 3. It is suitable for right. Popular opinion suggests they are also the easiest to use and understand. including the idealisation of the geometry and material properties. This method was one of several similar techniques extensively used in design offices for approximately 15 years. It can be used for simple and continuous bridges.
esetlrclt btgilleers (f. /11 this case tlte XtlX/s rllllS tllollg tlte lellgtlt of tlte member. Lotldillg will be tlfflied ill tlte lIegtltlve 'Idirection.Tltis bridge will be tllltllljsed witlt tl gnlltlge tllltllljSiS. etc. Tltegnlltlge lies III tlte XZ fltlll&. tllld tlte '1tlx/s is stili vertictllllj IIfwtlrds. tllld tlte 'ftlX/s is vertictllllj IIfwtlrds. x toea! tlx.es.es tlre IIsed for belldillg momellt III members. . TltetllltllljSiS will beferformed IIsillg tlte comfllter frogrtlm '~TAAD 111/ ISDS" (rom R. TlteZ t1X/slies ill tlte fhlle of tlte grilltlge.IIrofe) Limited Silll COllvelftioll Tltis tllltllljSis IISes a riglttIttlllded ortltogolltll sljstem of tlx.
Because of the usually large number of beams in a Tbeam deck. Because of the nonuniform shape of these elements as they pass over and through the beams their depth is normally taken to the centre line of the transverse holes. care is required in evaluating the output since there are now two longitudinal elements representing one physical beam. This type of grillage model is suitable for beam and slab decks using M beams and Vbeams. The longitudinal properties for each grillage beam are then taken as half that of the composite box section. Transverse elements represent transverse solid infill elements. Transverse elements represent the top slab. • • • • • • Usbeam decks. One method of modelling a Llbeam deck is to place longitudinal elements on the centre line of each web. There are no end diaphragms in this bridge. care is needed when evaluating design moments shears and reactions due to the combination of several physical elements into single model elements . behave differently because the transverse stiffness alternates across the deck between stiff through the beams and flexible between the beams. although basically beam and slab decks. Longitudinal beams are also positioned along the parapet edge beam. and represent the composite action of the beam and its associated section of slab. it may be preferable to model two or three beams by one grillage member. However. The wider spacing of model elements does not materially affect the transverse element idealisation since the structure acts as a true slab.3 GRILLAGE MODELS FOR PRESTRESSED BEAM DECKS Longitudinal grillage beams are placed on the line ofthe physical beams. The beams are positioned to try and equalise the top slab spans between and across beams. As with the inverted Tbeam decks. but when these are present they must also be represented by appropriate transverse elements. r~~ lJI \U \UI \OJ • o • • • • • • • 0 .16 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN !JSING PRES I RESSED BEAMS 3.
~ __ •.Ideall8tltlol1 rtftlte deck lite fol1dgecrossseetlol1 looks like tltls: lite II1sltll dowl1stal1d fascia al1d tlte . lite cmsssectto» oftlte strtlctllra/ elemel1ts oftlte fol1dgeIs tlterefore: ql1//age foeams WI!/ foe.resel1t tlte s/afo.rov/ded at 1.resel1tatlol1 oftlte crosssectlol1 Is: e~.~ ~~•.ara.ara.~.et foeam are footlt disc0l1tll1110llSal1d so do 110t cOl1tl1follte to tlte strtletllra/ actlol1. wltlclt Is well foe/ow a 2: 1 as. al1d 110mll1a/edge foeams wi// foe.laced 011tlte /ll1es Of tlte 11/l1e .•• r e lral1sverge memfoerg wi// foe. litis dlvldes tlte Iel1gtlt oftlte deck Il1to 14 etpla/ seetlol1s' lite 110desoftlte gl1//age wl// gel1era//1ffoe011 grid Of a 1900 X12 5.~.~~.~.et foeams.laced a/ol1g tlte . 90m Il1te!Va/$ to re.eet ratio al1d tlterefore sat/staetorlj.retel1slol1ed foeam$. lltlls tlte gl1//age re.~. .
to verify that it is behaving correctly. moments in grillage beams are proportional to the beam curvature in that direction.4 DECK IDEALISATION Grillage analysis idealises a deck into a grid of interconnected beams. The test load case should be checked against some simple hand calculations (e. If the skew exceeds 20°. • Skew decks can be analysed by orthogonal or skew meshes. but this error is also sufficiently small to be ignored. • Bearing positions should be represented faithfully. the model should be laid out within 5° of the real skew. particularly when skew exceeds 20°. and in skew bridges the vertical stiffness must be modelled with care as they can have significant effect on theoretical distribution ofload.g. • Generally. • Where possible. • Transverse elements should be spaced to try and reflect the aspect ratio (length/width) of the whole deck. Variations from the true behaviour arise because the real slabs element equilibrium requires torques and twists to be identical and in orthogonal directions. if a slab is modelled by a sufficiently fine grillage mesh these anomalies are smoothed out to become almost insignificant. Again. However. layout the grillage to capture all the load. shear and torsion are assumed to be concentrated in the nearest equivalent grillage beam. it is recommended that an initial test load is applied (such as a uniform UDL). moments also depend on the orthogonal direction curvature. transverse members should be orthogonal to the longitudinal members.18 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESION OSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS 3. . In real slabs. and for ease of shape generation and section property calculations. Once the grillage model has been set up. but in grillages the joints can rotate differently. The real dispersed effects of bending. wV/8) to make sure that the results are reasonable. There are a few fundamental requirements for competent grillage modelling: • Place the grillage beams coincident with the physical beams or lines of designed strength.
5 r6 91 106 1. tlHd IHdlctites tlte SII//OltS wltlt tI circle: 1 15 30 38 53 68 16 31 45 60 46 61 r.willtlde Ittode! Tltegrilltige Ittode! Is sltoWH Pe!ow.20 13.21 136 151 Tlte secona dltlgt'tlltt sltows tlte lttelttPer HIlIttPerlHg: 151 152 3 18 4 19 164 lt4 H8 192 206 220 234 248 262 21'6 290 15 30 1 2 165 16 11' 11'9 193 201' 221 235 249 263 21'1' 136 291 131' 138 139 304 150 .5 90 105 1. Tltefirst dltlgt'tlltt sltows tlte HadeHIlIttPers.5 150 16.
the transformed section may be important and should be used. This is the most straightforward. The overall height of the section is 1. a rectangular slab which overlaps it by 30 mm.20 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESloN USING PRES I RESSED BEAMS t 3. and under applied deformations or long term loads the long term modulus should be used. To save analysis time for these two situations a value between long and short may be chosen. ideally reflecting the proportion of permanent to transient effects. An elastic analysis is appropriate for the serviceability limit state. . The code permits stiffnesses to be represented on the gross concrete section ignoring the reinforcement or strand.0 to be used. The Y beams have standard notches 50 mm deep along the top edges. so that the beam protrudes 30 mm into the deck slab. and the small overlap area which must be subtracted as it has been counted twice. which is the most important for the design of the pretensioned beams.4. Under transient applied forces the short term elastic modulus should be used. Clause 7. However in the example a more accurate value has been calculated taking into account of the different concrete strengths. It is a lower bound solution in which the structure is in equilibrium and yield is not reached. These allow formwork to be placed between the beams to support the deck concrete. In this case. since the amount of reinforcement and strand has not yet been accurately determined at the analysis stage.1 permits a modular ratio of 1. The use of an elastic model for the ultimate limit state is simple and conservative. such as continuous bridges at supports. even though the code allows plastic methods with the approval of the bridge authority.5 SECTION PROPERTIES Since the precast and insitu concrete strengths do not differ by more than 10 Nzmm'. In some situations. 20 mm thick permanent formwork is used. The composite section properties are calculated by assuming the section is made up from the Y8 beam.590 m. Almost all analyses are executed on elastic models.
of pet1#!. 381 w (for t1ctUt1/ tresses s il'!s/tJ/J) . so wll/ not give tlte true stresses in tlte s/t1/? Tltemodu/t1rmtio must /Jedivided ollt of titis vt1/ueto find tlte true secti(m modu/us for tlte s/t1/?. To.. To.0011 0.0027 0.ro.011 0.853 Iff Effective t1ret1 0.0000 0.015 0. 889 r if = L41j / L4 = 0. 347/0. 737/0..5847 Iff if 0.585 0.255 0.Section ?rf2/?erties 8et1m t1/one: '18 /Jet1#!.1188 lott1/s 0.1188Hf'= Com.378 0. t o otlterwise tlte modu/t1rmtio will pe t1. = 0.639 A'I 0. 475 ZtsltJl. 400 w w Tltis /t1st vt1/ueis Pt1sed on tlte trt1nsformed section properties.585 0.2429 Hf' Sectionmodu/i Ct11'! /Je Ct1/cu/t1ted: now 80ttomof/Jet1#!.374 0.0891 0.639 m I = 0.385 0. Z""&11f 1/ if = ZthtJl1f = 0./ied to tlte s/t1/? Actut1/ t1ret1 0.590.347 w = 1/(1. 2429 Hf' Tlte vt1/uesforA(rr)2 in tltis tt1Ne ct1non/Ij/Je{ll/ed in tJfter Itt1S/Jeen Ct1/cu/t1te(/. 829 m (from pottom of pet1m) I = 0.osite section: S/t1/J concrete fell =40 N/mlff. E = 34 kN/mlff :.012 '18 0.0366 I 0. 0.480 1.91 0220 1.erties from dt1tt1slteet Aret1 = 0.= 1/(1. 91 = 0. Modu/t1rmtio = 31/34 = 0.3rG Tltet1ctUt1/1ret1is retfJliredfor Ct1/cu/t1tion f tlte self weigltt.ofs/t1P.273 .280 S/t1/J Over/t1. 737w A(rij)2 0.if) = 0. 829 Iff 'I 1. E = 31 kN/mlff 8et1m concrete fell = 50 N/m#F.ij) = 0. Zts/tJP = 0.
the combined stiffness ofthe edge beam with the parapet upstand may be significantly higher than the stiffness of the internal beams. loads should not be applied directly to these members. however. This is becoming more popular as it also reduces thermal and differential shrinkage cracking. require careful detailing. the extra stiffness reducing stresses from the extra loading. and so may attract high unwanted loads into the parapet upstand. They are only included to give the grillage model a tidy appearance the same size and shape as the bridge deck. • calculate the whole deck inertia including the upstands. To counteract this' overloading' phenomenon. however. They could be omitted without affecting the results of the analysis. These elements are given very small section properties so that they do not contribute structurally to the grillage. Ifnominal members are used in this way. • make the edge upstand discontinuous. and are both cast in sections about 2. This is likely to be significantly less than the inertia calculated for the discrete edge shape. . However. It does. Then allocate half the difference to each edge member. The stiffness of the parapet cantilever is included with the outer Y beam. the following approaches can be taken when the apparent edge beam inertia is significantly higher than internal elements: • model the edge upstand as a separate element (usually with less inertia than the main elements).5m long separated by a narrow gap. Many deck arrangements cause the edge beam to be the most heavily loaded. In the design example.6 EDGE STIFFENING Most decks have edge stiffening for the parapets. and also excluding the upstands.22 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRES I RESSBD BEAMS 3. Care must be taken in the computer modelling to ensure that the stiffness allocated to the edge beam is not unrealistically high. the third method has been adopted. as this would aggravate the problem. This reverses the trend of attraction. In many instances these effects are complementary. The downstand fascia and parapet are cast after the deck has been completed. Edge longitudinal elements are included in the model along the line of the parapet support upstand.
91 X. so tlte el1dsltlfo l11el11foers ll11fllf refre.044 Iff Effective Aretl = 1. Btlsed 011 tltiS crO$$sectlon.950111 ofs/tlfo: S I =l11fotP/12 = 0.' Tltese refre. tiS we/I ss tlte dlscol1tll1l1olls ftlrtlfet 011 dowl1sttll1d ftlselt? Tlte structurtJl ftlrt of tlte crO$$sectlol1 IS slttlded 011 tlte dltlgrtJl11.00153H('Tltere Is 110el1ddltlfltrtJgl11. follt tlte sectlol1 frofertles o(tlte Sttlge one edgefoetll11sto foeused 111ltiS tll1t1llfsls tire: t f.OOOrrH(' . 0.22rY /12 = O. 900111 sectlol1 of sltlfo: I =l11fot:P/12 = 0.91 X.. tlte deck Is Ctl.8e!1t 0. a two sttJge cOl1strtlctlol1 setjUel1ce will foeIIset/.022111 I =o. Altltouglt tlte grilltlge wlllll1c1ude l11el11foers rultl1ll1g tllol1g tlte verlf edge. 900 X.8oftlte ded.8t tOjllst ollts/de tlte edgefoetll11s. Tlte welgltt oftlte sttlge two cOl1structlol1ls sUfforted foil tlte deck wltlt edge foetll11stit sttJge 011e. 003 Iff i = 1.' Actutll area = 1.8lgn.22rY /12 = 0.240H(' /11sttJge two. To tlcltleve tll1 ecol1ol11lctll dgefoetll11 e de. 1.£dge Betll11: AI1II1sltll cOl1cretedowl1sttll1d ftlseltlls retjUlred for tltls kldge. tlte ctll1tllever IS tldded. tll1d verlf sl11t111tlllle. tlte sectlol1 frofertles to foeused for tlte 111t1111 grilltlge tll1t1llfslS Ctll1 foectllcultlted tiS for tlte Il1temtll foetll11 011tlte frevlous ftlge.ll1d tI grilltlge t tll1t1llfSIS Ctll1foectlrrled out tlccordll1gllf Tltls tll1t1llfSIS ISl10t fresel1ted Itere.8 will foeused for tlte sectlol1 frOfertles' v Sltlfo l11el11foers. tll1d tire as follows.950x. 0. tltese tire 110t structurtll. /11tlte first sttlge.8el1t tI 1.ffectlveAretl i = 0.8r5111 I =0. 0.802 Iff =0.316H(' Ptlrtlfet edgel11el11foer.
the torsional inertia is an order of magnitude less than the bending inertia. is a factor depending on the ratio d/b If d/b > 2. where and b is the length of the short side d is the length of the long side k. In this case. can be approximated by: k. as here. The torsional inertia of slab elements is thus given by: Torsionless Design For many composite beams.7 TORSION Torsional inertia can be difficult to calculate precisely.0. Torsion should also not be ignored in UM beams and thick edge beams such as YE beams. so the value of C is halved for each direction to reflect this double action. Slabs twist in both longitudinal and transverse directions. must be reflect the whole slab action. For rectangular sections. In other words. The correspondingly increased design strength is considered adequate to carry the torques which would be associated with a full torsion model. the slab elements should be transformed in accordance with the modular ratio. Torsionless designs should not be used for significant skews or box beam decks which may be chosen for their high torsion stiffness properties or where torsional strength is a significant requirement. so this approximate method of calculation is sufficiently accurate. A reasonable estimate can be made by dividing the section up into rectangles.63 bid) This formula should not be used for elements which represent sections of a wide slab. . In beam and slab bridges. the torsional inertia is normally small compared to the bending inertia. Additionally.24 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRES I &ESSED BEAMS 3. even ifintemal beams are considered torsionless. then k. The resulting load distribution is less effective and this gives rise to slightly increased bending moments. and should not be calculated for the individual elements. The torsional inertia ofthe section is approximately given by the sum ofthe inertias of the individual rectangles. the value used for k. = 'h (1 . torsionless design can be used. The analysis of such bridges can be simplified by ignoring the torsion constraints. Edge beams can be subjected to considerable torsion due to loads from the parapet cantilever. and cracking of these beams could occur if torsion is ignored in the design.
