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John A. Beachy & William D. Blair April 24, 2012

Contents

5 Commutative Rings

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Commutative Rings; Integral Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ring Homomorphisms Ideals and Factor Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

3 11 17 27

Quotient Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Fields

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Algebraic Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finite and Algebraic Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometric Constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Splitting Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finite Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Irreducible Polynomials over Finite Fields Quadratic Reciprocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

32 36 38 40 45 48 53

7 Structure of Groups

7.1 7.2 Isomorphism Theorems: Automorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conjugacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

56 56

1

CONTENTS

2

Here's some random crap from chapter 4 that I did by accident.

9. Let f (x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · a1 x + a0 be a polynomial with rational coecients. Show that if c is a root of f (x) and c = 0, then 1/c is a root of g(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn−1 + · · · + an−1 x + an .

g(1/c) = j=0 n−j . Now, if this sum is equal to zero, then so cj an−j an−j n n n n n must the sum c . Now c j=0 cj j=0 cj = j=0 an−j cn−j = f (c) = 0. n We now see that g(1/c) = f (c)/c . Since f (c) = 0 and c = 0, we conclude that g(1/c) = 0.

Examine

n

a

10. Let f (x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · a1 x + a0 be a polynomial with rational coecients. Show that if c is a root of f (x), and k is a nonzero constant, then kc is a root of g(x) = bn xn + bn−1 xn−1 + · · · + b1 x + b0 where bi = k n−i ai .

Examine that

n j=0

g(kc) = aj cj = 0.

k n−j k j cj = k n j=0 aj cj . Since f (c) = 0, we know n n j Thus, k j=0 aj c = g(kc) = 0. Thus, kc is a root of

n j=0

n

g(x).

Chapter 5

Commutative Rings

5.1 Commutative Rings; Integral Domains

1. Which of the following sets are subrings of the eld Q of rational numbers? Assume that m, n are integers with n = 0 and (m, n) = 1.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

m n |n is odd m n |n is even m n |4 n m n |(n, k) = 1

where k is a xed positive integer

Q, we know that + is abelian and associa· distributes over +. Thus, we only need to show closure. Observe that for a, b, c, d ∈ Z, a c ad+bc b + d = bd . Now, since b and d are both odd (they do not have a factor of 2), there is no way that bd can be even. (Even if there is some cancellation that

(a) Since we are very familiar with tive and we know inverses and identity for +. We also know that occurs, a factor of 2 can never magically appear in the denominator.)

1 1 1 / m |n is even . Thus, the group property is 2 + 2 = 1 = 1 ∈ n not satised, so (b) is not a subring. 1 2 13 (c) Examine / m |4 n . Thus, the group property is not 3 + 7 = 28 ∈ n satised, so (b) is not a subring. a c ad+bc (d) Again we only need to show closure. since b + d := bd , and neither b nor d share any factor in common with k , it is clear that (bd, k) = 1. Thus, (d)

(b) Examine is a subring.

**A = {m + n √2|m, n ∈ Z and n is even} B = {m + n 2|m, n ∈ Z and m is odd} √ 3 (c) C = {a + b 2|a, b ∈ Q} √ √ 3 3 (d) D = {a + b 2 + c 9|a, b, c ∈ Q} √ (e) E = {m + nu|m, n ∈ Z},where u = (1 + 3)/2
**

(a) (b) 3

2. Which of the√ following sets are subrings of the eld R of real numbers?

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

4

(f )

F = {m + nv|m, n ∈ Z},

where

v = (1 +

√

5)/2

√ √ √ (a + b 2) + (c + d 2) = (a + c) + (b + d) 2. The sum of two even numbers is even, so A is a subring. √ √ √ (b) Examine (3 + 2) + (3 + 2) = 6 + 2 2 ∈ B . Thus, B is not a subring. / √ √ √ 3 3 3 (c) Similar to (a), (a + b 2) + (c + d 2) = (a + c) + (b + d) 2. The sum of two rationals is rational, so C is a subring. (d) Similar to (c), D is a subring. √ √ 1+ 3 = 3 + 3 ∈ E . Thus, (e) Examine (1 + u) + (1 + u) = 2 + 2u = 2 + 2 · / 2 E is not a subring. (f ) Similarly, F is not a subring. (Note: Sets like A, B, C, D, E, and F can almost be thought of as vector spaces. For example, D can be thought of as a vector space over Q with basis √ √ {1, 3 2, 3 9}. Then, one only needs to check that the set from which the coWe see that ecients come is closed, since one can always write vectors as a unique linear combination. Sets like

(a) As in Exercise 1, we will only need to show closure of + (or lack thereof ).

A

don't technically form a vector space since

Z

is a ring

and not a eld. However, there is still a concept of basis associated with this set. Such a set with a basis is called a free module.)

**3. Consider which of the following conditions on the set of all 2 × 2 matrices
**

ring? If the set is a ring, nd all units. (a) all matrices with d = a, c = 0 (b) all matrices with d = a, c = b (c) all matrices with d = a, c = −2b (d) all matrices with d = a, c = −b (e) all matrices with c = 0 (f ) all matrices with a = 0 and d = 0.

(a) We know that matrix addition is commutative and we know inverses and identity. Furthermore, matrix multiplication distributes over matrix addition. Thus, we only need to check for closure and commutivity of

a c

b d

with rational entries. Which conditions below dene a commutative

a b c d ine + = 0 a 0 c ac ad + bc c d = · 0 ac 0 c

**·. Exama+c b+d a b c d . Also, · = 0 a+c 0 a 0 c a b . Thus, (a) denes a commutative ring. 0 a a 0 b a
**

−1

From elementary linear algebra, we see that is dened so long as any matrix where (b) Examine

a= a = 0. a b b a

−b a2 which 1 0 a 0. So, the set of units is the set dened by (a) minus

=

1 a

+

c d

d c

=

a+c b+d

b+d a+c

.

Also,

a b b a

·

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

5

c d

d c

=

ac + bd ad + bc ad + bc ac + bd

=

c d

d c

·

a b b a a b b a

. Thus, (b) denes a

−b a a2 −b2 a2 −b2 −b a a2 −b2 a2 −b2 2 2 which is dened as long as a − b = 0. Thus, the set of units is the set dened 2 2 by (b) minus those elements where a − b = 0.

commutative ring. From elementary linear algebra,

−1

=

(c) Examine

a b −2b a

·

a b −2b a c d = −2d c

+

**c d a+c b+d = . Also, −2d c −2(b + d) a + c ac − 2bd ad + bc c d a b = · −2ad − 2bc ac − 2bd −2d c −2b a a b −2b a
**

−1

.

Thus, (c) denes a commutative ring. Now, which is dened as long as (d) Examine

=

1 a2 +2b2

a −b 2b a

a

and

a b −b a

+

b are not both equal to 0. c d a+c b+d = −d c −(b + d) a + c

. Multiplica-

tion is commutative since we can factor out (d) denes a commutative ring. We see again is dened as long as

1 2 and obtain elements in (c). Thus, −1 a b a −b 1 = a2 +b2 which −b a b a

a

and

b

are not both 0.

(e) Closure is clear. However,

3 0

2 1

·

4 0

5 6

=

12 0

27 6

=

4 0

5 6

·

3 0

2 1

=

12 0

13 6

. Thus, (e) does not dene a commutative ring.

(f ) Closure is clear. However,

0 2

1 0

·

0 4

3 0

=

4 0

0 6

=

0 4

3 0

·

0 2

1 0

=

6 0

0 4

. Thus, (f ) does not dene a commutative ring.

2|m, 4. Let R = {m + n √ n ∈ Z}. 2 2 (a) Show that m + n 2 is a unit in R if and only if m − 2n = ±1. √ × (b) Show that 1 + 2 2 has innite order in R . × (c) Show that 1 and −1 are the only units that have nite order in R . √ m + n 2 is a unit if and only if there is an x ∈ R such √ that x(m + n 2) = (m + n 2) = 1. By commutivity of ·, we only need to √ √ 1√ . consider x(m + n 2). Now, x(m + n 2) = 1 if and only if x = m+n 2 Multiplying numerator and denominator by the conjugate, this implies x = √ 1 m n m2 −2n2 (m − n 2). For x to be a member of R, we need m2 −2n2 , m2 −2n2 ∈ Z. 2 2 Thus, x ∈ R if and only if m − 2n = ±1. √ r √ s r r (b) By the binomial theorem, we have that (1 + 2 2) = s=0 s (2 2) √ which clearly can become arbitrarily large. Thus, o(1 + 2 2) = ∞. √ √ (c) First of all, by (a), any unit must have the form ± ±1 + 2n2 + n 2. √ √ √ r−s √ r s r Then, by the binomial theorem, ± ±1 + 2n2 + n 2 = s=0 ± ±1 + 2n2 nr−s 2 .

(a) We see that

√

√

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

6

This can become arbitrarily large unless

n 2 = ±1.

√

n=0

in which case

√ ± ±1 + 2n2 +

**5. Let R be a subset of an integral domain D. Prove that if R is a ring under the operations of D, then R is a subring of D.
**

Closure for + and Since must must

· is assumed since R is a ring under the operations of D. (R, +) is an abelian group, we must have inverses. Thus, if a ∈ R, we have −a ∈ R. Finally, suppose that x ∈ R. Then, since 1 · x = x ∈ R, we have 1 ∈ R by closure. Thus, R is a subring of D .

6. Let D be a nite integral domain. Give another proof of Theorem 5.1.9 by showing that if d is a nonzero element of D, then d−1 = dk for some positive integer k. [Theorem 5.1.9 states that any nite integral domain is a eld.]

d ∈ D. By closure, d · d ∈ D. Now, D is assumed to be nite, so for m and n, we must have dm = dn . (Otherwise D would have to be innite.) m Then, d = dn ⇔ 1 = dn−m by the cancellation property for integral domains. n−m−1 −1 Thus, 1 = d · d . Set k = n − m − 1. Then clearly d = dk . Thus, every element has an inverse, so D is a eld.

Let some

7. An element a of a commutative ring R is called nilpotent if an = 0 for some positive integer n. Prove that if u is a unit in R and a is nilpotent, then u − a is a unit in R.

an − 1 = 1. Now, 1 is clearly a root of an − 1, so we can write a − 1 = (a − 1) · p(a) where p(a) is a polynomial in the indeterminant a. Thus, (a − 1) · p(a) = 1, so (a − 1) is a unit. (We see that p(a) ∈ R since it is just linear combos of powers ofa.) × −1 Now, let u ∈ R . Then, (a − u) = u(au − 1). Since a is nilpotent, so is −1 au . Thus, by the previous paragraph, (au−1 − 1) ∈ R× . Since u ∈ R× , we −1 must have u(au − 1) ∈ R× .

Consider the element

n

**8. Let R be a commutative ring such that a2 = a for all a ∈ R. Show that a + a = 0 for all a ∈ R.
**

Notice that and

(a+1)2 = a2 +2a+1. But, a2 = a for all a ∈ R, so (a+1)2 = a+1 a + 1 = a + 2a + 1. Thus, a + 1 = 3a + 1 implying 0 = 2a, as desired.

9. Let I be any set and let R be the collection of all subsets of I . Dene addition and multiplication of subsets A, B ⊆ I as follows:

A + B = (A ∪ B) ∩ A ∩ B and A · B = A ∩ B.

Show that R is a commutative ring under this addition and multiplication.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

7

We simply verify the axioms. (Closure of +) Since the intersection of any set with a set in

A, B ⊆ I , A ∪ B ⊆ I by denition of union. I is completely contained in I .

Then Thus,

A + B ⊆ I.

(Associativity of +) Omitted. (Zero Element)

∅

is the zero element:

(Additive Inverses) If

A ∈ R, I

then

A + ∅ = (A − ∅) ∪ (∅ − A) = A ∪ ∅. A + A = (A − A) ∪ (A − A) = ∅. Thus, A·I = A∩I =

every element is its own additive inverse. (Multiplicative identity) is the multiplicative inverse:

I ∩ A = A.

(Commutivity) Given since (Distributivity of

∩

is commutative.

·

over

+)

Omitted.

10. For the ring R dened in Exercise 9, write out addition and multiplication tables for the following cases: (a) I has two elements; (b) I has three elements.

(a) Suppose table:

I = {a, b}.

Then

2I = {I, {a}, {b}, ∅}.

Here is the addition

Here is the multiplication table:

(b) Suppose

I = {a, b, c}.

Then

2I = {I, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, {a}, {b}, {c}, ∅}.

Here is the addition table: Here is the multiplication table:

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

8

(b) Omitted

11. A commutative ring R is called a Boolean ring if a2 = a for all a ∈ R. Show that in a Boolean ring the commutative law follows from the other axioms.

a, b ∈ R. Then ab = ba ⇔ a2 b = aba ⇔ ab = aba ⇔ ab2 = abab ⇔ ab = (ab) . Since R is boolean, the last equality is true, so all the equalities that are derived from it including ab = ba are true. This completes the proof.

Let

2

12. Let I be any set and let R be the collection of all subsets of I . Dene addition and multiplication of subsets A, B ⊆ I as follows:

A + B = A ∪ B and A · B = A ∩ B.

**Is R a commutative ring under this addition and multiplication?
**

Observe that unless

∅

is the additive identity of

R

since

A∪∅ = A

for all

A ⊆ I.

Thus,

However, one can never union a set to any nonempty set and obtain

∅.

I = ∅, R

is not a ring.

13. Let R be the set of all continuous functions from the set of real numbers to itself. (a) Show that R is a commutative ring if the formulas (f +g)(x) = f (x)+g(x) and (f · g)(x) = f (x) · g(x) for all x ∈ R are used to dene addition and multiplication of functions. (b) Which properties in the denition of commutative ring fail if the product of two functions is dened to be (f g)(x) = f (g(x)) for all x?

(a) (Associativity of +) Given since + is associative. (Additive Identity) The function for all continuous functions

f ≡0

is continuous and

(g + f )(x) = g(x)

g. f , the function −f (x) = (−1) ·

(Additive Inverses) For a continuous function

f (x)

is its additive inverse.

(Commutativity) Given since (Distributivity)

· is commutative. (f ·(g +h))(x) = f (x)·[g(x)+h(x)] = f (x)g(x)+f (x)h(x) =

**(f g)(x) + (f h)(x). f (x) = x2 2 and g(x) = −x, then (f g)(x) = x , but (gf ) = −x . Also, if f (x) = x , g(x) = 3 4 3 4 2 x , and h(x) = x , then f (g + h)(x) = (x + x ) , while f (g(x)) + f (h(x)) = x6 + x8 .
**

(b) Commutativity fails and so does distributivity. For example, if

2

2

14. Dene new operations on Q by letting a ⊕ b = a + b and a b = 2ab for all a, b ∈ Q. Show that Q is a commutative ring under these operations.

(Group under +) Given.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

9

(Commutativity of (Distributivity of

)

a

over

b = 2ab = 2ba = b a. ⊕) a (b⊕c) = 2a(b+c) = 2ab+2ac = (a b)⊕(a c)

**15. Dene new operations on Z by letting m ⊕ n = m + n − 1 and m n = m + n − mn, for all m, n ∈ Z. Is Z a commutative ring under these operations?
**

(Associativity of

⊕)

Given by associativity of + and -.

**m + 1 − 1 = m for all m ∈ Z. m ∈ Z, −m+2 is such that m+(−m+2)−1 = 1. (Identity element) 0 is the identity element since m 0 = m + 0 − m(0) = m. (Commutativity of ) m n = m + n − mn = n + m − nm = n m. (Distributivity of over ⊕) (m ⊕ n) = (m + n − 1) = + m + n − 1 − ( m + n − ) = ( + m − m) + ( + n − n) − 1 = ( m) ⊕ ( n).
**

(Zero element) 1 is the additive identity since (Additive Inverseses) For all

16. Let R and S be commutative rings. Prove that the set of all ordered pairs (r, s) such that r ∈ R and s ∈ S can be given a ring structure by dening

(r1 , s1 ) + (r2 , s2 ) = (r1 + r2 , s1 + s2 ) and (r1 , s1 ) · (r2 , s2 ) = (r1 r2 , s1 s2 ).

This is called the

direct sum

of R and S , denoted by R ⊕ S .

(Associativity of +) Given by the associativity of vector addition. of

(0R , 0S ) where 0R and 0S are the zero elements R ⊕ S. (Additive Inverses) If (a, b) ∈ R ⊕S , then (−a, −b) is its inverse since (a, b)+ (−a, −b) = (0R , 0S ). (Identity Element) The element (1R , 1S ) where 1R and 1S are the identity elements of R and S is the identity element since (a, b) · (1R , 1S ) = (a, b). (Commutativity) (a, b) · (c, d) = (ac, bd) = (ca, db) = (c, d) · (a, b). (Distributivity) (a, b)·[(c, d)+(e, f )] = (a, b)·(c+e, d+f ) = (ac+ae, bd+bf ) = (a, b) · (c, d) + (a, b) · (e, f ). Thus, R ⊕ S is a commutative ring.

(Zero Element) The element and

R

S

respectively is the zero element of

**17. Give addition and multiplication tables for Z2 ⊕ Z2 .
**

Omitted.

18. Generalizing to allow the direct sum of three commutative rings, give addition and multiplication tables for Z2 ⊕ Z2 ⊕ Z2 .

Omitted.

**19. Find all the units of the following rings.
**

(a) (b)

Z⊕Z Z4 ⊕ Z9

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

10

(a) From Q16, the identity element is

(1, 1).

Now,

(ac, bd) = (1, 1). Since a, b, c, d ∈ Z, a = b = c = d = 1.

we can only have

(a, b) · (c, d) = (1, 1) ⇔ ac = 1 and bd = 1 if

(b) From Q16, the identity element is ([1]4 , [1]9 ). Now, ([a]4 , [b]9 )·([c]4 , [d]9 ) = ([1]4 , [1]9 ) ⇔ ([ac]4 , [bd]9 ). Now, we simply need to nd the units of Z4 and Z9 . We know Z× = {[1]4 , [3]4 } and Z9 = {[1]9 , [2]9 , [4]9 , [5]9 , [7]9 , [8]9 }. Thus, 4 (Z4 ⊕ Z9 )× = {(x, y)|x ∈ Z4 and y ∈ Z9 }.

**20. An element e of a ring R is said to be idempotent elements of the following rings. (a) Z8 and Z9 (b) Z10 and Z12
**

(c) (d)

idempotent

if e2 = e. Find all

Z⊕Z Z10 ⊕ Z12

Z8 : [0]8 , [1]8 Z9 : [0]9 , [1]9 (b) Idempotent elements of Z10 : [0]10 , [1]10 , [5]10 , [6]10 Idempotent elements of Z12 : [0]12 , [1]12 , [4]12 , [9]12 (c) Idempotent elements of Z ⊕ Z: (0, 0), (1, 1) (d) Idempotent elements of Z10 ⊕Z12 : {(x, y)|x ∈ {idempotent {idempotent elements of Z12 }}

(a) Idempotent elements of Idempotent elements of

elements of

Z10 }, y ∈

21. Let A be an abelian group, and let R = {(a, b)|a ∈ A and n ∈ Z}. Dene binary operations + and · on R by (a, n) + (b, m) = (a + b, n + m) and (a, n) · (b, m) = (am + bn, nm), for all (a, n) and (b, m) in R. Show that R is a commutative ring.

(Group property) Satised since the underlying group structure is the cartesian product of two groups. (Identity element) We need an element

(xn + ay, n) = (a, n). x = 0A .

Thus,

In order for

which can only happen if

(x, y) ∈ R such that (x, y) · (a, n) = (x, y) · (a, n) = (a, n), we must have yn = n y = 1. Thus, we need xn + a = a which implies that

(0A , 1)

is the identity element.

(Commutativity) Given. (Distributivity) (1)

(a, )[(b, m)+(c, n)] = (a, )·(b+c, m+n) = ((a(m + n) + (b + c), (m + n)).

(a, ) · (b, m) + (a, )(c, n) = (am + b, m) + (an + c, n) = (am + b + an + c, m + n) = (a(m + n) + (b + c), (m + n)). (2) We see that (1) = (2), so distributivity has been shown.

22. Let R be a set that satises all the axioms of a commutative ring, with the exception of the existence of a multiplicative identity element. Dene binary operations + and · on R1 = {(r, n)|r ∈ R, n ∈ Z} by (r, n) + (s, m) = (r + s, n + m) and (r, n) · (s, m) = (rs + ns + mr, nm), for all (r, n) and (s, m) in R1 . Show that R1 is a commutative ring with identity (0, 1) and that {(r, 0)|r ∈ R}

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

11

satises all the conditions of a subring, with the exception that it does not have the multiplicative identity of R.

