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Bosse_Early-orogenic Exhumation Eclogites Champtoceaux Complex (Variscan belt, France)_Geological Journal 2000

Bosse_Early-orogenic Exhumation Eclogites Champtoceaux Complex (Variscan belt, France)_Geological Journal 2000

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Published by Koen de Jong
Multi-method geochronology constrains the age of well-preserved eclogites in the Variscan Champtoceaux Complex at ∼360 Ma (U-Pb; Sm-Nd), whereas the oldest concordant Ar/Ar plateau ages of phengite single grains and Rb-Sr data show that cooling and exhumation started around 350 Ma. Plateau ages as young as ∼340 Ma may be the result of a later closure of the K-Ar system, due to continuous deformation and chemical re-equilibration during retrogression of the rheologically weakest rocks. Early Carboniferous exhumation of the high-pressure rocks thus occurred shortly after Late Devonian subduction, and at the same time as deposition of sediments in the nearby Ancenis Basin. This favours a model of ‘extrusion’ of the Champtoceaux Complex by coeval displacements along thrusts and detachments during the same period. Exhumation of the Champtoceaux Complex thus occurred in an early-orogenic, syn-convergence geodynamic setting. The age of the high-pressure event is much younger than ages for similar events in other units of the Armorican Massif. This leaves open the possibility of either a diachroneity of the high-pressure event at the scale of the Armorican Massif during a exhumation of eclogite-facies rocks, continuous convergence, or several episodes of subduction-collision related to the accretion and shortening of back-arc basins and related arcs.
Multi-method geochronology constrains the age of well-preserved eclogites in the Variscan Champtoceaux Complex at ∼360 Ma (U-Pb; Sm-Nd), whereas the oldest concordant Ar/Ar plateau ages of phengite single grains and Rb-Sr data show that cooling and exhumation started around 350 Ma. Plateau ages as young as ∼340 Ma may be the result of a later closure of the K-Ar system, due to continuous deformation and chemical re-equilibration during retrogression of the rheologically weakest rocks. Early Carboniferous exhumation of the high-pressure rocks thus occurred shortly after Late Devonian subduction, and at the same time as deposition of sediments in the nearby Ancenis Basin. This favours a model of ‘extrusion’ of the Champtoceaux Complex by coeval displacements along thrusts and detachments during the same period. Exhumation of the Champtoceaux Complex thus occurred in an early-orogenic, syn-convergence geodynamic setting. The age of the high-pressure event is much younger than ages for similar events in other units of the Armorican Massif. This leaves open the possibility of either a diachroneity of the high-pressure event at the scale of the Armorican Massif during a exhumation of eclogite-facies rocks, continuous convergence, or several episodes of subduction-collision related to the accretion and shortening of back-arc basins and related arcs.

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GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL Geol. J.

35: 297±325 (2000)

Late Devonian subduction and early-orogenic exhumation of eclogite-facies rocks from the Champtoceaux Complex (Variscan belt, France)
© VALERIE BOSSE,1* GILBERT FERAUD,1 GILLES RUFFET,1 MICHEL BALLEVRE,2 JEAN-JACQUES PEUCAT 2 and KOEN DE JONG3
1

  Geosciences Azur (UMR-CNRS 6526), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France 2   Geosciences Rennes (UPR-CNRS 4661), Universite de Rennes, France 3 Geological Survey of Japan, Geology Department, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

In order to de®ne the mechanisms involved during exhumation of the eclogite-facies rocks from the Champtoceaux Complex (Armorican Massif, France), Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and 40Ar/39Ar methods are combined with a petrological study to construct a pressure±temperature±time (P±T±t) path for the Cellier Unit. The Champtoceaux Complex is a crustal-scale thrust sheet located in the South Armorican Domain. The lower unit, the Cellier Unit, consists of leucocratic gneisses, mica-schists and well-preserved eclogites. Petrological data on selected samples from different lithologies show (1) preservation of growth zoning in garnet, (2) no amphibolite- or greenschist-facies overprint in the eclogite and (3) variations in the Si content of phengite as a function of bulk-rock chemistry, P±T conditions and partial reequilibration during decompression. Sm-Nd analyses on the eclogite sample give a Grt±Cpx±whole-rock age of 362 Æ 25 Ma, consistent with the U-Pb age of 356 Æ 8 Ma (recalculated) obtained from the same sample by J. L. Paquette in 1987. Preservation of growth zoning in the garnet and the absence of late overprint show that resetting of both Sm-Nd and U-Pb systems is unlikely. The age of c. 360 Ma is thus interpreted as the age of the high-pressure event. Eight 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages, ranging from 352.0 Æ 1.6 to 340.5 Æ 1.4 Ma, are obtained from phengite single grains from six samples. The existence of Ar inheritance is unlikely, because (1) 40Ar/39Ar ages are younger than the age of the high-pressure event as deduced from U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages, (2) duplicates display a high reproducibility of plateau ages in all cases, and (3) a concordant Rb-Sr age is obtained on one common sample. These plateau ages probably represent closure temperatures (possibly on the order of 450±500 C) for the best preserved and oldest samples, whereas the younger plateau ages may represent a later closure of the K/Ar system due to continuous deformation and chemical re-equilibration during retrogression. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Received 6 January 2000; revised version received 6 August 2000; accepted 18 September 2000 KEY WORDS eclogite-facies metamorphism; exhumation; geochronology; Variscan belt; Armorican Massif; Champtoceaux Complex; France

1. INTRODUCTION Eclogite-facies rocks are widely distributed in most orogenic belts of Late Proterozoic to Recent age (Maruyama et al. 1996). They are key indicators of the burial to great depths (in excess of about 30 km) of large, coherent slices of oceanic and continental crust during the early stages of the orogenic evolution. Open questions concern mainly the exhumation mechanisms of the high-pressure (HP) rocks and the rheological behaviour of the crust at great depth. In order to de®ne the possible mechanisms involved during exhumation of HP rocks, accurate constraints are needed on their pressure±temperature (P±T) evolution, the timing of the (HP) event and the cooling rate. This
     * Correspondence to: Dr Valerie Bosse, Laboratoire de Geochronologie-Geochimie, Geosciences Azur (UMR-CNRS 6526), Universite de NiceSophia-Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France. E-mail: bosse@unice.fr

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paper is an attempt to solve some of these questions in a speci®c case, the Champtoceaux Complex (Armorican Massif, France), which belongs to the Variscan belt of Late Palaeozoic age. High-pressure relics are found throughout the Variscan belt from the Iberian Massif to the Bohemian Massif (O'Brien et al. 1990). Although different Á types of high-pressure rock have been distinguished in the Ibero-Armorican arc (Godard 1988; Ballevre et al. 1993), previous geochronological data suggest that they belong to an early episode of Silurian age (about 400± 440 Ma, U/Pb; Pin and Peucat 1986; Paquette et al. 1995). Younger ages have also been obtained from eclogites in the Armorican Massif, as in the Champtoceaux Complex (about 360 Ma, U-Pb; Paquette 1987), as well as in other areas of the Variscan belt, such as the Black Forest (about 330±340 Ma, Sm±Nd; Kalt et al. 1994). Nevertheless, these latter ages have generally been regarded as unreliable because of methodological problems, or were considered to be the result of late resetting of the chronometers (Faure et al. 1997). Such discrepancies are crucial for the choice between different possible models of the tectonic evolution of the Variscan belt. The Champtoceaux Complex offers an opportunity to clarify these issues by means of a combination of petrological data and isotopic data obtained by different methods (Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and 40Ar/39Ar) from a few carefully selected samples. We shall tentatively propose a model of isotopic closure of phengites, dependent either on temperature or on deformationinduced chemical re-equilibration. If this model is valid, it implies closure temperatures for the K-Ar system in phengites higher than those generally assumed.

2. GEOLOGICAL SETTING 2.1. Main units  Á The Champtoceaux Complex (Cogne 1966; Marchand 1981; Bayer and Hirn 1987; Ballevre et al. 1993) is a crustal-scale thrust sheet located in the South Armorican domain (Brittany, France), bounded to the north by the Nortsur-Erdre Fault and to the south by the southern branch of the South Armorican Shear Zone (SASZ) (Figure 1). In this area four major superposed units are identi®ed, brie¯y described as follows from bottom to top. The Paraautochthon, the Mauves Unit, consists of a monotonous sequence of metagreywackes of unknown age. The Champtoceaux Complex is thrust over the Mauves Unit. It consists of several stacked units distinguished mainly by lithology and metamorphism. Because the thrusts bounding the different units are ductile, and because most rocks have a mylonitic fabric, identi®cation of the thrusts relies essentially on discontinuities in lithology and/or metamorphic history. Two major subunits can be distinguished. The Lower Allochthon includes the Cellier Unit, consisting essentially of leucocratic gneisses enclosing numerous eclogite lenses and overlain by mica-schists, and the St Mars Unit, a strongly deformed leucocratic gneiss. In both units, the leucocratic gneisses have been derived from granitic bodies of Early Ordovician age (Vidal et al. 1980; Paquette et al. 1984). The Middle Allochthon displays migmatitic orthogneisses with poorly-preserved relics of eclogite lenses (Champtoceaux Unit) and a sequence of deformed gabbros with some peridotites (Drain Unit), as well as metavolcanics and metasediments à (Havre Unit). The Upper Allochthon, the Mauges Unit, consists of weakly- to strongly-deformed Proterozoic sediments and volcanics, unconformably overlain by Cambrian to Silurian sediments (Cavet et al. 1966). The relationships between the Champtoceaux Complex and the Mauges Unit are not well exposed. The Ancenis Basin, northeast of the Champtoceaux Complex, is in fault contact with the stacked units described above. The sedimentation within the Basin consists essentially of purple shales with interbedded sandstones, with Á conglomerates dominating the top of the sequence (Riviere 1977). The beds are undeformed or tilted, and have been intruded by minor stocks of microgranite and a two-mica granite. Poorly known fauna and ¯ora suggest a Á continental (¯uviatile or limnic) environment and an Early Carboniferous age (Beaupere 1973; Cavet et al. 1978). 2.2. Deformation history Three main deformational events can be distinguished in the Champtoceaux Complex (Lagarde 1978; Marchand Á 1981; Ballevre and Marchand 1996). Relics of the eclogite-facies deformation are scarcely recognized in some
Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Geol. J. 35: 297±325 (2000)

Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Á Figure 1. Sketch map of the Champtoceaux Complex (modi®ed from Marchand 1981 and Ballevre et al. 1993). Inset shows its location in the Armorican Massif (western France). Samples collected for this study are indicated on the map. Quaternary deposits (Q) are not ornamented. The main structures are two thrust faults and a detachment fault (separating the Champtoceaux Complex from the overlying Upper Allochthon and Ancenis Basin). Both types of fault were later folded along an east±west-trending anticline. The South Armorican Shear Zone deformed the whole set of structures, and was associated with the intrusion of two-mica leucogranites.

