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Philippines Mother and Child
Reporters/ Group Members Advincula, Jeffrey S. Babon, John Ivan A. Fabrigar, Jayson J. Gonzales, Uzziah Nelson A.
References: Marcos, Lucilla L. , Introduction to Humanities, Visual and Performing Arts. 2006 Bascara, Linda R. et. al., Humanities and the Digital Art, Rex Bookstore Inc. 2007 http://www.koleksyon.com/filipinoheritage/arts
Development of Visual Arts in the Philippines Painting
In the Philippines, painting is compared to that of its counterpart in the pacific region. By nature, Filipinos are imaginative and creative but whatever artifacts available were eventually lost to oblivion because of two major factors; the first is that primitive art were made to last for a very short life span. Maybe because of the medium used such as leaves and bark of trees which could not withstand the harsh weather, and second is the coming of the Spanish colonizers left them with no choice but to give up their way of life and accept the culture of the Spaniards. Langit, Lupa at Impierno Ethnic Art- This means native or indigenous Philippine design. This kind of art is influenced ca. 1850 by our southeast-asian neighbors. The Ethnic art has curvilinear and linear patterns or design. This can also be traced from the primitive designs as demonstrated in Philippine Pre-historic pottery used as surface decorations by way of painting or engraving. Folk Art- It means People s craft as well as handicrafts. This is basically made by the hands of the common people where the materials are crafted together that the process itself is also an art form. The quality and style of this products reflect the way of life of the makers. Common Folk Art Motifs 1. The Serpent Demon of the Naga. The Naga design is said to be Sanskrit in origin. This art has a counterpart in Indonesia as dragons or mythical serpents. The Naga has the form of an elaborate mythical serpent with a vigorous S-curve and numerous curvilinear motifs to suggest its scales. 2.The Sarimanok. A cultural symbol of Mindanao, and is highly regarded throughout the Pintados country, it was influenced by Indonesea and Malaysia and is said to have originated from the middle east. It is depicted as a fowl with colorful wings and feathered tail, holding a fish on its beak or talons. It is said to be a symbol of good fortune. Tattoo Art. Tattooing was very prevalent among the early Filipinos specially among the people in Central Visayas. Aside from being used for beautification, tattoo is also a symbol of rank, and is believed to have magical properties. The practice has become very common that when the Spaniards arrived they called these people as Pintados .
Modern Influence. The Spanish friars introduced Western painting in the Philippines to artisans who learned to copy on two-dimensional form from the religious icons that the friars brought from Spain,. For the first centuries of Spanish colonization, painting was limited to religious icons. Portraits of saints and of the Holy Family became a familiar sight in churches. Other subject matters include the passion of Christ, the Via Crucis, the crucifixion, portrayal of heaven, purgatory and hell. In the church in Paete, Laguna Josef Luciano Dans (1805- ca. 1870), probably one of the earliest recorded painters in Philippine art history painted the Langit, Lupa at Impierno ca. 1850 (Heaven, Earth and Hell), a three-level painting which shows the Holy Trinity, Mary the Mother of Christ, saints, the Seven Blessed Sacraments and a macabre depiction of Hell. During the early part of the Spanish occupation, painting was exclusively for the churches and for religious purposes. Occasionally, it was also used for propaganda. Secular subject matter in painting only increased during the 19th century. Several Filipino painters had the chance to study and work abroad. Among them were Juan Novicio Luna and Felix Resureccion Hidalgo who became the first international Filipino artists when they won the gold and silver medals in the 1884 Madrid Exposition. Luna s academic painting Spoliarium won gold medal. It showed the dead and dying Roman Gladiators being dragged into the basement of the Coliseum. After World War II, the Neo-Realist school of painting emerged, with such notable members as Fernando Amorsolo, Vicente Manansala and others. Modern Filipino Painters Fernando Amorsolo (May 30, 1892 April 24, 1972) He is popularly known for his craftsmanship and mastery in the use of light. Born in Paco, Manila , he earned a degree from the Liceo de Manila Art School in 1909. Vicente Manansa (January 22, 1910 - August 22, 1981) was a Philippine cubist painter and illustrator. He developed transparent cubism , wherein the "delicate tones, shapes, and patterns of figure and environment are masterfully superimposed