(Group property) Satised since the underlying group structure is the cartesian product of two groups. (Identity element) Similar to Q21. (Commutativity) Given except for multiplication with the identity element. Since we showed that (0,1) (Distributivity) (1)

was

the identity element, we know it commutes (by

denition of identity element).

(a, )[(b, m)+(c, n)] = (a, )·(b+c, n+m) = (a(b + c) + (b + c) + a(n + m), (n + m)).

(a, ) · (b, m) + (a, ) · (c, n) = (ab + b + am, m) + (ac + c + an, n) = (ab+ b+am+ac+ c+an, m+ n) = (a(b + c) + (b + c) + a(m + n), (m + n)).

(2) We see

(1) = (2),

so distributivity has been shown.

5.2

Ring Homomorphisms

1. Let R be a commutative ring and let D be an integral domain. Let φ : R → D be a nonzero function such that φ(a + b) = φ(a) + φ(b) and φ(ab) = φ(a)φ(b), for all a, b ∈ R. Show that φ is a ring homomorphism.

We must simply show that

φ(1) = 1.

Now,

φ(a) = φ(1 · a) = φ(1) · φ(a).

D is an integral domain, φ(a) = φ(1) · φ(a) ⇔ 1 = φ(1).

Since

the cancellation property can be used to obtain

**2. Let F be a eld and let φ : F → R be a ring homomorphism. Show that φ is either zero or one-to-one.
**

Clearly that

φ≡0

is a possible mapping.

Suppose that

φ(a) = φ(b)

for some

φ(ab−1 ) = 1.

This then implies that

a, b ∈ F . Since F is a eld, this implies ab−1 = 1 which implies that a = b.

**3. Let F, E be elds, and let φ : F → E be a ring homomorphism. Show that if φ is onto, then φ must be an isomorphism.
**

We only need to show that Then, since implies one-to-one.

φ is one-to-one. Suppose that φ(x1 ) = φ(x2 ) = y . E is a eld, φ(x1 ) · φ(x2 )−1 = 1. Since F is a eld, we see that this −1 −1 that φ(x1 x2 ) = 1. This means that xx2 = 1, so x1 = x2 . Thus, φ is

4. Show that taking complex conjugates denes an automorphism of C. That is, for z ∈ C, dene φ(z) = z , and show that φ is an automorphism of C.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

12

(1-1) Let

z = reiθ .

Then

φ(reiθ ) = re−iθ .

This mapping is one-to-one then

by the uniqueness of additive inverses.

w = reiθ . Then, z = re−iθ gives φ(z) = w. (Preservation) Let z = a + ib and w = c + id. Then φ(z + w) = φ[(a + c) + i(b + d)] = (a + c) − i(b + d) = (a − ib) + (c − id) = φ(z) + φ(w). iθ iω i(θ+ω) Let z = re and w = se . Then, φ(zw) = φ(rse ) = rse−i(θ+ω) = −iθ −iω re se = φ(z)φ(w). (Identity) Satised since C is a eld. (See Q1.)

(Onto) Let

**5. Show that the identity mapping is the only ring homomorphism from Z into Z.
**

φ : Z → Z be a ring homomorphism. Then, we must have φ(1) = 1. n ∈ Z, n = 1 + 1 + · · · + 1 (n terms), we must have φ(n) = φ(1 + 1 + · · · + 1) = φ(1) + φ(1) + · · · + φ(1) = 1 + 1 + · · · + 1 = n.

Let Since for any

**6. Show that the set of all matrices over Z of the form
**

isomorphic to the ring Z[ 2] dened in Example 5.1.6.

Let S be the set described in the √ √ a b Z[ 2] → S via φ(a + b 2) = 2b m

√

m n 2n m

is a ring

statement of the problem. .

Dene

φ :

(1-1) This map is a direct substitution, so it is 1-1. (Onto). Let

√ m n m n ∈ S . Then, φ(m + n 2) = 2n m 2n m 1 0 (Identity) φ(1) = . 0 1 √ √ √ (Preservation) φ[(a+b 2)+(c+d 2)] = φ[(a+c)+(b+d) 2] = b a + c 2d

.

a+c b+d 2(b + d) a + c

=

a 2b

√ √ d = φ(a + b 2) + φ(c + d 2). c √ √ √ φ[(a+b 2)(c+d 2)] = φ[(ac+2bd)+(ad+bc) 2] = √ √ φ(a + b 2)φ(c + d 2) = a 2b b a c 2d d c

**ac + 2bd ad + bc 2(ad + bc) ac + 2bd ac + 2bd ad + bc 2(ad + bc) ac + 2bd
**

.

.

(1)

·

=

(2) We see

(1) = (2), √

so preservation has been shown.

**7. Dene φ : Z[ 2] → Z[ 2] by φ(m + n 2) = m − n 2, for all m, n ∈ Z. √ Show that φ is an automorphism of Z[ 2].
**

This is similar to Q4. We will only show preservation of products. (The identity mapping is very easily veried).

√

√

√

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

13

√ √ √ √ φ[(a + b 2)(c + d 2)] = φ[ac + 2bd + (ad + bc) 2] = ac + 2bd − (ad + bc) 2.

(1)

√ √ √ √ √ φ(a + b 2)φ(c + d 2) = (a − b 2)(c − d 2) = ac + 2bd − (ad + bc) 2. (1) = (2), so preservation is shown.

(2)

**8. Let F be a eld, and let a ∈ F . Dene φ : F [x] → F [x] by φ(f (x)) = f (x + a), for all f (x) ∈ F [x]. Show that φ is an automorphism of F .
**

(1-1) The transformation it left

a

units. (This

does

f (x + a)

simply takes the graph of

f (x)

and shifts

make sense in an abstract setting since the denition

of graph is simply the set of ordered pairs of the form mapping of

(x, f (x)).) Thus, this f (x) → f (x + a) is a direct substitution and thus one-to-one. (Onto) Let f (x) ∈ F [x]. Then, f (x − a) → f (x). (Identity) Let f ≡ 1. Then, f (x + a) ≡ 1. n n−1 (Preservation) Let f (x) = an x + an−1 x + · · · + a1 x + a0 and g(x) = m m−1 bm x + bm−1 x + · · · + b1 x + b0 . Without loss of generality, suppose deg g ≥ deg f . φ[f (x)+g(x)] = φ[bm xm +bm−1 xm−1 +· · ·+(an +bn )xn +(an−1 +bn−1 )xn−1 + · · · + (a1 + b1 )x + (a0 + b0 )]= bm (x + a)m + · · · + (an + bn )(x + a)n + · · · + a0 + b0 = (bm (x + a)m + · · · + b0 ) + (an (x + a)n + · · · + a0 ) = φ(g(x)) + φ(f (x)). Let f (x) = (x−r1 )(x−r2 ) · · · (x−rn ) and g(x) = (x−s1 )(x−s2 ) · · · (x−sm ). φ[f (x)g(x)] = φ[(x−r1 ) · · · (x−rn )(x−s1 ) · · · (x−sm )] = (x+a−r1 ) · · · (x+ a − rn )(x + a − s1 ) · · · (x + a − sm ) = φ(f (x))φ(g(x)).

**9. Show that the composition of two ring homomorphisms is a ring homomorphism.
**

Let via

φ : S → T and π : R → S be ring homomorphisms. Dene φ ◦ π : R → T φ ◦ π(x) = φ(π(x)) for all x ∈ R. (Preservation of +) φ(π(x + y)) = φ(π(x) + π(y)) = φ(π(x)) + φ(π(y)). (Preservation of ·) φ(π(xy)) = φ(π(x)π(y)) = φ(π(x))φ(π(y)). (Identity) φ(π(1)) = φ(1) = 1.

**10. Let R and S be rings, and let φ, θ : R → S be ring homomorphisms. Show that {r ∈ R|φ(r) = θ(r)}is a subring of R.
**

θ(r + s). r, s ∈ R. Then φ(r + s) = φ(r) + φ(s) = θ(r) + θ(s) = (r + s) ∈ R. (Closure under ·) φ(rs) = φ(r)φ(s) = θ(r)θ(s) = θ(rs). Thus, rs ∈ R. (Additive inverses) Let r ∈ R. Then φ(−r) = −φ(r) = −θ(r) = θ(−r). Thus, −r ∈ R. (Identity) φ(1) = 1 = θ(1). Thus, 1 ∈ R.

(Closure under +) Let Thus,

11. Show that the direct sum of two nonzero rings is never an integral domain.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

14

Let

R

and

S

be nonzero rings. Then, we always have

Neither element is zero, but the product is the zero of

(1, 0) · (0, 1) = (0, 0). R ⊕ S.

12. Let R1 and R2 be commutative rings. Dene π1 : R1 ⊕ R2 → R1 by π1 ((r1 , r2 )) = r1 , for all (r1 , r2 ) ∈ R1 ⊕ R2 and dene π2 : R1 ⊕ R2 → R2 by π2 ((r1 , r2 )) = r2 for all (r1 , r2 ) ∈ R1 ⊕ R2 . Show that π1 and π2 are ring homomorphisms. (b) Let R be any ring, and let φ : R → R1 ⊕ R2 be a function. Show that φ is a ring homomorphism if and only if π1 φ and π2 φ are both ring homomorphisms.

(a) (a) (Preservation of +)

π1 [(r, s) + (v, w)] = π1 (r + v, s + w) = r + v =

π1 (r, s) + π1 (v, w).

(Preservation of ·) (Identity) Thus,

π1 [(r, s) + (v, w)] = π1 (rv, sw) = rv = π1 (r, s)π1 (v, w). π1 (1, 1) = 1. π1 is a ring homomorphism. Similarly, π2 is a ring homomorphism.

π1 φ or π2 φ is not a homomorphism. Without π1 φ is not a homomorphism. By Q9, if π1 and φ are homomorphisms, then π1 φ is a homomorphism. By contraposition, if π1 φ is not a homomorphism, then one of π1 or φ is not a homomorphism. Part (a) showed that π1 is a homomorphism, so we conclude that φ is not a

loss of generality, suppose that homomorphism. (⇐) Suppose that (3)

(b) (⇒)Suppose that one of

φ

is not a ring homomorphism.

Then, at least one of

three things must occur: (1)

φ(r + s) = φ(r) + φ(s),

(2)

φ(rs) = φ(r)φ(s),

or

φ(1) = 1.

For (1), suppose that

φ(r + s) = (v, w) while φ(r) = (a, b) and φ(s) = (c, d). π1 (φ(v + w)) = π1 ((a + c, b + d)) = a + c. Similarly, π2 (φ(v + w)) = b + d. Now, it is possible for either a + c = v or b + d = w, but not both. For if both held, it would imply that π1 (φ(v + w)) = π1 (φ(v) + φ(w)) and π2 (φ(v + w)) = π2 (φ(v) + φ(w)), which would imply that π1 and π2 are not well dened. Contradiction. Thus, one of π1 φ or π2 φ is not a homomorphism.

Then, (2) Follows from a similar argument. For (3), if

φ(1) = (1, 1),

then at least one of

π1 (1, 1)

or

π2 (1, 1)

is not equal

to the identity. Thus, one of

π1 φ

or

π2 φ

is not a homomorphism.

13. Find all ring homomorphisms from Z ⊕ Z into Z. That is, nd all possible formulas and show why no others are possible.

to each other, we see that

φ : Z⊕Z → Z be a homomorphism. Then, since the identities must map (1, 1) → 1. Then, since n = 1 + 1 + · · · + 1 (n terms) for any n ∈ Z, φ(n, n) = n for all n ∈ Z. Thus, we must have φ(m, n) = m or φ(m, n) = n for all (m, n) ∈ Z ⊕ Z.

Let

14. Find all ring homomorphisms from Z ⊕ Z into Z ⊕ Z.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

15

As above, we must have

(n, n). (n, n).

Thus, we must

(1, 1) → (1, 1). By extension, we must have (n, n) → have φ(m, n) = (m, n), φ(m, n) = (m, m), or φ(m, n) =

φ

15. For the rings Zn and Zk , show that if k|n, then the function φ : Zn → Zk dened by φ([x]n ) = [x]k , for all [x]n ∈ Zn , is a ring homomorphism. Show that this is the only ring homomorphism from Zn to Zk .

(Preservation of +)

φ([a]n + [b]n ) = φ([a + b]n ) = [a + b]k = [a]k + [b]k =

φ([a]n ) + φ([b]n ). φ([a]n [b]n ) = φ([ab]n ) = [ab]k = [a]k [b]k = φ([a]n )φ([b]n ). φ : Zn → Zk is a homomorphism, we must have [1]n → [1]k . Also, since for any r ∈ Z, n = 1 + 1 + · · · + 1 (r terms), we know that φ([r]n ) = φ([1]n + [1]n + · · · + [1]n ) = φ([1]n ) + φ([1]n ) + · · · + φ([1]n ) = [1]k + [1]k + · · · + [1]k = [r]k . Thus φ([x]n ) = [x]k is the only homomorphism from Zn to Zk .

Now, as mentioned many times before, if (Preservation of ·)

**16. Are Z9 and Z3 ⊕ Z3 isomorphic as rings?
**

Let φ : Z9 → Z3 ⊕ Z3 . If φ is ([1]3 , [1]3 ). However, 3 · [1]9 = [3]9 underlying additive groups are not to be an isomorphism, we need while

[1]9 →

so the

3 · ([1]3 , [1]3 ) = ([0]3 , [0]3 ), isomorphic, so Z9 Z3 ⊕ Z3 .

17. Let S be the subset of Z4 ⊕ Z4 given by {([m]4 , [n]4 )|m ≡ n(mod 2)}. (a) Show that S is a subring of Z4 ⊕ Z4 . (b) Show that S is not isomorphic (as a ring) to any ring of the form Zn , nor to any direct sum of such rings.

(a) (Closure under +) Let ([a]4 , [b]4 ), ([c]4 , [d]4 ) ∈ S . Then, ([a]4 , [b]4 ) + ([c]4 , [d]4 ) = ([a + c]4 , [b + d]4 ). Now if [a]2 = [b]2 and [c]2 = [d]2 , then [a + c]2 = [b + d]2 by simple adding of two valid equations. Thus ([a + c]4 , [b + d]4 ) ∈ S . (Closure under ·) Let ([a]4 , [b]4 ), ([c]4 , [d]4 ) ∈ S . Then, ([a]4 , [b]4 )·([c]4 , [d]4 ) = ([ac]4 , [bd]4 ). Now there are two possibilities: (1) [c]2 = [d]2 = [0]2 , or (2) [c]2 = [d]2 = [1]2 . So, when we evaluate [ac]2 and [bd]2 , in (1) we get [0]2 and [0]2 and in (2) we get [a]2 and [b]2 . Thus, ([ac]4 , [bd]4 ) ∈ S . (Additive inverses) If [a]2 = [b]2 , then −[a]2 = −[b]2 . Thus, if ([a]4 , [b]4 ) ∈ S , we have −([a]4 , [b]4 ) ∈ S . (Identity Element) Clearly, [1]2 ⊂ [1]4 , so ([1]4 , [1]4 ) ∈ S . Thus, S is a subring of Z4 ⊕ Z4 . (b) We note that the element Thus, if If

([1]4 , [1]4 ) ∈ S

has multiplicative order 4. Thus

S

were isomorphic to a direct sum of residue rings, it would have to be

isomorphic to

Z4 ⊕ Z4 .

However,

([1]4 , [2]4 ) ∈ Z4 ⊕ Z4 − S .

are in

S

Z4 .

S

were to be isomorphic to a ring of residues, it would have to be iso-

morphic to

Z4 .

However,

([n]4 , [n]4 )

S

for all

n,

giving four congruence

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

16

classes. In addition,

([1]4 , [3]4 ) ∈ S .

Thus,

|S| > |Z4 |,

so

S

Z4 .

**18. Dene φ : Z → Zm ⊕ Zn by φ(x) = ([x]m , [x]n ). Find the kernel and image of φ. Show that φ is onto if and only if gcd(m, n) = 1.
**

Z}. ker φ = {x ∈ Z : n|x and m|x}. The image is {([x]m , [x]n )|x ∈ gcd(m, n) = 1, then m and n share no factors, so no integers besides 0 and kmn where k ∈ Z can be mapped to ([0]m , [0]n ). Since |Zm ⊕ Zn | = mn, the rst mn integers will be mapped to unique elements of Zm ⊕ Zn . Thus, φ

We see that If is onto.

r, q ∈ Z.

gcd(m, n) = d = 1, then we have m = dr and n = dq for some drq → ([0]m , [0]n ). Since drq < mn, the mapping will replicate all the previous (drq−1) mappings over and over again without having generated mn unique elements (the order of Zm ⊕ Zn ). Thus, φ is not onto.

Conversely, if Thus,

19. Let R be the ring given by dening new operations on Z by letting m ⊕ n = m + n − 1 and m n = m + n − mn. Dene φ : Z → R by φ(n) = 1 − n. Show that φ is an isomorphism.

φ is a linear map. y ∈ R. Then φ(−y + 1) = 1 − (−y + 1) = y . Thus, φ is onto. (Preservation of sums) φ(m + n) = 1 − (m + n) = 1 − m − n (1). φ(m) ⊕ φ(n) = (1 − m) ⊕ (1 − n) = 1 − m + 1 − n − 1 = 1 − m − n (2). Now, (1) = (2), so sums are preserved. (Preservation of products) φ(mn) = 1 − mn. (1) φ(m) φ(n) = (1 − m) (1 − n) = 1 − m + 1 − n − (1 − m − n + mn) = 1 − mn (2). Again, (1) = (2), so products are preserved.

(1-1) Given since (Onto) Let

20. Let I be any set and let R be the collection of all subsets of I . Dene addition and multiplication of subsets A, B ⊆ I as follows:

A + B = (A ∪ B) ∩ A ∩ B and A · B = A ∩ B.

**Show that if I has two elements then R ∼ Z2 ⊕ Z2 . = (b) Show that if I has three elements then R ∼ Z2 ⊕ Z2 ⊕ Z2 . =
**

(a) For both of these, one can merely construct multiplication- and addition tables and note that the rings behave in the same way. The multiplication- and addition tables for Q10 of 5.1.

R

in these two particualar cases were already constructed in

21. Let R1 , R2 , ..., Rn be commutative rings. Complete the proof of Proposition 5.2.8, to show that R = R1 ⊕ R2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rn is a commutative ring. Then × × show that R× ∼ R1 × R2 × · · · × Rn . = ×

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

17

(Group Property) Given by Proposition 3.3.4.

**R1 , ..., Rn . (1R1 , 1R2 , ..., 1Rn ) is obviously the identity element. (Distributivity) (r1 , ..., rn )[(s1 , ..., sn )+(t1 , ..., tn )] = (r1 , ..., rn )(s1 +t1 , ..., sn + tn ) = (r1 [s1 +t1 ], ..., rn [sn +tn ]) = (r1 s1 +r1 t1 , ..., rn sn +rn tn ) = (r1 , ..., rn )(s1 , ..., sn )+ (r1 , ..., rn )(t1 , ..., tn )
**

(Commutativity) Given by the commutativity of (Identity Element)

u = (u1 , ..., un ) ∈ R× . We must have uu−1 = 1R = (1R1 , ..., 1Rn ). Thus, (u1 , ..., un )u−1 = (1R1 , ..., 1Rn ). We see that because R1 , ..., Rn are commutative × −1 rings, this can only happen if ui ∈ Ri and u = (u−1 , ...u−1 ). Thus, R× ∼ = n 1 × × × R1 × R2 × · · · × Rn .

Let

22. Let R be an integral domain. Show that R contains a subring isomorphic to Zp for some prime number p if and only if char(R) = p.

char(R) = p ⇔ p · 1 = 0 ⇔< 1 >∼ Zp . = for some prime

p ⇔ 1 + 1 + · · · + 1 = 0 (p

terms)

23. Show that if R is an integral domain with characteristic p > 0, then for all a, b ∈ R we must have (a + b)p = ap + bp . Show by induction that we must n n n also have (a + b)p = ap + bp for all positive integers n.

p p−k k p p! a b = k=0 k!(p−k)! ap−k bk . k p! Clearly, k!(p−k)! will always yield a factor of p unless k = 0 or k = p. Thus, all the terms of the sum are 0 except for the terms where k = 0 or k = p. Thus, (a + b)p = ap + bp .

By the binomial theorem,

(a+b)p =

p k=0

We have established a basis for induction. Suppose the statement is true for all positive integers less than or equal to

N

(a + b)

5.3

p

p

= a

p

N

+b

p

N

p

= a

p

N

p

N.