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boudins, but cannot be used for determining a strain pattern at regional scale. For this reason, the ®rst event was the main ductile deformation, easily recognized in the ®eld by a pervasive foliation and a prominent stretching lineation. This deformation is associated with the thrusting of the Champtoceaux Complex (from east to west) over the Parautochthon (Mauves Unit). The second event is the ductile deformation associated with the exhumation of the Champtoceaux Complex with respect to the Mauges Unit, the contact being interpreted as a major ductile detachment. The third event corresponds to the folding of the earlier structures (i.e. foliations, stretching lineations, thrust surfaces between units within the Complex, and folding of the detachment fault at the contact between the Champtoceaux Complex and the Mauges Unit) around an east±west axis which plunges towards the east. This late folding, which is responsible for the present-day outcrop pattern of the Champtoceaux Complex, was probably synchronous with the dextral strike-slip motion along the SASZ, the southern part of the Champtoceaux Complex being strongly sheared along the SASZ. Intrusion of two-mica leucogranites (Vigneux Granite (Hussein 1960); Mortagne Granite (Guineberteau et al. 1987; Roman-Berdiel et al. 1997)) during dextral movement along the SASZ is associated with the development of an andalusite-bearing contact aureole. 3. ECLOGITE-FACIES ROCKS FROM THE CELLIER UNIT Eclogite-facies rocks of the Champtoceaux Complex are found mainly in the Cellier Unit, where their excellent preservation has attracted attention since the last century (Lacroix 1891). The Cellier Unit consists essentially of ®ne-grained leucocratic gneisses (i.e. leptynites) derived either from granites and granodiorites (Lasnier et al. 1973; Lagarde 1978) and/or from volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks of dacitic to rhyolitic composition. The granites have been dated as Lower Palaeozoic (Vidal et al. 1980; Paquette 1987). The leptynitic gneisses display abundant small (1±5 m) eclogite lenses. The basic rocks have a rather restricted range of compositions and rare earth element patterns ranging from N-MORB to T-MORB types (Bernard-Grif®ths and Cornichet 1985; Paquette 1987) and contain relict doleritic textures (Godard 1988); they can thus be interpreted as representing a former dyke swarm intruded into a thinned continental crust. The leptynites and their eclogite lenses are structurally overlain by garnet-bearing mica-schists, which also contain a few eclogite lenses. Á The ma®c rocks display well-preserved eclogitic parageneses (Lacroix 1891; Briere 1920; Velde 1966, 1970; Godard et al. 1981; Godard 1988) consisting of combinations of garnet, omphacite, sodic-calcic amphibole (barroisite), quartz, zoisite, phengite and rutile. In some samples from the eastern part of the Cellier Unit, glaucophane crystals developed as late porphyroblasts (Godard et al. 1981). Coexisting kyanite and omphacite are observed in a Á few eclogites from the western part of the Cellier Unit (Lacroix 1891; Briere 1920; Velde 1970). In a few quartzrich rocks from Fay-de-Bretagne, parageneses such as garnet ‡ omphacite (Jd55) ‡ kyanite or garnet ‡ jadeite Á (Jd95) ‡ phengite have been reported (Ballevre et al. 1987). Mineral parageneses in the mica-schists also suggest an increasing grade of the eclogite-facies event from east to Á west (Ballevre and Marchand 1991). In the eastern part of the unit (along the Loire River), peak assemblages include garnet ‡ chloritoid Æ chlorite, whereas samples from the western part of the unit display garnet ‡ kyanite Á assemblages, with relict chloritoid and staurolite inclusions in garnet (Ballevre et al. 1989). Estimated P±T conditions for the eclogite-facies event are about 15±20 kbar, 550 C and 20±25 kbar, 650 C for the eastern and wesÁ tern part, respectively, of the Cellier Unit (Ballevre and Marchand 1991). In both areas, near-isothermal decompression allowed the growth of chlorite or staurolite ‡ chlorite. Well-preserved relics of eclogite-facies parageneses in granitic or rhyolitic rocks are unknown in the Cellier Unit. Garnet coronas around biotite in undeformed pods were originally ascribed to a granulite-facies event (Lasnier et al. 1973; Vidal et al. 1980), but later studies have emphasized their similarity with coronas developed in jadeite-bearing metagranites (e.g. Sesia Zone, western Alps (Compagnoni and Maffeo 1973; Koons et al. 1986); Dora-Maira, western Alps (Biino and Compagnoni 1992); Malpica-Tui Unit, Iberian Massif (Gil Ibarguchi 1995)). Although jadeite has not been found in the plagioclase pseudomorphs, the coronas are interpreted as recording Á partial re-equilibration during the high-pressure event (Ballevre et al. 1989). In strongly deformed granitic to rhyoÁ litic rocks, the high grossular content of garnet (Le Goff and Ballevre 1990) and the high Si content of phengite
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porphyroclasts (Le Goff 1989) are possible indicators of the high-pressure metamorphism. The main ductile deformation (D1 of Lagarde 1978) took place in the stability ®eld of albite.

4. PETROLOGY OF THE STUDIED SAMPLES The sampling strategy was to combine petrological and geochronological studies on carefully-selected samples. Criteria for selecting samples were as follows. The only studied eclogite (sample CX5c) was chosen because (1) a U-Pb zircon age was previously obtained from it (Paquette 1987) and (2) it appeared to be a good candidate for SmNd and 40Ar/39Ar dating because of the abundance of garnet and the presence of phengite. This eclogite was col Á lected in a quarry (la Brehardiere) located on the left bank of the Loire River, 2 km southwest of la Varenne (Figure 1). The other selected rocks, which represent a large spectrum of whole-rock compositions, were collected in two closely-spaced localities, namely Fay-de-Bretagne and Campbon (Figure 1). They consist of three mica-schists (FAY 24, FAY 29 and CH 20), a leptynite (FAY 13) and a quartz vein (CAM 5). 4.1. Mineral parageneses The eclogite CX5c (Table 1) is especially well-preserved, undeformed (except for a few narrow albite-bearing fractures) and shows a paragenesis consisting of garnet, omphacite, glaucophane, phengite and rutile. Most garnet grains present an atoll shape, the atoll being ®lled with phengite, and minor omphacite or quartz. Some garnet grains are full idioblastic crystals, which sometimes contain inclusions of dark blue-green sodic-calcic amphibole in the core and a pale green omphacite in the rim. Two types of omphacite are present: larger grains with abundant inclusions of rutile needles, quartz, minute paragonite and rare plagioclase, and ®ner, inclusion-free grains. The former are thought to represent omphacite topotactically developed on the site of a magmatic phase (augite?) while the latter are newly-grown sodic pyroxenes. Both types have the same chemistry (about 50±55 mol % of jadeite). Glaucophane crystals are idioblastic porphyroblasts which contain a few garnet inclusions. Phengite is mainly found in the atoll garnets. This sample presents many similarities with the one described by Godard et al. (1981), except that phengite and clinopyroxene are present in the atolls instead of quartz. Two types of metapelite have been collected. Samples FAY 24 and FAY 29 are garnet±kyanite mica-schists simiÁ lar to those previously described (Ballevre et al. 1989). The high-pressure paragenesis consists of quartz ‡ phengite I ‡ garnet ‡ kyanite ‡ rutile. Garnet from sample FAY 24 shows an inclusion-rich core, with chloritoid and staurolite Æ graphite, and a rim with abundant kyanite and rare staurolite inclusions. Chloritoid and staurolite grains are also found in the matrix, close to kyanite. Sample FAY 29 is similar, with abundant inclusions of kyanite and rare staurolite in garnet. In both samples, phengite I is distinguished by its large size (about 0.2±0.8 mm), and kyanite is replaced by minute grains (about 10±20 mm) of phengite II and paragonite. The second type of metapelite, represented by sample CH 20, shows an intense ductile deformation, where high-pressure minerals are now porphyroclasts in a ®ne-grained matrix. Large relict phengite I grains are bent or folded, and rimmed by ®negrained biotite. Undeformed or foliated aggregates of phengite II and albite have replaced paragonite (or jadeite?). Garnet contains inclusions of quartz, rutile and rare paragonite and is partially resorbed. Minerals crystallizing in its pressure shadows include biotite and oligoclase. Rutile, common as inclusions in garnet and phengite I, is rimmed by ilmenite in the matrix. The felsic rocks, volumetrically the most abundant but the poorest in terms of preservation of the HP parageneses, are represented by sample FAY 13, a very-®ne grained leucocratic gneiss. Relics of magmatic phases include allanite and rare recrystallized K-feldspars. The foliation is de®ned by the shape fabric of quartz, albite, white mica and biotite. Clinozoisite forms either single grains or surrounds allanitic cores. Garnet is common, as small atollshaped grains around undeformed phengite grains. In the matrix, phengite grains are mostly large deformed clasts, whereas biotite grains are minute crystals de®ning the foliation. The quartz vein (sample CAM 5) consists of quartz and white mica, and displays a well-developed foliation.
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Table 1. Mineral parageneses of the studied samples. Garnet rim compositions are plotted in Figure 3b. Phengite compositions are plotted in Figure 4b. mg ˆ MgO/ (FeO ‡ MgO). Mineral abbreviations are from Kretz (1983) Prograde history and peak PT conditions ÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐ Paragenesis Reaction Deformation
CX5c Grt±Omp (Jd46±54)±Gln (mg 0.73-0.84)±Phe±Rt± Sulphide Qtz±Grt±Ky±Phe I±Rt±Tr± (St I±Cld I±Gr) Grt ‡ Omp ‡ H2O ‡ Qtz ˆ Gln or Omp ‡ (K2O ‡ H2O) ˆ Grt atoll ‡ Gln ‡ Phe St ‡ Cld ˆ Grt ‡ Ky ‡ H2O Unknown