(' 2: = 0.50 = 0.5/6 = O..1.5.2..2.59 ttl =(10.18)/3 C = ttllJ3d =0.22CY X.. C = 0.63/2 . 91 X.01131'1'1" d / /J = 0.290 = 2.018..5.('TorCOlHftlrisOIf.34CYx. 1 11.0.. 0.20 0.2.50/0.52 X.(' + 0. Torsionwill tlterefore/Jeneglected .63/J / o/ 3 = (1..080 =0.EstilHtlte torsiontl/ stiffJte8$ of cOlHfositesection /J'Iidetl/isingtlte section es tltree recttlng/es: IL.~__.267 3: =0. 1. so C = IHlJ3d /6 = 0..2.63/3.267x.7.('d / /J = 1. 0.. 0021.2.. 0. 0..0.59)/3 C = ttl IJ3d = 0. 0046 Tlte/Jending inertitl is c/etlri'l veq IHllclt/tlrgertlttln tlte torsiOlfti/inertitl..0046.52 Tottl/torsiOlfti/inertit1.27.63/J/d)/3 =(10.7.290 first Cti/clI/titetorsion inertitls for tlte individlltl/recttlng/es: Tltis is ftlft Of tI wider two Wtl'l s/ti/. 340 x 1.29CY X. 0.080/0.080 I 1: 3 I 0.'50 X..340 =3.'5 X..18 ttl =(1...I = 0.0.. 0021 + 0. 0113 =0.
centrifugal forces. SDL. those loads considered to be acting at all times (Le.26 SIMPLE BRlmiE DESIGN IJSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS 4 CALCULATION OF LOADS 4. all loads other than permanent loads (i. the weight of nonstructural materials on the bridge. etc. braking. as they may differ from those used with other structural design work: Dead Load Superimposed Dead Load Live Loads Primary Live Loads Secondary Live Loads Permanent Loads Transient Loads the weight of structural materials in the bridge. An additional factor. . loads due to vehicular and pedestrian traffic. and live loads). 4. is currently used to determine the loading on UK bridges. horizontal loads due to change in direction of traffic (eg. and it is used throughout this design example. parapets. DL. BD 37/88 effectively supersedes BS 5400 Part 2 in the UK. and any loads due to fill). Y fl' is also introduced to obtain the design load effects (moments. shears.) from the design loads.2 DEFINITIONS It is worthwhile clarifying a few definitions.e. Values ofYfl are given in BS 5400 Part 4 for concrete bridges. vertical live loads due to weight of traffic. such as road surfacing. etc. wind. pending revision of this Standard. The loads generally specified in the Standard are nominal loads appropriate to a return period of 120 years. Loads for Highway Bridges.1 INTRODUCTION The Departmental Standard BD 37/88. temperature. Design loads will be obtained later by multiplying the nominal loads by load factors Y fL given in the Standard. lurching).
044mZ Wetgftt = 1.459 2(sltlP+ctllftilevel} = 1.275 111 = 4. 48 kN/1I1 0. 0 kN/mZ = 5.for Sill1/llicitlj tlSSHlI1e II1t1X/II1HII1 tfticklfess of 165111111 over wftole ctlmagewtllj.24kN/~ = 20.' AS/lfttllt SHifticilfg . tllfd Ifolfstructurtll (discolftiIfUOUS)strilfg course tllfd ftlscitl WI/Itill pe ttlkelf tiS SDL.5847 mZ (frOIl1dtlttl sfteet) WetgHt =0.0120(overitl/l) tige petlll1: Aretl = 0.044 mZ x.1 kN/1I1/lerpetlll1 Vety'8. SDL =Q. 1.24kN/~ = 4.24kN/~ = 14.165111x.6 kN/111 etlcftside of pridge .8532 mZ x. Tottll wetgftt = 14. '18 Betlll1 tllolfe: Aretl = 0.03 kN/1I1 Ilftenttll petlll1: Aretl = 0.CALCULATION Or LQz4.24kN/~ = 25. Ctlrritlgewtllj.8532mZ Wetgftt = 0.' TftewetgHt of tfte footjltlt/t.5847('18) + 0.5847mZx.D DetidLotid Detld lotld will pe ctlffied PIj tfte petlll1s tlctilfg tllolf~ witft If0 cOIl1/lositetlctiolf.2805(sltlP)=Q.0 kN/mZ X.5847('18)+Q. 05 kN/1I1 Tftis lotldilfg is tI/l/llied to tfte cOIl1/lositepetlll1 6( sltlP strHctHre. Tftis ilfc/Hdestlilowtllfce for wtlteIJrOOfilfg/lrotectiolf potlrds.
or alternatively a single wheel load. thus including the hard shoulders (see Clause 3.3 HIGHWAY LOADING Notional lanes For the purposes of calculating the loads to be applied to the bridge deck. the VDL expressed in kN per linear metre of notional lane is given by the equation: W = 336 (l/L)0. the carriageway is taken as the distance between raised kerbs. The single 100 kN wheel load alternative to the UDL and KEL can be placed anywhere on the carriageway.2. even though the deck will be marked out for only two lanes of traffic.2. and are specified in Table 14 of the Standard. Note that in this example there are three notional lanes for loading purposes.28 SIMPLe BRIDGe DeSIGN lJSINGPRESJRBSSeD BeAMS 4. Clause 3. It comprises a uniformly distributed load (UDL) and a knife edge load (KEL) combined. The single wheel load is only significant in the local analysis of the deck slab.1).9. the carriageway is split into notional lanes. These are functions of the loaded length and the lane width. . which is not covered in this design example. The KEL per notional lane is always taken as 120 kN. and occupies either a circular area of340mm diameter or a square area of300mm side. not all lanes carry the full HA load at the same time.67 where L is the loaded length (in metres) and W is the load per metre of notional lane. and this is dealt with by means of lane factors. In this context. The VDL and KEL are uniformly distributed over the full width of the notional lane to which they apply.3 then defines how the carriageway should be split into notional lanes.9. However. For loaded lengths up to and including 50 m. HALoading HA loading is a formula loading representing normal traffic in Great Britain.
1 (40.Cdrridgewdljwldtlt = 1.67 = 3r.20)} =0.3111 TltreeffotlOffdlldffes dre retpflred: Notloffdlldffe width.2 = 0.0 (ltdI'dstnp) = 9.2 = O.20 kN Wltee!IOdd = 100 kN (slffgle IOdd) Ldffe(dctol'8 PdsedOffBD 37/88 TdPle14: a.90 TltlrdIdffe(dctOt'.65(.61) + 3. /3. PL = 9. /31 = a. 90 Secoffd Idffe(dctOt'.20)} = O.1 111 fiA IOdd: LOdded !effgtlt =. 65(L.26.013?{p/40L) + 3.26.3 kN/111 fiA I(li = 1. 61.61111 fiA tlDL = 336(1/L)Q67 = 336(1/.2 =0.0 (ltdI'dstnp) + r.61)0.0137{3.26. /33 = 0.2 = a.60 .90 flrst Idffe(dctOt'. 3 111/3= 3. 3 (two trttfflc Idffes) + 1.26.
but this number may be increased up to 45 units. the client has specified 37. Note that in this example the HB wheel load is less than the HA wheel load. For slab design the HA wheel will therefore be critical. For this design example. the smallest figure is obviously the most critical. The distance between the central two axles is variable. An example might be a low load trailer carrying a power station transformer. The HB vehicle as defined in the Standard represents four axles with four wheels per axle.30 SIMPLE BRImm DESIGN USING PRES I RESSEDBEAMS HBLoading HB loading represents abnormal vehicle loading. For all public highway bridges in Great Britain the minimum number of units of type HB loading that must normally be considered is 30. For simply supported spans.5 kN per wheel. . As with the HA wheel load the contact surface may be taken as circular or square with a contact pressure of 1. with tractor units at front and rear. Longitudinal and transverse loading This is only required for design of the bearings.5 units of HB load. Thus the full 45 units maximum is equal to 450 kN per axle or 112.1 Nzmm'. One unit ofload represents 10 kN per axle.
5x10kN Tottll H13 vehicle weight = 4 X375 kN Wheellotld = 375 kN/4 kN = 93. HoriZIJnttl/ Lotldg: Cltluse 6. Thus disttlnce foetweencentral tlxles of the H13 vehiclewill foettlken tiS 6#1.75 kN ior this Sil11/lllfsU/l/lorted foridge.HB lotld: This fm'tlge is designed for 37. .5 units ofH13lotld. = 375kN = 1500 Axlelotld =37. Chuse 6.6111) = 463kN This is tI/l/llied to one notiontll/tlne. fout wil/not foecritictll as it is legs thtln the HA longitudintll/otld. H13 longitudintll lotld = 25% of nOl11intl/ 13 weight H =25%x1500kN = 375kN Thl$ is etjJltl//Ifdigtn'/lilted foetween the 8 wheels of tI /ltlir of tlxles.the shortest wheelfotlsewill foecritictll. 11 gives the nOl11intll trtlnsveme lotlds.10 gives the n0l11intlllongitudintlllotlds: HA longitudintll lotld = 250 kN + 8 kN/111of lotlded length = 250 kN + (8 kN/111X 26.' ThenOl11intl/ tmnsveme /otld due to skidding 1$ tI single /loint lotld of 300 k~ tlcting in tlnlf direction (ttlmllel to the rotld sUrftlce).
32 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRES IRESSEl) BEAMS 4. or if this movement is restrained then in determining the stress resultants in the structure.0 kN/m2• For superstructures carrying both highway and pedestrian loading. Temperature Range The temperature range for a particular bridge is obtained by first determining the maximum and minimum shade air temperatures for the location of the bridge from isotherms plotted on maps of the UK. .0 kN/m2• 4. and the effects of temperature differences (or gradients) through the depth of the bridge deck. This is achieved by a straightforward increase or reduction in temperature as indicated in Clause 5. 4.8 is applied to the nominal pedestrian live loading specified for footbridges alone. The effective bridge temperature range is then used for designing the bearings and expansion joints. namely the restraint to the overall bridge movement due to the temperature range.3 of the Standard.5 PEDESTRIAN LIVE LOAD For loaded lengths of 36m and under. Prestressed beam bridges will always be type 4. it may be necessary to adjust the temperatures for a return period of 50 years for certain applications such as footbridges and carriageway joints.2 of the Standard. Maximum and minimum effective bridge temperatures are then derived from Tables 10 and 11 in the Standard. Combination 2 loading (see page 38) is not significant in its effect on a large proportion of bridges. Thus. Wind load therefore does not need to be calculated for most bridges designed using prestressed beams. the nominal pedestrian live load is a uniformly distributed live load of5. in this case the pedestrian live load is 4. As these isotherm maps are derived from Meteorological Office data relating to a return period of 120 years (the bridge design life). and shown in Figures 7 and 8 in the Standard.4. a reduction factor of 0. 10m or more in width and at normal heights above ground.6 TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Temperature effects produce two aspects ofloading. such as concrete slab or beam and slab structures 20m or less in span.4 WIND LOAD Methods of calculating wind loads are given in Clause 5.
. R.0152111 = ±7. 8tlfflies.tll1ge 1110vel11el1t of frOI11cel1trtll fositiol1 X27 =0. 0 = 4.5.Wil1tilotlti VVll1tilotlti willl10t foeSfecpctlll. foritige cOl1strtlctiol1 is t'!fe 4..0 kN/I1f.etillceti110l11il1t1llotlti foetlfflieti = 0.tll1geofl11ovel11el1t= 47 X (12xl06) R.! 2 WI/ll1ot foecritictll. tlte retillctiol1 ftlctor of 0. Frol11TtlNes 10 tll1ti 11: Mil1il11l1l11 effective fon'tfgetel11fertltllre = 11°C MtlX/11111111 effective foritige tel11femtllre= +36 °C Tel11femtllre ml1ge = 47°C Coefficiel1t of tlterl11t11 eXftll1siOI1 = 12>(106 /oC Lel1gtlt foetweel1 eXftll1siol1joil1ts = 27111 (tlffroxJ R.. ctl/cllltlteti for tltis Im'tfge. 23litce tltis fon'tfgectlrriesltigltwtl'! 10tltiil1gtiS we/I tiS tlte footj/tltlt. 6 111111 . 1.1 tiS 5 kN/I1f.8>( 5. f7gllres 7 tll1ti 8: 3D Mil1il11l1l11 slttltie tlir tel11femtllre = 18°C MtlX/11111111 slttltie tllr tel11fertltllre = +36°C Frol11f7gllre 9. It is tI$$lIl11eti Mtlt Lotlti COl11foil1t1tiol1 N0l11il1t11 lotlti forfootftltlts live is givelt lit CltllIse 6. to FrOI11 37/88.
Temperature Difference Positive temperature differences occur within the superstructure when conditions are such that solar radiation and other effects cause a gain in heat through the top surface of the deck. Conversely, reverse temperature differences occur when conditions are such that heat is lost from the top surface of the bridge deck as a result of reradiation and other effects. Temperature gradient diagrams for each of these states are shown on Figure 9 in the Standard. For surfacing of thickness other than 100mm these can be modified by reference to Appendix C. The coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete and steel is taken here as 12xI0·6• For concrete with limestone aggregates, a reduced coefficient of thermal expansion of 9x 106 can be used. Ifthe deck were fully restrained at each end, stresses proportional to the temperature at each point in the deck would arise. These temperatures and stresses are shown in the top line of diagrams opposite. The stress at the top of the slab, for example, is calculated as: Stress = EaT = (31,000 Nzmm') x (12xI06;oC) x (13.5°C) = 5.02 Nzmm?
In a simply supported deck there is no axial restraint at the ends, and no moment restraint. The axial and moment components of these stresses will be relieved by overall lengthening and hogging of the deck. A selfequilibrating set of internal stresses will remain; they will exist without any external forces or reactions on the deck. These internal stresses are calculated by subtracting the axial and moment components from the stresses calculated for the fully restrained condition. Stresses due to negative temperature differences also need to be calculated. These are not presented here, but exactly the same procedure is followed. It is worth noting that the serviceability limit state stresses determined from these temperature difference diagrams are subject to a load factor of 0.8.