Then,

+ b

p

N

p

(a + b)p

p

N +1

N +1

= (a + b)p

N +1

N

p

=

=a

+b

p

, as desired.

Ideals and Factor Rings

**1. Give a multiplication table for the ring Z2 [x]/ x2 + 1 .
**

We see that the relation

**Z2 [x]/ x2 + 1 = {ax + b|a, b ∈ Z2 } = {x + 1, x, 1, 0}. x + 1 = 0 to obtain the multiplication table.
**

2

We use

·

0 1

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1

x

0

x+1

0

x

1

x x+1

x x+1

x+1 x+1

0

x+1

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

18

**2. Give a multiplication table for the ring Z2 [x]/ x3 + x2 + x + 1 .
**

Z2 [x]/ x3 +x2 +x+1 = {ax2 +bx+c|a, b, c ∈ Z2 } = {0, 1, x, x+ 1, x , x + x, x + 1, x2 + x + 1}. We use the relation x3 + x2 + x + 1 = 0 to

We see that

2

2

2

obtain the multiplication table.

·

0 1

0 0

1 0 1

x

0

x+1

0

x2

0

x2 + x

0

x2 + 1

0

x2 + x + 1

0

x x+1 x2 2 x +x x2 + 1 2 x +x+1

x x2

x+1 x2 + x x2 + 1

x2 2 x +x+1 x+1

1

x2 + x x+1 x2 + 1 x2 + x x2 + 1

x2 + 1 x2 + 1

0

x2 + x + 1

1

x2 + 1

0 0

x2 + x x

0

x2 + 1 x2

Since the multiplication is commutative, the table is symmetric about the diagonal.

3. Let R be the ring Q[x]/ x3 + 2x2 − x − 3 . Describe the elements of R and give the formulas necessary to describe the product of any two elements.

We see that relations we can

Q[x]/ x3 + 2x2 − x − 3 = {rx2 + sx + t|r, s, t ∈ Q}. Using the x3 = −2x2 + x + 3 and x4 = x3 x = −2x3 + x2 + 3x = 5x2 + x − 6, nd the product of any two elements in R. (The back of the book gives

something less useful.)

**4. Give a multiplication table for the ring Z3 [x]/ x2 − 1 .
**

Z3 [x]/ x2 − 1 = {ax + b|a, b ∈ Z3 } = {0, 1, 2, x, x + 1, x + 2, 2x, 2x + 1, 2x + 2}. It is left to the reader to write out the table. Simply use 2 the relation x = 1 to simplify products.

We see that

5. Show that Q[x]/ x2 − 2 ∼ Q[x]/ x2 + 4x + 2 . =

φ : Q[x]/ x2 − 2 → Q[x]/ x2 + 4x + 2 via φ(f (x)) = f (x + 2). We 2 have seen from Q8 from 5.2 that φ is a homomorphism. We see that φ(x − 2) = 2 2 2 2 2 x +4x+2, so φ( x −2 ) = x +4x+2 . Thus, Q[x]/ x −2 ∼ Q[x]/ x +4x+2 =

Dene by Example 5.3.5.

6. Let R = F [x] and let I be any ideal of R. Prove that there is a unique monic polynomial f (x) with I = f (x) . (b) Prove that if I is a maximal ideal of R, then I = p(x) for some monic irreducible polynomial p(x).

(a)

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

19

F [x] is a principal ideal domain, we have that g(x) for some g(x) ∈ F [x]. Suppose g(x) = an xn + · · · a1 x + a0 . −1 Then, f (x) = an · g(x) is a unique monic polynomial with the same roots as g(x). Let h(x) ∈ F [x]. Then, if h(x)/g(x) = q(x) + r(x), then h(x)/f (x) = h(x)/(a−1 g(x)) = (h(x)/g(x)) · an = an q(x) + an r(x). Thus, the map φ : n F [x]/ g(x) → F [x]/ f (x) dened by φ(h(x)) = an h(x) gives a one-to-one, onto map which gives that F [x]/ g(x) ∼ F [x]/ f (x) . Thus, I = f (x) . =

(a) We know that since

I =

p(x)

F [x], then I = p(x) , where I is maximal, then p(x) is irreducible. Suppose, then, that p(x) is reducible. Then p(x) = f (x)g(x) for some f (x) = g(x) ∈ F [x]. Clearly, f (x)g(x) ⊂ g(x) , f (x) . Thus, I is not

(b) From (a), we know that if is an ideal of is monic. Thus, we only need to show that if maximal.

I

**7. Show that the intersection of two ideals of a commutative ring is again an ideal.
**

J are ideals of the commutative ring R. Then, let x, y ∈ I ∩ J x ± y ∈ I ∩ J since x ± y ∈ I and x ± y ∈ J (by denition of ideal). We also see that r · x ∈ I ∩ J : since x ∈ I and I is an ideal, r · x ∈ I ; also, r · x ∈ J since J is an ideal. Thus, I ∩ J is an ideal.

Suppose

I

and

and

r ∈ R.

Then

**8. Show that if R is a nite ring, then every prime ideal is maximal.
**

Let I be a prime ideal of R. Suppose that J is an ideal of R such that I ⊆ J ⊆ R. Let j ∈ J . Since R is nite, there must be n > m ∈ Z+ so that j m = j n . Thus, j m − j n = 0 ∈ I . This implies that j m (1 − j n−m ) ∈ I . Now, m since I is prime, this implies that either j ∈ I or (1 − j n−m ) ∈ I . If j m ∈ I , m−1 then we have jj ∈ I , implying that j ∈ I or j m−1 ∈ I . If j ∈ I , then I = J m−1 and the problem is solved. Let us suppose that j ∈ I . Thus, jj m−2 ∈ I . m−2 Again, either j ∈ I , or j ∈ I . Continuing this factorization, we get that jj m−(m−1) = jj ∈ I which implies j ∈ I . Thus, j ∈ I and I = J . n−m If (1 − j ) ∈ I , then j m (1 − j n−m ) = 0 ∈ I (remembering that j m = j n ). m n−m Now, j (1 − j ) − (1 − j n−m ) = (j m − 1)(1 − j n−m ) = j m − j n − 1 + j n−m = n−m j − 1 ∈ I (by the closure property. Note that j m (1 − j n−m ) − (1 − j n−m ) = −(1 − j n−m ). Thus, j m − 1 = −1, showing that j m = 0 ∈ I . Then, by the argument in the previous paragraph, j ∈ I . Thus, I = J . [Somehow I think that something is wrong with this paragraph, but I can't nd any invalid statement.]

**9. Find a nonzero prime ideal of Z ⊕ Z that is not maximal.
**

I = pZ⊕Z where p is prime. Then, I is a prime ideal since (a, b)·(c, d) ∈ I a = kp or b = kp for some k ∈ Z. Thus, I is prime. We will show (Q25) that the only possible prime ideals are those of the form pZ ⊕ Z where p is prime. However, (Z ⊕ Z)/(pZ ⊕ Z) ∼ Zp which is a eld, so the ideal =

Let implies that

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

20

is maximum.

Z/(0 ⊕ Z) ∼ Z =

Thus, the only nonmaximal primes are which is not a eld.

0⊕Z

or

Z⊕0

since

10. Let P be a prime ideal of the commutative ring R. Prove that I and J are ideals of R and I ∩ J ⊆ P , then either I ⊆ P or J ⊆ P .

Supposee that there are and since

x ∈ I, y ∈ J

such that

are ideals, they have the absorption property and so

P

is prime, this implies that

x∈P

or

x, y ∈ P . Then, since I and J / xy ∈ I ∩ J . But I ∩ J ⊆ P y ∈ P . Contradiction.

11. Let R be a commutative ring, with a ∈ R. The dened by Ann(a) = {x ∈ R|xa = 0}. Prove that Ann(a) is an ideal of R.

annihilator

of a is

Let x, y ∈ Ann(a). Then, (x ± y) · a = xa ± ya = 0 ± 0 = 0. x ± y ∈ Ann(a). Let r ∈ R and x ∈ Ann(a). Then, (r · x) · a = r · 0 = 0. rx ∈ Ann(a). Thus, Ann(a) is an ideal.

Thus, Thus,

an = 0 for some positive integer n. (a) Show that the set N of all nilpotent elements of a commutative ring forms

12. Recall that an element of a commutative ring is said to be nilpotent if

an ideal of the ring. (b) Show that R/N has no nonzero nilpotent elements. (c) Show that N ⊆ P for each prime ideal P of R.

(a) Let

x, y ∈ N .

Then,

**xm = y n = 0 for some m, n ∈ Z+ .
**

Now,

Suppose, without

loss of generality, that

m ≥ n.

(x±y)

mn

=

mn k k=0 (−1)

mn mn−k k x y = k

m(n−1) (−1)k k=0

that both sums Thus,

mn mn−k k mn mn−k k mn x y + k=m(n−1)+1 (−1)k x y . We see k k k k are zero since x = 0 for all k > m and y = 0 for all k > n. r∈R

and

x ± y ∈ N. x ∈ N.

Then,

Next, suppose

(r · x)m = rm xm = r · 0 = 0.

Thus,

rx ∈ N .

Thus,

N

is an ideal.

(b) Let

m∈Z

+

.

x + N ∈ R/N be such that (x + N )m = xm + N = N for some m m Since x + N = N if and only if x = 0, this implies that R/N has

no nonzero nilpotent elements. (c) Let ideals

x ∈ N . Then, xm = 0 for some m ∈ Z+ . P , so 0 = x · xm−1 ∈ P , implying that x ∈ P .

Then,

0∈P

for all prime

**13. Let R be a commutative ring with ideals I, J . Let
**

I + J = {x ∈ R|x = a + b for some a ∈ I, b ∈ J}.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

21

(a) (b)

Show that I + J is an ideal. Determine nZ + mZ in the ring of integers.

Then,

x, y ∈ I + J . Then, x = a + b and y = c + d for a, c ∈ I and b, d ∈ J . x ± y = (a ± c) + (b ± d). Since a ± c ∈ I and b ± d ∈ J , we have x ± y ∈ I + J. Next, let r ∈ R and x ∈ I + J where x = a + b with a ∈ I and b ∈ J . Then, r · x = r(a + b) = ra + rb. Since I and J are ideals, ra ∈ I and rb ∈ J . Thus, rx ∈ I + J . Thus, I + J is an ideal.

(a) Let

(b) Suppose that gcd(n, m) = d. Then, n = dq1 and m = dq2 . Then, let rdq1 + sdq2 ∈ nZ + mZ where r, s ∈ Z. Then, rdq1 ∈ dZ and sdq2 ∈ dZ, so nZ + mZ ⊆ dZ. Since d = gcd(m, n), we have d = rm + sn for some r, s ∈ Z. Thus, d ∈ nZ + mZ. Thus, mZ + nZ = gcd(m, n)Z.

**14. Let R be a commutative ring with ideals I, J . Let
**

n

IJ =

i=1

(a) (b)

ai bi |ai ∈ I, bi ∈ J, n ∈ Z+

.

Show that IJ is an ideal contained in I ∩ J . Determine (nZ)(mZ) in the set of integers.

Since

x, y ∈ IJ . Then, x ± y = ai bi ± aj bj ∈ IJ . Thus, x ± y ∈ IJ . ai bi ∈ I ∩ J for all i, we also have x ± y ∈ I ∩ J . Next, let r ∈ R and x = ai bi ∈ IJ . Then, rx = rai bi . Since I and J are ideals, we have rai ∈ I for all ai , so rx ∈ IJ . On the other hand, rbi ∈ J for all bi , so rx ∈ I ∩ J as well.

(a) Let (b) Suppose that Clearly

x∈

N i=1 ri nsi m where mnZ. Thus, (mZ)(nZ) ⊆ mnZ.

x=

ri , si ∈ Z.

Then,

x = mn

ri si .

Next, suppose x ∈ mnZ. x = (km)(1 · n) ∈ (mZ)(nZ). Thus, (mZ)(nZ) = mnZ.

Then Thus,

x = kmn for some k ∈ Z. mnZ ⊆ (mZ)(nZ).

We could write

**15. Let M = {f (x, y) ∈ F [x, y]|f (0, 0) = 0} be the maximal ideal of F [x, y] dened in Example 5.3.8. (a) Show that M = {s(x, y)x + t(x, y)y|s(x, y), t(x, y) ∈ F [x, y]}. 2 (b) Using the denition in Exercise 14, nd M .
**

(a) Since [s(x, y)x+t(x, y)y](0,0) = 0, we clearly have {s(x, y)x+t(x, y)y|s, t ∈ F [x, y]} ⊆ M .

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

22

Next, if

f (0, 0) = 0,

then the constant term of

f

must be zero.

Hence,

collect all the terms divisible by (which must be divisible by set. Call the rst expression

x

into one set of brackets and everything else

y since the constant term is zero) into another s(x, y)x and the second expression t(x, y)y . Thus,

**f (x, y) = s(x, y)x + t(x, y)y . M 2 = (s1,i (x, y)x+t1,i (x, y)y)(s2,i (x, y)x+t2,i (x, y)y) = [s1,i (x, y)s2,i (x, y)x2 + (s1,i (x, y)t2,i (x, y) + t1,i (x, y)s2,i (x, y))xy + t1,i (x, y)t2,i (x, y)y 2 ]. Not that there 2 is no constant term. Thus, M = M .
**

(b)

16. Let R = {m+n 2|m, n ∈ Z} and let I = {m+n 2|m, n ∈ Z and m is even}. (a) Show that I is an ideal of R. (b) Find the well-known commutative ring to which R/I is isomorphic.

√ √ √ x = 2a + b 2, y = 2c + d √2 ∈ I . Then x ± y = 2(a ± c) + (b ± d) 2. √ Thus, x ± y ∈ I . Then, if x = 2a + b 2 ∈ I and r = c + d 2 ∈ R, we have rx = √ √ √ √ (2a+b 2)(c+d 2) = 2ac+4bd+(2ad+bc) 2 = 2(ac+2bd)+(2ad+bc) 2 ∈ I . Thus, I is an ideal.

(a) Let (b) Let us nd the congruence classes. in

√

√

I,

so anything of the form

two classes that partition √ φ(2a + 1 + b 2) = [1]2 . Then, this is clearly one-to-one and onto. We only √ √ √ really need to show that [(2a + 1) + b 2][(2c + 1) + d 2] = (2e + 1) + f 2, see that the multiplication- and addition tables for Thus,

(2a + 1) + b 2 is not. These are clearly the only √ R. Dene φ : R → Z2 via φ(2a + b 2) = [0]2 and

√

Anything of the form

√ 2a + b 2

is

which will be left to the reader (we have shown everything else). Then we will

R/I ∼ Z2 . =

R

are the same as for

Z2 .

17. Let R be the set of all matrices over Q such that a = d and c d c = 0. (a) Verify that R is a commutative ring. (b) Let I be the set of all matrices for which a = d = 0. Show that I is an ideal of R. (c) Use the fundamental homomorphism theorem for rings to show that R/I ∼ Q. =

(a) (Closure of +) Given since

a

b

Q

is closed under +.

(Associativity) Given since + is associative in (Zero element)

Q. a c b d + 0 0 0 0 =

0 0

0 0

is the zero element since

a c

b d

.

(Additive Inverses)

−a −c

−b −d

is the additive inverse of

a c

b d

.

(Commutativity of +) Given since + is commutative in

Q.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

23

(Commutativity of ·)

a 0

b a

·

c d 0 c

=

ac ad + bc 0 ac

=

c d 0 c

·

a b 0 b

.

(Unity element)

1 0

0 1

is the unity element.

(Distributivity) Given because matrix multiplication is distributive. Thus,

R

is a commutative ring with

1=

1 0

0 1

.

(b) Let

I. I

Now, let is an ideal

**0 a 0 b 0 a 0 b 0 a±b , ∈ I . Then, ± = ∈ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c d c d 0 a 0 ac ∈ R. Then, · = ∈ R. Thus, 0 c 0 c 0 0 0 0 of R. φ : R → Q b a
**

by

(c) Dene

φ

a b 0 a

= a.

Clearly,

φ(R) = Q.

Also,

ker φ =

a 0

∈R a=0

. Clearly, so

ker φ = I . R/I ∼ Q. =

By the fundamental ho-

momorphism theorem,

R/ ker φ ∼ φ(R), =

18. Let R be a commutative ring with ideals I, J such that I ⊆ J ⊆ R. (a) Show that J/I is an ideal of R/I , (b) Show that the factor ring (R/I)/(J/I) is isomorphic to R/J . (c) Show that J/I is a prime (or maximal) ideal of R/I if and only if J is a prime (or maximal) ideal of R.

Since

**a + I, b + I ∈ J/I . Then, (a + I) ± (b + I) = (a ± b) + I = c + I ∈ J/I . R/I = {x + I|x ∈ R}, we know (a + I) ± (b + I) ∈ R/I . Next, suppose r ∈ R. Then, r(a + I) = ra + I ∈ R/I .
**

(a) Let

projection mapping.) Then, since

π(r + I) = r + J . (This is the natural I ⊆ J ⊆ R, we know that the map is onto, so π(R/I) = R/J . Also, the elements that are mapped to zero (aka J ) are the elements of the form j + I , where j ∈ J . These are precisely the elements from J/I . Thus, ker π = J/I . Then, by the fundamental theorem of homomorphisms, we have (R/I)/(J/I) ∼ R/J . =

(b) Let be dened by

π : R/I → R/J

(c) (Prime) (⇐) Suppose that J is a prime ideal of R and that we have (a + I)(b + I) = ab + I ∈ J/I . Since ab + I ∈ J/I , we have ab ∈ J and we know that a ∈ J or b ∈ J . Thus, a + I ∈ J/I or b + I ∈ J/I . Thus, J/I is a prime ideal of R/I . (⇒) Suppose that J is not a prime ideal of R. Then, there are x, y ∈ R such that xy ∈ J , yet x ∈ J and y ∈ J . Then, xy + I = (x + I)(y + I) ∈ J/I , yet / / since x, y ∈ J , we know that (x + I), (y + I) ∈ J/I . / /

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

24

(Maximal) By the correspondence theorem, we know that there is a one-toone correspondence between the ideals of

I.

to

We showed in (a) that

J/I

is an ideal of

R/I and the ideals of R that contain R/I , so then this ideal corresponds

π −1 (J/I) = J . (⇐) Suppose that J is maximal and that K is an ideal of R such that K ⊇ J/I . Then, we know that π −1 (J/I) = J , and since K ⊇ J/I , π −1 (K) ⊇ J . −1 Since J is maximal, we have π (K) = J , and so K = J/I . (⇒) Suppose that J is not maximal and that K ⊇ J/I is an ideal of R/I −1 with k ∈ K , but k ∈ J/I . Then, π / (k) ∈ J and since π −1 (K) ⊇ J (since / −1 K ⊇ J/I ), we conclude that π (K) J . Thus, J is not maximal.

19. Use Exercise 18 together with Proposition 5.3.9 to determine all prime ideals and all maximal ideals of Zn .

By Q18, is a prime Thus, the prime ideals of maximal ideals.

I/nZ is a prime ideal of Z/nZ if and only if I is a prime ideal of Z. Z/nZ = Zn are the ideals of the form p /nZ where p number. Since in Z, prime = maximal, we have also found all of the

20. In the ring Z[i] of Gaussian integers, let p be the ideal generated by a prime number. Show that Z[i]/ p has p2 elements, and has characteristic p.

we can show this, then clearly

Z[i]/ p has the form [a]p + i[b]p . If |Z[i]/ p | = p2 and char(Z[i]/ p ) = p. Now, all multiples of p are in p . We know that any number without an imaginary part which is not divisible by p is of the form [a]p , which are not in p , and so form separate equivalence classes. Similarly, pure imaginary numbers form classes of the form i[b]p . Finally, combinations of two classes of these types are also not in p and so form even more congruence classes. This combination completely classies all of Z[i] into congruence classes. Thus, any number in Z[i]/ p has the form [a]p + i[b]p , so our conclusion follows.

We want to show that any element in

21. In the ring Z[i] of Gaussian integers nd necessary and sucient conditions on integers m and n for the element m + ni to belong to the ideal 1 + 2i . Use these conditions to determine the ideal 1 + 2i ∩ Z of Z.

form

1 + 2i = Z[i] · (1 + 2i). Thus, any element in 1 + 2i must have (a + ib)(1 + 2i) = a − 2b + i(2a + b), where a, b ∈ Z. Clearly, 1 + 2i ∩ Z contains precisely the elements of the form a − 2b where 2a + b = 0. This implies that b = −2a, so elements must have the form a − 2(−2a) = a + 4a = 5a. Thus, 1 + 2i ∩ Z = 5Z.