Sample
Eclogite

Retrograde history ÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐÐ Ð Paragenesis Reaction Deformation
Rare blue-green Amp None None Rare fractures

Grt±Ky mica-schists

FAY 24

Inclusions de®ne internal schistosity

Pg±Phe II±Chl (mg 0.58)±Ilm± St II±Cld II Pg±Phe II±Chl (mg 0.50)±Ilm±St II Phe II± abundant Bt (mg 0.53)± rare Chl (mg 0.51)± Oligoclase (An 13±17)± Ab±Ilm Ab-altered Bt (mg 0.09)

FAY 29

Qtz±Grt±Ky±Phe I±Rt±Tr± (StI) Qtz±Grt±Phe 1±Rt±(Pg)

St I ‡ Qtz ˆ Grt ‡ Ky ‡ H2O

Unknown

Grt mica-schist CH 20

Unknown

Leptynite Quartz vein

FAY 13 CAM 5

Qtz±Grt±Phe±Czo±(Kfs) Qtz±Phe

Unknown Unknown

Grt ‡ Phe I ˆ Chl Grt ‡ Phe I ˆ St II or Cld II Ky 3 Phe II ‡ Pg Rt 3 Ilm Grt ‡ Phe I ˆ Chl Grt ‡ Phe I ˆ St II Ky 3 Phe II ‡ Pg Rt 3 Ilm Grt ‡ Phe I ˆ Bt Rt 3 Ilm Jd ‡ PheI ˆ Ab ‡ PheII or Pg ‡ Phe I ˆ Ab ‡ Phe II Grt ‡ Phe I ˆ Bt Phe I ‡ Kfs ˆ Bt Unknown Depends on ¯uid composition

Weak

v. bosse et al.

Weak

Intense Bt foliation and shear bands Intense Strong foliation Intense Strong foliation

exhumation of eclogite-facies rocks, champtoceaux complex, france 4.2. Garnet chemistry

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Because of its importance for P±T estimations and Sm-Nd geochronology, garnet chemistry has been checked carefully in order to ascertain whether growth zoning has been preserved or erased by later diffusion. In all samples except FAY 13, garnet grains display a chemical zonation. Garnets from metapelites are characterized by very smooth changes in chemistry, with decreasing spessartine and increasing pyrope contents from core to rim. This pattern is a typical growth zoning, recording increasing temperatures during garnet-producing continuous reactions. In the eclogite (sample CX5c, Figure 2a), the zoning pattern is less regular, characterized by increasing

Figure 2. (a) Compositional rim-to-rim zoning of a garnet grain from a well-preserved eclogite (sample CX5c). Mineral abbreviations after Kretz (1983). Note regular increase in pyrope content from core to rim and anticorrelated almandine and grossular variations. A few inclusions of sodic-calcic amphibole are present in the core. The pattern is interpreted as growth zoning. Simpler patterns of growth zoning are also recorded in the other samples. (b) Rim composition of garnet from the investigated eclogite-facies rocks. Note the correlation between garnet chemistry and bulk-rock composition.

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pyrope and almandine contents and decreasing grossular content from core to rim. Anticorrelated changes in almandine and grossular contents, which may be related to the amphibole-consuming and omphacite-producing reactions, gives to the growth zoning a more complex shape. The composition of garnet rims (Figure 2b) is related to the bulk-rock chemistry, i.e. to buffering assemblage. Garnet from the leptynite is an almandine±grossular solid solution, with negligible pyrope and spessartine contents. It contains a high amount of grossular (about 55 mol%), as already observed in other samples of leptynites Á from the Cellier Unit (Le Goff and Ballevre 1990). Garnets from the metapelites are essentially almandine±pyrope solid solutions with negligible spessartine contents. Garnet in sample CH 20 has a slightly higher grossular content than samples FAY 24 and FAY 29 (about 10, 2±3 and 2 mol%, respectively). Finally, garnet from the eclogite is a ternary solid solution (about Alm61 Prp20 Grs18 Sps01). 4.3. Phengite chemistry Because phengite is the only mineral analysed by the 40Ar/39Ar method in this study, detailed analyses have been undertaken in order to understand its chemical behaviour. As usual for metamorphic minerals, phengite composition is a function of both whole-rock chemistry and P±T conditions (Massonne and Schreyer 1987) (Figure 3). At a given P and T, the Si content is higher in low-alumina than in high-alumina bulk-rock compositions, i.e. in K-feldspar±garnet compared to garnet-kyanite assemblages (Figure 3a). With decreasing pressures during exhumation, phengites tend to achieve lower Si contents (Figure 3b). An additional complexity, not shown in the AK(FM) projection, results from the FeMg-1 partitioning between phengite and coexisting phases. Experimental data (Massonne and Szpurka 1997) show that, at similar P±T conditions, phengites coexisting with pyrope and kyanite are more Si-rich than those coexisting with almandine and kyanite. The phengite analyses from the studied samples can now be understood with this theoretical and experimental background. In all studied samples, phengites show a large spread in composition (Figure 4a). This spread can result either from the existence of several generations of phengitic micas (samples FAY 24 and CH 20) or from core-to-rim zoning in individual grains (CAM 5, FAY 13 and CH 20). For the eclogite CX5c, the variable composition is not related to the grain geometry, but corresponds to different grain compositions. In the ®rst case, the minute grains (i.e. phengite II) developing at the expense of kyanite (FAY 24) or de®ning the late foliation (CH 20) present low to very low (up to 6.2 (pfu) per formula unit) Si contents. In the second case, lower Si values are found at grain margins in rocks which have been highly strained after the eclogite-facies event (CH 20, FAY 13 and CAM 5),

Figure 3. Phengite chemistry as a function of buffering assemblage (i.e. bulk-rock composition) and P±T conditions (see text for further explanation).

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Figure 4. Phengite chemistry. (a) (Fe ‡ Mg) versus Si diagrams for investigated phengites from the Cellier Unit. (b) XMg versus Si diagram for investigated phengites from the Cellier Unit, showing the variations of Si content in phengites related to the whole-rock chemistry. XMg ˆ Mg/ Fe ‡ Mg. Open symbols, phengite I; solid symbols, phengite II.

where phengites behave as clasts in a deforming, quartz-rich, matrix. Late biotite growth in samples CH 20 and FAY 13 is probably associated with partial dissolution of phengite, and accompanying modi®cation of rim composition by intracrystalline diffusion. The same process is possible in the quartz vein but, due to the absence of another K-bearing phase, the chemical re-equilibration probably took place through elemental exchange with the ¯uid phase. Remarkably, the smallest spread in composition is observed in the sample FAY 29, and both the smallest spread in composition and the highest Si-content are observed in the eclogite sample (CX5c) which experienced no deformation or reaction during decompression. Once the mechanism of phengite re-equilibration during decompression is understood, one can compare the core compositions, which should retain information about peak P±T conditions. As expected, phengites from garnet± kyanite mica-schists are less substituted than in garnet mica-schists (Figure 3). However, the Si-contents of phengites from the K-feldspar±garnet sample (FAY 13) are similar to those of the Grt±Ky mica-schists (Figure 4a), not higher as expected. Two hypotheses can be proposed to explain this observation. Firstly, the phengites in sample FAY 13 could have grown at lower pressures than phengites in the mica-schists. Secondly, the phengites could have crystallized at P±T conditions similar to those of the other sample, but the lower Si contents result from their much
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more Fe-rich compositions (Figure 4b). The use of phengite core composition for estimating P±T conditions, or for assessing their relative age in different samples (if based on their chemistry), is thus dependent on the whole-rock composition, hence on the buffering mineral assemblage. 4.4. Timing of main ductile deformation relative to P±T path The main purpose of this paper is not to discuss in detail the P±T path of the Cellier Unit but, rather, to stress the timing of the main ductile deformation with respect to the P±T path. Observed parageneses and mineral chemistry of the studied samples are consistent with previous estimates of the P±T conditions during the eclogite-facies event Á Á (Godard et al. 1981; Ballevre et al. 1987, 1989; Ballevre and Marchand 1991) (Figure 5). The studied eclogite lacks a fabric and was therefore not deformed during its burial and exhumation. The inclusions in garnet preserve no evidence of an included fabric which could have developed during the prograde history. The matrix phases are not equigranular with triple junctions. Consequently, the lack of fabric does not result from a complete annealing during the eclogite facies, which should have preserved the internal schistosity in the garnet and recrystallized the matrix phases. A few late fractures record a brittle behaviour of the eclogite during exhumation, in the albite stability ®eld. The leptynites, as usual, were so intensely deformed in the albite stability ®eld that no record of a previous deformation has been preserved. Consequences for geochronological studies of the contrast

Figure 5. Schematic P±T path of the studied eclogite-facies rocks from the Cellier Unit. Some equilibrium curves are plotted for reference. The KFMASH grid is taken from Powell et al. (1998). Oligoclase-in after Maruyama et al. (1983). The Fay-de-Bretagne and la Varenne areas record Á different peak P±T conditions (Ballevre and Marchand 1991).