Pottery. Among our most ancient arts is pottery, which combines design and function. The Manunggul Jar excavated in Palawan is evidence of the high artistic level which the art attained in an ancient times. This large burial jar has a cover which features two men rowing a boat, suggesting the belief of the early Filipinos in an afterlife that one reaches after crossing a mythical body of water. Around its body is an incised geometric pattern of lines and dots. Extant examples of early Philippine pottery show a wide variety of shapes and decorative techniques, such an incision, stippling, openwork and impression by rope and mat. Their designs were usually geometric with stylized nature motifs. Later, pottery became more and more functional, principal examples of which are the palayok for cooking, the banga and the tapayan for storing liquids. In the Ilocos, the making of burnay pottery continues as a lively tradition. WoodCarving. Many parts of the country have lively woodcarving traditions. The Cordillera groups carve anito figures called bulol which double as ancestral spirits and granary gods. They are often found in pairs to signify the value of fertility. Human and animal motifs are also integrated into parts of houses such as door posts, as well as household objects such as bowls, forks and spoons. In Southern
Philippines, the Maranao and the Tausog of Mindanao are known for their okir-a-datu, ornate curvilinear designs and motifs applied to woodcarving. The principal okir designs are the sarimanok, the naga and the pako rabong. The sarimanok carved in wood, simply varnished or painted in many colors (it is also executed in brass).. The pako rabong is a stylized growing fern with a broad base gracefully tapering upwards. Spanish Influence
Modern Sculptures. Of all the new art forms introduced, the Filipinos took to sculpture from the Spanish instantly. The carving of anito was transformed into sculpture of the saints. These santos were used primarily for the church altars and retablos. It also replaced the anitos in the altars of the natives homes. The earliest known sculptor in the Philippines is the 17th century sacristan, sculptor and silversmith Juan de los Santos (ca. 1590 ca. 1660) of San Pablo, Laguna. A few of his extant works may be found at the San Agustin Convent museum. Filipino sculptors came to be known in the middle of the 19th century. Classical Philippine sculpture reached its peak in the works of Guillermo Tolentino (1890-1976). His best known masterpiece is the Bonifacio Monument, which is a group sculpture composed of numerous figures massed around a central obelisk. The principal figure is Andres Bonifacio, leader of the revolution against Spain in 1896. Napoleon Abueva (born 1930), one of Tolentino' s pupils, is one of the pioneering modernists in sculpture. He used various media. Abueva's most famous work is Fredesvinda , which was included in the First ASEAN Sculpture Symposium held in Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, from March 27 to April 26, 1981 shows the vitality of primitive forms.
Barasoain Church. Est. 1630
National Museum . est, 1901
Ancient Filipinos lived in big settlements along sheltered bays, coastal areas, and mouths of rivers. Interior settlements were established at the headwaters and banks of rivers and their tributaries. The houses were usually constructed side by side along the river banks or seashores. Philippine architecture responds to the climate. Although there are many variations, generally the roof of the first Philippine houses, nipa huts, or bahay kubo, were high pitched and usually open gabled to allow for ventilation. The steeply sloping pitch also protected from the wind and rain in the typhoon season.These houses were elevated three to four meters of the ground, supported by wood or bamboo. The structure was usually four-walled with tukod windows. The Bagobos and Kalingas people used this type of house for protection from enemies and wild animals on the ground. In the southern islands of the Philippines archipelago, the Moros of Mindanao had distinct architecture of their own. It was brought with them along with the Muslim religion. Western Influence in the Philippines Spanish Period. This period refers to the religious and civil buildings erected with the style influenced from South America and Spain. Examples of these are the Catholic Churches and the famous town of Vigan. American Period. Under the American Occupation, many secular built such as the National Museum and the National Post Office Buildings. These structures reflect the neo-classical style of American Architecture. Post-Modern. The period of imported architecture. There is an extensive use of steel and glass which reflect the fast developing urban community. New building designs that could cope with the weather is continually developed.
Golden Empire Tower, Manila
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