Recall that

22. In the ring Z[i] of Gaussian integers, show that the ideal 5 − i is not a prime ideal.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

25

5−i = (1−i)(3+2i). We need to check that 1−i, 3+2i ∈ 5−i . / 5 − i has elements of the form (a + ib)(5 − i) = (5a + b) + i(5b − a). If 1 − i ∈ 5 − i , we would have to have a, b ∈ Z such that 5a + b = 1 and 2 3 5b − a = −1. This implies that a = 13 and b = − 13 . Since neither is in Z, we conclude that 1 − i ∈ 5 − i . / Now, if 3 + 2i ∈ 5 − i , we would have to have a, b ∈ Z such that 5a + b = 3 1 and 5b − a = 2. This implies that a = b = 2 . Again, we conclude that 3 + 2i ∈ 5 − i . / Now, we have found that (1 − i)(3 + 2i) = (5 − i) ∈ 5 − i , but 1 − i, 3 + 2i ∈ / 5 − i . Thus, 5 − i is not a prime ideal.

We see that We see that

23. Let R be the set of all continuous functions from the set of real numbers into itself. In Exercise 13 of Section 5.1, we have shown that R is a commutative ring if the following formulas

(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) and (f · g)(x) = f (x)g(x)

for all x, are used to dene addition and multiplication of functions. Let a be a xed real number, and let I be the set of all functions f (x) ∈ R such that f (a) = 0. Show that I is a maximal ideal of R.

f (x), g(x) ∈ I . Then, (f ± g)(x) = f (x) ± g(x). We (f ± g)(0) = 0 ± 0 = 0. Thus, (f ± g)(x) ∈ I . Let h(x) ∈ R. Then, (h · f )(x) = h(x)f (x). We see that (h · f )(0) = h(0) · 0 = 0. Thus, (h · f )(x) ∈ I . (I is maximal) We see that I is the set of polynomials with constant term equal to 0. Thus, if we take the factor ring R/I we obtain the polynomials over R which only have constant terms. To see this, note that we obtain an element of R by taking an element of I and adding a real number. Thus, any element of R is of the form a + I , where a ∈ R. This ring is isomorphic to R (by the natural mapping φ(a + I) = a), which is a eld. Thus, since R/I ∼ R, by = Proposition 5.3.9, I is maximal.

(I is an ideal) Let see

24. Let I be the smallest ideal of Z[x] that contains both 2 and x. Show that I is not a principal ideal.

The smallest ideal that contains 2 and is the smallest ideal that contains fewest number of elements.) Now,

x

is

2 ∩ x

.

(We know that

a

a.

We have also shown that the intersection

of two ideals is an ideal, and we know that the intersection will give us the

2 = {f (x) ∈ Z[x]|all coecients are even} x = {f (x) ∈ Z[x]|f (x) has no constant term}. Thus, 2 ∩ x = {f (x) ∈ Z[x]|f (x) has even coecients with no constant term}. Now, 2 ∈ 2 ∩ x , so if 2 ∩ x is a principal ideal, we must have f (x) ∈ Z[x] such that 2 ∈ f (x) . This would imply that deg f (x) = 0. But then, such an f (x) would be unable to generate x ∈ 2 ∩ x . The reason this fails is because Z does not have multiplicative inverses, so ax · b = x for any a, b ∈ Z.

and

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

26

25. Let R and S be commutative rings, let I be an ideal of R, and let J be an ideal of S . (a) Show that I ⊕ J as an ideal of R ⊕ S . (b) Show that (R ⊕ S)/(I ⊕ J) ∼ (R/I) ⊕ (S/J). = (c) Show that I ⊕ J is a prime ideal of R ⊕ S if and only if either I = R and J is a prime ideal of S , or else I is a prime ideal of R and J = S . (d) Show that if K is any ideal of R ⊕ S , then there exists an ideal I of R and an ideal J of S such that K = I ⊕ J .

(a) Let

I

and

since

(a, b), (c, d) ∈ I ⊕ J . Then, (a, b) ± (c, d) = (a ± c, b ± d) ∈ I ⊕ J , since J are ideals. Next, let (r, s) ∈ R ⊕ S . Then, (r, s)(a, b) = (ra, sb) ∈ I ⊕ J I, J are ideals. Thus, I ⊕ J is an ideal of R ⊕ S .

(b) Dene φ : R ⊕ S → (R/I) ⊕ (S/J) via φ(r, s) = (r + I, s + J). Clearly, φ(R ⊕ S) = (R/I) ⊕ (S/J). The elements that are mapped to 0 (aka (I, J)) are any element of the form (i, j) where i ∈ I and j ∈ J . Thus, ker φ = I ⊕ J . By the fundamental theorem for homomorphisms, we have (R ⊕ S)/(I ⊕ J) ∼ = (R/I) ⊕ (S/J). (c) By Proposition 5.3.9, I ⊕ J is a prime ideal of R ⊕ S if and only if (R ⊕ S)/(I ⊕ J) is an integral domain. By (b), (R ⊕ S)/(I ⊕ J) ∼ (R/I) ⊕ (S/J). = Thus, I ⊕ J is prime if and only if (R/I) ⊕ (S/J) is an integral domain. Now, for any I, J , we can always form the product (i, 1)(1, j) = (i, j) where i ∈ I , j ∈ J . This product will always be such that (i, 1)(1, j) ∈ I ⊕J , but (i, 1), (1, j) ∈ I ⊕J / unless 1 ∈ I (in which case I = R) or 1 ∈ J (in which case J = S ). Without loss of generality, suppose J = S . Then, (R ⊕ S)/(I ⊕ S) ∼ R/I ⊕ = S/S ∼ R/I . Thus, (R⊕S)/(I ⊕J) is an integral domain if and only if J = S and = R/I is an integral domain. This happens if and only if I is prime (Proposition 5.3.9) and J = S . (d) Suppose that

K

is an ideal of

(r, s) ∈ R ⊕ S ,

we must have

**R ⊕ S . Then, if (a, b), (c, d) ∈ K , and (a ± c, b ± d) ∈ K and (ra, sb) ∈ K . This implies I R
**

and

that the coordinates are closed under addition and enjoy the absorption property separately. Thus,

K =I ⊕J

for ideals

J

S.

26. Let R be the set of all rational numbers m/n such that n is odd. (a) Show that R is a subring of Q. k k (b) Let 2 R = {m/n ∈ R|m is a multiple of 2 and n is odd}, for any posik tive integer k. Show that 2 R is an ideal of R. k (c) Show that each proper nonzero ideal of R has the form 2 R, for some positive integer k. k (d) Show that R/2 R is isomorphic to Z2k . (e) Show that 2R is the unique maximal ideal of R.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

27

(a) Let

a R. If 2m+1

a(2n+1)+b(2m+1) b a b a = a(2n+1)+b(2m+1) 2m+1 , 2n+1 ∈ R. Then, 2m+1 + 2n+1 = (2m+1)(2n+1) 4mn+2(m+n)+1 a ∈ R, then clearly − 2m+1 ∈ R. Thus, R is a subring of Q.

∈

**m2k (2j+1)+ 2k (2n+1) 2k m2k 2k m2k Then, = 2n+1 , 2j+1 ∈ I . 2n+1 + 2j+1 = (2n+1)(2j+1) (2mj+m+2 n+ )2k 2mj2k +m2k +2 n2k + 2k a a = ∈ 2k R. If 2b+1 ∈ R, then 2b+1 · (2n+1)(2j+1) (2n+1)(2j+1) k k m2 am2 k k 2n+1 = 4bn+2(b+n)+1 ∈ 2 R. Thus, 2 R is an ideal of R.
**

(b) Let

m d where m and d are odd. Then, by the absorption property, we should be able to obtain any a element of R. For instance, if we wish to obtain the element b ∈ R where b is ad m a odd, we have the product · d = b . Thus, I = R. mb

(c) Suppose

I

is an ideal of

R

that contains the element

(d) We see that

2k R

is a principal ideal (as its notation suggests).

Now,

let us determine the cosets of

r ∈ R ∩ 2k , then r = s2k , where k s ∈ 2 . Otherwise, by the division algorithm, r = qs2k + r , where 1 ≤ r < 2k . Based on the value for r , we nd the coset for any r ∈ R. Use the mapping φ(r + 2k R) = [r]2k to see that R/2k R ∼ Z2k . =

. If (e) We have found that the only ideals of

2k

R

k 2R ⊇ 4R ⊇ · · · ⊇ 2 R ⊇ · · · . (For instance m2 n Thus, 2R is the unique maximal ideal.

k

**2k R for some k . Clearly, k k−1 ∈ 2R since m2 = 2 · m2n .) n 1
**

are

5.4

Quotient Fields

The notation

a b ∼ is equivalent to [a, b]∼ . They both refer to the equivalence relation that builds Q(D) for an integral domain

Notational convention:

D.

**1. Complete the proof of Lemma 5.4.3, to show that multiplication of equivalence classes in Q(D) is well-dened.
**

p1 p2 ···pk m a b = p1 p2 ···pk n ∈ (p1 ···pk )(q1 ···qn )mr mr (p1 ···pk )(q1 ···qn )ns ∈ ns ∼

Let

m c n ∼, d = m ∼ n

= ·

q1 q2 ···q r q1 q2 ···q s

∈

r s ∼.

Then,

a b

·

c d

=

ac bd

=

r s ∼.

Q(D).

**2. Show that the associative and commutative laws hold for addition in
**

(Associative)

a b ∼

+

e f

c d ∼

+

e f

=

a b ∼

+

cf +ed df

∼

=

adf +b(cf +ed) bdf

∼

.

(1)

e = ad+bc ∼ + f bd ∼ ∼ We see that (1) = (2), so + is associative. c ad+bc a (Commutative) = b ∼+ d ∼ = bd ∼ + is commutative. a b ∼

+

c d ∼

+

=

f (ad+bc)+ebd bdf

∼

. (2)

bc+ad db ∼

=

c d ∼

+

a b ∼ . Thus,

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

28

**3. Show that the associative and commutative laws hold in Q(D).
**

(Associative)

a b ∼

·

c d ∼

·

e f

∼

=

a b ∼

·

ce df

∼

=

ace bdf

∼

=

ac bd ∼

·

e f

c e = a ∼· d ∼ · f . b ∼ ∼ a c (Commutative) b ∼· d ∼

=

ac bd ∼

=

ca db ∼

=

c d ∼

·

a b ∼.

**4. Let φ : D → Q(D) be the mapping φ(D) = [d, 1] dened in Theorem 5.4.4. Show that φ is an isomorphism if and only if D is a eld.
**

(⇒)

If

φ

is an isomorphism, then every element in

Q(D)

d 1

can be written as

d 1 ∼ . Now,

Q(D)

d 1

is a eld, so for any

d 1 ∼

∈ Q(D),

we must have

d 1

∼

∈

Q(D)

such that

·

d 1

=

dd 1

=

1 1 . Thus, for any

∈ Q(D),

we have

1 = φ−1

= φ−1 d · d = φ−1 d · φ−1 d = d · d . Thus, any d ∈ D 1 1 1 1 has an inverse, so D is a eld. (⇐) If D is a eld, then D contains all inverses. (1-1) φ is a direct map and is thus one-to-one. x (Onto) Let y ∈ D . Since the numerators and denominators come from D ,

1 1

a eld, this expression is equivalent to (Preservation)

φ(x + y) =

x+y 1

φ(xy) = xy = x · = φ(x)φ(y). 1 1 = x + y = φ(x) + φ(y). 1 1

x y y 1

=

x 1

·

y −1 1

= φ(xy −1 ).

**ˆ 5. In Theorem 5.4.6, verify that θ is a one-to-one ring homomorphism.
**

a ˆ c = θ d . This means that θ(a)θ(b)−1 = θ(c)θ(d)−1 . b −1 Now, F is a eld, so the previous equality is the same as θ(c) θ(b)−1 = θ(a)−1 θ(d)−1 ⇔ θ−1 (cb) = θ−1 (ad). Since θ is one-to-one, this implies cb = ad. a c ad−bc 0 c Thus, = bd = [0]. Thus, a = d . b − d = bd b ˆ a + c = θ ad+bc = θ(ad + bc)θ(bd)−1 = (θ(ad) + ˆ (Preservation of +) θ b d bd −1 −1 −1 −1 −1

(1-1) Suppose

ˆ θ

θ(bc))θ(bd) = (θ(a)θ(d) + θ(b)θ(c)) θ(b) θ(d) = θ(a)θ(b) + θ(c)θ(d) ˆ ˆ c =θ a +θ d . b ˆ ˆ a · c = θ ac = θ(ac)θ(bd)−1 = θ(a)θ(c)θ(b)−1 θ(d)−1 = (Preservation of ·) θ b d bd a ˆ c −1 −1 ˆ θ(a)θ(b) θ(c)θ(d) = θ θ .

b d

6. Let D1 and D2 be integral domains, with quotient elds Q(D1 ) and Q(D2 ), respectively. Let θ : D1 → D2 be a ring homomorphism. (a) Prove that if θ is one-to-one, then there exists a ring homomorphism ˆ ˆ θ : Q(D1 ) → Q(D2 ) such that θ([d, 1]) = [θ(d), 1] for all d ∈ D1 . (b) Prove that if θ is not one-to-one, then it is impossible to nd a ring ˆ homomorphism θ : Q(D1 ) → Q(D2 ) that satises the conditions of part (a).

(a) (Identity)

ˆ θ

1 1

=

θ(1) 1

=

1 1

since

θ

is a homomorphism.

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

29

(Preservation of +)

ˆ θ

a 1

+

c 1

ˆ = θ

a+c 1

=

θ(a+c) 1

=

θ(a)+θ(c) 1

=

θ(a) 1

+

θ(c) 1

ˆ ˆ = θ(a) + θ(c). ˆ ·) θ

a 1

(Preservation of

·

b 1

ˆ = θ

ab 1

=

θ(ab) 1

=

θ(a) 1

·

θ(b) 1

=

ˆ ˆ θ(a)θ(b).

(b) If Then,

θ

x 1

is not one-to one, then there are

x = y ∈ D1

such that

θ(x) = θ(y).

and

ˆ θ

+

y 1

=

θ(x+y) 1

= 2

θ(x) , but since 1

x = y , x + y = 2x

ˆ θ

x+y 1

=

θ(x+y) 1

=2

θ(x) . 1

7. Determine Q(D) for D = {m + n 2|m, n ∈ Z}.

For every

√

√ a + b 2 ∈ D,

√ c−d 2 2 −2d2 c

we must introduce the elements

√ a+b 2 1

and

1√ . a+b 2

pression

For two elements

√ a−b 2 2 −2b2 a

+

√ ∈ Q[ 2].

1√ a+b 2

+

1√ , we have the equivalent exc+d 2

Thus,

√ r + s ∈ Q[ 2]

Also, doing the same sort of trickery, we easily see that

rs ∈ Q(D).

Thus,

√ Q(D) = Q[ 2].

r, s ∈ Q(D). √ rs ∈ Q[ 2] for all

for all

**8. Let p be a prime number and let D = {m/n|m, n ∈ Z and p n}. Verify that D is an integral domain and nd Q(D).
**

n mn m q1 p+r1 · q2 p+r2 = (q1 p+r1 )(q2 p+r2 ) m only way this can happen is if one of m or n is 0, in which case q p+r

(D is an integral domain) Let would be 0. Thus,

= 0.

1

The

D

1

or

n q2 p+r2

**is an integral domain.
**

β β

1 pi = p for all i, the element p must be introduced to Q(D). This means that Q(D) must have elements whose denominator can contain any power of p. Since D already has elements that can contain other primes, we simply have Q(D) = Q.

p p1 1 ···pkk For the element , where α p1 1 ···pαn n

9. Determine Q(D) for D = {m + ni|n, m ∈ Z} ⊆ C.

Very similar to Q7,

Q(D) = Q[i].

**10. Considering Z[x] as a subring of Q[x], show that both rings have the same quotient elds.
**

Q(Z[x]) ∈ Q(Z[x]) for all n, k ∈ Z. Then, since m k n x ∈ Q(Z[x]) for all m, n, k ∈ Z. We now see that Q[x] ⊆ Q(Z[x]). Since Q(Z[x]) is a eld, it must contain all of the inverses for Q[x]. Thus, Q(Q[x]) ⊆ Q(Z[x]). On the other hand, we have that Z[x] ⊆ Q[x], so by the same argument about Q(Q[x]) being a eld, we have Q(Z[x]) ⊆ Q(Q[x]). Thus, Q(Z[x]) = Q(Q[x]).

Since surely

1 k nx is a eld, this implies that

nxk ∈ Z[x],

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

30

**11. Show that if P is a prime ideal of D, then DP = {a/b ∈ Q(D)|b ∈ P } / is an integral domain with D ⊆ DP ⊆ Q(D).
**

(DP is an integral domain) Suppose that

P

is an ideal,

0 ∈ P,

so neither

domain, we cannot have integral domain, either

c d

b nor d bd = 0 since b, d = 0. Thus, ac = 0 and since D is an a = 0 (in which case a = [0]) or c = 0 (in which case b

a c ac b · d = bd = [0]. Now, since can equal 0. Also, since D is an integral

be

DP is an integral domain. DP ⊆ Q(D), since the elements come from Q(D). Let a ∈ D . Then, by denition of DP , a ∈ DP . Thus, D ⊆ DP . worth pointing out that 1 ∈ P since P is an ideal.) /

Thus, Clearly,

= [0]).

(It might

12. In the ring DP dened in Exercise 11, let M = {a/b ∈ DP |a ∈ P }. (a) Show that M is an ideal of DP . (b) Show that DP /M ∼ Q(R/P ), and conclude that M is a maximal ideal = of DP .

(a) Let an ideal,

p1 q1

,

p2 q2

∈ M.

Then, and so

p1 q1 p1 q1

± ±

p2 q2 p2 q2

so

=

p1 q2 ±p2 q1 . q1 q2

If

Since

P

is

p1 q2 ± p2 q1 ∈ P ,

dp q q . Since

∈ M.

d q

d q

∈ DP ,

Thus,

then

d q

·

p q

an ideal

= of DP .

P

is an ideal,

dp ∈ P ,

·

p q

∈ M.

M

is

(b) I can only assume that there was a misprint in this question as dened. My best guess is that If that is the case, dene

R

is not

R φ

should be

D.

We need to show that

a b

=

a+P b+P .

φ

is a

a c homomorphism. First, if b, d

Also,

∈ DP ,

c+P d+P ac+P bd+P

then

φ

a b

+

c d

=φ

ad+bc bd

= = +φ

ad+bc+P . bd+P ad+bc+P . bd+P c d . Thus,

φ

a b

+φ

a b

c d c d

=

a+P b+P ac bd

+ =

= =

(d+P )(a+P )+(b+P )(c+P ) (b+P )(d+P ) a+P b+P

Thus, + is preserved. Next,

φ

·

·

is preserved.

=φ Thus, φ

·

c+P d+P

=φ

a b

is a homomorphism.

We see that the elements that get mapped to 0 (which is to say that the numerator of the function value is bers of

P.

This set is precisely

homomorphisms, we see that

P ) are the ones whose numerators are memM . Thus, by the fundamental theorem for DP /M ∼ Q(D/P ). =

13. Let R be a commutative ring. A on R is a function ∂ : R → R such that (i) ∂(x+y) = ∂(x)+∂(y) and (ii) ∂(xy) = ∂(x)y+x∂(y). Show that if ∂ is a derivation on an integral domain D with quotient eld Q(D), then ∂ can be extended to a derivation ∂ of Q(D) by dening ∂(a/b) = (b∂(a) − a∂(b))/b2 for all a, b ∈ D with b = 0.

derivation

CHAPTER 5.