CALCULATION OF LOADS
35
Teltf,l?ertltllre Difference Teflfl'ertltllre distn'folltion tltrollglt tlte cross section is given in flgllre 9 of BD 37/88 Positive teflfl'ertltllre difference:
1
,2
Cross Section
Teflfl'emtllre Difference
Stresses in fllillf restmined deck=f.aT
Ctllcllltite tlX/til force tlnd flfoflfent cOflfl'onents Of tltese stresses. Stress IttiS peendiVidedIII' into (lve j;fock~ indlctlted on dlagrtlflf tlbove,for ease Ofctllcllltition.
A
.2
3 5 1
4
1..2r5x.0.15 1..2r5x.0.15 1..2r5x.0.0r 0.4rx.0.18 ors x.0..20
1.1.2 1.95 0.96 0.44 0.51
a
0.6.26 0.651 0.516 0.391 0.8.2.2
If
0..214 0.3r3 0.086 0.03r O.Orr
= o.
Aa
0.134 0..243 0.044 0.015  0.063 = 0.3r3 MNfIf
Aalf
AX/til force = Ma MOflfent tlbollt centroidtll tlX/s = Malf
rer MN
In tltis Siflfl'llf slll'l'orted bridge, ne/tlter tlX/til force or flfoment tire in ftlct restrtlilfeti so lockedin stresses tire ctllcllltited blf sllPtrtlcting tltese effects from tlte stress ditlgrtlflf tlbove: AX/til reletlse stress MOflfent reletlse stress
=(0.787 MN)/(0.829 HF) = 0.95 N/flfHF = (0. 373 MNfIf)/ Z = (0.373 MNfIf)/(0.475#f) = 0.79 N/flfHF tit tOl'ofbetlflf, etc.
086N/11f1ff 0.95 N/11f1ff
0.95
1.37
R..estrtlinedstresses froflf tol' ditlgrtlflf
AX/al reeeee
MOflfent reletlse
Self  etpfi/i/?mting teflfl'ertltllre stresses
~~~ ~~~
36 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN OSING PRES I RESSED BEAMS
~~~~~


~
4.7 SHRINKAGE
When the insitu top is cast on the precast beams some of the shrinkage of the beams has already occurred. Hence differential shrinkage occurs between the precast and insitu concretes, and this results in the development of a pattern of internal stresses. Clause 7.4.3.4 states that the Table 29 shrinkage values may be adopted. It is reasonable (and usual) to assume that half of the beam shrinkage has occurred at the time of casting the top slab. Hence the differential shrinkage assumed in the calculation is half of the Table 29 shrinkage value. The effects of differential shrinkage will be reduced by creep. Allowance is made for this in the calculations by using a reduction coefficient, l/J. A value of 0.43 is normally used for this coefficient, as given in Clause 7.4.3.4. The differential shrinkage stresses can be determined in a similar manner to the differential temperature stresses. The restrained stresses are calculated, and the axial force and moment component are subtracted to give the actual internal stresses.
egtm/nedgtregg = clJ$X£cX¢ AX/tll reietlge = (0561MN)/(0..egtrtllitlng lItolltent = 0561 =0561 =0332 Ctlicultltlon of littemtll X eccentrlcltlj X 0220) x.0.829HF) Molltentreietlge = MlLtsldP =0332/0381 = 2.. It Ig tlggUllteti tlttlt Ittllf' g tlte tottll gltrlnKtlge oftlte/:?etlllt Ittlg ttlKenpltlce /:?efore gltl/:?Ig Ctlgt.38 NimHI' = 0..480m R.(1.egtrtllnlng force = CDS X I:c X A SldP X ¢ =150X106 x. tlte D/fferentltll gltrlnKtlgegtrtll".2 NimHI' 087 NimHI' +1.480.D/fferentltll gltrlnKtlge /:?etween ltl/:?tlnd decKcretlteg Intemtll sereeses.43 x.2.. 1000 X (1.0N/IltHF = 068 N/IltHF = 08rN/IltHF tlttofofgltlp' etc...egtm/ned gtreggeg AX/til reietlge Molltent reietlge aelf' . ElJ$ = 05 X (300><jO6) =150><jO6 15D~ 1..68 NimHI' R.6.0889) MNIIt to tlte ctllcuitJtlonfor telltpertlture difference: ssresse« /g g/lItlltlr R.2r5 3 = 0561 MN (teng/on) R..etpf/II/:?rtltlng gltrlnKtlgegtreggeg ....0. Tottll Intemtll gtreggeg tlre gltown on tlte rlgltt Ittlnd tIt'tJgmllt: . NimHI' 0..
) Wind load. 5. For bridges in the UK. maximum midspan moments will obviously be obtained by concentrating the loads as near to midspan as possible. .__=~··~ ~ _ 5 APPLICATION OF LOADS 5. and is ignored in the design example. and also putting the HB vehicle at midspan. the requirements ofBS 5400: Part 4 must be modified according to Departmental Standard BD 24/92. BS 5400: Part 4 calls for a maximum of 25 units of HB load for this condition. In pretensioned beam bridge decks. secondary live load is also included. or on skew bridges. The most important change this introduces relates to the Combination 1 loading. is not so easy. 1 (but with some reduced load factors). This design example follows the requirements ofBD 24/92. Positioning of the loads to obtain maximum bending moment elsewhere in the span.2 SELECTION OF CRITICAL LOAD CASES In this example. Combination 2 (including wind loading) is rarely critical. (For railway bridges. Bearings friction. Load combinations 1 to 3 are the primary combinations to be considered in the overall analysis of the bridge deck. The beams must comply with Class 1 SLS stress limits for a modified version of Combination 1. 1: Comb. Only Combination 1 therefore needs to be analysed at ULS. 4: Comb. Secondary live loads (each considered separately). Alternatively. in combination with permanent loads and the associated primary live load. some software packages will automatically analyse a multitude of different possibilities and report the maximum effects. again combined with loads from Combination 1.~~_:_=:1S:: SIMPLE BRIDIiEDESIGN OSINGPRESI'RESSED BEAMS~~~~=__:'. These are listed in detail in Table 1 of the Standard. Use ofBS 5400: Part 4: 1990. The five combinations can be summarised as follows: Comb.1 LOAD COMBINATIONS BD 37/88 considers five combinations ofloads. plus loads in Comb. 2: Comb. Temperature effects. The Design of Concrete Highway Bridges and Structures. This leaves Combinations 1 and 3 to be analysed. This means putting the HA KEL at midspan in the lanes to which it applies. The arrangement of loads which give maximum effects in the various beams can be found by trial and error. which also gives load factors to be used in each case. 3: Comb. but BD 24/92 reduces the live loading to HA alone for this condition. The temperature loads in Combination 3 do not cause any bending moments in the beams. together with permanent loads. and so will not have a significant effect at ULS. 5: Permanent loads plus primary live loads.
?/lItJtloll tJt $L$ tJlld tlL$ 1 COI11/.ApPLICATION OF LOADS 39 AP. tJlld tfte ItJlleftJctorfor tfte HA tlDL Is PtJsed 011 1I0tiolltJlltJlle wldtft of 2. I(fl HA.789 Hl3 veftlcle f3 = 0. 132 = 0.9.9. For tfte deslgll of tfte prestressed betJl11s.PLICA T/ON OF LOAD$ TO (jRILLA(jf.bllt tfte $L$ condltloll will tJlso be tJlltJl.?/lItJtloll tJt $L$ 3 HA. 9.!sed Tftls fttJs pee11btJsed 011ngllre 13 of o l3D 37/88. 1 su HA wltft 37. 133 = 0. HA.!sls.5111.?/lItJtloll tJt $L$ 3 Hl3 veftlcle HA. I(fl HA. glVlllg a ItJlle ftJctorofO.2(p)) HA tJlolle. f3 = 0.! tlL$ls retlfllred for tfte sftetJr CtJlCllltJtlOIls. I(li_ 2 1 HAwltft 37. f3 2 =0.!sed to give I11tJX/l11l1l11lotJds tfte betJrillgs.! f tfte 10tJdctJses to pe tJlltJl.?/lItJtloll tJt $L$ 3 HA.511111ts Hl3: COI11/. 9.789 f3 = O. tfte I(li_ Is ol11ltted frol11 tfttJt ItJlle.' COI11/.?/lItJtloll tJt $L$ tJlld tlL$ 1 COI11/. I(li_ 2 1 . Wftm tfte Hl3 veftlcle straddles tfte tJqjtJcellt ItJlle.4.511111ts Hl3: COI11/.511111ts Hl3 to I11tJX/l11lse sftetJr tJlld retJctlolls 111tJlle 1: I COI11P1l1tJtloll tJt $L$ tJlld I1L$ 1 Hl3 veftlcle HA. 011 l3e1owIs tJSlll11l11tJr. Note tfttJt tfte Hl3 veftlcle Is wider tfttJlI tJ1I0tlolltJlltJlle. HA. Od. LotJdctJses I11I1Stbe selected for IIIPllt to tfte grl!ltJge tJlltJl. f3 = 0.tJlld tfte I11tJX/11111111 tJt (wftlcft sftetJr tfte ellds oftfte betJl11stJlld tJt tlfItJrter SPtJlI tJrelIeeded MOl11ellts tJre retlfllred botft tJt $1$ tJlld tJt tiL$.6. HA. 9.olll.?/lItJtloll tJt $L$ tJlld I1L$ 1 COI11/.789 a (see CltJllse 6.! tfte I11tJX/111111111110111ellts wI!1occar tJt I11ldsptJlI).789 f3 = 0. I(li_ HAwltft 37. 131 = O.
a manual method of distribution is given to illustrate the technique.1m) x 37. Load 1 is the HA UDL loading for lanes 1 and 2. only UDL member loads and vertical joint loads will be used.9 = 2. point loads and torque.3 kN/m on a notional lane width of 3. so the load applied to members 179 to 234 is: Member load = (1. varying UDL.1m. For many grillage software packages a preprocessor routine handles the application ofloads to the grillage model. In this example.3 kN/m x 0. and displacements (normally used for settlement of a support). however. but the HA knifeedge load in this example is applied as joint loads.40 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESloN USING PRES I RESSEDBEAMS 5. Elements 179 to 234 represent four main longitudinal beams. The basic HA UDL is 37.275m 1 3. So for members 165 to 178: Member load = (0. Line loads can be applied as member loads. .3 kN/m x 0. and receive member loads representing a width of deck of 1. A patch load is statically distributed across the members beneath the patch. and 235 to 248. and applied as joint loads. Similarly.275m. HA loading alone In the example opposite. the HB wheel loads are statically distributed between the nearest joints.9 for these lanes. These are usually applied with reference to the global axes.3 INPUT TO GRILLAGE ANALYSIS Loading to grillages can be applied in the form of member loads and joint loads.9 = 13. Joint loads can include both forces and torques. Member loads can include UDL. In the example given here.03 kN/m The last section of data shows how the individual loads are combined with factors equivalent to the factors YfL Yoas given in BD 37/88 Table 1 for Combination 1 x at SLS.81 kN/m The remaining load is allocated to the beams represented by members 165 to 178.1875m 1 3. These are normally applied with reference to the local member axes. multiplied by the lane factor of 0. Uniformly distributed loads are generally applied as member loads along the main elements.1m) x 37.
1 2 3 I(f. HA.90 LOAD 5 Stf/?.L JO/NTLOAD 23 98 @ M/DSPAN f3 = 0.10 151 TO 164 291 TO 304 UN/ q'10.61r 249 TO 2r6 UN/ q'19.2 Mt/tI1BE~ LOAD 165 TO 1 r8 UN/ q'1 2.53 r'131.2 2 1. 6) Mt/tI113E~LOAD 235 T0. LOAD 2 HA UDL LANE 3 (f3 = 0.q£ SDL Mt/tI1BE~ LOAD 165 TO 1r8 err TO 290 UN/ q'114.Tlte IIt. 2 4 r'16.1 LOAD 6 VER.205 err TO 290 UN/ rq'11.0 3 1.2 6 1. 9. LOAD 1 HA UDL LANf2 1 <X. HA.0 .03 1r9 TO 234 UN/ q'113.6 LOAD COMB r (SLS COMB.L I(f.2 4 1.r9 LOAD 4 rOOlWA'1 Mt/tI113E~LOAD 165 TO 1r8 zrr TO 290 UN/ q'15.L 38 53 68 83 r'1 44.rAClNq Mt/tI1BE~ LOAD 1r9 TO 2r6 UN/ q'f 5. 9) Tltetltlttl OlttltlS 'tlge refers to tlte lotltls Olttltls tlltlgmll1: HA.81 235 TO 248 UN/ q'19.L I(f.ut tltlttl for sOll1eoftlte COll1pllttltlOlf 1lotltl ctlses Is Iistetl Pe/ow.248 UN/ q'12. 6. f3 = O. 1 HA ALONE) 1 1.354 LOAD 31(f. f3 = 0.2 5 1.88 (f3 = 0.. 9.
192 206 IJ"8 4 152 ~5 f  . or93. loads are distributed between the nearest grillage joints. showing the relevant member and joint numbers. Loads 2 to 7 are similar to Loads 1 to 6 on the previous page. The sign convention may give opposite senses for each moment in a sagging effect.r179 193 £@ 1 4b6ii ~.1.. A similar load layout is also required with the HB vehicle in the central lane.. so care is therefore necessary in the interpretation. As before.~451 4 21 22 25 26 atl . or they may be given the same sign. Note the absence ofKEL in the straddled lane next to the HB lane. Note that for ULS loadings. The data for Load 1 is for 37.r. and the position of the HB vehicle: 151 164 165 r. and applied as point loads. Y = 1. main longitudinal member) are averaged to find the maximum design moment at that joint. the diagram of the grillage model is repeated here.~41 I 16r 1.3 x 1.. the combinations are made from applying the Y and Y factors from Table fL f3 1 of BD 37/88..5 units ofHB (375 kN per axle.1 = 1...42 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRES rRESSEo BEAMS HA with HB loading The page opposite shows the input data for load cases in which the HB vehicle is positioned for maximum edge zone longitudinal bending. Generally the member end moments at the same joint in any element string (eg.75 kN per wheel). . The design shear forces and twisting moments are evaluated in the same way."Bo 304 Grillage output Each software package has its own convention for output display.. .fi'&.. Some programs envelope a group of analysis results to provide easy identification of maxima.'6 bff 291 . the notional lanes.r. ~ ~ ~6 t r . Loads 8 and 9 represent Combination 1 at SLS and ULS respectively. The wheel.._ 248 _ 262 2.Her 234 221 f 235 249 263  l I 113 98 I I  . Thus the factor applied to f3 Load 1 in the final set of data is: Combination factor = Y X Y = 1.  :  128 74:5  .43 fL f3 For reference.