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in mechanical behaviour between ma®c rocks (i.e. eclogites) and their surrounding environment (i.e. leptynites) will be discussed below. The studied Grt±Ky metapelites record part of the prograde history, either as garnet growth zoning or as inclusions within garnet (chloritoid inclusions in la Varenne, staurolite and chloritoid, then kyanite inclusions in Fay-deBretagne). Peak assemblages (garnet±chloritoid±phengite±ilmenite at la Varenne and garnet±kyanite±phengite± Á rutile at Fay-de-Bretagne) suggest lower P±T conditions in la Varenne compared to Fay-de-Bretagne (Ballevre and Marchand 1991). Peak P±T conditions of the order of 12±18 kbar, 550 C and 20-25 kbar, 650 C are estimated for la Varenne and Fay-de-Bretagne, respectively (Figure 5). Late growth of chlorite at the expense of garnet and chloritoid in la Varenne, and of chlorite and staurolite at the expense of garnet and kyanite in Fay-de-Bretagne Á (Ballevre et al. 1989), record partial re-equilibration during decompression, and further constrain the P±T path (Figure 5). No signi®cant deformation took place after the peak pressure in some metapelites (FAY 24 and FAY 29), but others were foliated during the decompression (CH 20). 5. GEOCHRONOLOGY 5.1. Analytical procedures 5.1.1. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr methods For Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr analyses, minerals were separated into different size fractions after crushing. Garnet and omphacite were then concentrated from 120±150 mm size fractions using magnetic separation and heavy liquids. Two white-mica size fractions from sample FAY 13 (500±300 and 300±200 mm) and three from CAM 5 (800±500, 500±300 and 300±200 mm) were concentrated. All fractions were ®nally carefully handpicked under a binocular microscope. Garnet (250 mg) and omphacite (100 mg) were separated for Sm-Nd analysis and phengite (50±70 mg ) for RbSr analysis. Two dissolution steps were carried out with acid digestion (2/3 HF and 1/3 HNO3) in a sealed Savilex beaker on a hot plate (80 C) for 7 to 15 days at ®rst, and for two or three days for the second step. Whole rocks (100 mg) were dissolved using the same method as the minerals for four or ®ve days for the ®rst step. Total dissolution was checked for and con®rmed in all cases. Sm, Nd, Rb and Sr concentrations were determined by isotope dilution using a mixed 149Sm/ 150Nd spike and separate 87Rb and 86Sr spikes. All samples (whole rocks and minerals) were spiked before dissolution. Isotopic ratios and concentrations were measured using a seven-collector Finnigan MAT - 262 mass spectrometer. All ratios were normalized against 88Sr/ 86Sr ˆ 8.3752. The long-term analyses on NBS-987 Sr standard yielded 87Sr / 86Sr ˆ 0.710249 Æ 8 (12 analyses). 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios were normalized against the value 146 Nd/ 144Nd ˆ 0.721900. During the period of acquisition the AMES Nd standard gave 143Nd/ 144Nd ˆ 0.511961 Æ 5 (49 analyses) which is equivalent to the La Jolla value 143Nd/ 144Nd ˆ 0.511860. Sr blanks were lower than 200 pg and Nd blanks were 360 pg. Isochron calculations follow Ludwig (1999). The decay constant is 0.0142 Ga-1 for 87Rb and 0.00654 Ga-1 for 147Sm. Input errors used in age calculations are 87Sr/ 86Sr ˆ 0.005%, 87 Rb/ 86 Sr ˆ 2%, 143Nd/ 144Nd ˆ 0.005% and 147Sm/ 144Nd ˆ 0.2%. All errors on ages are quoted at 2'. 5.1.2. 40Ar/ 39Ar method The 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses were performed on single grains of phengite I by the step-heating procedure. Grains ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 mm were carefully selected under binocular microscope. The samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor of the McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada, in position 5c. The total neutron ¯ux density during irradiation was 1.6Â1017 n cm À2 with a maximum ¯ux gradient estimated at Æ 0.2% in the volume where the samples were included. We used the Hb3gr hornblende as a ¯ux monitor with an age of 1072 Ma (Turner et al. 1971). The step-heating procedure is described in detail by Ruffet et al. (1991). The heating was carried out by a Coherent Innova 70-4 continuous argon-ion laser. Each laser step heating lasted 3 min, 1 min for heating, and 2 min of
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clean-up of the released gas, before introducing the gas into the mass spectrometer. The laser-beam size, adjusted onto a cleavage-faced mica, was at least twice the sample size in order to obtain a homogeneous temperature over the whole grain. The temperature is not known, but its homogeneity is controlled by observing the heated mineral with a binocular microscope coupled with a video-colour camera. The fusion of the mineral was achieved by focusing the laser spot. The mass spectrometer is a VG 3600 working with a Daly detector system. The blanks of the extraction and puri®cation laser system were measured every third step and subtracted from each argon isotope from the subsequent gas fraction. Typical blank values were in the range of 8.4±21.0, 0.7±2.1, 2.1-2.8 and 1.3±1.4Â10 À13ccSTP for masses 40, 39, 37 and 36, respectively. The criteria for de®ning plateau ages were as follows: (i) a plateau age should contain at least 70% of released 39 Ar; (ii) there should be at least three successive steps in the plateau; and (iii) the integrated age of the plateau should agree with each apparent age of the plateau within a 2' error con®dence interval. All errors are quoted at the 1' level (except the plateau ages that are given to the 2' level for comparison with data from other methods) and do not include the errors on the age of the monitor. The error on the 40Ar*/ 39Ark ratio of the monitor is included in the plateau age error bar calculation. 5.2. Results 5.2.1. Sm-Nd data Sm-Nd analyses were performed on garnet, clinopyroxene and whole rock from sample CX5c. Results are reported in Table 2. The garnetÀwhole-rock and garnetÀclinopyroxene pairs give concordant ages of 359Æ 7 Ma and 371Æ 7 Ma, respectively. Including garnet and whole-rock data previously obtained by Paquette (1987) in the same sample gives an age of 362Æ 25 Ma, with a high mean square of weighted deviates (MSWD) of 6.8 (Figure 6). This may suggest that isotopic equilibrium between the whole rock and the minerals was not completely achieved during the eclogite-facies metamorphism. The two garnet fractions from Paquette (1987) and this study show different Sm/Nd ratios, probably because of a higher purity of the garnet population from the present work. 5.2.2. Rb-Sr data For the leptynite (sample FAY 13), two phengite fractions (WM 1: 300±200 mm and WM 2: 500±300 mm) and the whole rock yield an isochron age of 336Æ 6 Ma (Figure 7a, Table 3). Three phengite fractions (WM 1: 800±500 mm, WM 2: 300±200 mm and WM 3: 500±300 mm) and whole-rock replicates from the quartz vein (sample CAM 5) yield an isochron age of 320 Æ 6 Ma (Figure 7b, Table 3). 5.2.3. 40Ar/ 39Ar data In the la Varenne area (eastern part of the Cellier Unit, Figure 1), phengites from eclogite CX5c display concordant plateau ages of 352.0 Æ 1.6 and 351.2Æ 1.4 Ma (Table 4, Figure 8). Phengites from three mica-schists, a leptynite
Table 2. Sm-Nd results from the whole-rock and mineral separates from eclogite (sample CX5c). Data from Paquette (1987) are also included Sample No. CX5c Eclogite Analysis No. 7935 Type Sm (ppm) 5.6 1.6 4.6 Nd (ppm) 21.3 1.1 18.2
147

Sm/144Nd

143

Nd/144Nd

Whole-rock 2 Grt Cpx 7935 Whole-rock 1 Paquette (1987) Grt

0.1592 0.8944 0.1521 0.1633 0.5024

0.512778 Æ 7 0.514507 Æ 12 0.512705 Æ 5 0.512772 Æ 22 0.513525 Æ 16

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Figure 6. Sm-Nd Grt±Cpx and whole-rock (WR) isochron for the eclogite CX5c. Open symbols are from Paquette (1987). Solid symbols are from this study.

Figure 7. Rb-Sr isochrons. (a) Isochron for leptynite FAY 13 obtained from two phengite fractions (Wm1: 300±200 mm and Wm 2: 500±300 mm) and the whole rock (WR). (b) Isochron for quartz vein CAM 5 obtained from three phengite fractions (Wm 1: 800±500 mm, Wm 2: 300±200 mm and Wm 3: 500±300 mm) and two whole-rock replicates (WR1 and WR2).

Table 3.

Rb-Sr results from the whole-rock and phengites from leptynite (sample FAY 13) and quartz vein sample (CAM 5) Analysis No. 14043 14046 Type Whole rock Wm 2 Wm 1 Whole rock 1 Whole rock 2 Wm 1 Wm 2 Wm 3 Rb (ppm) 113.6 414.5 420.5 28.3 28.2 350.2 190.4 328.3 Sr (ppm) 50.5 19.9 21.4 7.0 6.8 31.4 15.6 27.8
87

Sample No. FAY 13 Leptynite CAM 5 Quartz vein

Rb/86Sr 6.5 62.1 58.2 11.7 11.9 32.7 35.9 34.6

87

Sr/86Sr

0.740050 Æ 7 1.005241 Æ 9 0.987472 Æ 9 0.763676 Æ 10 0.763299 Æ 7 0.858035 Æ 7 0.871973 Æ 7 0.868513 Æ 7

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Table 4. 40Ar/ 39Ar analytical results obtained from phengite single grains from the Cellier Unit. All isotopic measurements were corrected for K and Ca isotopic interferences, mass discrimination and atmospheric argon contamination. Correction factors for interfering isotopes were (39Ar-37Ar)Ca ˆ 7.06Â10 À 4, (36Ar-37Ar)Ca ˆ 2.79Â10 À 4, (40Ar-39Ar)K ˆ 2.95Â10 À 2. Step no. CX5c Phengite 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fuse Integrated age CX5c Phengite 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Fuse Integrated age
40

Aratm(%) 12.49 14.03 3.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.26 3.69 0.97 0.34

39

Ar (%)