COMMUTATIVE RINGS

31

c a ad+bc = bd∂(ad+bc)−(ad+bc)∂(bd) = bd[∂(ad)+∂(bc)]−(ad+bc)[d∂(b)+b∂(d)] = b + d =∂ bd b2 d2 b2 d2 2 2 [bda∂(d)+bd ∂(a)+b d∂(c)+bdc∂(b)]−[ad2 ∂(b)+adb∂(d)+bcd∂(b)+b2 c∂(d)] bd2 ∂(a)+b2 d∂(c)−ad2 ∂(b)−b2 c∂(d) = b2 d2 b2 d2 d2 [b∂(a)−a∂(b)]+b2 [d∂(c)−c∂(d)] . (1) b2 d2 2 2 b∂(a)−a∂(b) d∂(c)−c∂(d) a c Then, ∂ + = d [b∂(a)−a∂(b)]+b [d∂(c)−c∂(d)] b +∂ d = b2 d2 b2 d2 (2). Now, (1) = (2), so (i) is satided. bd∂(ac)−ac∂(bd) a c ac (ii) ∂ = bd[a∂(c)+c∂(a)]−ac[b∂(d)+d∂(b)] . (1) b · d = ∂ bd = b2 d2 b2 d2 b∂(a)−a∂(b) c a c a c a d∂(c)−c∂(d) Next, ∂ ·d+b· = c[b∂(a)−a∂(b)] + b · d + b ·∂ d = b2 d2 b2 d a[d∂(c)−c∂(d)] = cd[b∂(a)−a∂(b)]+ab[d∂(c)−c∂(d)] = bd[a∂(c)+c∂(a)]−ac[b∂(d)+d∂(b) . (2) bd2 b2 d2 b2 d2 Now, (1) = (2), so (ii) is satised. Thus, ∂ is a derivation on Q(D).

(i)

∂

=

14. Show that ∂ : Q[x] → Q[x] dened by ∂(f (x)) = f (x) for all f (x) ∈ Q[x] is a derivation. Describe the derivation ∂ dened on the quotient eld of Q[x].

We already know that ∂(f (x) + g(x)) = f (x) + g (x) and ∂(f (x)g(x)) = g(x)f (x) + f (x)g (x) from calculus. Thus, ∂ is a derivation of Q[x]. We have shown that Q(Q[x]) = Q(Z[x]), which is just the set of rational functions. Thus, is,

∂

f (x) g(x)

should be dened according to the ordinary quotient rule. That

∂

f (x) g(x)

=

g(x)f (x)−f (x)g (x) (g(x))2

=

g(x)∂(f (x))−f (x)∂(g(x)) . (g(x))2

Chapter 6

Fields

6.1 Algebraic Elements

(a)

√2 + √ n, for n ∈ Z √ (c) 3+ 5 √ (d) 2 + √3 (e) (−1 + √ √ 3i)/2 3 (f ) 2+ 2

(b) (a)

1. Show that the following complex numbers are algebraic over Q. √

√ x2 − 2 has √2 as a root. 2 (b) x − n has as √ √ √ n √ a root. 3 + 5. Then, x − 3 = 5. Squaring both sides, we get (c) Let x = √ √ x2 − 2 3x + 3 = 5 which is the same thing as x2 − 2 = 2 3x. Again, squaring 4 2 2 4 2 both sides, we get x − 4x + 4 = 12x . Thus, the polynomial x − 16x + 4 has √ √ 3 + 5 as a root. √ √ √ (d) Let x = 2 + 3. Then, x2 = 2 + 3, so x2 − 2 = 3. Squaring, √ x4 − 4x2 + 4 = 3. Thus, x4 − 4x2 + 1 has 2 + 3 as a root. √ i( 2π ) i( 2π ) 3 2πi 3 3 (e) Note that (−1+ 3i)/2 = e . Thus, if x = e , then x = e = 1. 3 Thus, x − 1 has the number as a root. √ √ 3 (f ) Let x = 2 + 2 = 21/3 + 21/2 . Then, x − 21/2 = 21/3 . Cubing, √ 2 √ √ √ x3 − 3 2x + 6x − 2 2 = 2. Thus, x3 + 6x − 2 = 3 2x2 + 2 2, so x3 + 6x − 2 = √ 2(3x2 + 2). 6 4 3 2 4 2 Squaring, we get x + 12x − 4x + 36x − 24x + 4 = 2(9x + 12x + 4). 6 4 3 2 Thus, x − 6x − 4x + 12x − 24x − 4 has the number as a root.

2. Let F be an extension eld of K , and let u be a nonzero element of F that is algebraic over K . Show that u−1 is also algebraic over K .

32

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

33

f (x) = an xn +· · ·+a1 x+a0 ∈ K[x] be such that f (u) = 0. Then, examine g(x) = a0 xn +· · ·+an−1 +an . (The coecients are in the reverse order.) We will n n −1 show that g(u ) = 0. If k=0 u−k an−k = 0, then surely un k=0 u−k an−k = n n−k 0. This is the same as k=0 u an−k which we are given to be equal to 0. Thus, n −k it must be true that our rst statement, an−k = 0, is true. (Note that k=0 u n n −k K[x] is an integral domain and so k=0 u an−k = 0 ⇔ un k=0 u−k an−k = 0 since u = 0.)

Let

3. Suppose that u is algebraic over the eld K , and that a ∈ K . Show that u + a is algebraic over K , nd its minimal polynomial over K , and show that the degree of u + a over K is equal to the degree of u over K .

It is pretty clear that if u ∈ F , we must have K(u) ⊆ F . So, since u + a = u + a · 1 ∈ K(u) (keeping in mind the notion of K(u) being a vector space 2 over K with basis {1, u, u , ...}), we see that u + a ∈ F . Furthermore, since K(u) = K(u + a), the degrees of the extension are also equal. However, since we have to nd the minimal polynomial anyway, we don't really need the preceeding argument. Note that

f (x)

has a root at

f (x + a) gives the graph of f (x) shifted left a units. Thus, if u, then f (x + a) has a root at u − a. We need to prove this,

though, since there is no notion of shifting left in the abstract setting. Suppose

f (x) = an xn + · · · + a1 x + a0 . Then, set f (x + a) = g(x) = an (x + a)n + · · · + a1 (x+a)+a0 . (This polynomial is still in K[x] since K[x] is a ring.) We see that g(u − a) = an (u − a + a)n + · · · + a1 (u − a + a) + a0 = an un + · · · + a1 u + a0 = 0. This proves that g(x) is the minimal polynomial, for if there were a polynomial h(x) of smaller degree for which h(u + a) = 0, we would see that h(x − a) has u as a root. Since f (x) was the minimal polynomial of u, we know that this is impossible. Thus, g(x) is the minimal polynomial and deg f = deg g . As such, [K(u) : K] = [K(u + a) : K].

4. Show that

We see that

√

√ 3 ∈ Q( 2). /

√ √ Q( 2) as a vector space over Q has a basis {1, 2}. Now, √ √ √ c suppose 3 ∈ Q( 2). Then 3 = a + d 2 for a, b, c, d ∈ Z. This means b 2√ √ a2 d2 √ − 2adb 3 +3d2 d( 3−a/b) that = 2. Squaring both sides, we get b2 = 2. Since c c √ √ √2 3 ∈ Q, we know that this is impossible. Thus, 3 ∈ Q( 2). / / √

**Show that f (x) = x3 + 3x + 3 is irreducible over Q. −1 (b) Let u be a root of f (x). Express u and (1+u)−1 in the form a+bu+cu2 where a, b, c ∈ Q.
**

(a) (a) By the rational root theorem, the only possible rational roots are

5.

±3 and

±1. Q.

By plugging these numbers in, we quickly see that

f (x)

is irreducible over

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

34

Q(u), we have u(a+bu+cu2 ) = 1. This gives au+bu2 +cu3 = 1. Since u + 3u + 3 = 0, we have u3 = −3(u + 1) and we obtain au + bu2 − 3cu − 3c = 1 1 2 or (a − 3c)u + bu − 3c = 1. Thus, −3c = 1 ⇒ c = − . Then, a − 3c = 0 ⇒ 3 1 1 a − 3 · − 3 = 0 ⇒ a + 1 = 0 ⇒ a = −1. Finally, b = 0. Thus, u−1 = −1 − 3 u2 . 2 3 2 In Q(u), we have (1+u)(a+bu+cu ) = 1. Thus, cu +(b+c)u +(a+b)u+a = 1. Exploiting the same relation as above, this gives (b + c)u2 + (a + b − 3c)u + a − 3c = 1. This implies that a = 4, b = −1, c = 1. Thus, (1 + u)−1 = 4 − u + u2 .

(b) In

3

**6. Show that the intersection of any collections of subelds is again a subeld.
**

{Fi } be a collection of subeld. Let x, y ∈ Fi . This y are in every Fi . Thus, x ± y ∈ Fi for all i. Next, if x ∈ Fi −1 for all i, then since Fi are elds, we must have x ∈ Fi for all i. Thus, Fi is a subeld of E .

Let

E

be a eld and

means that

x

and

7. Let F = K(u), where u is transcendental over the eld K . If E is a eld such that K ⊂ E ⊆ F , then show that u is algebraic over E .

To restate what is given, we have K E ⊆ K(u). Now, all elements in F = K(u) are of the form a0 + a1 u + a2 u2 + · · · where ai ∈ K . The elements n of K must not have u's. Since E = K , we must have b1 + b2 u + · · · + bn u ∈ E n where bi ∈ K . But, K(b1 + b2 u + · · · + bn u ) = K(u), so E = F , and obviously u would have to be algebraic over E .

8. Let F be an extension eld of K . (a) Show that F is a vector space over K . (b) Let u ∈ F . Show that u is algebraic over K if and only if the subspace spanned by {1, u, u2 , ...} is a eld.

(a) Since Since Since

F

is a eld, it is an abelian group under addition. Thus, i-v (the we know that

axioms for vector spaces are listed on page 458) are satised.

K ⊆ F,

k·f ∈ F

for all

k∈K

and

f ∈ F.

Thus, (vi)

is satised.

K ⊆ F and F is a eld (and thus · is associative), we have k1 (k2 f ) = k1 , k2 ∈ K and f ∈ F . Thus, (vii) is satised. Since K ⊆ F and F is a eld (and thus + distributes over ·), we have (k1 + k2 )f = k1 f + k2 f for k1 , k2 ∈ K and f ∈ F . Thus, (viii) is satised. (k1 k2 )f

for all For the same reasons, (ix) is satised. Since Thus,

**F is a eld, we must have 1 · f = f F is a vector space over K .
**

Suppose that

for all

f ∈ F.

Thus, (x) is satised.

n Then, let f (x) = x + · · · + K[x]/ f (x) ∼ K(u) is a eld. = n We know that K(u) is a vector space over K . It is clear that {1, u, ..., u } is a n basis for K(u). Thus, span{1, u, ..., u } = K(u).

(b) (⇒) a1 x + a0 be

u

is algebraic over

K.

the minimal polynomial of

u.

Then,

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

35

**(⇐) Suppose that span{1, u, u2 , ...} is 2 (1) {1, u, u , ...} is linearly independent or
**

pendent. In the case of (1), since span{1, u, u

a eld. (2)

There are two possibilities: is not linearly inde-

{1, u, u2 , ...}

, ...} is a eld, we must have elements a0 + a1 u + · · · + an u , b0 + b1 u + · · · + bm um ∈ span{1, u, u2 , ...} such that (a0 + a1 u + · · · + an un )(b0 + b1 u + · · · + bm um ) = c0 + c1 u + · · · + c u = 1. This would involve coecients of u terms multiplying to 0. However, the coecients come from K which is a eld, so multiplication of nonzero elements should never

n

equal 0. Contradiction. Thus, (1) is not possible. In the case of (2), then we know that there is

2

ki = 0

for some

i > 0.

Thus, the polynomial

k0 + k1 u + · · · + k u = 0 where k x + · · · + k1 x + k0 has u as a

root. Thus,

u

is algebraic over

K.

9. Let F be an extension eld of K . If u ∈ F is transcendental over K , then show that every element of K(u) that is not in K is also transcendental over K .

u = k0 + k1 u + · · · + kn un ∈ K(u) where ki = 0 for some i ≥ 1 (which is to say the element is from K(u) − K ). Suppose that u is algebraic over K . Then, there is some polynomial over K for which u is a root. But, if we take powers of u, we obtain an expression that has only powers of u. Thus, if we have a polynomial that has u as a root, there must be a polynomial that has u

Let as a root.

10. Let u and r be positive real numbers, with u = 1. It follows from a famous theorem of Gelfand and Schneider that if r is irrational and both u and r are algebraic over Q, then ur must be transcendental over Q. You may use this result √ show that the following numbers are transcendental over Q. to

(a) (b)

√ 3

7 √ √5 3 7 +7

√ √ √5 √ √ 5 3 7 = 37 . Both 7 and 5 are both well-known √ √5 3 so 7 is transcendental over Q. √ √5 3 proved that 7 was transcendental over Q, so by Q9

5

(a) We see that irrational numbers,

√ 3

√ 3

7

(b) We already √ √ √5 5 3

+7∈Q

7

−Q

is also transcendental.

**11. Show that there exist irrational numbers a, b ∈ R such that ab is rational.
**

√

We see that

(2

2

√

)

2

= 22 = 4 ∈ Q.

√

(Note that

2

2

is transcendental by

Q10 and is thus irrational.)

π · e is irrational.

12. Assuming that π is transcendental over Q, prove that either π + e or

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

36

π · e = a for a, b ∈ Z. Then, a ∈ Q, so a minimal polynomial b b c for π · e is p(x) = x − (π · e). Thus, we have πe ∈ Q(π)(e) = Q(π, e) and d πe ∈ Q. Thus, we have πe ∈ Q, but πe ∈ Q(π). This is imposssible since / Q ⊆ Q(π). Thus, e is irrational.

Suppose that

6.2

**Finite and Algebraic Extensions
**

If

Notational convention:

extesion) eld. Similarly, if

E is an extension eld of F , we say E/F is a(n V is a vector space over the eld F , we say V /F

is a vector space. This saves lots of unnecessary typing.

1. Find the degree and a basis for each of the given extensions. √ (a) Q( 3) over Q √ √ (b) Q( 3, 7) √ √ over Q (c) Q( 3 + √ √ 7) over Q 3 (d) Q( 2, 2) √ over Q √ 3 (e) Q( 2 + 2) over Q √ (f ) Q(ω) over Q, where ω = (−1 + 3i)/2

(a) Basis:

√ . {1, √3}√Degree: 2. √ (b) Basis: {1, 3, √ 7, √ 21}. Degree: 4. √ (c) Basis: {1, 3, 7, 21}. Degree: 4. 1/2 1/3 2/3 5/6 1/6 (d) Basis: {1, 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 }. 1/2 1/3 2/3 5/6 1/6 (e) Basis: {1, 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 }. i 2π −i 2π 3 }. Degree: 3. (f ) Basis: {1, e 3 , e

Degree: 6. Degree: 6.

2. Find the degree and a√ basis for each of the given eld extensions. √ √ (a) Q( 3, 21) over Q( √ 7) √ √ (b) Q( 3 + 7) over Q( 7)√ √ √ √ (c) Q( 3, 7) over Q( 3 + 7)

(a) Basis: (b) Basis: (c) Basis:

√ {1, √3}. Degree: {1, 3}. Degree: {1}. Degree: 1. √

2. 2.

**3. Find the degree of Q( 3 2, 4 5) over Q.
**

√ √ √ √ √ √ [Q( 3 2, 4 5) : Q] = [Q( 3 2) : Q][Q( 3 2, 4 5) : Q( 3 2)] = 3 · 4 = 12.

√

**4. Let F be a nite extension of K such that [F : K] = p, a prime number. If u ∈ F but u ∈ K , show that F = K(u). /
**

We have that p = [F : K] = [F : K(u)][K(u) : K]. Thus, [F : K(u)] = p or [K(u) : K] = p. Since u ∈ K , we must have [K(u) : K] = p, so [F : K(u)] = 1. / Thus, F = K(u).

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

37

5. Let f (x) be an irreducible polynomial in K[x]. Show that if F is an extension eld of K such that deg (f (x)) is relatively prime to [F : K], then f (x) is irreducible in F [x].

f (x). Then, deg (f (x)) = q[K : K(u)]. If f (x) is reF [x], then u ∈ F , so we have to have K(u) ⊆ F and [F : K] = [F : K(u)][K(u) : K]. However, since gcd (deg (f (x)) , [F : K]) = 1, this is impossible. Thus, f (x) is not reducible over F [x].

Let be a root of ducible over

u

**6. Let K ⊆ E ⊆ F be elds. Prove that if F is algebraic over K , then F is algebraic over E and E is algebraic over K .
**

If

F/K

is algebraic, then clearly,

E/K

is algebraic since

E ⊆ F.

Now,

suppose that of

F/K

is transcendental. In particular, suppose that there is

u∈F

which is transcendental over

E . Then, by Q9 of 6.1, we have that every element E(u)−E is transcendental over E . Let u ∈ E(u)−E . Then, since K ⊆ E , we have u transcendental over K . But, E(u)−E ⊆ F , so we would have an element of F being transcendental over K . But F/K is algebraic. Contradiction.

7. Let F ⊇ K be elds, and let R be a ring such that F ⊇ R ⊇ K . If F is an algebraic extension of K , show that R is a eld. What happens if we do not assume that F is algebraic over K ?

Let r ∈ R − K . Since R ⊆ F and F/K is algebraic, there is an irreducible p(x) ∈ K[x] such that p(r) = 0. Then, since p(x) is irreducible, we obtain K[x]/ p(x) ∼ K(r) is a eld. Now, K(r)/K is a vector space, so any element = n of K(r) can be written as k0 + k1 r + · · · + kn r where ki ∈ K . This expression is an element of R by the axioms for subring. (Remember that k ∈ K ⇒ k ∈ R since K ⊆ R.) Let E = r∈R−K K(r). We have shown (Q6 from 6.1) that E is a subeld of F . We see that the addition and multiplication of these two elements of E is again in R. Thus, E ⊆ R. Obviously, we also have R ⊆ E (since we take K ⊆ R and adjoin any missing elements from R). Thus, R = E and is thus a eld. If we do not have conclude that

F/K

algebraic, we cannot construct

E,

so we cannot

R

is a eld.

**8. Determine [Q( n) : Q] for all n ∈ Z+ .
**

If

√

n

is not a square, then a basis for

degree would be 2. If

n = m2 ,

then,

√ √ [Q( n) : Q] is {1, n}. Thus, n ∈ Q, so the degree would be 1. √ √ √ √

the

**9. For any positive integers a, b, show that Q( a + b) = Q( a, b).
**

We know that a basis for a basis for

√ Q( a +

√

√ √ Q( a, b)

b).

Any element of

**√ √ √ {1, a, b, ab}. Let us now nd √ √ Q( a + b) will have the form n0 +
**

is

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

38

n √ k √ n−k a b . k √ √ √ √ We see that every element in Q( a + b) can have a√ term involving a, √ √ √ √ √ b, ab, or none √ them at all. Thus, a basis for Q( a + b) is {1, a, b, ab}. of √ √ √ Thus, Q( a, b) = Q( a + b).

Examine

√ √ √ √ n1 ( a+ b)+· · ·+nk ( a+ b)k .

√ √ ( a+ b)n =

n k=0

10. Let F be an extension eld of K . Let a ∈ F be algebraic over K , and let t ∈ F be transcendental over K . Show that a + t is transcendental over K .

that

(a + t) is algebraic over K . Then, there is p(x) ∈ K[x] such p(a + t) = 0. Thus, there is q(x) = p(x + a) ∈ K(a)[x] such that t is a root of q(x). Thus, t is algebraic over K(a). Thus, K(a, t) = K(a)(t) = K(a). Thus t is algebraic over K by Proposition 6.2.4. Contradiction.

Suppose that

11. Let F be an algebraic extension of K , and let S be a subset of F such that S ⊇ K , S is a vector space over K , and sn ∈ S for all s ∈ S and all positive integers n. Prove that if char(K) = 2, then S is a subeld of F .

s1 , s2 ∈ S . Then, s1 + s2 ∈ S by vector addition. Since sn ∈ S for all s ∈ S and n ∈ Z+ , we know that (s1 + s2 )2 = s2 + s2 + 2s1 s2 ∈ S . Again, by 1 2 2 2 2 2 vector addition, we have s1 + s2 + 2s1 s2 − s1 − s2 = 2s1 s2 ∈ S . Thus, s1 s2 ∈ S since char(K) = 2. Now, distributivity in S follows from the fact that products are closed and by the fact that S inherits the distributivity of F . Thus, S is a ring. Since F/K is algebraic and K ⊆ S ⊆ F , S is a eld by Q7.

Let

6.3

Geometric Constructions

1. Show that the roots of the polynomial 8x3 − 6x − 1 used in Theorem 6.3.9 are u1 = cos π , u2 = cos 5π , and u3 = cos 7π . 9 9 9

3 If we make the substitution x = cos θ , then we obtain the expression 8 cos θ− 6 cos θ − 1 = 2(4 cos3 θ − 3 cos θ) − 1 = 2 cos(3θ) − 1. Then, the polynomial has (6k−1)π (6k+1)π the roots where 2 cos(3θ) = 1. This happens at θ = or θ = . 9 9 Pick any three values of θ to nd that cos θ is equal to u1 , u2 , or u3 .