8r5 sr Tltetitlttl Olftltig /ltlgerefers to tltig tlrrtllfgelflelft f lotltig: o fiB velticle fiA./ 0./ Mt:MBE~ LOAD 165 TO iro err TO 290 tlNI q./ 14.43 2 1. f31 = Q 9.65 6 1. Mt:MBE~ LOAD 165 TO ire err TO 290 tlNI q.90 LOAD 6 StI1\FAClNq Mt:MBE~ LOAD lr9 TO 2r6 tlNI q.1 5 1.1 4 1. f3.43 4 1.81 235 TO 248 tlNI rq'/ 3.32 ./ 5.42 98 F'/ 12.66 235 TO 248 tlNI q.03 err LOAD 41(fl_ LANE 3 MIDSPAN JOINTLOAD 113 128 F'/ 44./ 13./ 8./ 12.1 3 1.2 1.r5 21 22 25 26 F'/ 46.5 tlNITS fiB) 1 1./ 5.1 2 1.0 r LOAD COMB 9 (tlLS COMB. I(fl_ LOAD 2 fiA LANE 2 (f3 = .93 TO 290 tlNI rq'/ 2.6 LOAD COMB 8 (SLS COMB. 1 3r.r89) Mt:MBE~ LOAD 221 TO 234 tlNI q.43 5 1.1 20r TO 220 tlNI q'/ 8.1 LOAD r VE~rqE SDL .2 = o.53 LOAD 5 FOO7WA.LOAD 1 fiB LANE 1 JOINTLOAD 66 sr ro ri Pf 93.r5 51 52 55 56 F'/ 140.925 r 1.ree fiA.5 tlNITS fiB) 1 1.66 LOAD 3 fiA LANE 3 (f3 = .625 36 40 41 F'/ 93.10 151 TO 164 291 TO 304 tlNI q. 1 3r.63 143 F'/ 6.0 6 1.9) Mt:MBE~ LOAD 249 TO 2r6 tlNI q.43 3 1.
but need to be applied to the dead loads at this stage.1 GENERAL The left hand pages in this section are in the form of a commentary on the example design calculations on the right hand pages.15 should be adopted.1.2. and to avoid the need to convert between different units within complicated expressions. for which a value of 1.2 has been tL taken for the dead load at ULS. The Y values are obtained from BD 37/88 Table 1. . These loads must be added by hand.15 to be adopted. All references to clauses and Tables in this section refer to BS 5400: Part 4: 1990. The value for Y is taken as 1.2 at this stage of the design. 6. and so stresses have been quoted in the latter unit. The units used in the calculations are Meganewtons and metres. The Standard permits a lower value of 1. as these loads are carried by the prestressed beams alone. Appropriate load factors for the different load combinations have been included in the grillage analysis.2 DESIGN BENDING MOMENTS The grillage analysis does not include the dead load of the beams and the insitu slab. as given in Clause 4.3 for methods of analysis f3 other than plastic methods.44 SIMPLE BRIDGE DEsIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS 6 PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN 6. It should be noted that the unit of stress of MN/m2 is numerically the same as Nzmm'. Note that a value of 1. but the onus is on the designer to ensure that the assumed unit weight of the structure is not exceeded. Consequently most designers prefer the conservative value of 1. These have been chosen in order to avoid the need to use large number of powers often.
.sa. bclt case Inc/llries SDL.2x1. Benrilng 1110l11elftsn tlte tdP/e tJre dll In MNm.57'1 MNI11 MlriSl'tJlf 1110l11elfts tlte SDL tJlfri LL tJre optdllferi frOI11tlte grllltJge dlfdl'lSIS.0 2.Tlte CtJICllltJtlolfs wltlclt follow tJrefor olfe oftlte seve» IlftemtJl petJl118.261 .57'1kNI11 = 1.57'1 2.1 1. Tltese will tJIIpe IrielftlctJt so tlte rieslgn Is for tlte womt case: Deg/ln Belfrilttl MomelftS Tlte rietJri10tJripenrillfg 1110ments ctJrrleri P'l tlte I'rectJst petJl11 I tJetllfg tJlone.980 3. so tlte grilidge Olltl'lIt gIVes tlte fdctorerimoments.03X26.0 1. LotJris tJre.0 1.7'. I sm CompllftJtlOIf 1 LOdricase NOI11/lfdl 1110melft YfL kim COI11P1lfdtlolf 3 YfL ComPllfdtlolf 1 YfL x Y(3 rtJctoreri moment rtJctoreri mOl11ent rtJetoreri 1110l11elft 1: DLl'rectJst 2: DL Insltll 3: fiA(lIril+kel) 4: 37:.4.639 0.i 1.57'l i.5 fiB 1.242MNI11 = 0.540 1. 48 kN/111 DL I'rectJst = 14. tlte pelfrillfg mOl11elftsfor 10drictJses 3 tJlfri 4 tJre ttiken from tlte grilltJge 01lt.242 Q.117' 2.62/8 DL Insltll = wf/8 = 6.27'8 3. foot.4.' DLl'rectJst = wf/8 =14. Al'l'rol'ritJte 10dri for fdetom Itdve peelf Ilfc/llrierillf tlte tJlftJl'ISIs.5 kN/111 M!rISl'dlf mOl11entsrille to riedri 10tJridre..242 0.493 4.5 X26.& /8  1242kNI11 .57'1 1.' Totdl DL = 20.Pdtlt 10tJris.53 1.tJlfri fiA 10tJri. 03 kN/111 DL 11fsltll = 6.242 0 . Ilf tlte tdPle pc/ow.P1It for m!rlsl'tJlf of tJlf Ilftemdl pedl11.0 1.
and under maximum loadings.2 (as modified by BD 24/92) and tabulated opposite: Tension: Load Combination 1 : Clause 4.2.2. footpath loads and HA loads in the appropriate combination. The following loadings. The table in the calculations opposite list the relevant stresses due to all the different loadings that need to be considered.3. The stresses in the table for these load cases are simply obtained from the bending moments by dividing by the section moduli. However this value can be increased by 25% for the upper surface of the precast unit in contact with insitu concrete (Clause 7. because the insitu concrete confines the precast concrete.3 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE The basic prestress design is carried out at SLS. Note that these all include SDL. Load Combination 3 : Clause 4. . Midspan stresses are calculated for the various load combinations at the top and bottom of the beam. and at the top of the slab.) provided that failure would be by tendon yield.   46 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN OSING PRES I RESSED BEAMS 6. and the limiting stresses which apply to them.4( a)(1) gives a limiting tensile stress of zero for Class I.Jfcu 3. but BD 24/92 specifies that Class 2 should be used.4(a)(2) gives a limiting tensile stress for pretensioned concrete of 0. Table 22 gives the allowable compressive stress as 0.2.4 feu.2(b) states that the section should be checked as Class 2 or 3. for which Clause 6.45 . . Clause 6.2.3 . Load cases 3 and 4 refer to the grillage load cases for which the moments are listed on the previous page. are specified in Clause 4. it will be seen in the ULS bending check later in the calculations that this condition is not satisfied. Prestress must be provided to ensure that the stresses limits are satisfied at the time of transfer of the prestress (when the load on the beams is at a minimum).3.4. This gives 16 Nzmm' for the slab and 20 Nzmm? for the precast beam.2 Nzmm= Compression: Clause 4.2.2(a) has been modified by BD 24/92 to state that the section should be checked as Class I with live loading due to HA alone.2. This increase is not used in this example.2 (para 3) specifies that the section should be checked in compression under the full Load Combination 1 and 3 loadings.2. No HB load need be considered for this condition..
etc.2.68 3.96 3.oslte sectlol1 1If0dll/lglvel1 011 't1ge .oslte (0.36 <16 7.24.2.07 7.76 10.35 6.Stresses t1t MltfgPt111 .10 10.540/0.2: DL S/t1P 3: HA 4:37. figllres lit PrrJckets do 110tltt1vet1111dverse effect.540 MNIIf glVel1011 't1ge 45.65) (0. =0.ofs/t1P =.27 (0. Of pet111f= 1.38 18.24.69) 0.59 Tott1/s Stress >0 .2.' Sltrll1kt1ge HA 37.4751ft =0.15) 1. stresses $0 Ct111 optt1ll1edIISll1g sectlol1 1If0dll/1for tlte '18 pet1/1f.1561ft Stress t1t to.46 6.. 86 = 6.67 8.2/0.2.20 6.. For eX(JIIf. t1reCt1/clI/t1ted frollf tlte 1If0llfel1t Of .· pe Zt z.2..540/0. /l1terltt1/ stresses dlle to sltrll1kt1ge t1relitcillded 111 011 t1// cOllfPlitt1tIOlt8.2) 6.07 9.2) 8./ftlte'lltt1ve t1111dverse effect.25 0.21: Zts/tJb ZtbetJl1t ZbbetJl1t = 0.54 (1.. to tlte stresses Ct1/clI/t1ted 't1ge 35./led 3.os/te section..38 18.30 N/IIf#l p Tellf.96 3.· tltcse ssresse» ere t1SCt1/clI/t1ted 't1ge 37. t1l1dpottollf aftlte pet111f Tlte pel1dll1g1If0llfel1ts l1eedto pe cOItverted Il1to stresses DL 1If0llfel1ts t1reresisted P'I tlte pet1l1fst1/011e.2 COIlf.60 0'ts!tJb COIlf/:?!I1t1tloI11 0'tPetJI1t O'bbetJl1t SLS O'ts!tJb COIlf/:?iI1t1tIOI1 3 O'tbetJl1t 0'''''8tJl1t .2.2/0. o t1t tlte to. t1l1d N t t1retlterefore ollfltted frollf tlte totti/$.56 7. 56 = 7.540/0.475 = 5.67 8. S13 Sectlol1 Prect1st Lot1dcase 1: DL Bet111f .20.ert1tllre dlfferel1ce stresses ere II1c1l1ded11 1 COIlf/:?!I1t1tlol1 A /ot1dft1ctory fL = 0.. 111 rder to ct1r!7jOllt S13 dcs/gl1.8.. 1 Stress t1t PottOIlf Of pet111f 1.35 19.381 = 6. 7.90 <.8 Is t1.1861ft = 0.2 (1.5HB /llIflts 6.. etc.273 1ft Stress 111 to.20 .5. 6: Neg Tellf.5HB 5: Poe Tellf..90 6.2 . A// t 011 stresses lit tlte tt1Ne pe/ow t1re111 /IIf#l.66 5.01 <. ofpet111f = .74 1.9.30 .381 1ft = 0.60 <16 1.30 5. t1l1dtlte cOIlf.273= 9.HA t1/011e.68 N/IIf#l.35 N/IIf#l Stress 111 ottollf ofpet111f = ./e.68 3.66 4.54 19.54 19.2.5. = 1 qrl//t1ge 1If0llfel1ts t1reresisted P'I tlte cOIlf.1. stresses for S13 COllfPII1t1tI0111.67 N/IIf#l Stress /11to.46 >3.20 0. 96 N/IIf#l.
2 mm diameter strand. . The chosen strand pattern should always have strands located at the manufacturers' standard positions.1 allows up to 75% to be used for pretensioning. If initially stressed to 75% of its characteristic strength. although Clause 6. the initial force would be 0. initially stressed to 70% of its characteristic strength.48 SiMPLE BRiDGE DESiGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS BS 5896 gives the characteristic strength of 15. Dyform strand is used in the design example. some manufacturers elect only to stress Dyform strand to 70%. Therefore.7. This reduced value is used in the design example.75 x 232 = 174 kN per strand. It has been reported that problems have occurred when stressing Dyform strands to 75% of their characteristic strength.2 mm diameter 7wire strand as 232 kN. This gives an initial tension of21 0 kN for each 15.
tlsslll11iltg 30% losses: tlltd 19.370111 (ee tlSSlll11eti) . Tor teltsiolt tit the bottol11of the betll11. of strtlltds Height Ofrow tlbove sOffit X.59 0.'. X.7 P A +Z Pe = P 0. X.639 .59 N/1111fi Tor CltlSS 1 f'restress (ie zero teltsiolt). 1200 #1111 950111111 160111111 110111111 60111111 MN = 36 strtlltds (l11iltil11l1l11) 4 2 8  12 11 = =  37 Celttroid = 9960/37 4800 1900 1280 1320 660 9960 = = i= . Ttlkiltg tI tnal eccelttdcltlf of 370111111.269 0.2 111111 </> Dtrforl11strtJltd. No.269111 0.· 1 (J""e"lf1 = 19.COl11bilttltiOIt with HA tllolte is cdtictll.0.565 MN /0.5847 + Px. eccelttricitlf = = 269111111 frol11soffit 0.PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN 49 Prestress Desiglt Prestress I11I1St tlddetl to the Itet stresses ilt the ttlble to cOI11f'IIf be with the stress lil11its. of strtJlttls re1fliretl = 7. the re1fliretlf'restress ttfter losses I11I1Stit letlst t overcol11e this stress.639111 0. stressed to 70 % chtlrtJcteristic streltgtft.186 P = 7. X. iltitlal teltsiolt f'er strtJltd is 21 0 kN.370 0.0.565MN Tor 15.210 StrtJlttl f'tlttem IIsiltg 37 strtJlttls: No. X.