37

ArCa/39ArK ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

40

Ar*/39ArK 5.89 5.91 5.71 5.82 5.82 5.82 5.75 5.64 5.80 5.83

Age (Ma) 357.0 Æ 16.0 358.0 Æ 12.3 347.3 Æ 3.2 353.0 Æ 1.8 353.0 Æ 1.4 353.4 Æ 1.1 349.5 Æ 5.3 343.5 Æ 6.1 351.9 Æ 5.2 353.8 Æ 1.4 352.3 Æ 0.8 422.2 Æ 40.7 391.5 Æ 8.9 376.6 Æ 11.2 355.1 Æ 7.0 347.1 Æ 6.9 359.5 Æ 6.4 358.067 Æ 5.2 365.942 Æ 7.1 366.768 Æ 4.6 353.611 Æ 3.1 351.685 Æ 0.7 353.219 Æ 1.2 351.711 Æ 0.8 352.377 Æ 0.9 350.705 Æ 1.1 349.307 Æ 1.4 348.917 Æ 3.2 350.293 Æ 0.8 352.6 Æ 0.4 305.7 Æ 3.5 363.4 Æ 2.4 360.3 Æ 2.3 357.5 Æ 2.4 351.5 Æ 1.0 349.5 Æ 1.1 350.3 Æ 3.6 352.3 Æ 5.1 346.4 Æ 4.4 353.4 Æ 4.0 350.1 Æ 1.2 351.9 Æ 1.2 350.4 Æ 0.6 Geol. J. 35: 297±325 (2000)

1.93 2.44 12.28 12.13 21.27 24.19 2.96 3.33 3.32 16.15

39.09 14.83 7.11 7.59 9.38 3.65 6.40 0.00 0.00 10.70 6.60 1.03 1.30 1.67 2.67 3.94 4.15 2.79

0.29 0.81 0.90 0.93 1.01 1.09 1.48 1.19 1.29 2.49 19.22 6.57 11.43 11.35 8.45 7.12 3.71 20.68

± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

7.10 6.52 6.25 5.85 5.71 5.94 5.91 6.05 6.07 5.83 5.79 5.82 5.79 5.81 5.77 5.75 5.74 5.77

FAY 29 Phengite 1 1 20.37 2 3.49 3 0.12 4 0.71 5 0.11 6 0.33 7 0.59 8 0.54 9 3.09 10 1.14 11 0.77 Fuse 0.14 Integrated age

4.22 5.80 4.79 6.46 16.50 18.95 5.89 3.73 3.26 3.57 13.89 12.92

± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

10.44 12.62 12.50 12.39 12.17 12.09 12.12 12.20 11.97 12.24 12.11 12.18

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exhumation of eclogite-facies rocks, champtoceaux complex, france
Table 4. (Continued) Step no.
40

311

Aratm(%)

39

Ar (%)

37

ArCa/39ArK ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

40

Ar*/39ArK 6.89 11.50 12.12 12.41 12.42 12.44 12.48 12.14 12.16 12.04 12.06 12.08 12.08 12.06

Age (Ma) 207.5 Æ 9.5 334.0 Æ 5.9 350.2 Æ 5.9 357.9 Æ 4.4 358.1 Æ 2.7 358.6 Æ 1.4 359.7 Æ 0.7 350.8 Æ 0.5 351.4 Æ 0.7 348.3 Æ 0.5 348.6 Æ 0.7 349.2 Æ 1.2 349.2 Æ 0.6 348.8 Æ 0.8 350.5 Æ 0.3 316.4 Æ 23.7 332.5 Æ 12.5 362.7 Æ 3.9 382.6 Æ 5.4 359.2 Æ 3.6 360.1 Æ 1.9 344.9 Æ 0.5 342.7 Æ 0.5 345.9 Æ 2.7 344.0 Æ 2.4 352.1 Æ 23.3 344.0 Æ 0.6 345.2 Æ 0.3 314.3 Æ 50.5 413.2 Æ 56.5 370.3 Æ 8.8 355.3 Æ 4.0 351.9 Æ 2.5 345.5 Æ 0.9 345.6 Æ 0.5 348.3 Æ 3.9 362.1 Æ 5.2 355.8 Æ 6.8 351.0 Æ 2.9 343.2 Æ 2.5 346.9 Æ 0.5 267.3 Æ 9.7 361.8 Æ 3.3 353.0 Æ 1.3 Geol. J. 35: 297±325 (2000)

FAY 29 Phengite 2 1 74.80 2 45.05 3 39.59 4 11.42 5 5.90 6 2.38 7 5.41 8 0.88 9 0.00 10 0.02 11 0.00 12 0.00 13 0.08 Fuse 0.00 Integrated age FAY 24 Phengite 1 1 65.69 2 33.83 3 24.08 4 0.00 5 11.96 6 4.33 7 0.00 8 0.16 9 0.29 10 0.67 11 0.00 Fuse 0.00 Integrated age FAY 24 Phengite 2 1 59.20 2 0.00 3 4.21 4 6.15 5 3.69 6 1.00 7 0.06 8 0.00 9 0.00 10 0.00 11 0.00 Fuse 0.90 Integrated age CH 20 Phengite 1 1 45.49 2 9.56 3 2.29

0.28 0.45 0.55 0.83 1.20 1.59 6.41 32.90 17.08 9.26 3.47 2.31 11.16 12.50

0.23 0.72 1.32 0.80 1.09 3.58 45.87 29.94 1.95 1.85 0.19 12.44

± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

10.83 11.43 12.58 13.35 12.45 12.48 11.90 11.82 11.94 11.87 12.18 11.87

0.21 0.18 0.95 2.26 3.81 20.26 57.39 2.64 1.75 1.38 3.69 5.47

± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

10.75 14.54 12.87 12.30 12.17 11.93 11.93 12.03 12.56 12.32 12.13 11.84

0.31 1.06 2.44

± ± ±

9.05 12.59 12.25

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Table 4. (Continued) Step no. 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fuse Integrated age
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v. bosse et al.

Aratm(%) 0.57 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.18 0.16 0.10

39

Ar (%)

37

ArCa/39ArK ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

40

Ar*/39ArK 12.12 12.08 12.09 12.02 12.00 12.02 12.04

Age (Ma) 349.5 Æ 0.5 348.6 Æ 0.5 348.7 Æ 0.5 347.1 Æ 0.6 346.5 Æ 0.9 346.9 Æ 1.1 347.5 Æ 0.8 348.3 Æ 0.2 206.4 Æ 33.2 278.6 Æ 42.3 358.6 Æ 12.6 371.3 Æ 3.4 363.3 Æ 2.5 355.6 Æ 2.1 364.8 Æ 1.6 351.9 Æ 3.4 359.5 Æ 1.8 358.9 Æ 1.1 353.9 Æ 1.5 351.9 Æ 1.2 352.9 Æ 1.0 351.2 Æ 0.8 351.3 Æ 0.6 350.4 Æ 0.6 350.6 Æ 0.8 350.2 Æ 0.6 349.8 Æ 0.6 350.1 Æ 0.9 349.5 Æ 1.7 354.1 Æ 1.9 351.2 Æ 0.6 350.6 Æ 0.8 349.7 Æ 1.1 344.6 Æ 4.5 351.7 Æ 0.8 351.8 Æ 0.2 310.3 Æ 5.8 343.0 Æ 2.6 339.1 Æ 1.8 344.6 Æ 1.4 339.7 Æ 0.6 340.1 Æ 0.5 341.4 Æ 0.9 340.6 Æ 1.3 340.9 Æ 1.3 341.4 Æ 0.8 340.4 Æ 0.3 Geol. J. 35: 297±325 (2000)

12.35 22.95 31.89 8.90 4.16 3.33 12.63

CH 20 Phengite 2 1 77.53 2 56.36 3 33.88 4 17.04 5 12.24 6 10.64 7 6.44 8 1.53 9 2.95 10 2.93 11 1.62 12 0.59 13 0.79 14 1.19 15 0.76 16 0.72 17 0.07 18 0.46 19 0.68 20 0.95 21 0.93 22 0.00 23 0.66 24 1.24 25 1.85 26 3.01 Fuse 0.70 Integrated age FAY 13 Phengite 1 1 39.05 2 6.25 3 2.72 4 0.02 5 0.16 6 0.08 7 0.00 8 0.00 9 0.00 Fuse 0.00 Integrated age

0.13 0.07 0.24 1.00 1.08 1.43 1.83 0.79 1.96 3.21 4.07 2.79 4.10 4.46 8.92 11.75 4.54 11.10 7.99 3.58 1.97 1.61 8.12 4.54 2.28 0.56 5.86

± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

6.87 9.47 12.46 12.95 12.64 12.35 12.70 12.21 12.50 12.48 12.28 12.21 12.25 12.18 12.18 12.15 12.16 12.14 12.13 12.14 12.12 12.29 12.18 12.16 12.13 11.93 12.20

1.37 3.62 5.08 6.17 18.94 24.27 13.30 7.09 7.09 13.05

± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

10.59 11.82 11.67 11.88 11.69 11.71 11.76 11.73 11.74 11.76

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exhumation of eclogite-facies rocks, champtoceaux complex, france
Table 4. (Continued) Step no.
40

313

Aratm(%)

39

Ar (%)

37

ArCa/39ArK ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

40

Ar*/39ArK 7.26 11.04 11.20 12.94 13.30 11.83 11.69 11.56 11.72 11.72

Age (Ma) 218.4 Æ 51.3 322.3 Æ 25.4 326.6 Æ 16.7 372.4 Æ 14.5 381.7 Æ 29.4 343.2 Æ 1.2 339.7 Æ 0.7 336.2 Æ 5.3 340.4 Æ 6.3 340.5 Æ 5.6 340.5 Æ 0.9 362.7 Æ 13.2 353.9 Æ 7.4 348.4 Æ 6.2 330.0 Æ 6.8 339.4 Æ 2.4 342.1 Æ 1.7 340.8 Æ 1.0 344.6 Æ 1.3 341.5 Æ 1.7 343.2 Æ 1.2 342.4 Æ 0.9 340.5 Æ 1.1 336.7 Æ 1.9 345.3 Æ 2.6 343.6 Æ 2.3 346.4 Æ 3.5 342.5 Æ 0.5 276.8 Æ 19.7 430.5 Æ 60.0 290.9 Æ 38.1 335.8 Æ 30.2 342.2 Æ 20.6 353.8 Æ 2.6 357.6 Æ 3.4 356.5 Æ 3.9 354.7 Æ 3.2 359.8 Æ 1.5 358.2 Æ 1.4 364.1 Æ 3.7 353.0 Æ 1.0 352.7 Æ 0.8 349.7 Æ 1.0 349.7 Æ 1.3 349.5 Æ 0.9 346.3 Æ 0.7 Geol. J. 35: 297±325 (2000)