2. Use the identity 4 cos3 θ − 3 cos θ − cos(3θ) = 0 to show that the roots of the polynomial x3 − 3x + 1 are u1 = 2 cos 2π , u2 = 2 cos 4π , u3 = 2 cos 8π . 9 9 9

x = 2 cos θ. The polynomial becomes (2−8(1−cos2 θ)) cos θ+1 = 2 cos θ − 8 cos θ(1 − cos2 θ) + 1 = −6 cos θ + 8 cos3 θ + 1. This equals 0 when 8 cos3 θ − 6 cos θ = −1 ⇔ 4 cos3 θ + −3 cos θ = − 1 ⇔ cos(3θ) = − 1 . This 2 2 2(3k+1)π 2(3k−1)π happens at θ = orθ = . Hence, the polynomial is equal to zero 9 9 for x values u1 , u2 , and u3 .

Substitute

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

39

ζ = cos(2π/5) + i sin(2π/5). (a) Show that ζ is a primitive fth root of unity. −1 2 (b) Show that (ζ + ζ ) + (ζ + ζ −1 ) − 1 = 0. √ −1 (c) Show that ζ + ζ = (−1 + 5)/2. √ (d) Show that cos(2π/5) = (−1+ 5)/4 and that sin(2π/5) =

(e)

3. In this exercise we outline how to construct a regular pentagon. Let

√ 10 + 2 5 /4.

**Conclude that a regular pentagon is constructible.
**

z 5 = 1.

Thus,

(a) By example A.5.3, this is a solution to fth root of unity. (b) Plugging

ζ

is a primitive

ζ = cos(2θ)+i sin(2θ) where θ = 2π/5, we see that (ζ +ζ −1 )2 + (ζ + ζ ) − 1 = 4 cos2 (θ) + 2 cos(θ) − 1 where θ = 2π/5. Thus, 4 cos2 θ + 2 cos θ − 1 = 0 if and only if 4 cos2 θ = 1 − 2 cos θ. Then, 4 cos2 θ = 1 − 2 cos θ ⇔ 2(cos(2θ) + 1) = 1 − 2 cos θ ⇔ 2 cos(2θ) = −2 cos θ − 1. Now, we can check √ −1+ 5 . to see that this equality is true. In (c), we shall nd that cos(2π/5) = 4 √ −1− 5 Using this, we nd that LHS= =RHS. 2 −1 (c) We see that ζ + ζ = 2 cos(2π/5). In (d), we nd that cos(2π/5) = √ √ (−1 + 5)/4, so we must have 2 cos(2π/5) = ζ + ζ −1 = (−1 + 5)/2. 2 (d) From (b), we have 4 cos θ + 2 cos θ − 1 = 0, so if x = cos θ , we have √ √ 2 4x + 2x − 1 = 0 which has solutions at x = −1− 5 or x = −1+ 5 . Hence, 4 4

−1

cos θ =

√ −1+ 5 . Since 4

**√ −1+ 5 4 √ √ √ −1+ 5 −1+ 5 −1+ 5 In Q , we have a polynomial of the form x − which has 4 4 4 √ √ −1+ 5 −1+ 5 , we have an x such that x = as a root. Thus, in Q . Hence, 4 4
**

(e) We need to nd

√ − 5−5 . Thus, 8

sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1, √ √

10+2 5 . 4 √ Q −1+ 5 , 4

we know that

sin2 θ =

√ −1+ 5 4

−1 =

sin θ =

√

√ 10+2 5 4

:Q

. Let us rst nd

Q

:Q

.

4x + 1 =

16x2 + 8x + 1 = 5,√ 16x2 + 8x −√ = 0. Thus, 16x2 + 8x − 4 so 4 −1+ 5 −1+ 5 is the minimum polynomial for , so Q : Q = 2. 4 4 √ √ √ √ √ 10+2 5 Let us now nd Q : Q −1+ 5 . As above, x = 10+2 5 ⇔ 4 4 4 √ √ √ 4x = 10 + 2 √ ⇔ 16x2 −10−2 5 = 0. Thus, 16x2 −10−2 5 is the minimum 5 5

and polynomial of Now,

√

Q

√ 10+2 5 over Q 4 √ √ √ −1+ 5 , 10+2 5 4 4

√ −1− 5 4

.

√

:Q = Q

√ 10+2 5 4

:Q

√ −1+ 5 4

Q

√ −1+ 5 4

:Q =

2 · 2 = 4 = 22 .

Thus, a regular pentagon is constructible.

**4. Prove that a regular heptagon is not constructible.
**

Needless to say, root of unity. As

ζ = cos(2π/7) + i sin(2π/7) = ei i 2π 7 above, x = e 7 ⇔ x − 1 = 0.

2π 7

is a primitive seventh Thus,

[Q(ζ) : Q] = 7

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

40

which is not a power of 2. since and

Hence, a regular heptagon is not constructible

**[Q(ζ) : Q] = [Q(cos(2π/7), sin(2π/7)) : Q(cos(2π/7))] [Q(cos(2π/7) : Q] thus [Q(cos(2π/7), sin(2π/7)) : Q(cos(2π/7))] cannot be a power of 2.
**

Splitting Fields

6.4

Q).

1. Determine the splitting elds in C for the following polynomials (over

x2 − 2 2 (b) x + 3 4 2 (c) x + x − 6 3 (d) x − 5

(a)

√ 2 2 √x − 2 = 0 ⇔ x = 2 ⇔ x = ± 2. Thus, the polynomial has all its roots in Q( 2). √ 2 2 (b) x + 3 = 0 ⇔ x = −3 ⇔ x = ±i 3. Thus, the polynomial has all its √ roots in Q(i 3). 2 2 (c) Let u = x . Then, u + u + 6 = 0 ⇔ (u − 2)(u + 3) = 0 ⇔ u = 2 or √ √ √ √ u = −3. Thus, x = ± 2 or x = ±i 3. Thus, the splitting eld is Q( 2, i 3). 4π 3 3 1/3 1/3 1/3 i 2π (d) x − 5 = 0 ⇔ x = 5 ⇔ x = 5 . Thus, Q(5 , 5 e 3 , 51/3 ei 3 ) is

(a) the splitting eld.

Q).

2. Determine the splitting elds in C for the following polynomials (over

x3 − 1 4 (b) x − 1 3 2 (c) x + 3x + 3x − 4

(a)

Q(ei 3 , ei 3 ) is the splitting eld. iπ i 3π Thus, Q(e 2 , e 2 ) is the splitting eld. 3 2 3 (c) By completing the cube, we nd that x +3x +3x−4 = 0 ⇔ (x+1) = 5. 3 1/3 1/3 i 2π i 4π If y = x+1, then the solutions to y = 5 are 5 , 5 e 3 , e 3 . Thus, the roots 2π 4π 1/3 of the original polynomial are ω1 = 5 −1, ω2 = 51/3 ei 3 −1, ω3 = 51/3 ei 3 −1. Thus, a splitting eld for the polynomial would be Q(ω1 , ω2 , ω3 ).

(a) Thus,

x3 − 1 = 0 ⇔ x3 = 1. 4 4 (b) x − 1 = 0 ⇔ x = 1.

2π

4π

x2 + x + 1 2 (b) x + 1 3 (c) x + x + 1 3 2 (d) x + x + 1

(a)

3. Determine the splitting elds over Z2 for the follwing polynomials.

(a) Following Example 6.4.4, identify

Z2

with GL2 (Z2 ). We see that

A=

0 1

1 1

is such that

A2 + A + I = 0.

Hence,

A

is the companion matrix of

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

41

x2 + x + 1 .

Thus, the set of matrices of the form

a0 I + a1 A

where

ai ∈ Z2

form

an extension eld of (b) Similarly, let

Z2

in which

x2 + x + 1

has a root.

0 1 2 . We see that A +I = 0, so A is the companion 1 0 matrix. Thus, {a0 I + a1 A ∈ GL2 (Z2 )|a0 , a1 ∈ Z2 } is a splitting eld. 0 0 1 0 1. We see that A3 + A + I = 0, so A is the (c) Similarly, let A = 1 0 1 0 2 companion matrix. Thus, {a0 I + a1 A + a2 A ∈ GL2 (Z2 )|a0 , a1 , a2 ∈ Z2 } is a A=

splitting eld.

0 0 1 0 0. We see that A3 +A2 +I = 0, so A is the companion (d) Let A = 1 0 1 1 2 matrix. Thus, {a0 I + a1 A + a2 A ∈ GL2 (Z2 )|a0 , a1 , a2 ∈ Z2 } is a splitting eld.

**4. Let p be a prime number. Determine the splitting eld for xp − 1 over Q.
**

xp −1 = 0 ⇔ xp = 1. Thus, the roots are {1, ei p , ei p , ..., ei p }. If p = 2, then the solutions are ±1, so the splitting eld would be Q. If p = 2, 2(p−1)π i 2π i p then the splitting eld would be Q(e p , ..., e ). (None of the roots except for 1 are from Q because p is prime and so the fraction in the exponent will never simplify to an expression in Q).

We see that

2π 4π 2(p−1)π

**5. Determine the splitting eld for xp − x over Zp .
**

Since p must be prime for Zp to be a eld, by Fermat's little theorem, xp ≡ x(mod p), so xp − x ≡ 0(mod p) and Zp would be the splitting eld.

**6. Determine the splitting eld for x9 − x over Z3 .
**

We have that splitting eld is

x9 − x = (x3 )3 − x ≡ x3 − x(mod 3) ≡ 0(mod 3). Z3 .

Q5

Thus, the

**7. Prove that if F is an extension eld of K of degree 2, then F is the splitting eld over K of some polynomial.
**

[F : K] = 2, then F is a vector space over K with some basis {1, u} u ∈ F − K . Since [F : K] = 2, we know that u2 can be written as k0 + k1 u for some k0 , k1 ∈ K . Hence, u2 − k1 u − k0 = 0. Thus, the polynomial x2 − k1 x − k0 has u as a root and u ∈ F − K . (The other root must also be in F , since we can factor out the root to obtain x2 − k1 x − k0 = (x − u)(x − r). If r ∈ K , when we foil the expression on the RHS out, we get a polynomial whose coecients do not come from K . Contradiction.) Thus, F is the splitting eld 2 for x − k1 x − k0 .

If for some

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

42

8. Let K be a eld. For a monic polynomial f (x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · + an−1 xn−1 +xn in K[x], the following matrix C is called the of f (x): 0 1 0 ··· 0 0 0 1 ··· 0 0 0 0 ··· 0 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 0 0 0 ··· 1 −a0 −a1 −a2 · · · −an−1

companion matrix

This exercise outlines the proof that f (C) = 0. (That is, a0 I + a1 C + · · · + an−1 C n−1 + C n = 0, where I is the n × n identity matrix.) Let v1 = (1, 0, ..., 0), v2 = (0, 1, ..., 0), ... ,vn = (0, 0, ..., 1) be the standard basis vectors for K n . n (a) Show that vi C = vi+1 for i = 1, ..., n − 1 and vn C = j=1 −aj−1 vj . 2 n−1 n (b) Find similar expressions for v1 C , ..., v1 C , v1 C , and show that v1 f (C) = 0. (c) Show that vi f (C) = 0, for i = 2, ..., n and conclude that f (C) = 0.

0 · . . . 0 −a0 0 0 0 1 0 0

. . .

(a) We see that

0

···

1

···

0 1 0

. . .

**··· ··· ···
**

.. .

0 0 0

. . .

will

··· 1 · · · −an−1 give a 1 × n vector. By matrix multiplication, to obtain the (1, k)th entry of the ··· 1 ··· 0 vector, we take the dot product of the rst (and only) row of 0 with the k th column of C . Thus, the (1, k)th entry will be 0 if the (k, i)th entry of C is 0. The only nonzero entries of C are the superdiagonal and the bottom row. So the (1, k)th entry of the product will be 1 if k − 1 = i and will be −ak n if i = n. Hence, vi C = vi+1 for i = 1, ..., n − 1 and vn C = j=1 −aj−1 vj . 0 −a1 0 −a2

(b) We can write that

v1 C = vm+1 −aj−1 vj . n−1 Next, v1 f (C) = a0 v1 I + a1 v1 C + · · · + an−1 v1 C + v1 C n = a0 v1 + a1 v2 + n · · · + an−1 vn + j=1 −aj−1 vj . Note that the sum at the end cancels every term before it. Thus, v1 f (C) = 0.

n j=1 i−1 (c) Examine vi f (C) = v1 C f (C) = v1 a0 C i−1 + a1 C i + · · · + an−1 C n−1+i + C n+i = v1 a0 C i−1 +· · · v1 an−1 C n−1+i +v1 C n+i = (v1 a0 I+· · ·+v1 an−1 C n−1 +v1 C n )C i = 0 · C i = 0. Now vi f (C) = 0 for all i ≥ 2, so by the axioms for eld, f (C) = 0.

m

v1 C 2 = v1 CC = v2 C = v3 . Arguing similarly, we see n for 1 ≤ m ≤ n − 1. Then, v1 C = v1 C n−1 C = vn C =

9. Let K be a eld, let f (x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · + an−1 xn−1 + xn ∈ F [x], and let C be the companion matrix of f (x), as dened in Exercise 8. Show that the set

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

43

**R = {b0 I + b1 C + · · · + bn−1 C n−1 |bi ∈ F for i = 0, ..., n − 1} is a commutative ring isomorphic to the ring F [x]/ f (x) .
**

First of all, I believe that there is a typo in this question, as but not used in any way. I assume that isomorphic claim.

K

should have been

K F.

is introduced

Example 6.4.4 practically establishes the ring properties, so let us prove the

F [x]/ f (x)

F [x]/ f (x) can only be a ring if f (x) is irreducible. Dene φ : φ(b0 + b1 x + · · · + bn−1 xn−1 ) = b0 I + b1 C + · · · + bn−1 C n−1 . n−1 (1-1)Recall that by how C was dened, b0 I + b1 C + · · · + bn−1 C = 0 if and only if the coecients of C terms correspond to the coecients of x terms in f (x). Thus, ker φ = 0. Thus, φ is one-to-one. n−1 (Onto)If we wish to obtain a0 I + a1 C + · · · + an−1 C , we simply take the n−1 image φ(a0 I + a1 x + · · · + an−1 x ). Thus, φ is onto. (Preservation of +)Addition in R is clearly the same as for polynomials, so

Note that by addition is preserved.

F [x]/ f (x) , we have the relation xn = −b−1 x(b0 + n−1 b1 x + · · · + bn−2 x ). Since b0 I + b1 C + · · · + bn−1 C n−1 = 0, we have the −1 n n−2 relation C = −bn−1 C(b0 + b1 C + · · · + bn−2 C ). We have similar relations n+1 n+2 for x ,x , .... Thus, multiplication in R corresponds to multiplication in F [x]/ f (x) . Thus, F [x]/ f (x) ∼ R. =

(Preservation of ·) In

n−2

10. Strengthen Theorem 6.4.2 by proving under the conditions of the theorem there exists a splitting eld F for f (x) over K for which [F : K] is a divisor of n!.

We need to show that by induction on

n.

Suppose that

[F : K] = n − k for some 0 ≤ k ≤ 1. We procede n = 1. Then, F = K is a splitting eld and

[F : K] = 1|n!. F/K such that [F : K]|n! for all n ≤ N . deg f (x) = N + 1. By Kronecker's Theorem, there is E/K where r ∈ E is a root of f (x). Hence, f (x) = g(x)(x − r) over K(r) where deg g(x) = N . Now, by the inductive hypothesis, there is F/K(r) such that g(x) splits over F and [F : K(r)] = N − k where 0 ≤ k < n. Since the minimum polynomial of r is of degree N +1 at most, we have [K(r) : K] ≤ N +1, so we see that [F : K] = [F : K(r)][K(r) : K] ≤ (N − k)(N + 1). Thus, [F : K]|(N + 1)!, as desired. (Recall that if x, y ≤ z , we have xy|z!.)

Suppose that there exists an Now, suppose that

11. Let K be a eld, and let F be an extension eld of K . Let φ : F → F be an automorphism of F such that φ(a) = a, for all a ∈ K . Show that for any polynomial f (x) ∈ K[x], and any root u ∈ F of f (x), the image φ(u) must be a root of f (x).

Suppose that or in other words

f (x) = an xn +· · ·+a1 x+a0 has a root at u ∈ F . Then, f (u) = 0 an un + · · · + a1 u + a0 = 0. Then, since φ is a homomorphism,

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

44

**φ(0) = 0 and we get 0 = φ(an un +· · ·+a1 u+a0 ) = an φ(un )+· · ·+a1 φ(u)+a0 = an φ(u)n + · · · + a1 φ(u) + a0 (since φ xes all elements of K ). Hence, φ(u) is a
**

root.

12. Use Exercise 11 to show that there are only two automorphisms of the eld Q(i): the identity automorphism and, and the one dened by φ(a + bi) = a − bi, for all a, b ∈ Q.

Q(i) must x Q in order to use φ : Q(i) → Q(i) is an automorphism. Then, φ(m) = 1 1 φ(1 + 1 + · · · + 1) = m · φ(1) = m. Also, φ n = φ(n−1 ) = [φ(n)]−1 = n−1 = n . m 1 m Hence φ n = φ(m)φ m = n . The element a + ib → a + φ(i)b, so let us simply consider what the possible mappings of i are. We know that a minimal polynomial for i is found by x = i ⇒ x2 = −1. Thus x2 + 1 is the minimal polynomial of i over Q. We see that ±i are the roots to this polynomial. Thus, there are two possible mappings of i: the identity mapping or mapping to its additive inverse. Thus, a + ib → a + ib or a + ib → a − ib.

We must show that any automorphism of Suppose that Q11.

13. Use Exercise √ to show that there are at most four distinct automor11 √ phisms of the eld Q( 2, 3).

Q√ √ must be xed by any automorphism √ √ φ : √ 2,√ 3) → Q( 2, 3) √ an automorQ( is √ √ phism. Then, we must have φ(a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6) = a + bφ( 2) + cφ( 3) + √ √ √ √ dφ( 2)φ( 3). As in Q12, we only need to consider the mappings of 2 and 3. √ √ Minimal polynomials for 2 and 3 over Q are x2 − 2 and x2 − 3, respectively. √ √ The √ roots of these polynomials are ± 2 and ± 3, respectively. Thus, by Q11, √ √ √ 2 → ± 2 and 3 → ± 3. Thus, there are four possible mappings.

As proved in Q12, every element of containing

Q.

Suppose that

14.

**Show that the splitting eld of x4 − 2 over Q is Q( 4 2, i). √ 4 4 (b) Show that Q( 2, i) is also the splitting eld of x + 2 over Q.
**

(a) (a) We see that were obtained by splitting eld.

√

x4 − 2 = (x + 21/4 i)(x − 21/4 i)(x − 21/4 )(x + 21/4 ). (These 4 1/4 solving x = 2 as discussed in A.5.) Hence, Q(2 , i) is the

x4 + 2 are 2−1/4 + 2−1/4 i, 2−1/4 − 2−1/4 i, −2−1/4 + 2−1/4 i, √ and −2 −2 i. All of these elements are contained in Q( 4 2, i) and since √ 4 each element needs both i and 2, it is the splitting eld.

(b) The roots of

−1/4

−1/4

15. Use Exercise 11 to show that there are at most eight distinct automor√ phisms of the splitting eld Q( 4 2, i) of x4 − 2 over Q.

√ √ φ : Q( 4 2, i) → Q( 4 2, i) be an automorphism. Then, φ(a + b(21/4 ) + c(21/2 ) + di + e(21/4 i) + f (21/2 i)) = a + bφ(21/4 ) + cφ(21/4 )φ(21/4 ) + dφ(i) +

Let

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

45

eφ(21/4 )φ(i) + f φ(21/4 )φ(21/4 )φ(i). A minimal polynomial for 21/4 over Q is x4 − 2. By Q11, this means that φ(21/4 ) can be mapped to any of the four 2 solutions. Now, x + 1 is the minimal polynomial for i and so i → ±1. Thus, there are 4 · 2 = 8 possible automorphisms.

6.5 Finite Fields

**1. Give addition and multiplication tables for the nite eld GF(23 ), as described in Example 6.5.3.
**

Use the relation

x8 = x (among others) to construct the multiplication table.

Addition is the same as polynomial addition.