4 PRESTRESS LOSSES The prestressing force does not remain at its initial value.elastic loss. Stresses in the precast beam need to be checked at transfer.relaxation loss . which is less than the final strength fru .2 states that the relaxation loss should be the 1000 hour value obtained from BS 5896. The strength of the concrete at transfer is referred to as f.4(b )(1). Prestress losses which occur at or before transfer are due to: (i) Relaxation of the strands. and is due to the compression arising from the prestressing force.5%.7. The prestress transferred to the beams a few days after they are cast is less than the force initially jacked into the strands. it is usual to assume 50% relaxation before transfer. which is 2. and the selfweight of the beam. and hence has to carry its selfweight as a simply supported beam. The stress limits for compression are given in Clause 6.2. Stresses at transfer due to the prestress alone are calculated here. In this case it is cr assumed that f.2.2(b) and Table 23. after the initial relaxation loss prior to transfer. (ii) Elastic shortening of the beam under the prestessing force. Stresses in the beam are then calculated and checked against the allowable stresses for the conditions at transfer when the concrete has not yet reached its full strength. For ease of calculation. The latter is included because the beam cambers during transfer.2. Cl . = 40 Nrrnm". The elastic loss at transfer is calculated at the centroid of the tendons. These must be added to the dead load stresses from page 47 to give the actual transfer stresses in the precast beam.3.6.3. and for tension in Clause 6. and 50% after. The prestress at transfer is calculated by subtracting the above losses from the initial prestress. An examination of strand manufacturers data indicates that it is reasonable to assume that between 25% to 50% of this occurs prior to transfer for long line pretensioning operations. Clause 6. The change in strand stress = (E sec IE) The net force after transfer = initial c force .
r13 = 6./astlc shorteffiffg logg at traffs(er: 3tregg at cefftre ofteffdoffs dueto afoove rfJ3treggiffg force..5.'.09 N/#!Iff) x (3rx 0.960MN (Ie 10.rrO = r. DL stregges are takefffro#! page 4r.5 % = 0.r13MN X O'c X (straffd area) x (18. p =.3rO 0.tl(terlogges ~= r. for a preteffsioffedfoea#!.61 (jlrfJ3tregg) + r.6r3MN f.1. = 4.? A I I 0 . Traffs(erssreeeee dueto prestre$8 aloffe: 0' t = ~ _ ~ e = 6.5.58r 1.6r3 .r.PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN 51 Iffitial prfJ3treggiffgforce p.61 N/#!Iff = 6.90 + 6.? MDLe _ = r.584r = 13.186 +13.5 = 2.6.90 3i#!lfar/If 0' 16.!_ + P e. = I 3rxo.3 stregg li#!its at traffs(er for Clagg 1.0 N/#!Iff (DL) = 19. 3ectioff is satisfactorlf at traffs(er .210 = r.5 (jlrestrfJ3s) .12 + 8..3rO.960 _ = 6. P (ii) 0' C R"elaX(1tiOfl at traffs(er logg Prior to traffs(er. Theoffllf streggfJ3 actiffg at this ti#!e are foea#! L affdprestress.51 4.09N/#!1ff f.4%loggattraffs(erj 3tressfJ3 at traffs(er arenow calculatedaffdchecked agaiffst allowai4estreSSfJ3. D Co#!preggive streggli#!it.584r = 11.1188 X o.98r5xr.o.6r3 0.3rO 0. 00016./astic shorteffiffg 10s8.68 = 1.960x 0. t/2 Co#!preggiOfl t footto#!.. 8~2 = (£s/ £) = (200/31) = o.242xo. 96 (DL) = 3.3rO 0.584r = 11.35 .960x 0.5 Iff) Traffs(erprfJ3treggiffgforce.8. Or N/ #!Iff N/#!Iff o.6r3 + r.rrOMN (I) :.84 .1188 = 18..take ~ of the relaxatk)fflogg of 2.960 "o.r5N/#!1ff Check31.56 A Zt o. a Teffsile8treggli#!it Miffi#!u#! stregg at to" 0'" = 20 N/#!Iff = 2.
These stresses are then compared with the allowable tensile and compressive stresses.0 and 1. (ii) Creep of the concrete due to the permanent compressive stresses. also given on page 47.33 Nzmnf k = 1. This final prestress is usually about 30% less than the initial prestress.7. and has to be increased by a factor varying between 1.22 by interpolation The concrete stress is calculated at the centroid of the strands. if the stress exceeds one third of the cube strength. and the relaxation loss from the force after transfer. as paragraph 1 of Clause 6. The final prestressing force is obtained by subtracting the shrinkage loss.07 Nzmm? so k = 1. (iii) Further relaxation ofthe strands. is used: = 20N/mm2 k 1. O"b = 19. A modification factor.5 as 48 x 106per Nzmm' for cube strengths in excess of 40 Nzmm'. .25 when O"b fcJ2 = 13. The design stresses in the precast beam are the stresses due to the final prestress after all losses.5 permits the loss to be calculated based on the substantial simplification of assuming that the strands are concentrated at their centroid. plus the stress combinations tabulated 'on page 47.0 when O"b = fcJ3 In this case.2. the creep loss.2. These losses need to be evaluated to find the final (long term) prestressing force.7. However.25 depending on the stress.Further loss of prestress occurs with the passage of time. Long term prestress losses are due to: (i) Shrinkage of the concrete as it cures. and it is the final value that must be used in the calculations for the design of the beams. Shrinkage strain is given in Table 29 for pretensioned members subject to normal exposure as 300 x 106• Creep strain is given in Clause 6. as calculated on the opposite page. k. the creep is no longer proportional to stress.
.90 = 16.156 =!.770MN = 0.gxAg = (1.a" = 19.20 N/I11HF = .79 (frestresg) . for norl11al eXf'osure) 0.47 N/I11HF < 20 N/I11HF 0.PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN 53 flnallosg&$ (i) Eg ShrinKageI()$S = = 300 Xl 06 (frOI11 raNe 29.07 N/I11HF)Is K = 1. 01 (Col11P/natlon 37.000165HF) (ii) Creetlosg forti> 40 N/I11HF.2.7.05 + 8. a "0.3.02 .349 = 9.366MN 8~ = Eg X E.. =~ A + ~e.5 gives creet strait!. 0125 * X 7.~e = 5. Ec = 48 X 106 ter N/I11HF 1110dlflcatlon factor(pased on a" = 19.370 0.000165) = 1.2%f/nallosg&$) ssressee A Intrecast peal11 ueto trestresg alone: d Z.1188 0.0._. >0 at =3.960 0..22 Stress at the centroidOftendons.0.g X Ag = 300xl06x200xlCJ3x(37xO.2 _ MDle I N/I11HF I = 6.1512.097 = 5. t1fter all losges ~= nital a t 6.64 = 19.349X 0.54N/I11HF Sll11llar/1f.370 0.349XO. Clause 6.1188 = 11.19. = 16.37CY _ 1.349MN (31.15 + 10.79 N/I11HF Stresg at pottOI11 Ofpeal11.349 + 5.148 .148MN (iIi) R.5847 = 5.242X0'370 0.el11alnlngOfrelaX{Jtlon losg = 0. 960 X 0.87 8~r = EcrxE.5847 + 6.960 .54 (fr&$tresg) + 20. .5847 5.097MN final trestresslng force.3661. Section at l11lt/stan/s Stltls(actorr lit tension and cOl11treSSlolf.22 X 48Xl06 X16. HA alone) 1 Stress at tot of peal11.186 = 9.69 = 3. 05) X(200X1CJ3) X (37 X 0. 0.e1axatlon ofstrtlnd R.5 9 (Col11P/natlon . o.5 H13) 3.
the eccentricity needs to be reduced. and will ask to manufacture a debonded alternative design. In this example debonding has been adopted. Some manufacturers prefer not to use deflected strands. and in order to satisfy the stress limits. . This can be achieved by either debonding or deflecting some of the strands. At other sections the moments are smaller. Stress limits at transfer will be critical at all sections other than midspan.::Yt SOOLE B&IOGE::DEsillN USING rRESJ:RESsEO BEAMS The prestressing force and eccentricity previously calculated are for midspan where the dead and imposed load moments are maxima. The computer program specifies the debonding required to limit the transfer stresses to fcJ2 in compression and 1 Nzmrrf in tension. This calculation could alternatively be carried out by hand without difficulty.
84 2.65 5.64 931 7.68 14.35 4.00 3.9710.0 N/11f1lF lit teltsiOlf.96 0. A cOl1flllter Irogrt111fItt1Speelt IIsed to lil1fit tlte stresses ilt tlte .74 3.81 14.39 13.66 1.42 4.06 .79 1521 13.33 0.89 1983 1926 17:19 4.63 0.8714.98 2.26 0.PREStRESSED BEAM DESIGN 55 Defooltdiltg will pe IIsed to redllce tlte Irestress t1Wt11j frol1f tlte l1fidslt11tlosltlon.672.08 14. of strt1ltds Heigltt of row t1povesOffit 11 1.30 3.61 13.470.19 14.373.38 3.26 13.84 0.rect1st pet111f trtJltsfer to t1t lit cOl1flressiolf. 3trtJltds lit row TrtJltsfer N/#!IIF fiitt11N/11f1lF at aft frOI1f sllllt 1 11 11 11 11 9 9 9 775 3 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 10 3 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 at aft 1531 11.98 6.06 2.14 1933 1963 18471902 1970 18.12 3.23 0.13 1. t1ltd 1.26 13.14 1. TlteIrogrtJl1f deterl1flites t1strtJltd It1tterlf (COl1flt1t/plt witlt tlte t1lret1dljdeterl1filted l1fitislt11tIt1tterlf) tltt1t fll/fll$ tltese crlten'tJ.99 2. Tlte resllits t1ret1S follows: t/2 3trtJltd It1tterlf t1t l1fitislt11t No.96 1908 19.672.2 8 2 4 60 I1fI1f 110 I1fI1f 160 I1fI1f 950 I1fI1f 1200 I1fI1f Depoltdlltg DettJIIs 3ecti0lf fIf.33 0.
In this method. Since the ultimate capacity of the section is normally (as in this case) found to be well in excess of the ULS moment. The prestrain in the strands is determined for the condition after all losses have occurred. a more exact calculation of the ultimate capacity is not considered to be necessary. due to the prestress. not by yielding of the strands. The calculation of the ultimate moment capacity ofthe composite section which is presented on the following page adopts a commonly used approximate method. Hence the prestrain has to be added to the strand strain at each level to obtain the total strain.5 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE After the prestress design has been carried out at SLS. is ignored. . a check should be made of the situation at ULS. Ultimate failure is by crushing of the concrete. The strains in the diagram are the additional strains due to loads.6.0035. the failure strain of concrete. Note that the strain at the top of the slab is taken as 0. the prestrain in the concrete.
37 x 0.0035 = 0.349 MN/ (. (0. 0. 010/0.00438 x.tlltll11t1te mit SMe .800/0. Stresg/strtlli! CliNe for 15.00446 = 0.1()3 = 0. 0035 In concrete tOjlof section: tit 81 = 0. 0. 0..0035 = 0.200x. 0.c = ~/ f. 630111(rOI11 tOjlof section Strtllns Instrtlnds.00884 = 0. G?.00307 .flexure U 18. + (0.15 = 1583 7II II I II I I 1131T I I I I .. 0035 X. 0044 + (0.0044 84 85 = 0.20/1. cOl11jltltlNe withftl//llrestrtl/n Of 0.0035 Prestrtl/nInstrtlnds.630) + (0. 900/0.0044 = 0.0035 630) X.0044 = 0.000165 m2) kif nelltrtl/tlX/s = 0. 0.850/0.240/0.sAs = 5.2 111111 ifJ D'IfOrl11trtlnd s ref. 630) X. f7gllre31n BS 5400: Ptlrt 4 If I I I I 0.00940 = 0. 83 630)x.0044 GL' + (0.00918 = 0.0035 630) X.
the calculation would have to be repeated with a modified neutral axis depth. Because the outermost tensions have not yielded.3.strain curve.4 feu has been assumed in the concrete.3.1 requires the moment of resistance to be at least 1.1(b )).3.rectangular stress block in Figure 1 to be used. A computer programme would be required to perform the calculation rigorously. .15 times the design moment. because the neutral axis is not in the flange (Clause 6. Clause 6. BS 5400 Part 4 would strictly require the parabolic . However. For this calculation. the strand stresses at each level can be obtained from the stress . If the error was significant.58 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESloN USING PRES I RESSEDBEAMS Knowing the total strains. a constant compressive stress block of 0.3. The approach adopted in the example is conservative and adequate for most situations.
.c (discre/tillcljIs 0II11f tlPOllt1 %) TtlKIIIg IHOIHelltsf till forcestlPOlltIelltml tlX/s: o l MT = (2.477MN .00446X200x1Q3 0".65 MNIH :. r.2r5x0.240) = 6.2 3 x31r x31r + 1266 + 1266 + 1266 = 1414N/IHIff = 1403N/IHIff =138rN/IHIff 0" = (0. r.C= 4.00633)x31r 0" 0.)X0'410 = 3.000165x 614 .488MN C.00633) 0.rro 2.009180.488 +3.05MNIH Tottll = 9.753 + 4.esisttillce ilLS MOIHellttlllt! sectlollIs Stltlsftlctorlj IIIfleX/lretit ilLS.04 MNIH Me ..T = r.00659 0"4= 0. Stregges froIHstress/stmlll ClIlYe tire: 0" = (0.(orces: C1 = 0.520) + (3. 1. 97MN :..012920.z :. r.00633) .800) + (0...5=0'0030rx200x1Q3 = 892 N/IH#F = 614N/IH#F rorces: T1 = 11xo'000165 x1414 = 12Xo'000165 X 1403 T3 = 8Xo'000165x138r T4 = 2xo.294 X 0.220 = 4.4X 40x 1.. H froIH/tlge 45) = 6.294 0. MOIHelltof R.008840.(4.477 X 0.2= 0'4x50x(Q480+0. 405 X 0. > .. PRESTRESSED BEAM DES1GN .488 X 0.205) = 3.639 + 0.eslsttillce = 9.00940.59 .09 MNIH MtiX/IHIlIH ilLS IHOIHellt= 1.405 = 7.368...000165x 892 ~ = 4xO.566 X 0.831 X 0..850) +(1.00659 = (0.477 = 7. 010) + (0.566 1. 900) + (2.261 (COIHfo!lItitloll 37.511111ts B.0.778 X 0.00633) 1 (0.8rMN COllcrete stresses &. 09 MNIH :. IIltlIHtlteMOIHelltofR.T o = = = = = e.831 0.
The principal tensile stress at the centroid ofthe composite section would have to be calculated. A partial load factor 'YfL of either 0. Obviously.4. BS 5400 refers to this mode as a Verfailure. or to calculate to shear resistance based on the composite section. and gives the shear force for which the maximum principal tensile stress reaches the tensile strength of the concrete. The transmission length for 15. This type of failure can occur at any section of the beam (cracked or uncracked due to flexure). a reduced value of prestress should be used in the calculations. Clause 7. and is not recommended. Since the expression for V co is based on an elastic stress analysis.7. fep. (ii) At the support.3. if the support is within the transmission length. and is adopted here.7. the section is flexurally uncracked so only failure under mode (i) need be considered.7. calculated in accordance with Clause 6. and those acting on the composite beam. 0. BS 5400 refers to this mode as a Veofailure.4 is: It = 360 x 15. Hence. For a flanged beam.87 results in a lower value ofVeo. The full prestress is not developed within the transmission length.4.6 SHEAR A prestressed concrete beam can fail in two basic modes (see Clause 6. . which is given in clause 6.15 has to be applied to the compressive stress at the centroidal axis due to prestress. and so this value is used in the calculation.4 states that a linear development of stress within the transmission length should be assumed.4. A calculation based on the composite section would be much more complicated.4. the expression is a conservative approximation.2. account would have to be taken of the different stress distributions from those loads acting on the beam alone. This type of failure can occur only in regions ofthe beam which are cracked in flexure under the ULS loading.1): (i) By an inclined web crack developing independently of a flexural crack. The expression for Veoin Clause 6.60 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS 6.2/ v40 = 865 mm The calculation opposite is therefore strictly only applicable 865 mm from the end of the beam.2(a) allows the designer either to assume that all the shear is resisted by the precast beam acting alone.3.2mm diameter Dyform strand. By a flexural crack developing into an inclined shear crack.87 or 1. The calculation method based on the precast beam alone is straightforward. Clause 6.2 is based on the elastic distribution of stresses in a rectangular beam.