FAY 13 Phengite 2 1 85.51 2 21.96 3 16.27 4 0.00 5 0.00 6 0.93 7 0.34 8 3.37 9 1.36 Fuse 10.00 Integrated age CAM 5 Phengite 1 1 33.26 2 8.51 3 4.36 4 9.17 5 3.76 6 2.27 7 1.68 8 0.92 9 1.71 10 0.87 11 0.56 12 1.39 13 2.53 14 0.00 15 0.68 Fuse 0.00 Integrated age CAM 5 Phengite 2 1 71.77 2 61.27 3 89.77 4 53.20 5 44.36 6 35.66 7 8.42 8 8.91 9 5.97 10 5.22 11 3.21 12 2.40 13 3.69 14 4.39 15 2.04 16 1.82 17 1.67 18 1.10

0.45 0.93 1.77 1.80 0.89 24.54 54.99 4.68 3.77 6.16

0.81 1.48 1.67 1.45 2.69 3.60 10.36 10.82 4.21 7.39 36.83 7.85 3.65 2.46 2.97 1.75

± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

12.61 12.27 12.06 11.36 11.72 11.82 11.77 11.92 11.80 11.87 11.83 11.76 11.62 11.94 11.88 11.99

0.24 0.06 0.12 0.14 0.25 3.12 1.47 1.35 1.61 2.99 3.46 1.19 4.99 8.07 5.05 3.57 5.93 8.37

± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

9.39 15.26 9.91 11.58 11.82 12.27 12.41 12.37 12.30 12.50 12.43 12.66 12.24 12.23 12.11 12.11 12.10 11.98

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314
Table 4. (Continued) Step no. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Fuse Integrated age
40

v. bosse et al.

Aratm(%) 0.82 0.49 1.36 1.22 0.98 0.65 0.43 0.54 0.35 0.79 2.07

39

Ar (%) 5.23 8.53 3.66 6.26 4.64 3.79 4.91 4.30 3.31 1.46 1.93

37

ArCa/39ArK ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

40

Ar*/39ArK 11.92 11.91 11.78 11.76 11.74 11.74 11.76 11.73 11.80 11.86 12.07

Age (Ma) 344.6 Æ 1.0 344.4 Æ 0.8 341.0 Æ 1.0 340.4 Æ 0.9 340.0 Æ 0.9 339.8 Æ 1.1 340.6 Æ 0.8 339.7 Æ 1.3 341.5 Æ 1.2 343.2 Æ 2.5 348.6 Æ 2.0 347.1 Æ 0.3

Figure 8.

40

Ar/ 39Ar age spectra obtained from single grains of phengite. The numbers indicate plateau ages with error bars at the 2' level. Apparent ages are given at the 1' level.

and a quartz vein (Table 4, Figure 8) from Fay-de-Bretagne and Campbon, in the western part of the Cellier Unit (Figure 1), were also analysed. Phengites from two Grt±Ky mica-schists (samples FAY 24 and FAY 29) and a Grt mica-schist (sample CH 20) display plateau ages of 350.7 Æ 1.4 Ma (FAY 29), 345.7 Æ 1.4 and 344.1 Æ 1.4 Ma (concordant plateau ages on FAY24), and 348.3 Æ 1.4 Ma and 350.9Æ 1.4 Ma (concordant plateau ages on CH20). A second grain from sample FAY 29 does not provide a plateau age, but the weighted mean age of 350.0 Æ 1.4 Ma (calculated on steps 8 to 14, representing 88.7% of 39Ar released) is concordant with the plateau age obtained on the other grain. All these age spectra are characterized by more or less regular higher ages at low temperature. Two phengite grains from the leptynite (FAY 13) give similar plateau ages of 340.5 Æ 1.6 and 340.5 Æ 1.4 Ma. Finally, two phengite grains from sample CAM 5 (a quartz vein) were analysed. The ®rst displays a plateau age of 342.2Æ 1.4 Ma which is concordant with the plateau ages obtained in the other samples. The second gives a highly disturbed age spectrum characterized by increasing apparent ages at low temperature (from 342 to 364 Ma, steps 5 to 12), followed by a regular decrease down to 340 Ma (over 77% of the total 39Ar degassing), then increasing apparent ages for the last ®ve steps. The 36Ar/ 40Ar versus 39Ar/ 40Ar correlation diagrams are not given because
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they do not provide useful information due to the clustering of ratios. The 37ArCa / 39ArK ratio is always very low and not always visible because of the long delay between the irradiation and the experiment. The 37ArCa / 39ArK spectra are therefore not shown. 6. THE AGE OF THE ECLOGITE-FACIES METAMORPHISM Previous U-Pb analyses on zircons (Paquette et al. 1985; Paquette 1987) were performed on two eclogite samples (CX14 and CX5c), which differ in their location (Fay-de-Bretagne and la Varenne, respectively) and chemistry (andesitic and basaltic compositions, respectively) and hence mineral paragenesis (garnet±omphacite±kyanite± quartz and garnet±omphacite±glaucophane±phengite, respectively). Zircons from sample CX14 provided a lower intercept age of 413 Æ 44 Ma (recalculated using Ludwig 1999), which was interpreted as the age of the HP event (Paquette et al. 1985). This result was consistent with the then-available ages of the HP metamorphism in the Armorican Massif (Peucat et al. 1982) and Massif Central (Pin and Lancelot 1982; Ducrot et al. 1983). Later, Paquette (1987) reconsidered the U-Pb data on sample CX14. Because the zircons are highly discordant, the lower-intercept age of 413 Ma may have no geological meaning (Paquette 1987; Mezger and Krogstad 1997). Zircons from the second eclogite sample (CX5c) display an upper intercept age of 356 Æ 8 Ma (recalculated using Ludwig 1999). Because the zircons are nearly concordant, this age is interpreted as dating the growth of the zircons (Paquette 1987). Three interpretations are nevertheless possible. Firstly, the 356 Ma age can be considered as the minimum age for the eclogite-facies metamorphism (Paquette 1987). This interpretation is based on a combination of an observation (i.e. zircon grains are only found as inclusions in glaucophane) and an interpretation on the timing of glaucophane growth, according to which glaucophane idioblasts in the Champtoceaux eclogites mark a temperature decrease during the earliest stage of the cooling history (Godard et al. 1981). Nevertheless, new observations show that zircon grains are found not only in the glaucophane crystals (where they develop pleochroic haloes, hence explaining their easy identi®cation) but also in the garnet and in the clinopyroxene, i.e. in all high-pressure minerals. Zircon growth is thus not linked with glaucophane growth, and therefore there is no clear-cut observation indicating when zircon growth took place. Based on petrographic criteria, zircon could either pre-date the high-pressure paragenesis or be synchronous with it. The SmNd data obtained are thus critical for testing the latter two hypotheses. Secondly, the 356 Ma age can be interpreted as the age of crystallization of the high-pressure assemblage. This hypothesis is supported by the new Sm-Nd data (362 Æ 25 Ma) obtained from the same sample, despite its large error bar. The slight isotopic disequilibrium could be a consequence of either mineral inclusions in garnet and clinopyroxene, or the presence of two different types of clinopyroxene in this sample (see above). Nevertheless, the isochron ages obtained separately on Grt±Cpx and Grt±whole-rock pairs (371 Æ 7 Ma and 359 Æ 7 Ma, respectively) are concordant and in agreement with the U-Pb age. Preservation of growth zoning (i.e. zoning for major elements) indicates that the minor elements, known to diffuse more slowly than Fe, Mn and Mg and at rates lower than or similar to Ca (Hiroi and Ellis 1994; Lanzirotti 1995; Spear and Kohn 1996), have not been modi®ed after garnet growth. Temperature estimates based on the FeMg-1 exchange between garnet and clinopyroxene (Krogh 1988) give values on the order of 550±600 C for the studied sample. This temperature is slightly lower than the minimum estimated closure temperature for the garnet Sm-Nd system (600 Æ 30 C: Mezger et al. 1992). It must be emphasized that the analysed garnets are very small (about 300±400 mm for the larger grains), once again laying emphasis on the kinetic constraints on the Sm-Nd age. The situation would have been radically different if the analysed garnets, rather than preserving a growth zoning, had shown a diffusion zoning, in which case the signi®cance of the Sm-Nd age would be less straightforward. A third interpretation would be to assume that the 356 Ma age is younger than the high-pressure metamorphism (which should have taken place at 400±440 Ma, as suggested by previous U-Pb data), due to a resetting of the U-Pb clock (Faure et al. 1997). In fact, resetting of both the Sm-Nd and the U-Pb system in sample CX5c is highly unlikely because of: (i) preservation of the growth zoning in the garnet; (ii) preservation of prograde inclusions in garnet (sodic-calcic amphibole) as well as matrix omphacite (quartz and plagioclase); (iii) preservation of the
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idioblastic shape of the garnet grains, indicating that no garnet resorption occurred during decompression; and (iv) lack of amphibolite- or greenschist-facies overprint except in a few fractures. 7. TIMING CONSTRAINTS ON THE AGE OF THE EXHUMATION 7.1. Multimethod age consistency Although they vary from 352.0Æ 1.6 to 340.5 Æ 1.4 Ma, the 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages appear in general agreement (i.e. are slightly younger than) the U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages obtained on at least one common sample. They could therefore represent cooling ages. Note also that the Rb-Sr isochron and the 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages obtained on sample FAY 13 are concordant. Taking into account the estimated closure temperatures of white micas, i.e. È 350Æ 50 C for the K-Ar system and 500 Æ 50 C for the Rb-Sr system (Jager 1979), an obvious interpretation of the above data is that the cooling rate was very fast so that: (i) 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages are only slightly younger (or within error) than the U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages, thought to re¯ect crystallization of the eclogite-facies paragenesis at temperatures lower than the estimated closure temperature for the U-Pb and Sm-Nd systems; (ii) the lack of difference between Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages. Nevertheless, this model of fast cooling during decompression does not explain the range of 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages, which is higher than the analytical uncertainties. Potential explanations of this spread are now discussed. 7.2. Spread of
40