3 ). We see that x3 + 1 is ∼ GF(23 ). Additionally, we previously irreducible over Z[x], so Z[x]/ x +x+1 = 3 2 found that Z[x]/ x +1 ∼ {a0 I +a1 C +a2 C ∈ GL3 (Z2 )|a0 , a1 , a2 ∈ Z2 } where = 0 1 0 C = 0 0 1 is the companion matrix for x3 + 1. Thus, we can use ordinary 1 0 0

Let us examine another way of constructing GF(2

3

matrix multiplication and addition to nd the desired tables. This may be an easier option if a computer is available.

2. Give addition and multiplication tables for the nite eld GF(32 ), and nd a generator for the gyclic group of nonzero elements under multiplication.

The tables are left to the reader. After constructing the multiplication table, the reader should be able to readily identify the generator. Simply start with the rst nonzero element (call it

x),

look up the product of it with itself. Then

take the product and multiply it by

x

again. Continue the process until (1) all

elements are accounted for or (2) a duplicate is generated. In the case of (2), move on to the next nonzero element and start the process over.

**3. Find a generator for the cyclic group of nonzero elements of GF(24 ).
**

We see that GF(2

x4 + x + 1

is irreducible over

Z2 [x]

and so

Z2 [x]/ x4 + x + 1 ∼ = x+ x4 +x+1

.

4

).

One can construct the multiplication table of the nonzero elements of

this eld and identify the generator. The generator happens to be

x4 + 2 4 (b) x − 2.

(a)

4. Find the splitting elds over GF(3) for the following polynomials.

**x = 1 is a root, so x4 + 2 = (x − 1)(x3 + x2 + x + 1). Then, x + x + x + 1 has x = 2 as a root, so x4 + 2 = (x − 1)(x − 2)(x2 + 1). This is 2 2 completely factored over Z3 , so the splitting eld is Z3 [x]/ x + 1 ∼ GF(3 ). =
**

(a) We see that

3

2

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

46

2 ∼ GF(34 ). =

(b) We see that

x4 −2 is irreducible over Z3 , so the splitting eld is Z3 [x]/ x4 −

5. Show that x3 − x − 1 and x3 − x + 1 are irreducible over GF(3). Construct their splitting elds and explicitly exhibit the isomorphism between these elds.

Just plug in

x = 0, 1, 2

3

to both polynomials and observe that the output is

never zero. Thus, both polynomials are irreducible. Thus, is the splitting eld of of

Z3 [x]/ x3 − x − 1

x −x−1

and

Z3 [x]/ x − x + 1

3

is the splitting eld

x3 − x + 1.

Dene

Since both elds have the same number of elements (namely 27), dened by

they must be isomorphic.

φ : Z3 [x]/ x3 − x − 1 → Z3 [x]/ x3 − x + 1 x − 1 ) = (f (x) − 2) + x3 − x + 1 .

(Onto) If we wish to obtain

φ(f (x) + x3 −

(1-1) We have just subtracted 2 from every element, so

φ

is one-to-one.

g(x) + x3 − x + 1

, we use the input

g(x) + 2 +

x3 − x − 1

. Thus,

φ

is onto.

(Preservation of +) Addition is corresponds to polynomial addition, so + is clearly preserved.

**Z[x]/ x3 −x−1 , we have the relation x3 + x3 −x−1 = x + 1 + x − x − 1 . In Z[x]/ x3 − x + 1 , we have the relation x3 + x3 − x + 1 = x − 1 + x3 − x + 1 . Since φ(x + 1 + x3 − x − 1 ) = x − 1 + x3 − x + 1 ,
**

(Preservation of ·) In

3

we see that multiplication will correspond. isomorphic.

Thus, the two splitting elds are

6. Show that x3 − x2 + 1 is irreducible over GF(3). Construct its splitting eld and explicitly exhibit the isomorphism between this eld and the splitting eld of x3 − x + 1 over GF(3).

Just plug in

x = 0, 1, 2

.

and observe that the output is never 0. Thus, the

polynomial is irreducible. The splitting eld for the polynomial would then be

Z3 [x]/ x3 − x2 + 1

One can construct multiplication tables for both elds,

identify the generator and map them to each other.

**7. Show that if g(x) is irreducible over GF(p) and g(x)|(xp − x), then deg(g(x)) is a divisor of m.
**

m

We know that then

xp − x

m

has splitting eld GF(p

m

g(x)

must split over GF(p

m

)

since

xp − x

since

m

).

Now, if

splits over it.

is the splitting eld of over it. Also,

g(x). Then, F is [F : GF(p)] = deg(g(x))

a subeld of GF(p

m

)

**g(x)|(xp − x), Suppose that F since g(x) splits ):
**

GF(p)]

m

g(x)

is the minimal polynomial

over its splitting eld. By Lemma 6.5.5 and its proof, [GF(p Furthermore,

m

m = [GF(pm ) : GF(p)] = [GF(pm ) : F ][F : F ] · deg(g(x)). Thus, deg(g(x)) is a divisor of m.

GF(p)]

= m. = [GF(pm ) :

8. Let m, n be positive integers with gcd(m, n) = d. Show that, over any eld, the greatest common divisor of xm − 1 and xn − 1 is xd − 1.

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

47

Let m = qd and n = rd. We see by simple polynomial long division that xdq − 1 = (xd − 1)(xd(q−1) + xd(q−2) + · · · + x + 1) and similarly, xrd − 1 = (xd − 1)(xd(r−1) + xd(r−2) + · · · + x + 1). We now examine p1 (x) = xd(q−1) + · · · + x + 1 d(r−1) and p2 (x) = x + · · · + x + 1 to show that these two factors share no divisors. Assume without loss of generality that q ≥ r . Then, we can write p1 (x) = p2 (x) + xd(q−1) + xd(q−2) + · · · + xd(r+1) + xdr . We see clearly that p2 (x) + xd(q−1) + · · · + xr p2 (x) xd(q−1) + · · · + xr p1 (x) = = + . Clearly, the p2 (x) p2 (x) p2 (x) p2 (x) second term is not perfectly divisible. (If it were, we'd have p2 (x) as a factor of xd(q−1) +· · ·+xr which would imply that p1 (x) = p2 (x)[1+p3 (x)] for some p3 (x) of degree less than p2 (x). But since p1 (x) is of degree q and p2 (x) is of degree r such that (q, r) = 1, this is impossible.) Thus, gcd (xm − 1, xn − 1) = xd − 1.

9. If E and F are subelds of GF(pn ) with pe and pf elements respectively, how many elements does E ∩ F contain? Prove your claim.

F are subelds, they have pe and pf elements where e|n and f |n. Then, E ∩ F is a subeld of both E and F , so the number of elements e f gcd(e,f ) must divide both p and p . Thus, E ∩ F contains p elements.

Since

E

and

10. Let p be an odd prime. n n (a) Show that the set S of squares in GF(p ) contains (p + 1)/2 elements. n (b) Given a ∈ GF(p ), let T = {a − x|x ∈ S}. Show that T ∩ S = ∅. n (c) Show that every element of GF(p ) is a sum of two squares. n (d) What can be said about GF(2 )?

) is cyclic with some generator 0 ≤ k < p . This element generates (pn − 1)/2 2 n elements. Let us not forget that 0 = 0 so 0 ∈ S . Thus, |S| = (p + 1)/2. (b) Suppose a = 0. Then, 0 ∈ S , so 0 − 0 = 0 ∈ T and so T ∩ S = ∅. Also, if a = 1, then 1 − 1 = 0 ∈ T ∩ S . k k 2 Otherwise, we have a = x 0 for some xed k0 ∈ Z. Then, x 0 − x = k0 2 −k0 2 2 −k n × x (1 − x ). Thus, choose x such that x = 1. (Since GF(p ) is x.

Then (a) We know that multiplication in GF(p

n ×

x

2

generates

x

2k

for all

n

cyclic, we can always do this.)

0 = 02 + 02 and 1 = 12 + 02 are sums of squares. Now, k 2 let x ∈ GF(p ). Then, by (b), x − x = x2j for some x2 ∈ S and j ∈ Z+ . k 2j 2 j 2 2 = (x ) + (x ) . Thus, any element of GF(pn ) is the sum Hence, x = x + x

(c) It is clear that

k

n

of two squares.

y = a2 + b2 = (a + b)2 . Since n GF(2 ) is closed under addition, we have that a + b = c ∈ GF(2 ) and that 2 y = c . Hence, y is a sum of squares if and only if y is itself a square. (For 2 2 2 instance, if GF(2 ) = {0, 1, a, b}, then a = b and b = a, and so neither a nor b can be a sum of squares.)

(d) Suppose that

y ∈

GF(2

n

)

is such that

n

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

48

**11. Show that xp − x + a is irreducible over GF(p) for all nonzero elements a ∈ GF(p).
**

We know that GF(p).

xp = x for any x ∈ GF(p).

Hence,

There are no roots to a constant polynomial, so

**xp − x + a = x − x + a = a. x − x + a is irreducible over
**

p

12. Dene the function φ : GF(23 ) → GF(23 ) by φ(x) = x2 , for all x ∈ GF(23 ). (a) Show that φ is an isomorphism. 3 (b) Choose an irreducible polynomial p(x) to represent GF(2 ) as Z2 / p(x) , 2 3 and give an explicit computation of φ,φ , and φ .

(a) (1-1) Here is the multiplication table for GF(2

3

):

Note that every element is a square. Thus, the map is one-to-one. (Onto) Any nite map that is one-to-one is also onto. (Preservation of +) 6.5.4.) (Preservation of ·) (b) Let GF(2

φ(a + b) = (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 = φ(a) + φ(b).

(See Lemma

φ(ab) = (ab)2 = a2 b2 = φ(a)φ(b).

(Check that this has no roots by using the multipli-

p(x) = x3 + 1.

cation table above.) Then,

Z2 / p(x) has 8 elements and is thus isomorphic to ). We must have φ(ax2 + bx + c + p(x))2 = a2 x4 + b2 x2 + c2 + p(x). Since x3 = 1, we know x4 = x, so φ(ax2 + bx + c) = bx2 + a2 x + c2 . The rest of the

3

maps are similar.

6.6

Irreducible Polynomials over Finite Fields

1. Verify Theorem 6.6.1 in the special case of x16 − x over GF(2), by multiplying out the appropriate irreducible polynomials from the list given in the answer to Exercise 12 of section 4.2.

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

49

x, x + 1, x2 + x + 1, x3 + x2 + 1, x + x + 1, x + x + x + 1, x + x + 1, and x4 + x + 1. Now, by Theorem 24 6.6.1, the monic irreducible factors of x − x should be the monic irreducible 2 polynomials of degree 4, 2, and 1. Thus, we must show that x(x + 1)(x + x + 4 3 2 4 3 4 16 1)(x + x + x + x + 1)(x + x + 1)(x + x + 1) = x − x. 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 First, x(x+1) = x +x. Next, (x +x)(x +x+1) = x +2x +2x +x = x +x. 4 4 3 2 8 7 6 3 2 Then, (x + x)(x + x + x + x + 1) = x + x + x + x + x + x. Next, (x8 + x7 + x6 + x3 + x2 + x)(x4 + x3 + 1) = x12 + x9 + x8 + x6 + x4 + x3 + x. 12 Finally, (x + x9 + x8 + x6 + x4 + x3 + x)(x4 + x + 1) = x16 + x = x16 − x.

The list of irreducible polynomials is:

3

4

3

2

4

3

**2. Use Theorem 6.6.1 to show that over GF(2) the polynomial x32 +x factors as a product of the terms x, x + 1, x5 + x2 + 1, x5 + x3 + 1, x5 + x4 + x3 + x + 1, x5 + x4 + x2 + x + 1, x5 + x3 + x2 + x + 1, and x5 + x4 + x3 + x2 + 1.
**

We have that

x32 + x = x2 − x,

5

so by Theorem 6.6.1, the irreducible factors

must be the irreducible polynomials of degree 5 and 1. It is left to the reader to show that the list of factors is complete. To do this, realize that in order for the polynomial to be irreducible, it must be linear or have an odd number of terms. Since 5 has no other divisors than 5 and 1, the non-linear polynomials must be of degree 5 and have an odd number of terms.

3. Let F be a eld of characteristic p, with prime subeld K = GF(p). Show that if u ∈ F is a root of the polynomial f (x) ∈ K[x], then up is also a root of f (x).

f (x) = an xn + · · · + a1 x + a0 . If f (u) = 0, then 0 = f (u)p = (an un + · · · + a1 u + a0 )p = ap (up )n + · · · + ap up + ap . (The last equality holds since n 1 0 p char(F ) = p.) Now, by Fermat's Little Theorem, ai ≡ ai (mod p), so the last p n p p expression in the equality becomes an (u ) + · · · + a1 (u ) + a0 = f (u ). Thus, p f (u ) = 0.

Let

4. Let u be a primitive element of GF(pm ) and let M (i) (x) be the minimum k polynomial of ui over GF(p). Show that every element of the form uip is also a root of M (i) (x).

u is primitive, then u = GF(pm )• . By denition of M (i) (x), we have M (ui ) = 0. By Q3, we know that M (i) (ui )p = M (i) (uip ) = 0. Similarly, 2 (i) ip since M (u ) = 0, we know that M (i) (uip )p = M (i) (uip ) = 0. Continuing (i) ipk this argument, we see that M (u ) = 0.

If (i)

5. Let GF(26 ) be represented by Z2 [x]/ x6 +x+1 , and let u be any primitive element of GF(26 ). Show that GF(23 ) = {0, 1, u9 , u18 , u27 , u36 , u45 , u54 }.

I'm not sure why GF(2 above. If

6

)

would have to have the representation discussed

u

is primitive, then

u = GF(26 )×

(which has a multiplicative group

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

50

structure). GF(2

Since GF(2 GF(2

3

)

is a subeld of GF(2

6

)

(since

3|6),

we know that

3 ×

)

≤

6 ×

)

.

By Cauchy's theorem, any generator of GF(2 Since |GF(2

have order dividing be a generator is

64.

u9 .

Hence

**) must )| = 8, the only possible element that can 3 × 9 3 9 54 GF(2 ) = u . Thus, GF(2 ) = {0, 1, u , ..., u }.
**

3

3

6. Let F be a eld, and let n be a positive integer. An element ζ ∈ F is called a primitive nth root of unity if it has order n in the multiplicative group F × . Show that no eld of characteristic p > 0 contains a primitive pth root of unity.

If

F

has characteristic

p,

then

|F × | = pk − 1

for some

k.

Now, by clearly,

p

is not a divisor of

p − 1.

k

(The division algorithm can be used to show this.)

Thus, by Cauchy's Theorem, there cannot exist an element of Hence, there can be no primitive

F×

of order

p.

pth

root of unity.

7. Let n ∈ Z+ , and dene τ (n) to be the number of divisors of n. (a) Show that τ is a multiplicative function. αk α1 α2 (b) Show that if n = p1 p2 · · · pk , then τ (n) = (α1 + 1)(α2 + 1) · · · (αk + 1). (c) Show that τ (n) is odd if and only if n is a square. (d) Show that d|n τ (d)µ(n/d) = 1.

n has divisors r and s such that (r, s) = 1. Then, r and s τ (rs) = τ (r)τ (s). αk α1 α2 αi (b) By (a), we have τ (n) = τ (p1 )τ (p2 ) · · · τ (pk ). Then, each pi has αi αi 2 1, pi , pi , ..., pi as divisors, so τ (pi ) = αi + 1. Hence, τ (n) = (α1 + 1)(α2 + 1) · · · (αk + 1), as desired. (c) If n is a square, then all of its prime factors are raised to an even power, αk α1 so by (b), τ (n) is odd. If τ (n) = τ (p1 · · · pk ) is odd, then by (b) all of the factors of (α1 + 1) · · · (αk + 1) must be odd. (For if there were so much as one αi + 1 that were even, then the expression (α1 + 1) · · · (αk + 1) would be even.) This implies that αi + 1 = 2mi for some mi for all αi . Thus, αi = 2mi + 1, so αi is odd for all i. (d) We have established that τ is a multiplicative function, so if we dene f (n) ≡ 1, then τ (n) = d|n f (d) and so by the Mobius Inversion Formula, we obtain 1 = f (m) = n|m µ(m/n)τ (n).

(a) Suppose that share no factors, so

8. Let n ∈ Z+ and dene σ(n) = d|n d, the sum of positive divisors of n. (a) Show that σ is a multiplicative function. k αk αi +1 α1 α2 (b) Show that if n = p1 p2 · · · pk , then σ(n) = − 1)/(pi − 1) . i=1 (pi (c) Show that σ(n) is odd if and only if n is a square or two times a square. (d) Show that n|d σ(d)µ(n/d) = n.

(a) Suppose that and

n

has two divisors

s

share no divisors, so

r and s such σ(rs) = σ(r)σ(s). Thus, σ

that

(r, s) = 1.

Then,

r

is multiplicative.

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

51

k αi αi (b) By (a), we see that σ(n) = i=1 σ(pi ). We need to show that σ(pi ) = αi +1 pi −1 . We do this by induction on αi . For αi = 1, we get σ(pi ) = p + 1. pi − 1 2 pi − 1 (pi + 1)(pi − 1) Also, = = pi + 1. Thus, the statement is true for pi − 1 pi − 1 αi = 1. Suppose it is true for all αi ≤ N . Then, for αi = N + 1, we see N +1 that σ(pi ) = σ(pN ) + pN +1 . Thus, by the inductive hypothesis, σ(pN +1 ) = i i i N +1 pN +1 − 1 + pN +2 − pN +1 pN +2 − 1 pi −1 N +1 i +pi = = , as required. Hence, pi − 1 pi − 1 pi − 1 k σ(n) = i=1 (pαi +1 − 1)/(pi − 1) . i αi (c) For any prime number pi , we have τ (pi ) = αi + 1. Hence, if αi is even, αi αi we will have that σ(pi ) is a sum of an odd number of terms. Thus, σ(pi ) is αk α1 odd for all pi if αi is even. Hence, if n is a square, σ(n) = σ(p1 ) · · · σ(pk ) is a

product of odd numbers and thus odd.

n is two times a square, then σ(n) is of the form σ(n) = σ(22α1 +1 )σ(p2α2 ) · · · σ(p2αk ). 2 k 2αk 2α2 2α +1 As previously discovered, σ(p2 ) · · · σ(pk ) is odd. Then, τ (2 1 ) = 2α + 2. 2α +1 One of the factors is 1, and the rest are even. Thus, σ(2 1 ) is odd. αi Conversely, σ(pi ) is even if αi is odd. (See rst paragraph of (c)). Hence, σ(n) = σ(pα1 ) · · · σ(pαk ) would be even since one even factor makes the entire 1 k

If product even. (d) We have shown

σ

to be multiplicative.

Let

d|n f (d).

Thus, by the Mobius Inversion Formula,

f (n) = n. Then, σ(n) = n|d σ(d)µ(n/d) = n.

9. A positive integer n is called perfect if it is equal to the sum of its proper positive divisors. Thus, n is perfect if and only if σ(n) = 2n. Prove that n is an even perfect number if and only if n = 2p−1 (2p − 1), where p and 2p − 1 are prime numbers.

p and 2p − 1 are prime. We show that n = 2p−1 (2p − 1) p−1 is perfect. Examine σ(n) = σ(2 )σ(2p − 1). Since 2p − 1 is prime, its only p p−1 divisors are 1 and 2 − 1. Thus, σ(n) = σ(2 ) · 2p = (2p − 1)2p from Q8. Thus, p−1 p σ(n) = 2 · 2 (2 − 1) = 2n, as needed. (⇒) Suppose that p is prime, but 2p − 1 is not. Then σ(n) = σ(2p−1 )σ(2p − 1) = (2p − 1) · (something greater than 2p ). (Since at very least 2p − 1 has three p factors:1, 2 − 1 and p, for some prime p. If we add these three up we get ¯ ¯ p p ¯ 2 + p > 2 .) Thus, σ(n) > 2n. Thus, n is not perfect. (⇐)

Suppose that

10. Let D be an integral domain. Show that if f : Z+ → D is a nonzero multiplicative function, then d|n µ(d)f (d) = p|n (1 − f (p)), for all n ∈ Z+ , where the product is taken over all prime divisors p of n.