V = 0.216)( 1.584 MaX/mum total sltear(orce at support. anti inc/utierelevantfactors and SDL.216mm (min) ft = 0.400j 1.24? al14 0..28 = 0.2)(1..?O)( 7.prestress at support is ft = .63 9mfrom tlte foottom: fe..1 1.28 N/mm2 . DL insitu 3.. for ULS Load Comfoination1 witlt 37. tor an uncrackedsectiolf. in tlte taNe foe/owtlte factoreti sltear forces for loaticases 3 anti 4 come tiirectltjfrom tlte grillageoutput.5H73 ULS Load Comfoination1 Nominal Sltearforce YfL x Yf3' raeford sltetJr(orce a18? 0. DLprecast .639/ 1.400)«(0.24?+0.Sltear Design Sltear rorces at Support: As for foentiingmoments. tlte sltear capacitfj.2)(1.06) = 7. Vco = 0...PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN Ultimate Lilt/it State .06 N/mm2 Intetpolating to jlnti tlte stress at tlte centroid.6? fo It) f/ + 0.24/50 = 1..4.?9 N/mm2 t.2.2 (a)(l) .?O N/mm2 fC/'=prestress at ctlftroiti of Peam rrom defoontiing calculations.. \(:0= 0'6?)( 0.8? ft fC/' wltere = 1400mm fo = . 0. as permitteti folfClause 7. 37. = 14.0. = 14.114 +0...1 a. HA 4..5 unit H73.945MN Tltesltearforce will foe assumeti to foe resisted folftlte precast foeamalone.06 +(0.?914.584 = 0.086 1.8?)( 1. LoatiCase 1.396 0.?rY + 0. etc.?49MN It .2.
= I 590mm .60mm = 1530mm.3.530m. is the depth to the outermost strands from the compression face. . Hence both modes of shear failure should be considered.~ 62 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USiNG PRESTRESSED BEAMS The 0. Thus d.2.4 term in the expression for required shear reinforcement in Clause 6. or 1. At the quarter span point the section is cracked in flexure at ULS.4. The effective depth d.4.2( c) makes clear that this should be derived for the composite section. as here. Clause 7.4 allows for degradation of shear capacity due to fatigue effects. As for shear at the supports. even when the calculation for Ve is based on the precast beam alone. the calculation for Veo is based on the precast beam acting alone.
69Nlmm2 /ffte!f7olatlitg for stress tit ctlftrold Ofsectlo!!. $hear also ffeeds to foe checkedat other foslt/()ffS alOffgthe beam.216)(1.1 1.3.87)(1.186 = 18. DL frecast 2.3.4)( 0.530 .536 = 422 mm (maX/mum) use T12 !lHks at 400 mm cefftres. Nomlital $hear force 1.0018.00 Nlmm2 t = 13.2)(1. From these.156 = .63 9m abovesoffit: fe.400) )((3.79 .4: Asv= Sv 0.68 + 0. DL IffSltu 3.0.4.5HB 0.057 0.297 0.094 0..216)( 1. 0.69 + (0.63911.458 Factored cOlffcidefftmomefft 1. Thesect/Off at 1JIarter sfaff must becheckedboth as crackedaffd as uffcrackedIff f/eXllre.98 .230 0.79 Nlmm2 . with the effd1JIarters re/Jtforcedas calculated above.536 mm2Imm V+ = 0.000536m = 0.7cY = 0. Sv = 22610.400j1.808MN + 0.2)(1. For T12 Ilffk$.1 Thedeboffdlitgcalculatloffs give stresses at 1JIarter sfaff due to frestress affd DL.0.932 0.290 1. Theseare the UL$ loads at the tfJIarter sfaff fOSltlon.124 0.043 Nomlital COIHcidefft momtift 0...87 f'/Vdt = 0.93210. Thecefftral fortloff of the beam will bedes/gffedfor these loads. stresses due to frestress aloffeare calculated hi subtractlffg the effect of the DL: it = 2.789 3. HA 4. 3r.749 0.93210. Vco = 0. = 18.70)(8.PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN 63 Ultimate shear res/staffce v::o Is less thaff afflled UL$ shear force ~ so shear relffforcemefft must be frovlded accordlitg to Clause 6.530 .447 UL$ Load Comblitatloff 1 YfL)( Yf3 Load Case Factored shearforce 0.590 2.945 + 0.69) = 8.87)( 460)( 1.6r)(0.4bdt~ 0. Asv = 2)( 113 mm2 = 226 mm2 .
4. than ifthe beam assumed to act alone.3. but this expression does not allow for the fact that moment is applied partly to the beam alone.64 SIMP! IE BRIDGE DESIGN llslNG PRES I REsSEP BEAMS In the case of the shear resistance for a section cracked in flexure. The method based on the composite section is adopted here. I1y is different for these two cases. A partial factor YfL 0.4. A minimum shear reinforcement requirement is given in Clause 6. the calculation based on the composite section is not too complicated. In this expression.4. . Clause 6. so again the value of feuto be used in this expression relates to the precast concrete.3(a). and results in a higher value of V. value of feufor the precast concrete should clearly be used.3.4. Hence the section would be flexurally cracked at ULS.4. and partly to the composite section. Note that Mer is less than the total moment at ULS.37~feu + fpl) I1y An elastic stress distribution is assumed. and is an empirical formula which gives a lower bound to the test data. The maximum link spacings are given in Clause 6. fpl• The expression for Vcris Equation 29 in Clause 6.4. The flexureshear crack will occur in the precast portion of the composite section.37~feu + fpl) at the bottom fibre.3.87 has to be applied to the compressive of stress due to prestress alone. The minimum reinforcement should be provided even when the ULS shear force V is less than Ve.3.3 gives an expression for the cracking moment corresponding to the ultimate tensile stress being reached at the extreme tensile fibre: Mer = (0. Thus the cracking moment has to be calculated by adding the DL moments to the extra moment required on the composite section to give a stress of (0.
88 .639 + 0.3r9 MNm DLstress = 1. V = 0.3r!l:+ ~) = O. r X 18. = 0. lise T12 linKSat 800 mm centres.63 9 > \(.r.186 = r. 41) ZbI?etllff = 11.281 = 1.44r = 1.j fCII M Thecentroidof the tendonsis 0.3.3r9/ 0.131 Clallse6.638 so shear reinforcements retfflired: i C + 4.932 + 0.3r9+3.8r~dt 0.3 gives: V =0.309xJ50 cr = 0. Sv = 226/0. 131MNm :.2r3 = 3. 41 N/mlll Moment oncomlosite sectionretfflired calisecraCKing to = (18.V.510 XQ639 5.216x1.309m :.4X 0.69 = 18.281m afoove SOffit at tffIarterslall.218 mill /mm TorT12 linKs. so the d = 1. TotalMet'= 1.03rx0. .4fodt .218 = 226mlll = 103rmm (maX/mllm) Max/mllm Slating (a) O.4rxO.000218m = 0..8rx460x1. 3 8 Thetotal craCKIng momentis a comfoination fMe DLmoments actIng011 the foeamalon~ O andthe momentactingonthe comlosite section: DL moment = 0.(fo)SectiOl1 cracKedn(leXllre:\(. r xho + O.03rfodi7Y+Mct'V cr = 4. = 0.530 = 0.0. assllmed to foewhenthe stress in the extreme tensile fiforereaches(0.'V = Vcr cr V = 0. Asv= 2xl13mlll :.5900.88 N/mlll.r 5 X1560 = 11 rO mm r (fo)4fow = 4x216 = 864 mm .t' illfoecalclliatedor comlosite sectiOl1.. Asv = V + 0. 5 dt = o.4.530 .638MN V < Vco so Vcr is critical. i w f Mc/s the moment whichcallses cracKing.510MNm .216X 1.110 .638 Sv 0.
2. Similarly at quarter span. . Clause 7. More reinforcement than this was provided in order to avoid exceeding the maximum permitted spacing. here 3. that the calculated reinforcement requirement for vertical shear at midspan was only 0. Only the loads applied to the composite section cause shear forces at the interface. according to elastic theory. (b) is the combined capacity of the concrete and the reinforcement.4. This is a safe assumption. Thus.4. allowing for the fact that the dead load is carried by the precast beam alone. Both at the supports. The value of feuto be used in the calculation is that for the weaker of the two grades of concrete at the interface. which would not have been enough for longitudinal shear.7 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR Vertical shear forces in the beams always give rise to longitudinal shear forces. The construction joint between the precast beam and the insitu deck slab forms a weak plane.3. the assumption made in the longitudinal shear calculation is consistent with this.2. however. but no special preparation. the reinforcement provided for vertical shear has also been found to be just adequate for longitudinal shear at the interface. as the vertical shear capacity at the supports was calculated assuming the precast beam carried the whole load.4. Indeed. and at midspan. Note. thus not relying on composite action. which only requires cleaning ofthe surface. and the longitudinal shear along this plane should be checked.000218 m2/m.6 Nzmnr'. Although longitudinal shear must be checked at ULS. based on the insitu concrete. that calculation also assumed the dead loads to be carried by the beam alone. although the full section was used for the calculation of the vertical shear capacity. it is assumed in Clause 7.3 call for two checks to be made: (a) is an upper limit on the ultimate longitudinal shear stress. This is defined as surface type 2.3 that the shear force at the interface may be calculated by elastic methods. It is often found that the reinforcement provided for vertical shear is adequate for the longitudinal shear requirements of Clause 7.2. the longitudinal shear stress is equal in magnitude to the vertical shear stress at any point. feu= 40 Nzmm'. The shear capacity depends on the contact surface at the interface.6. It is usual to assume a "rough as cast" surface.
Jt tfjf(Jrter $f(Jtt tlte vertic(J/slte(Jr force c(Jrriedblf tlte comfosite sectiott is ( V = 0.PRESTRESSED BEAM DESIGN 67 Lo!&itllditt(J/(il1ter(tJc~) slte(Jr Tlte/ottgitllditt(J/ slte(Jr (J/Offg tOf of tlte frec(Jst be(Jt!1.24. (0.0 .000565m)x.rAeir = (0. At tlte sllffort... bllt igttOriffgtlte sm(J//over/(Jf betweett tlte pe(Jm(Jttds/(J/? Lottgitllditt(J/ slte(Jr is Ott/Ifgetter(Jtedblf the slte(Jrforce c(Jm'edOtttlte comfO$ite sectiott.889 = 0.(0.29 m4) 0.2 = 0.24.91 = 0.2 /ittKS(Jt 400mm cetttres Ae = 0.291 MN/m > \j so Of( (Jffd(Jt tfjf(Jrter sf(J1f. m(JX/mllm vertic(J/slte(Jr ott comfosite sectiott is givett Ott 61: V = 0.458MN :.2 ''rollglt (JScast". Two cltecKs are ret/ffired: = = 0.09 X..255mZ)x.21) ~ = VA If/I = (0..'.20/.591 m I = 0.591Im)/(0 = 0.50MN/mZ)x.18..36. itt other words the slt(Jded(Jre(J tlte di(Jgmm./(Jstfc tlteorlf giVes /Ottgitllditt(J/slte(Jr (JS ~ = V A if/I A ~ if itt tltis eXf'ressiott refer to tlte f(Jrt of tlte sectioff (JPovetlte /Ottgitllditt(J/slte(Jrf/(Jttt.rx. itt Simf/if'! Pif (Jssllmittg (JrecttJttgll/(JrdecKs/(JP.200 + 0. tlte ( mllstbechecKedto C/(JIIse7:4.584MN A = 1..000283 m ~LS'+ o.38.Lj~5mx..2 /ittKS (Jt 800 mm cetttres.29 m4 (from f(Jge ..(0. 40m) + 0.rAeir = 0. A e = 0.2.2)0.400 m) 1.0. \j = o. ittcflldittg the modll/(Jrmtio.2. Lottgitllditt(J/ slte(Jr retfjfiremettts (Jres(Jt/s(i'ed (Jt Slltforts .584 MN)x. Jt tlte ittter((Jce Witlt tlte ittsitH deck.220 1.370 + (0.(460MN/mZ) 0.255mZ if = 1.(0. (40 N/mmZ) X.20mx..3. 44 MN/m > \j so Of( (b) Vertic(J/slte(Jr reittforcemettt is T1. 000565mZ /m ~LS'+ o. (0. f. .2.284MN/m Tor tlte vertic(J/slte(Jr reittforcemettt of T1.37'0 .2 MN/m = > \j so Of( 25imi/(Jr/1f.2 MN/m Tltesllr((Jce is (Jssllmed to be Tlffe.
For example. However. translation by shear deformation. height. probably due to their lower initial cost. and they are by far the most common. They accommodate vertical loads by compression. and rotation by variable compression. Elastomeric bearings have been chosen for the design example. Alternatively. namely elastomeric and pot bearings. Elastomeric bearings are generally laminated. this situation is known as a 'floating deck'.1 INTRODUCTION The finishings of a bridge deck can be defined as: Bearings Joints Waterproofing and surfacing Parapets Although they round off the design and detailing of a bridge deck.2 BEARINGS Although the technology of bearing design can be left to the specialist suppliers' mechanical engineers. the bearing position on an abutment can affect the span. they should be given very early consideration as they can have an important effect on the bridge analysis and performance. and consist of alternate layers of steel and rubber bonded together. For elastomeric bearings. In pot bearings. A pin can be provided at one end and a guide at the other end. number and size of the layers. the forces can be resisted by the horizontal stiffness of the bearings. the confined elastomer is heavily loaded and is assumed to act like a fluid to accommodate rotation. Translations are enabled by a sliding interface of PTFE and stainless steel. as in the example.68 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN OSING PRES'! RESSEP BEAMS FINISHINGS 7. . The parapet type needs to be adequately anchored into the deck edge. the bridge designer should develop an appreciation of the different bearing types to avoid problems and failures. access for inspection. which carry all the horizontal forces. they may prove with time to have a more limited life. 7. The consideration of carriageway surfacing profile affects loading (eg. there are generally two possible methods of resisting the horizontal forces. Capacities depend on the area. There are two main types of bearing commonly used with precast beams. maintenance and replacement. crowning or vertical curves).
FINISHINGS 69 Articu/tltiOl1 Tltis /In'dge will Itave 18/learings. Plan of /lridge decK 0 o~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bearing lositions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < > Longitudinal movement is lo&&i/7/e at /lotlt ends oftlte #ridge < > . 9at eaclt end. so all 18/leanngs will/le tlte same. A floating decKarticulation slfstem will/le used.