Ar/ 39Ar ages

7.2.1. Absence of correlation between 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and spatial distribution of studied samples The spread of 40Ar/ 39Ar ages could result from differences in cooling rate. Indeed, the studied samples have been collected over a large area (Figure 1), and differences in P±T histories have been found between the two main sampling localities (Figure 5). Differences in cooling ages, and possibly cooling rates, can thus be expected. Nevertheless, the two oldest plateau ages are obtained from samples from both the eastern (le Cellier: CX5c) and the western (Fay-de-Bretagne: FAY 29) parts of the Cellier Unit. Consequently, differences in P±T±time paths cannot be responsible for the spread of 40Ar/ 39Ar ages. 7.2.2. Absence of evidence for excess argon The spread of 40Ar/ 39Ar ages could also result from the incorporation of variable amounts of undetectable excess argon, as previously observed in HP phengites (Tonarini et al. 1993; Li et al. 1994; Arnaud and Kelley 1995; Ruffet et al. 1995, 1997; Scaillet 1996). Although this cannot be ruled out in the Champtoceaux Complex, it is unlikely that the data are affected by excess argon for the following reasons. (1) The possibility that excess argon was present when plateau ages were obtained arises because the 40Ar/ 39Ar ages are older than the U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages obtained from the same locality, or even the same sample, as observed, for example, in ultra-high-pressure eclogites from China (Li et al. 1993) and in high-pressure eclogites from the Himalaya (Tonarini et al. 1993). This multimethod approach is followed in the present study of the Champtoceaux Complex. Because the 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages are always younger than (or within error of) the ages obtained by the U-Pb and Sm-Nd methods (e.g. sample CX5c), this precludes the presence of large amounts of inherited argon. Moreover, although we would expect an older Rb-Sr age, the concordance of RbSr and 40Ar/ 39Ar data in sample FAY 13 also argues in favour of a lack of excess argon. (2) The investigated samples are monometamorphic rocks derived from sedimentary or magmatic rocks, with very different K-contents (and therefore radiogenic Ar content, before the HP event), with ages on the order of 400± 500 Ma (Paquette et al. 1984), which should introduce correspondingly different amounts of excess argon. We do not observe any relationship between the plateau age and the type of rock: the two pelites FAY 29 and FAY 24 give different plateau ages, whereas the eclogite CX5c and the pelite FAY 29 display concordant plateau ages.
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(3) In the case of phengite affected by excess argon, different grains of the same sample or even different splits of a same grain, generally give different plateau ages (Ruffet et al. 1995), which is clearly not the case for the Champtoceaux duplicates which show high reproducibility of plateau ages. The ®rst parts of some age spectra are affected by more or less regular higher and decreasing apparent ages at low temperature. They may originate from 39Ar loss from ®ne-grained phases by recoil during the irradiation, or may correspond to some inherited 40Ar trapped by the less retentive ®ne-grained phases during the ®nal closure of the whole grain. Although this last possibility cannot be ruled out, both the previous discussion on eventual excess argon and the fact that there is no relationship between these higher low-temperature apparent ages and the corresponding plateau ages, lead us to favour the recoil effect. 7.2.3. Correlation between 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages and deformation Plateau ages are correlated with the degree of strain and deformation-induced chemical re-equilibration of micas during the decompression history. Indeed, the oldest plateau ages are obtained from well-preserved samples (CX5c and FAY 29) that show neither deformation nor important core-to-rim chemical variation in phengite. Conversely, the youngest plateau ages are obtained on phengites from rocks that have been highly strained during their exhumation (i.e. FAY 13 and CAM 5) and show strong core-to-rim variations in Si-content. A relationship between plateau age and deformation and/or phengite re-equilibration is less clear for samples FAY 24 (344.1 Æ 1.4 Ma) and CH 20 (348.3 Æ 1.4 Ma and 350.9Æ 1.4 Ma). Nevertheless, whereas no foliation can be observed in sample FAY 24, some phengite I grains show undulose extinction. This feature may explain the younger plateau age in this sample, which can be considered as intermediate between the older (CX5c) and the younger plateau ages (FAY 13). Sample CH 20 has been highly strained in the albite stability ®eld, but phengite I porphyroclasts are preserved in a ®ne-grained matrix. Therefore, the old plateau age (350.9 Æ 1.4 Ma) may be given by the phengite I porphyroclasts. Finally, in sample CAM 5, the strongly disturbed 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectrum obtained from one grain and the young Rb-Sr age (320 Æ 6 Ma) suggest a high disturbance of both isotopic systems, possibly due to deformation and ¯uid ¯ow during the exhumation history. 7.3. Closure mechanism of the K-Ar system 7.3.1. Closure temperature of the K-Ar system in phengite Because phengite grains (and other high-pressure minerals) tend to re-equilibrate with decreasing pressure, most grains show chemical zoning to some extent. The possible in¯uence of this re-equilibration on the 40Ar/ 39Ar chronometer has been the focus of much attention (e.g. Hammerschmidt and Franz 1992). In the studied samples, microprobe analyses show the existence of two generations of phengite in two samples, and core-to-rim chemical variations of variable extent in four samples (Figure 4a). In the case of the analysis of mixed phases of phengite (old HP phengite surrounded by ®ne-grained recrystallized phengites) during dating experiments, we would expect younger ages at low temperature, which is not the case. On the other hand, more than 80% of the age spectra show unvarying ages corresponding to the original and homogeneous HP phengite. It follows that the oldest plateau ages obtained on the best-preserved samples (CX5c, FAY 29) may represent closure temperature ages, whereas younger plateau ages could represent a later closure of the K-Ar system, resulting from continuous deformation of the rock. Textural (well-developed foliation in the granitic gneisses, suggesting high ductility) and petrological arguments (oligoclase and biotite growth in sample CH 20; biotite development at the expense of phengite in the leptynites) suggest that the temperature range during the late ductile deformation was around 400±500 C. Assuming a closure È temperature of 300±400 C for the K-Ar system in phengite (Jager 1979), ductile deformation would have ended before closure of the K-Ar clock in phengite. The 40Ar/ 39Ar ages should be similar in all types of rock, irrespective of their ductile deformation during retrogression. Because the contrary is observed, we must admit that the closure temperature of the K-Ar system in phengite is higher than the temperature corresponding to deformation of
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Figure 9. P±T±time path for the eclogite-facies rocks from the Cellier Unit in la Varenne and Fay-de-Bretagne. U-Pb data are from Paquette È (1987), Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and 40Ar/ 39Ar ages from this study. Closure temperatures are shown for the K-Ar and Rb-Sr systems in phengite (Jager 1979). The data cannot be reconciled with a simple model assuming (i) rapid cooling, and (ii) a closure temperature for the K-Ar system in 40 39 phengite of 350 Æ 50 C. Because the oldest Ar/ Ar ages were obtained from undeformed (CX5c) or poorly-deformed samples, and because the youngest ages were obtained from the most strongly deformed rocks (FAY 13), closure of the K-Ar system in phengite must have occurred at a higher temperature than the ductile deformation (i.e. about 450±500 C).