Suppose that visors of

n

has the prime factorization

n = pα1 pα2 · · · pαk . 1 2 k

We form di-

n by selecting prime factors of n and multiplying them together. Both f α1 α2 α1 α2 αm αm and µ are multiplicative, so we see that µ(d)f (d) = µ(q1 q2 · · · qm )f (q1 q2 · · · qm ) = α1 α1 αm αm µ(q1 )f (q1 ) · · · µ(qm )f (qm ). Now, if αi > 1 for any pi prime factor of a di-

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

52

visor, then by the denition of since

µ,

we have that the entire term must equal zero

µ(pαi ) = 0. i

Thus, the only divisors of

n

that will ever contribute to the

sum are those that are products of prime factors. number of prime factors of

µ(d)f (d) = p|n (1 − f (p)) by induction on the n. Suppose that n = p for some prime p. Then, d|n µ(d)f (d) = µ(1)f (1) + µ(p)f (p) = f (1) − f (p) = 1 − f (p). (We see that f (1) = 1 since we must have f (x) = f (1 · x) = f (1)f (x).) Thus, we have established a basis for induction. Let us suppose that this formula holds for M prime factors. Now, we need to show that it works for M + 1 factors. αM +1 αM +1 αM α1 α1 Let n = p1 · · · pM +1 . Then, n = mpM +1 where m = p1 · · · pM . Then, M d|n µ(d)f (d) = d|m µ(d)f (d)−f (pM +1 )+ i=1 f (pi pM +1 )− i=j f (pi pj pM +1 )+ M · · · + (−1) f (pi1 pi2 · · · piM pM +1 ). Since f is multiplicative, we i1 =i2 =···=iM can factor out f (pM +1 ) and obtain d|n µ(d)f (d) = d|m µ(d)f (d) − f (pM +1 )

We now show that

d|n

1−

M i=1

f (pi ) +

i=j

f (pi pj ) − · · · + (−1)M −1

i1 =i2 =···iM

f (pi1 pi2 · · · piM )

.

**−f (pM +1 ) on the RHS of the equation is equal to µ(d)f (d). Hence, d|n µ(d)f (d) = d|m µ(d)f (d)−f (pM +1 ) d|m µ(d)f (d). d|m By the inductive hypothesis, this is equal to p|m (1−f (p))−f (pM +1 ) p|m (1−
**

We notice that the coecient of

f (p)) =

p|m (1

− f (p)) (1−f (pM +1 )) =

p|n (1−f (p)), as desired. (Whew!)

11. Let R be a commutative ring. Let R be the set of all functions f : Z+ → R. For f, g ∈ R, dene f + g by ordinary addition of functions: (f + g)(n) = f (n) + g(n), for all n ∈ Z+ . Dene a product * on R as follows:

(f ∗ g)(n) =

d|n

f (d)g(n/d), for all n ∈ Z+ .

The product * is called the convolution product of the functions f and g . Dene : Z+ → R by (1) = 1 and (n) = 0, for all n > 1. (a) Show that R is a commutative ring under the operations + and *, with identity . (b) Show that f ∈ R has a multiplicative inverse if and only if f (1) is invertible in R. (c) Show that if f, g ∈ R are multiplicative functions, then so is f ∗ g . (d) Show that if R is an integral domain, then the set of nonzero multiplicative functions in R is a subgroup of R× , the group of units of R. (e) Dene µR ∈ R as in Denition 6.6.3, with the understanding that 0 and 1 are (respectively) the additive and multiplicative identities of R. Let ν ∈ R be dened by ν(n) = 1, for all n ∈ Z+ . Show that µR ∗ν = , and that µR ∗ν ∗f = f , for all f ∈ R.

(a) (Group property of +) Already shown in Ch. 5. (Distributivity) Examine f ∗(g+h)(n) = f ∗(g(n)+h(n)) = h(n/d)) = d|n [f (d)g(n/d)+f (d)h(n/d)]= d|n f (d)g(n/d)+ (f ∗ g)(n) + (f ∗ h)(n).

d|n

f (d)(g(n/d)+ d|n f (d)h(d/n)=

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

53

The other distributive property is shown in a similar way.

(f ∗g)(n) = d|n f (d)g(n/d) = d|n f (n/d)g(d) = n/d are in d and vice-versa.) (b) Suppose that there is g ∈ R such that g ∗ f = f ∗ g = . This happens if and only if n = 1 implies that 1 = (1) = f (1)g(1) = g(1)f (1). This happens if and only if f (1) is invertible. (c) Suppose that f and g are multiplicative functions. Suppose that n = pq where p and q are prime. Then, (f ∗ g)(pq) = f (1)g(pq) + f (p)g(q) + f (q)g(p) + f (pq)g(1). (1) Next, (f ∗ g)(p)(f ∗ g)(q) = [f (1)g(p) + f (p)g(1)] · [f (1)g(q) + f (q)g(1)] = g(p)g(q) + g(p)f (q) + f (p)g(q) + f (p)f (q). (2) We see that (1) = (2) (keeping in mind that for multiplicative functions f and g , we must have f (1) = g(1) = 1). Hence, f ∗ g is multiplicative. × (d) Suppose that f is multiplicative. Then, as always, f (1) = 1 ∈ R . × Hence, f ∈ R . By (c), the set of multiplicative functions is closed. Thus, the × set of multiplicative functions are a subgroup of R . αk α1 α1 (e) Suppose that n = p1 · · · pk . Then, (µR ∗ ν)(n) = (µR ∗ ν)(p1 ) · · · (µR ∗ k αk αk αi ν)(pk ) = j=1 i=0 µR (pj ) . Now, clearly (µR ∗ ν)(1) = 1. Also, it is clear that if αi > 1 for some i, then (µR ∗ ν)(n) = 0. So, suppose that αi = 1 for all k i. Then, we have (µR ∗ ν)(n) = j=1 (1 − 1) = 0. Hence, (µR ∗ ν) = . Now that this has been established, we have that µR ∗ ν ∗ f = ∗ f = f (keeping in mind that the ring R is commutative).

(Commutativity) We see that

(g ∗ f )(n).

(Whatever factors aren't in

12. Let R be a commutative ring. Let f : Z+ → R be any function, and let F : Z+ → R be dened by F (n) = d|n f (d), for all n ∈ Z+ . Show that if F is a multiplicative function, then so is f .

Suppose we have (r, s) = 1. Now, by the Mobius Inversion formula, we have f (rs) = n|rs µ(rs/n)F (n) = 1 − F (r) − F (s) + F (rs) = 1 − F (r) − F (s) + F (r)F (s). (1) Next, f (r)f (s) = (−F (r) + 1)(−F (s) + 1) = F (r)F (s) − F (r) − F (s) + 1. (2) We see that (1) = (2), so

f

is multiplicative.

6.7

Quadratic Reciprocity

1. Prove that

ab p

=

a p

b p

**for all a, b ∈ Z such that p a and p b.
**

ab p

We see that by Euler's Criterion On the other hand,

**≡ (ab)(p−1)/2 ≡ a(p−1)/2 b(p−1)/2 (mod p).
**

and

a p

≡ a(p−1)/2 (mod p)

Thus,

b p

.

≡ b(p−1)/2 ,

so

a p

b p

≡

a(p−1)/2 b(p−1)/2 (mod p).

ab p

=

a p

b p

2. Compute the following values of the Legendre symbol.

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

54

(a) (b)

231 997 783 997

231 3 7 11 = 3·7·11 = 997 997 997 . Following Example 997 997 997 3 (−1)(997−1)(3−1)/4 ≡ 9972/2 (−1)498 (mod 3) ≡ 6.7.1, we nd that 997 = 3 3 7 11 1(mod 3). Thus, 997 = 1. Similarly, 997 = −1 and 997 = −1. Hence, 231 997 = (1)(−1)(−1) = 1. 33 29 3 783 (b) Again, 997 = 997 997 . We compute, as above, that 997 = 1. 29 783 3 Also, 997 = −1. Hence, 997 = (1) (−1) = −1.

(a) From Q1,

**3. Is the congruence x2 ≡ 180873(mod 997) solvable?
**

First of all,

9972 −1 8

solvable, we must compute

**180873 ≡ 416(mod 997). 416 2 = 997 997
**

Also,

To determine if the congruence is

5 416 997

13 997 .

Now, obviously

2 997

=

(−1)

= −1.

13 997

= 1.

Hence

= −1.

Thus, the congruence is

not solvable.

r *4. Determine the value of p for the indicated values of r, where p is an odd prime subject to the indicated conditions.

r = 5, p = 5 r = 6, p = 3 (c) r = 7, p = 7 (d) r = 11, p = 11 (e) r = 13, p = 13

(a) (b) (a) We see that Thus, we have Value of

5 p

=

p 5

(−1)4(p−1)/4 =

p 5 . Thus,

5 p

≡ p2 (mod 5).

p

1 2 3 4

modulo 5

5 p

1 -1 -1 1

(b) We see that possible values of

6 p

=

3 p

2 p

=

p 3

(−1)

p2 −1 8

. Example 6.7.3 gives the

**p 3 . Using these, we construct the following table.
**

Value of

p

modulo 12

6 p

1 1 -1 -1

1 5 7 11

CHAPTER 6.

FIELDS

55

(c) We see that

7 p

=

p 7

(−1)6(p−1)/4 .

Now,

p 7

≡ p3 (mod 7).

If

p 7

=

**1, then p ≡ 1, 2, or 4(mod 7). If p 7 addition, we have that p ≡ 1 or 3(mod
**

Value of

**= −1, then p ≡ 3, 5, or 6(mod 7). In 4). Thus, we create the following table:
**

7 p

-1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1

p

modulo 28

1 9 25 15 23 11 17 5 13 3 19 27 [FINISH]

**5. If a is a quadratic nonresidue of each of the odd primes p and q , is the congruence x2 ≡ a(mod pq) sovlable?
**

Suppose that

k.

This implies that

and

x2 ≡ a(mod

x2 ≡ a(mod pq) has a solution. Then, x2 − a = kpq for some x2 = a + p(kq) = a + q(kp) imlying that x2 ≡ a(mod p) q) have solutions. Contradiction.

6-8.

[FINISH]

Chapter 7

Structure of Groups

7.1 Isomorphism Theorems: Automorphisms

See other Scribd document.

7.2

Conjugacy

**1. Let H be a subgroup of G. Prove that N (H) is a subgroup of G.
**

ab G.

Let −1

a, b ∈ N (H). Then, we have aHa = H and b−1 Hb = H . Then, H(ab−1 )−1 = ab−1 Hba−1 = a(b−1 Hb)a−1 = aHa−1 = H . Thus, N (H) ≤

2. Let H be a subgroup of the group G. Prove that the subgroups of G that are conjugate to H are in one-to-one correspondence with the left cosets of N (H) in G.

K ∼ H . Then K = aHa−1 for some a ∈ G. Dene the prescription φ aHa → aN (H). Now, if φ(aHa−1 ) = φ(bHb−1 ), then we have aN (H) = bN (H) which implies that ab−1 ∈ N (H). Hence ab−1 Hba−1 = H . This is −1 equivalent to aHa = bHb−1 . Thus, members of G/N (H) are in a one-to-one correspondence with subgroups of G conjugate to H .

Let

−1

**3. Let G be a group with subgroups H and K such that H ⊆ K . Show that H is a normal subgroup of K if and only if K ⊆ N (H).
**

K if and only if aHa−1 = H for all a ∈ K . Since any −1 element a such that aHa = H is contained in N (H) by denition, we see that H K if and only if K ⊆ N (H).

We see that

H

56

CHAPTER 7.

STRUCTURE OF GROUPS

57

**4. Let p be a prime number, and let C be a cyclic subgroup of order p in Sp . Compute the order of N (C).
**

The only element of order element of

p

in

Sp

is

(1, 2, ..., p).

Let

K ∼ C.

Then, every Thus,

K

has the same structure as an element in

C

by Example 7.2.3. But

since the only element of order

p

is

(1, 2, ..., p),

it must be that

K = C.

C

Sp .

Thus,

|C| = p.

5. Let G be a group, let H be a subgroup of G, and let a ∈ G. Show that there is a subgroup K of G such that K is conjugate to H and aH = Ka.

We must simply show that Then,

(ah1 a )(ah2 a ) aHa−1 ≤ G, as desired.

−1

−1 −1

aHa−1 ≤ G. Let ah1 a−1 , ah2 a−1 ∈ aHa−1 . = (ah1 a−1 )(ah−1 a−1 ) = ah1 h2 a−1 ∈ aHa−1 . Thus, 2

6. Let G be a group, let x, y ∈ G and let n ∈ Z. Show that y is a conjugate of xn if and only if y is the nth power of a conjugate of x.

y = (gxg −1 )n ⇔ y = (gxg −1 )(gxg −1 ) · · · (gxg −1 ) ⇔ y = gxn g −1 ⇔ y ∼ xn .

**7. Find the conjugate subgroups of D4 .
**

First, all normal subgroups are self-conjugate, and since each subgroup of order 4 has index 2, the subgroups are all self conjugate. Next

{e, a2 , b, a2 b}, {e, a, a2 , a3 },

and

{e, a2 , ab, a3 b}

a ba

2

3

,

{e, b} ∼ {e, a2 } ∼ {e, a2 b} (from simple verication) and (ab)a3 b(ba3 ) = 3 so {e, ab} and {e, a b} are self-conjugate.

**8. Find the conjugacy classes of D5 .
**

First,

D5 = {e, a, a2 , a3 , a4 , b, ab, a2 b, a3 b, a4 b}.

The cyclic subgroup

{e, a, a2 , a3 , a4 }

has order 5 and is of index 2 and thus normal. Thus, it is its own conjugacy class. There can be no more subgroups of order 5 (for if there were, there would be more than ten elements). The only possible orders of subgroups would be order 2. There are ve such subgroups:

{e, ab}, {e, a2 b}, {e, a3 b}, {e, a4 b},

and

{e, b}.

We multiply

{e, ab}

on the left and right by the non-identity elements in

the subgroups above and see that all ve subgroups are conjugate.

9. Describe the conjugacy classes of S5 by listing the types of elements and the number of each type in each class.

CHAPTER 7.

STRUCTURE OF GROUPS

58

Class [(1)] [(1,2)] [(1,2)(3,4)] [(1,2,3)] [(1,2,3)(4,5)] [(1,2,3,4)] [(1,2,3,4,5)]

Calculation of Cardinality The identity mapping is unique

Cardinality 1 10

5 2 5 2 5 3 5 4

4! Total:

3 2 · 2!

·

1 2

15 20 20 30 24

Same

· 3!

120

**10. Find the conjugacy classes of A4 .
**

A4 consists of the identity element (1), all 3-cycles (of which there are 8), and

three single products of disjoint transpositions (those being (1,2)(3,4), (1,3)(2,4), and (1,4)(3,2)) . Since disjoint transpositions commute, we know that the products of disjoint transpositions cannot be conjugate to any 3-cycle or the identity. We now nd the conjugacy classes: (1,3)(2,4)[(1,2)(3,4)](1,3)(2,4) = (1,3)(4,2)(2,1)(4,3)(3,1)(2,4) = (1,2,4)(2,4)(1,3)(1,3,4) = (2,1)(4,3) (1,4)(3,2)[(1,2)(3,4)](1,4)(3,2) = (3,2)(4,1)(1,2)(3,4)(4,1)(3,2) = (3,2)(2,1,4)(1,4,3)(3,2) = (2,4)(1,3) Thus, (1,2)(3,4)

∼

(1,3)(2,4)

∼

(1,4)(3,2). Doing a similar analysis on the 3-cycles, we get that

(1,2,3)

∼

(4,3,2)

∼

(3,4,1)

∼

(2,1,4) and (1,3,2)

∼

(4,2,3)

∼

(3,1,4)

∼

(2,4,1).

**11. Find the conjugacy classes for the quaternion group Q dened in Example 3.3.7.
**

We see Then, Then,

iji−1 = j; kjk−1 = j. Thus, j is its own conjugacy class. jij−1 = −i = kik−1 . Thus, i ∼ −i. iki−1 = −k = jkj−1 . Thus, k ∼ −k. Then, ±1 are

their own

conjugacy classes.

**12. Write out the conjugacy class equations for the following groups.
**

(a) (b)

A4 S5 |A4 | = |Z(A4 )| + |S4 | = |Z(S5 )| + [A4 : C(x)] = 1 + (3 + 4 + 4) = 12. [S5 : C(x)] = 1 + (10 + 15 + 20 +

(a) Using Q4, clearly (b) Using Q9, clearly

20 + 30) = 120.

13. Let the dihedral group Dn be given by elements a of order n and b of order 2, where ba = a−1 b. Show that am is conjugate to only itself and a−m , and that am b is conjugate to am+2k b for any integer k.

CHAPTER 7.

STRUCTURE OF GROUPS

59

x ∼ am in Dn . We see that x cannot have a factor of b in it since if a b = ya y , then whether y has a factor of b in it or not, the b's in y and y −1 will cancel. Thus, x must be a power of a. Thus, a = ak bam ban−k −1 for some k . By the fact that ba = a b, we see that this implies that a = k n−m n−k k+n−m+n−k 2n−m a a a = a = a = a−m . Of course, every element is

Suppose that

m −1

conjugate to itself as well. We see that

ak bam bban−k = ak bam+n−k = ak+n−m+k = a2k+m b.

14. Show that the Frobenius group F20 (dened in Exercise 12 of Section 7.1) is isomorphic to the subgroup of S5 generated by the permutations (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) and (2, 3, 5, 4). Use this fact to help in nding the conjugacy classes of F20 , and its conjugacy class equation.

The fact that element of

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5), (2, 3, 5, 4)

comes from the work done in Q13 of

Section 7.1, where we found elements a of order 5 and b of order 4 and that any

F20

could be uniquely expressed as a product of these two elements

(i.e., they generate

F20 ). Z(F20 ) = 4. Now, (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) = {(1), (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)), (1, 3, 5, 2, 4), (1, 4, 2, 5, 3), (1, 5, 4, 3, 2)} and (2, 3, 5, 4) = {(1), (2, 3, 5, 4), (2, 5)(3, 4), (2, 4, 5, 3)}. So, it is easliy seen that (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), (2, 3, 5, 4) = {(1), (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), (1, 3, 5, 2, 4), (1, 4, 2, 5, 3), (1, 5, 4, 3, 2),(2, 3, 5, 4), (2, 5)(3, 4), (2, 4, 5, 2 Thus, the conjugacy classes of F20 are [a], [b], and [b ]. The class equation would then be |F20 | = 4 + 4 + 10 + 2 = 20.

From Q12 of 7.1,

15. Show that if a group G has an element a which has precisely two conjugates, then G has a nontrivial proper normal subgroup.

Suppose that

[a]∼

has precisely two elements.

Then,

[G : C(a)] = 2

and

C(a) p3 .

G

(since subgroups of index two are normal.)

***16. Show that for each prime p, there exists a nonabelian group of order
**

Let us examine the possible centers of

G. p2

By Lagrange's theorem and Burn-

side's theorem, to

|Z(G)| = p, Z

p2

and

or

p2 .

Any group of order

p

is cyclic (isomorphic

Zp ),

and the abelian groups of order

(recall that all groups of order

p2

are abelian) are

Zp × Zp .

The following conclusions are made from the

G/Z(G)

theorem.

Z(G) Zp Z p2

G/Z(G) Zp2 Zp × Zp Zp

Conclusion

G G

is abelian ??? is abelian

CHAPTER 7.

STRUCTURE OF GROUPS

60

Thus, we seek to nd a nonabelian group of order and

G/Z(G) ∼ Zp × Zp . =

p3

with center

Z(G) ∼ Zp =

[FINISH]

17. Let G be a nonabelian group of order p3 , for some prime number p. Show that Z(G) must have order p.

p- group is nontrivial by Burnsides Theorem, so the pos|Z(G)| are p, p2 , or p3 . However, if |G| = p2 , then G would be 3 abelian. Since G is given to be nonabelian (so its center cannot have order p ), we must have |Z(G)| = p.

The center of any sibilities for

18. Determine the conjugacy classes of the alternating group A5 and use this information to show that A5 is a simple group.

We have already found the conjugacy classes for Class [(1)] [(1,2)(3,4)] [(1,2,3)] [(1,2,3,4,5)] We know that a normal subgroup of Order 1 15 20 24

A5

in Q9.

A5

(or any group, for that matter) is

the union of conjugacy classes. In the following table, for every row, construct a union of conjugacy classes corresponding to the column headers who have X's in their cell. The order of this union is given in the right-most column. [(1)] X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X [(1,2)(3,4)] [(1,2,3)] [(1,2,3,4,5)] Order of union 1 16 21 25 36 40 45 60

Now, by Lagrange's theorem, the order of any group must divide |A5 | = 60. The only possible unions that have orders dividing 60 are [(1)] = (1) and [(1)] ∪ [(1, 2)(3, 4)] ∪ [(1, 2, 3)] ∪ [(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)] = A5 . Hence, A5 has no proper nontrivial normal subgroups. Thus, A5 is simple.

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