For larger bridges.10 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRES I &ESSED BEAMS All bearings should be bedded horizontally. A bearing shelf with a drainage channel at the front is easier to clean. at the cost of a substantially larger abutment: End Diaphragm Deck slab Y8 beam Access Gallery I . the bridge deck will have to be temporarily jacked up. but increases the span and possibly the abutment thickness. in the case of multispan bridges). and drainage of the bearing shelf.r 1 Abutment . If they need to be replaced. must be provided for in the design of the abutments (and also the piers. Access to the bearing shelf. Care is needed on skew bridges to keep the axis of the principal movements and rotations in harmony with the bearing axes. even when the bridge deck has a longitudinal fall. This may require a wider bearing shelf. This gives easy access to bearings and expansion joints. Bearings need to be inspected and maintained. an abutment with an internal access gallery is sometimes justified.
13eanitg filittlt 150 mm Itlglt 13eanitg site If wltlt . slap fiastomerlc peanitg . A drall1age cltalfl1e1Is frovlded at tlte pack. oftlte pearll1g slte/f Access to tlte pearll1g sltelffor Il1sfectlol1 al1dmallftel1al1ce WI/I pe (rom nl1demeatlt tlte prldge.71 Deck. peanitg sltelf al1d e1astomerlc pearll1g. .FINISHINGS .25mm fall to rear Detail of ol1eel1dof tlte prldge sfa/& sltoWll1g cross sectlol1 tltronglt apntmel1t.
and different bearings might be needed. On bridges where a floating deck is not used. the minimum load can be less than the permanent load. as well as both the maximum and minimum loads. On the example bridge. except for the dead load. and a bearing complying with these specifications will then be selected (often by the contractor) using data supplied by bearing manufacturer. all 18 bearings will be identical. as well as on some skew simplysupported bridges. . Nominal horizontal loads have been calculated for the design example at the same time as other nominal loads. The maximum horizontal loads for each bearing are now calculated from these loads. On continuous bridges.12 SIMPLE BRIDGE DEsIGN USINO PREsIREsSED BEAMS Calculations for bearings The bridge designer should carry out calculations of the range of loads and movements that the bridge bearings will sustain. movements will be smaller at the pinned end than at the guided end. These are then specified on a bearing schedule. Vertical loads are obtained from the grillage analysis. The permanent vertical load on the bearings needs to be specified.
.Hc/udingYfL) I = 456!(N .2r5111 X (sfan/.2) X YfLX Y(3 = 4.2x I.48!(N/111 X 13. 4!(N Transverse load: NOl11inaload l = 300!(N If this load occurs near one end Of the /:In'dge. MaX/l11ul11 /:learingload = DL + 456 = . NOl11inalload = 463!(N Assul11e et{flall'l distn'Puted /:letween the 9/:leanHgs at one end NOl11inaloadfer /:learing = 463/9 = 51.2r 5111X 13.20. 4 x : 0 X 1.2!(N $DL = 4. 3111X 1. NOl11inaloadfer /:learing = 300/9 l = 33..FINISHINGS 73 8fARINrjDf.. load will/:le resisted /:l'l /:learings at this end onl'l.2r.2 + 81 = 353!(N MaX/l11ul11 $L$ reaction frol11cOl11futeranal'lsl$.. ($DL and H8 1Ot/d.. 4 X YfL X 1(3 = 51.0 = 33.2 + 456 = r.0 X 1.3!(N $L$ loadfer /:learing = 33.2r.31rjN CALCt1LA TlON$ Loads and deforl11ations in all directions at $1$ needto /:lecalculated for entrtl into the foeanHg schedule.3 X 1.3!(N Vertical load' /:loth l11inil11ul11 l11aX/l11ul11 are ret{flired and lOt/ds Minil11ul11load = ferl11anent load = DL + $DL DL = .2r.0 = 81!(N .2 8 !(N .3111 x1.0 !(N/m2 X 1.0 = 51.20.0 x i.48 !(N/111X (sfan/.4!(N l $L$ loadfer /:learing = 51.0 !(N/m2 X 1.2) X YfL X 1f3 = . MIHil11ul11:learingload = DL + $DL / = . This /:lridgehas nlHeidentical elastol11eric/:learings at each end Longitudinal load: HA load is critical. .o = .
For the design example.7.14 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN IJSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS Effects causing bridge movements can be categorised in two ways. Clause 6.7.7. . firstly as internal and external effects.5 specifically to creep. and secondly as reversible and irreversible effects. with Clause 6.4 referring specifically to shrinkage.1 gives general guidance on the forces and movements to be considered for bearings together with the relevant limit states. reversible and irreversible translations and rotations at SLS are required.2.2. andClause 6. Internal effects are: temperature (and humidity) * creep * shrinkage External effects are: dead and live vertical loading * settlement (or other ground movement) traction and braking centrifugal or similar effects * erection procedures Effects marked * are irreversible. BS 5400: Part 9: Clause 5.2 of BS 5400: Part 4 gives guidance on shrinkage and creep.15.
4 mm Assllme tfttlt tottllof sftrlltktlge tlltd creel sftortelt/flg Is sfttlred etjiltlll'l tit etlcft eltd Nomllttllirreversiple movemeltt = .8) = ±3.8 mm SL3 reverslNe trttltsltltlolt = YfL X Yf3 X (±3.. Sftrlltktlge of coltcrete .. Assllme tftese reverslNe movemeltts tire sfttlred etjiltlll'l petweelt tfte two tlPlltmeltts: Nomllttll trtlltsltltlolt tit petlriltg = ±r.2 = 4.26600 mm X iON I ml1i = 1.2 = 6.i> = ±3. Sftnflktigelllltit leltgtft = 300 X 106 tottll :.26600 = 15.'. /rreverslNe trttltsltltlolt tit petlriltgs = 1.everslNetrtlltsltltlolttltpetiriltgs = 1.2 mm SLS IrreverslNe movemeltt = YfL X Yf3 X 5.2 X 106 X.i> (4. R.'. 0 mm Creel of coltcrete .2.2. Tottllsftriltktlge = 300x106 x. Creellllltit leltgtft = 48 x : 06.Loltgltlldllttll trttltsltltlolt: Irreverslple sftortelflltg oftfte pn'dgeOCCllrsdlle to sftriltktlge tlltd creep.tlSSllme tfttlt fttll( tottll sftrlltktlge OCCllrspefore petlms tire Iltlcd Oltpetlriltgs.8 mm .'.0 X 1.er Nlml1i rrom ctllcllltitiolts for prestressed petlm design. Nomllttll rtlltge Ofmovemeltt = 4 r X 1..0 mm Assllme petlrlltgs tire fixed /fl celttre of rttltge . Nomllttll rtlltge of movemeltt = ±r.8) . 5 mm = 5 .2 mm mm Temlertttllre effects tire tfte oltl'l effects (excelt trtlltsleltt trtlfflc lotlds) CtillS/flgreverslNe trttltsltltlolts. tlverttge stress tit celttroi'd z 10 Nlf1111i .8mm .26600mm= 8.i> sftrlltktlge occllmflg ttfter petlms tire Ilticed = 8.0 1.4) = 5.5 X .2 :.0 X 5.0mm .0x 1..81. 0 + 6.i> creel occllrlltg ttfter petlms tire Ilticed = 1. Tottll creel = 48 X 106 X.0x(±3.2x1 Q6 /c . tlltd reverslNe movemeltts oasa: dlle to tftermtll evtlltSlolt tlltd colttrtlctlol1.2 Temlerttture rtlltge Nom/fltli tempertttllre rtlltge= 4roC Coefficient of tftermtll eXftlltSlolt = 1..tlgtlilt tlSSllme tfttlt olfi'l fttllftottll ocao» titter Petlms tire Ilticed Oltpetlrlltgs..
Creep will cause irreversible rotation of bearings in the opposite direction to the effects calculated here. SDL rotation is most conveniently estimated by applying the SDL load to the composite section. Reversible rotations due to live loads can be extracted from the grillage analysis. and are calculated opposite. and do not need to be calculated. which must therefore be subtracted to get the reversible effect only. It can be assumed that this effect is not so large as to cause overall negative rotations greater in magnitude than the rotations calculated here. Therefore creep rotations can be ignored. Dead load rotation must be calculated by hand. based on bending of the precast section acting alone. and calculating the rotation by hand. All grillage load cases in the design example include SDL. Hll'WP"VP'T rotations due to the dead load of the slab and the superimposed dead loads must be absorbed by the bearings.16 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN uSING PRESTRESSED BEAMS:~_~ ~ Irreversible rotations due to the selfweight of the precast beams take before the bearings are fixed in position. ignoring any load distribution between the beams. so do not affect the bearings. .
/Ite = rottltlolt /100 kN = 0. uve lOt/do/JVlousllfcauses reveml/J/erotatlolt$.00125/0.0051 MN/m 3DL rottltlolt = wP /24£1 (us/ltg 1for comloslte sectlolt) = (0.00223mdialts load MaX/mum mte will occur wltelt tlte peamls actlltg aloltc.6 m)/2 = 85.00125mdlalts 3ulenmlosedDL = 5.0) + (0.2 x t.. 00048 Xl.FINISHINGS 77 R. wltlt ItOcomlos/te act/on. 00183 mdlalts Tromgrillage altallfs/s outjJut. causes Itogglltg Of tlte peamsllt tlte lOI1g term.2 X1.0xl. 00048 mdlalts X(0. Tit/s /s wltelt Me pear/ltg rottltes ultder Me welgltt oftlte litsitu slap: R. wltlclt Iltciudes 3DL /Jut Itot DL.0) r = 0.00125 rad/alts R. wltlt allrolr/ate factors: SiS rotatlolt = (0.00645 MN/m = wP /2 4£J (I for /Jeamoltllf) = (0.45 kN/m) X(26. Cree.00645 MN/m) X(26. Tltecamper of tlte peams due to tlte deadload altd... 00281 .ottltlolt = 0.otat/olt Tltetotal rottltlolt at Me pear/ltg Is made UI of altumper of comlolteltt$.0051 MN/m) X(26. leadlltg to Irreverslple rottltlOIt lit tlte 0lloslte direction. 2429Hf') /rrevem//J/erotatlolt at SL23ls made ul from DL altd 3DL rottltlolts.858 = 0.8kN R.00125 xl.1 kN/m = 0. so Mis does Itot cause rotatlolt oftlte /Jearlltgs.6m)3 24 X(34000MN/Iff) = 0. 3ag oftlte /Jeams due to tlte litsitu sla/J altd 3DL causes Irreversl/J/erottltlolts.45 kN/m = 0.eversl/J/eottltlolt at 23L3 = 0.00281 radlalts Tlterevers//J/e(Ike 1Ot/d)otatlolt /s Mus Mis value wltlt tlte 3DL suptmcted: r R.1188 Hf') = 0.(0.00146 radlalts /100 kN .0) = 0.eactlolt = wi /2 = (6.restregg occurs pefore tlte pear/ltgs are Iltsttilleti. maX/mum rottltlolt at SLS = 0. 00048 X1.6 m)3 24 X(34000 MN/Iff) X(0. Dead load ofslap 31a/JDL rottltlolt = 6.
.3.00146 400 . Bearing identification mark Number off Seating material Allowable average contact pressure (N/mm') Design load effects (kN) Serviceability limit state 18 Upper surface Lower surface Upper face Lower face E.300 100 1 1 1.tloXll Moltdr .3 0.0018.1 contains a standard form of bearing schedule.3 .3 .5 Maximum bearing dimensions (mm) Maximum rate (radiansilOO kN) Upper surface Lower surface Overall height Tolerable movement of bearing under transient loads (mm) Allowable resistance to translation under serviceability limit state (kN) Allowable resistance to rotation under serviceability limit state (kNm) Type of fixing required .2.tloXll Moltdr Serviceability Ultimate Serviceability Ultimate maximum permanent minimum .3 0.20 r.3.4 Vertical Transverse Ultimate limit state Translation (mm) Serviceability limit state Longitudinal Vertical Transverse Longitudinal Irreversible Reversible Ultimate limit state Irreversible Reversible Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Vertical Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Upper surface Lower surface 5 .tloXII MOItdr f.8 Rotation (radians) Serviceability limit state Irreversible Reversible 0.20 40 _f. BS 5400: Part 9.20 .28 .IloXllMoltdr f. and the page opposite shows how a bearing can be chosen from a manufacturers' catalogue.18 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PREStRESSED BEAMS Bearing Schedule The results of the calculations from the previous pages are entered into a bearing schedule.00. and checked for compliance with the schedule..2.3 51.3 .2 +.2.300 400 .35. The completed schedule for the design example is shown below.35.
. 110 shear or rottJtion = 1882 kN Vertical ca. fillaillf.0043 mdialls > 0.4/4.llacit'l at 9.llecified ill the bearing scher/tile. 0 x 4.llecified.5mm s.0050 rotation = 710 kN :.42 mm This is less than the 1 mm s. Kg = 4. 30mm 0. Dimellsiolls are 400mm x 250mm X. alld so is OK.llacit'l (tlrther. so vertical ca.00183 +0.lleci(led = 728 kN Vertical ca.0 mm This is less thall the 12..otatioll ca.NR. 13'1intetpolat/ol!.8 = 9. Checkst/fflfegges: (from cattJlogtle) Vertical (com..00406 radialis MaX/mtlm tmllslat/on s.0050 mdialls R.lled(ied MaX/mtlm vertical reactioll s.2 + 3..lladt'l at 14.29 kN/mm (from catalogtle) MaX/mtlm shear def/ectioll = 9. R.llressive) st/fflfegg.4/Kg = 51.llacit'l at 0. 4 kN :.29 = 38.llacit'l at 0. btlt max/l11t1m shear alld l11aX/mtll11 reactions never cotX/st.tmm shear = 0.. Movemel!ttllldertrallslelltioad = 51. 13'1illtetpolatiol!.ottJtiollca. Def/ectioll at max/mtlm 1000d = 732 kN /1748 = 0.0038 mdialls .llecified = 5.00406 mdialls . checkmovement tlllder transient load: MaX/mtlm (tmllsient) longittldillalload 011 bearillg = 51.lladt'l at zero shear = 0. ca.. resistallce to tmnslation = 9.lladt'l is adetfllate.ottJtiollca.00223 = 0.6kN This is legg thall the 40kN s... Omm shear = 0.llacltlf. 0 mm R.llacit'l is adetfllate. Shearst/fflfegg.tlse bearillg referellce 40250208f..FINlSHINGS 79 73earil1!SelectiOtt From CCLfiastometric Bearillg CattJlogtle. .3..29 = 12. Kc = 1748kN/111111 . = MaX/mtlmrottJt/olls.. so this is also OK.00406 rottJtlon = 930 kN > 728 kN Shear will redtlce tlte vert/cal ca. 0 mm :. rotatioll ca.llecified allowaNedef/ectiol!. so tmnsient movemellt is within tolemllce.