phengite, c. 450±500 C (Figure 9). This temperature interval is evaluated from the following observations. The lower limit (450 C) must be higher than the temperature at which deformation ends (c. 400 C). The upper limit (500 C) is given by the maximum temperature for the eclogite facies in the la Varenne area (500±550 C) where the 40 Ar/ 39Ar plateau age obtained on the undeformed CX5c sample (352.0 Æ 1.6 Ma) is only slightly younger than the U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages (360 Ma).
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In conclusion, if (i) all plateau ages correspond to the closure of the K-Ar system, and (ii) the plateau ages are related to the deformation of the phengites, the closure temperature of the K-Ar system in the phengite would be around 450±500 C, i.e. signi®cantly higher than generally assumed. The oldest plateau ages in undeformed rocks (350±352 Ma in CX5c and FAY 29) would correspond to a closure temperature of about 450±500 C (the closure is temperature-dependent only) (Figure 9). The younger plateau ages (around 340 Ma) displayed by deformed rocks (e.g. FAY 13) correspond to a later closure of phengites at a lower temperature of about 400 C, where continuous deformation during retrogression would represent the main parameter responsible for the closure of the K-Ar system (Figure 9). This interpretation is in closer agreement with the concordant 40Ar/ 39Ar and Rb-Sr ages. 7.3.2. Contrasting rheologies and consequences for 40Ar/ 39Ar ages As a ®nal point, let us discuss the distribution and role of the late ductile deformation. As pointed out above, some rocks (e.g. the eclogites) were left undeformed during the albite±epidote±amphibolite-facies overprint while others were highly strained (e.g. the granitic gneisses). The primary control on this rheological behaviour is the bulk-rock composition, which either allows or precludes the stability of easily deformed minerals at speci®c P±T conditions. Consider the case of the ma®c eclogite lenses enclosed in the granitic gneisses. During retrogression (at about 400±500 C), garnet and sodic pyroxene cannot be deformed in a ductile manner. Reaction-enhanced ductility would be possible provided that H2O enters the eclogite, allowing the growth of ®ne-grained amphibole±plagioclase aggregates at the expense of the eclogite-facies paragenesis. This is indeed observed along the margins of the eclogite lenses, which are strongly foliated. In contrast, granitic gneisses contain a high modal proportion of quartz (and possibly jadeite), with minor phengite and garnet as the high-pressure paragenesis. During retrogression, deformation-induced recrystallization of quartz is easy, and jadeite ‡ quartz reacts to form albite. With decreasing pressure, the modal proportion of phengite decreases, and its chemistry evolves towards lower Si contents (Figure 3). The associated continuous reaction liberates a small amount of H2O, which could potentially in®ltrate the eclogite lenses along their margins or within fractures. Textural observations of the granitic gneisses show that phengite is less ductile than the quartzo-feldspathic matrix (e.g. samples FAY 13 and CAM 5). Ductile deformation of phengite porphyroclasts is limited to bending and development of ®ne-grained, recrystallized tails (Choukroune and Lagarde 1977; Lagarde 1978). Whether or not H2O enters the granitic gneisses thus has no major in¯uence on their rheological behaviour, which is controlled by the mechanical properties of quartz and feldspar. In short, ductile deformation during retrogression is con®ned to (i) rheologically-weaker (i.e. quartz-rich) rocks, or (ii) domains where an externally-derived in¯ux of H2O allows reaction softening. Similar interactions between deformation, metamorphim and ¯uid behaviour are common in most high-grade terranes, e.g. the Alpine belt in Switzerland and Italy (Heinrich 1982; Rubie 1990) and the Caledonian belt in Norway (Austrheim et al. 1997; Krabbendam and Wain 1997; Austrheim 1998; Krabbendam et al. 2000). Consequences for the behaviour of the Rb-Sr and K-Ar systems are now better understood. In rocks that preserve relics of an older orogenic cycle, the Rb-Sr system can preserve ages of the older cycle under dry and static conÈ ditions (Kuhn et al. 2000). Excess Ar in phengite is commonly observed in basement rocks (i.e. in Variscan rocks overprinted by the Alpine deformation) from the Alps, whether or not they preserve mineralogical relics of the Variscan cycle (Hammerschmidt and Frank 1991; Arnaud and Kelley 1995; Ruffet et al. 1995, 1997; Scaillet 1996, 1998). In the latter case, restricted ¯uid ¯ow at high pressure probably facilitated the maintenance of a high Ar partial pressure with high 40Ar/ 36Ar ratio (originating from older pre-metamorphic rocks most often rich in potassium, and therefore in radiogenic argon), which was trapped into the phengites at their closure time. In the Champtoceaux Complex, no petrological evidence for a tectono-thermal event prior to the eclogite-facies Á metamorphism has been found (Ballevre et al. 1989). The differences in 40Ar/ 39Ar ages observed in the Champtoceaux Complex result from the interplay of bulk-rock chemistry (de®ning which minerals can be stable at a particular stage of the P±T history) and ductile deformation during retrogression. Despite these intricacies, the observed 40Ar/ 39Ar ages cannot be reconciled with a low closure temperature for the K-Ar system in phengite È (300±400 C: Jager, 1979; Hurford 1986; Hunziker et al. 1992), but suggest a higher temperature, as previously proposed (e.g. von Blanckenburg et al. 1989; Villa 1998). The proposed value (450±500 C) is a rough estimate,
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which should be re®ned when better estimations of the P±T conditions during retrogression become available. In low-strain volumes (e.g. the eclogite CX5c), undeformed phengites record older ages, because closure of the K-Ar system took place earlier than in high-strain volumes (e.g. the leptynite FAY 13) where phengite porphyroclasts remained open with respect to the K-Ar system up to the end of the deformation. Externally-derived H2O played a minor role, with the possible exception of the quartz vein (CAM 5). 8. GEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS The combined petrological±geochronological approach of this study gives strong constraints on the exhumation history of the Champtoceaux Complex (Figure 10). The main stages are as follows. (1) Subduction of the continental crust is recorded by relics of the eclogite-facies metamorphism, dated at about 360 Ma (i.e. latest Devonian). (2) The Cellier Unit is an allochthonous thrust sheet, in which the high-pressure metamorphism pre-dates the thrusting and its associated deformation. The latter took place in the albite±epidote±amphibolite facies, i.e.

Figure 10. A summary chart of the geochronological constraints of the tectonic evolution of the Champtoceaux Complex. Isotopic data are grouped in the upper part of the diagram, palaeontological data in the lower part. Age boundaries are taken from Okulitch (1999). Exhumation of the Champtoceaux Complex occurred during sedimentation in the Ancenis Basin and before strike-slip movement along the South Armorican Shear Zone and associated faults. Thus, exhumation of the high-pressure rocks took place during an early-orogenic, syn-convergence stage of the Variscan Orogeny.

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at about 400±500 C, 5±10 kbar. In eclogite-facies rocks where the late deformational or chemical overprint is lacking or poorly developed, cooling is recorded by 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages at about 350±340 Ma. Taking into account the 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and Rb-Sr ages obtained in the most strongly deformed rocks from the Cellier Unit, the thrusting can be dated at c. 330±340 Ma, i.e. from the Early Carboniferous. (3) The Ancenis Basin contains a thick sequence of continental detrital material, dated as Early Carboniferous Á (Beaupere 1973; Cavet et al. 1978). This shows that sedimentation in the Ancenis Basin is broadly coeval with exhumation of the eclogite-facies rocks from the Champtoceaux Complex (Figure 10). (4) The Nort-sur-Erdre Fault, which bounds the Champtoceaux Complex to the north, is marked by the alignment of coal-bearing basins of Namurian to early Westphalian age (Cavet et al. 1978), i.e. early Late Carboniferous. The coal-bearing sequences may have been deposited in narrow pull-apart basins which opened during dextral movement along the Nort-sur-Erdre Fault. (5) Finally, dextral movement along the South Armorican Shear Zone is coeval with the intrusion of two-mica leucogranites, namely the Vigneux Granite (Hussein 1960) and the Mortagne Granite (Guineberteau et al. 1987; Roman-Berdiel et al. 1997). The latter is poorly dated by a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron at 313 Æ 19 Ma (Guineberteau 1986; recalculated using Ludwig 1999). Late, brittle deformation along the SASZ, recorded by a few coal-bearing basins in western Brittany, took place during the Stephanian (Picquenard 1920), i.e. at the end of the Late Carboniferous. The large-scale antiformal folding of the Champtoceaux Complex may have taken place during this period. Geochronological data show that exhumation of the Champtoceaux Complex occurred during the Early Carboniferous, and that it pre-dates strike-slip movement along the Nort-sur-Erdre Fault as well as along the SASZ. Exhumation of the high-pressure rocks is thus an early-orogenic event, taking place while convergence was still active. Although extensional structures, possibly related to the gravitational collapse of the Variscan belt, are known in the South-Armorican Domain (Gapais et al. 1993; Brown and Dallmeyer 1996), they occurred at a much later stage of the evolution of the Variscan belt (300±310 Ma). Exhumation of the Champtoceaux Complex was synchronous with sedimentation in the Ancenis Basin, for which two main models are possible. The Ancenis Basin could have developed as a pull-apart basin (Diot and Blaise 1978), or as an extensional basin located in the hanging-wall of a crustal-scale detachment fault. Although both interpretations need to be substantiated by additional structural data, their consequences are brie¯y examined here. In the ®rst hypothesis, exhumation of the Champtoceaux Complex resulted from the down-dip component of the strike-slip movement. In the second hypothesis, exhumation took place by contemporaneous thrusting at low structural levels and detachment at higher structural levels. A potential candidate for the location of the detachment fault is the contact between the Champtoceaux Complex and the Upper Allochthon, for two main reasons. Firstly, the contact is associated with a sharp metamorphic break, with lower-grade rocks (the Upper Allochthon) structurally overlying higher-grade rocks (the Champtoceaux Complex). Secondly, a low-grade, mylonitic fabric overprints the Precambrian structures of the Mauges Unit close to the Champtoceaux Complex. The mylonitic zone has a thickness of the order of 1±2 km and dips at about 45 to the east, with top-to the-east shear criteria (Wyns et al. 1998). In other words, the slice of rocks between the two faults (i.e. the Champtoceaux Complex) was `extruded' in a manner similar to the models advocated, for example, in the Himalayan Range (Burch®eld et al. 1992; Gapais et al. 1992). Some similarities with analogue models (Chemenda et al. 1995) are also clear, except that the extruded material in the analogue models does not deform whereas the Champtoceaux Complex has been highly strained during exhumation.

9. CONCLUSIONS 1. Sm-Nd and U-Pb data on the eclogite-facies rocks from the Lower Allochthon (the Cellier Unit) of the Champtoceaux Complex yield an age of c. 360 Ma (U-Pb: 356 Æ 8 Ma, Sm-Nd: 362 Æ 25 Ma) for the high-pressure event, much younger than those proposed in other units of the Armorican Massif. This leaves open the possibility of either a diachroneity of the high-pressure event at the scale of the Armorican Massif during a
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continuous convergence, or several episodes of subduction±collision related to the accretion and shortening of back-arc basins and related arcs. 2. Concordant 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages and Rb-Sr data constrain the cooling history. Although small amounts of inherited argon cannot de®nitely be ruled out, the oldest 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages (around 350 Ma) obtained in the best-preserved samples probably represent closure temperatures. The relationship between plateau ages and the ductile deformation of phengite suggests that closure temperature of undeformed phengite is on the order of 450±500 C. The youngest plateau ages (down to 330±340 Ma) may be the result of a later closure of the K-Ar system, due to continuous deformation of the rheologically weakest rocks. 3. Exhumation of the high-pressure rocks occurred shortly after subduction, and at the same time as deposition of ¯uviatile to limnic sediments in the nearby Ancenis Basin. This favours a model of `extrusion' of the Champtoceaux Complex by coeval displacements along thrusts and detachments during the same period (Early Carboniferous). Exhumation of the Champtoceaux Complex thus occurred in an early-orogenic, syn-convergence geodynamic setting. Strike-slip displacement along the SASZ and associated faults (Nort-sur-Erdre Fault) during the Late Carboniferous reworked all the above structures, but did not contribute signi®cantly to the exhumation of the Champtoceaux Complex. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This work has been undertaken as part of the project Geofrance3D-Armor2 (BRGM-University). The facilities provided by M. Bohn (Microsonde Ouest) made our time spent behind the microprobe a pleasure. The technical   staff in both Rennes (M.A. Chassonneau, O. Henin, J. Mace and N. Morin) and Nice universities (Y. Ageon, M. Manetti) are thanked for their help at various stages of the geochronological work. Participants in the Metamorphic Studies Group Exhumation of Metamorphic Terranes meeting and ®eld excursion are thanked for their insightful  questions. The comments of two anonymous referees are greatly appreciated. Publication Geofrance-3D nb 104. Contribution Geoscience Azur nb 331. REFERENCES
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