Price.80 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRES I RESSED BEAMS 7. . increasing the thickness to 130 mm. namely sheeting and spray membranes. Although generally thought of as more expensive. made up of: 40mm 60mm 10mm wearmg course regulating course waterproofing The waterproofing is generally protected by a 20 mm red sand asphalt carpet beneath the regulating course. Further information can be found in TRRL Research Report 185: "A field trial of waterproofing systems for concrete bridge decks" by A. Drainage of the waterproofing in areas near joints or severe crossfalls where ponding may occur will improve the durability of the surfacing in these areas. and due to the fact that they reduce the overall dead load. Reference should also be made to the Highways Agency Standard BD 47/94.3 WATERPROOFING AND SURFACING The minimum desirable surfacing thickness is 11Omm. R. the spray versions are gaining in popularity due to their more comprehensive coverage. Two types of waterproofing are in common use.
25111111repate (rIot retJIIlredfor sIm../ 25111111X..! waterproof/ng s'!stel1l) I Deck waterproof/ng Waterprooj7ltg detcll/ .r.
and are usually reserved for situations where the movements are less than 15 mm. bedded on epoxy resin. and are divided into two main categories: buried joints and mechanical joints. In this case the surfacing is discontinuous. They are subject to all the effects applied to bearings.~'=gz' SIMPLE BRIIXiE. An example is illustrated below. A steel plate bridges the gap between the deck and the abutment. and bolted to deck and abutment using resin anchors. Buried joints have continuous surfacing over the structural discontinuity.DESIGN uSING PRES'lRESSED BEAMS ~.~~ 7. Surfacing Mechanical expansion joint. The design example uses asphaltic plug joints at each end of the bridge span. Deck Abutment wall . Larger movements are often accommodated with mechanical joints. and a strip of flexible asphalt placed over it along the line of the joint. whilst allowing horizontal movement and rotation of the deck to take place.4 JOINTS The function of any joint is to bridge any gap or discontinuity between the deck and the abutment.
tJHa/tic .tJ/tlgjoint '18 peam 20mm PVC dmin \ Aputment wa// Watetproof!ng taKendown pacKof aPtltmel1t Detal! Ofas.FINISHINGS 83 I DecKs/ap \\ \\ \\ As/l/1a/tic .tJ/tlgjoint at aPtltments .
P2 are required for all purpose roads. or the base of the parapet panels should span over two adjacent beams. These are taller. Concrete can also be used for the PI and P2 containment requirements. Reinforcement should be detailed to accommodate standard approved anchorage cages. ~ A typical edge detail for a bridge deck with a high containment parapet. or bolted down onto it.5m long. The bending moment is too high to be resisted by the bending strength of a standard deck slab. sometimes faced or sandwiched with other materials such as brick. .84 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS 7. and usually have PI strength requirements. They are subdivided into P2 (80) and P2 (113) depending on the prevailing speed restrictions at the site. and have solid infill panels. bolted to deck. which are either cast into the edge of the deck. . see BS 6779: Part 2. Metal versions have a traffic face mesh where pedestrians are allowed.5 PARAPETS There are five parapet groups for highway bridges referred to in Highways Agency Standard BD 52/93: PI are required on motorway bridges. P4 are used on bridleways. 2. or the torsional strength of M or Y beams. There are differences between the types which affect the edge plinth detailing and spacing of posts. A torsionally stiff edge beam should be provided. although individual client authorities may have preferences relating to maintenance aspects. P6 are high containment parapets for use at high risk locations. Standard metal versions in steel or aluminium are available from the various suppliers listed in BS 6779 Part 1. P6 high containment parapets are often provided in the form of precast concrete panels. P2 (48) are also occasionally found at urban sites. except over railways or high risk locations.The edge of the deck must be designed to resist the high transverse bending moment that a vehicle hitting the parapet can generate. P5 are required over railways. Most designers give the contractor the choice of steel or aluminium parapets. Precast parapet panels.
witlt wtislters til1d/l/tistic sleeves.20 bo/ts /leI' /lost./ P.2 (113 /:. qrout below /ltirti/let btise ..Pit) ti/uHfil1iUm /ltirti/let bo/ted dow» to cOl1creteu/lsttil1d b'f 4 Sttiil1/egg steel M.
5m carriageway (two 3.Om footpath each side 210 HA load to BD 37/88 No HB load is required for this private development 180mm total maximum thickness (including waterproofing) Inverted T beams were chosen as the most suitable form of construction for this short span. The beam selection charts indicate that T2 beams are appropriate for a span of about 9m. This section consists of a partial design example of a solid slab bridge deck. and the topping over the beams.~"~'~ 86 SIMPLE BRIDQ£OESIGN USING PRES J RESSEDBEAMS 8 8. to demonstrate how to deal with the transverse moments and shears using reinforcement threaded through the web holes of the precast beams. so for the width of deck required. eighteen T2 beams are needed.l SOLID SLAB DECK DESIGN EXAMPLE INTRODUCTION The design of prestressed beams in a solid slab deck follows the same pattern as for a beam & slab deck.089m between bearings (single span) 6.25m lanes) I. The topping should never be specified less than 75mm thick. The standard thickness for the topping is 75mm. Insitu concrete provides the infill between the beams. and this is used here. . The beams are placed side by side in this form of construction. The bridge could alternatively have been designed using twelve TY2 beams. The example bridge has the following design requirements: Span Width Skew Loading Surfacing 9.
l11t1de (rOI11tfte 420111111Itlglt T2 foetll11sf/tlS 75111111Offlllg. f. TIte/?rIdgedeck IttlS tI skew of 21°. Tfte tftlcklle33III tfte I11lddleoftfte deck Is 49511111!. TItlsls tlte cr033 sectloll sftowlllg Oil/if tfte structtlrtl/ elel11ellts. 1000 400 Cr033 sectloll of 9. TIteretire two 175111111 dltll11eter dtlctslll tlte 111(/// cOllcrete tlllder etlcft footj:ltltft.9300 Overa//wkitH FooffJdf/t 400 ~ 1000 Wnitlg8Wtllj 6500 FOOtpatH . 011111!. 089111 sf till sll11f/If stlffotted forldge. . tlf t Tottl/ ftelgftt of tlte edge Petll11SIs 92.lgftteell T2 foetll11stire tlsed tit a Sftle/llg of 508l1!I11.
1 does not require a modular ratio to be used for concrete strengths varying by 10 Nzmm. The beams oversail the bearings by 0.4. Decks with a large skew should be analysed with a grillage in which the transverse members are at right angles to the longitudinal beams. so the members along the line of the bearings represent a similar width of slab to the members within the span.8.2 GRILLAGE ANALYSIS The grillage used to analyse this bridge deck has nine longitudinal members. Because the skew of 210 is not too large. Because of the discontinuous nature of the deck in the transverse direction.605m on this bridge. it is normal (and conservative) to assume that the transverse members can be represented by a solid slab down to the centre of the web holes. due to the geometry ofthe edge detail. and the presence of service ducts under the footpath. and is reasonably accurate for small skew angles. The section properties of the internal longitudinal members are therefore based on a simple rectangular shape. 136m. which is 175mm above the soffit of the inverted T beams. This leads to a simple grillage layout. and so no account has been taken of the difference between the precast and the insitu concrete in the analysis of this bridge. Transverse members have been provided to divide the span into eight equal segments of I. representing two inverted T beams with their associated insitu concrete: ••••••••• BS 5400: Part 4: Clause 7. The edge members have different properties. the transverse members have been positioned parallel to the abutments. .
r .495 )(1.320)( 1. SltJP tlticKl1e88 = 0.136)/12 = 0.495 .016)/6 ScctiOlf frOjlerties oftrtJl1svcrse I11cl11Pcrsrcfrescl1til1g 1.0.016)/12 C =(0.503~ = 0. 010311('= 0.364 ~ I = (0. 020511(' ArctJ = 0.32(J3)(1.136)/6 = 0.32(J3)(1.003111('C = (0.016 3 I = (0..089111 1 Tltc di(fcrcl1cc pctwCCI1tltc strcl1gtlt oftltc frcctJst cOl1cretcpctJl11S tJl1dtltc il1situ cOl1crcteis 1 0 N/I11~. ScctiOlf frofertics offHtemtJllol1gitudfHtJl I11cl11Pcrsre.rescl1til1g two pctJl11s): ( = 0. .DitJgrtil11of grilltJgc 1110dcI to tJl1tJI'Isctltis pridgc dCCK: usc SftJl1 = 9.1 5111tJPovcsOffit of pctJl118..136111 widtft of sltJP)' ( TltiCKI1C88 sltJP tJ88I1I11Cd trtJl1svcrsc I11cl11Pcrs dowl1 to wCPItoles of for is wlticlt tJrc 0.320111 ArctJ = 0.136 = 0.006211(' r of TpctJl118.4953)(1. tJl1dso tJl110dllltJrrtitio of Ul1ft'l Will pe tJ88UI11Cd.495)( 1.1 5 = 0.
610m section of deck.2 also has a requirement for additional longitudinal shear reinforcement in the tensile zone.7 x 0. The sagging moment is therefore recalculated for a 0. shear can be assumed to be transferred by dowel action of the reinforcement through the web holes: Dowel action shear capacity = 0. Clearly the concrete and the tensile steel have plenty of capacity to resist the shear between the beams. Note that the depth to the reinforcement is the same as the depth assumed for the slab in the analysis. Transverse reinforcement of3T16 bars through each web hole is used. particularly if these are not perfectly aligned. which are at 0.610m centres.7 As (0.169 MN This is well in excess ofthe ULS shear of 0. The interface between the precast beams and the insitu concrete also needs to be considered.066 MN for a 0.3. Furthermore.3 DESIGN OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT Transverse sagging reinforcement can only be provided through the web holes of the precast beams. Note that Clause 5. This requirement is easily fulfilled by the excess of bending reinforcement provided. this only amounts to 83mm2 per 0.87 fy) = 0. In this case. Additionally.61 Om section.90 SIMPLE BRIDGE DESIGN USING PRESTRESSED BEAMS 8. .000603 x 400 = 0.3. so this requirement will rarely actually result in extra reinforcement being needed. Reinforcement of 4T16 through the web holes is often used for the larger inverted T and TY beams.61 Om section of slab. This is preferred to a single T25 bar as the extra flexibility will make it easier to thread the bars through the web holes on site. The shape of the precast beams allows shear to be transferred by interlocking between the beams and the insitu concrete. the maximum bending and the maximum shear will not occur at the same place.
320 = 0. wftlclt t?ret?t tlte stt?lftft?rtfSlt?cilfg of 0.56 N/I11IPF v = 0. 0. 136) X.1 40 X. fo = 0.610111x.136111 e/el11elft. 0. 0. 0542/(400 :.50 ~s ~s~ = 0..00060~) X. 0. 304 111(t?88Ul11eti) M«=(0.304) = 0.610/1.0660MN)/(0. trtJlfsverse st?ggllfg1110l11elft t?1.rOI11 f grlllt?g~ .136111 del11elft = 101 kNI11 /413 for R.rovltfetf tftrouglt tlte wefoftoles.!s/~ tfte 111t?x.f = 0.50 = 0.0660MN MN v = V/fotf = (0. 0.610 X.123 = 0.12 X. I _ FrOI11 grlllt?get?11t?I.123 V = 123 kN = 0.0.34 N/I11IPF so sltet?r Ct?It?cit'!/s t?detfjlt?te. 0.'. /4se 3T16 = 400x. 101 = 54. 61 Om. Sltet?rler0. 95 d of Mt?X/l11ul11 /413sltet?r lit a 1.0542MNI11 IPF X. 0. 31 % 100 X.320I11) Percelfmgerell1(orCel11elft = ~ = 0.0.610/1.8rfr)Agz . ~g~ = 0..0.34N/I11IPF = 0.12 frol11 Tt?Ne9 = 1.610111 X. 000446 = 446111IPF (t?ret?Irovltfetf = 603111IPF) = P _1.610l11sectl01f = (0.320111 N/I11IPF frOI11Tt?Ne8 = 1. 961 tf / so colf(irl11llfgt?88UI111tI0lf Z = 0. 460 X. 320 111 t Witftlt of sectlo".2 kNI11 = 0. Ag> 0.56 N/I11IPF > . 0542 MNI11 Deltlt to relJtforcel11elft. 95 tf = 0.610l11sectlolf = (0.304 > 0.elJtforcel11elft .136)x. 61 0 111 fc« = 40 N/I11IPF ~ = 460 N/I11IPF Lever t?r"". Is M0l11elftler0. Z = 0.Asx. 000603IPF 0.
at the edges of the deck where hogging occurs. Note that the maximum hogging moment is much lower than the maximum sagging moment on the previous page. This nominal reinforcement is used in the topping concrete which is predominantly in compression. if the edges of the deck are loaded. but there is no load near the centre. . However. this reinforcement is not enough.92 SIMPCE BRIDGE DESmN USING PRES I RESSEO BEAMS Hogging moments can occur in this bridge deck near the edge beams. and T6 bars are added. A142 mesh will be used in the topping throughout the deck.
wltlclt Islltsllff!cleltt for tlte of ItogglltgtJt tlte edges of tlte deck.0.266 > 0. i 36 = 28.rrolft tlte grllltJgetJlttJl.2 kNIft/1ft = 0..0282/(400 = 400 x.8r~)Agz :.i 361ft Z = 0.0401ft = 0. AddltlolttJl trtJltsverse relltforcelfteltt of 21ft leltgtlts of T6 PtJrs tJt 2001ft1ft cel1tres will tlterefore pe tJdded tlte tOfflltg tJt etJcltside of tlte deck.2801ft P = 1.Ag X. lit TottJlrelltforcelfteltttJretJ = Ai 42 Ifteslt + T6 @ 2001ft1ft celttres = (i42IftHi/Ift) + (i42IftHi/Ift) = 284lftHi /Ift > 2651ftHi/1ft ret/lflred .3201ft. IfttJX/1ft1l1ft UL:3ltogglltg IftOlftel1tor tJ 1.2kNIft f :./sl8.000265 HI/1ft = 2651ftHi/1ft x. 0.95d = 0. d = 0.0282MNIft/1ft 0.2661ft MJ( =(0.tlttorelltforcelfteltf.0282 MNIft/1ft (tJffroxj De. 0. Ag> 0.i 361ft elelfteltt = 3. Molfteltt fer Iftetre wldtlt ofsltJP = 32/1.266) = TlteAi 42 Ifteslt frovldes tJrelltforcelfteltt tJretJ i 42 IftHi /Ift.
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