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Physics form 4

Topic Contents Highlight

: (Chapter 4) HEAT : (4.2) Specific Heat Capacity : (30 minutes)

1. Specific heat capacity, c of a substance is the quality of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of the substance through a temperature of one degree Celsius. Heat energy = mass x specific heat capacity x temperature change Q = mc

Specific heat capacity , c = Q m

where : Q = the heat energy transferred to the material in joules (J). = the temperature change in oC or Kelvin (K). m = the mass of the material in kilogram (kg) 2. Unit for c is Jkg-1 C-1 or Jkg-1K-1 . (Jkg-1 C-1 = Jkg-1K-1 ) 3. The heat content of a substance depends on its material, mass and temperature. 4. Table 1 : Approximate specific heat capacities of some common substances. Substance Specific heat capacity (J kg-1 K-1)

Ice (at-15oC) Aluminium Glass Iron Lead Liquid : Water(at 15oC) Ethyl alcohol Mercury Gas : Steam Human body

Solid :

2000 900 840 452 130 Table 1 4200 2450 139 2010 3500

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Physics form 4

5. We know that heat energy cannot be created. However, electrical energy , potential energy and kinetic energy can be converted to heat energy.

Electrical energy

Heater

Heat energy Pt = mc

Power = P

Potential energy

Object fall from a high position.

Heat energy mgh = mc

Kinetic energy

moving object stopped due to friction.

Heat energy mv2 = mc

6. When two objects of equal mass are heated at equal rates, the object with the smaller specific heat capacity will have faster temperature increase. 7. When two hot objects of equal mass are left to cool down, the temperature of the object with smaller heat capacity will drop faster. 8. Materials with small specific heat capacities are used in situations that are different from materials with large specific heat capacities.

Activities : (50 minutes) 1. Refer to table 1, what is the specify heat capacity for aluminium, water (at 15oC), steam and human body? 2. How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a 4kg iron bar from 32oC to 52oC ? ( c of iron = 452Jkg-1oC-1) 3. A bottle containing 1.5kg of water at 34oC is put into a refrigerator. What is the temperature of the water after 1.575 x 105J of heat has been removed from the water ? ( c of water = 4200Jkg-1oC-1) 4. An electric kettle has a power rating of 2.4kW. How long does it take the kettle to heat up 4.5kg of tap water from 28oC to 100oC ? ( c of water = 4200Jkg-1oC-1) What assumption must you make to arrive the answer ?

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Physics form 4

Assessment : (40 minutes)

(Objective questions 5 marks) 1. More heat energy is required to raise the temperature by 1oC for 1kg of copper than for 1kg of iron. This observation is due to the difference in A. melting point B. density C. specific heat capacity D. specific latent heat 2. The table shows the data of two metal blocks P and Q when being heated. Block Mass / kg P Q 2 3 Heat supplied/J 5400 3600 Increase in temperature/oC 3 2

Which statement about P and Q is correct ? A. The heat capacity of P is equal to the heat capacity of Q. B. The specific heat capacity of P is less than the specific heat capacity of Q. C. P and Q are made of the same material. 3. An aluminium can of mass 20g contains water at 25oC. Its temperature drops to 4oC after it is put in a refrigerator. What is the amount of heat that has been removed from the aluminium can ? (c of aluminium = 900Jkg-1oc-1) A. 72J B. 378J C. 450J D. 3600J E. 37800J 4 Which of the following is not a characteristic of water that makes it widely used as a cooling agent ? A. Water is readily available. B. Water does not reat with many other substance. C. Water has a large soecific heat capacity. D. Water has a large density.

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Physics form 4

5. The figure shows a clay pot with the water inside it is still boiling even though the pot has been removed from the stove.

O O o

o o
o O

Which statement correctly explains the observation above ? A. The temperature of the outer wall of the clay pot is higher than the temperature of the water. B. Water has a large specific heat capacity. C. Clay can give out a lot of heat. D. Water has a low boiling point. 6. At the Angels Fall in Venezuela, water can fall through a vertical distance of 800m. (a) Explain why the water at the base of the waterfall could have a temperature slightly higher than the water at the top. (2 marks) (b) Estimate the difference in temperature between the water at the base and the top of the waterfall. (3 marks) 7. Figure below shows a bullet travelling at a velocity of 360m/s about to be stopped by a stationary sand bag.
Sand bag 360m/s

If the c of the bullet is 150Jkg-1oC-1,what is the increase in temperature of the bullet ? (4 marks)

8. A student who wanted to design a cooking pot as shown in figure below chose to use copper for the base and aluminium for the body of the pot. Table below gives values of density and specific heat capacity for three types of metals. handle

Body of the pot Base of the pot

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Physics form 4

Metal Aluminium Copper Lead

Density / kgm-3 2700 8900 11300

Specific heat capacity / Jkg-1oC-1 900 390 130

a) State two advantages of using copper as the base of the pot. (2 marks) b) Suggest two reasons why aluminium was chosen as the material for the body of the pot and not copper or lead. (2 marks) c) Why is lead not chosen even though it has a large density and a small specific heat capacity ? (2 marks)

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Physics form 4

Marking Scheme : (Activities ) 1. 900Jkg-1oC-1, 4200 Jkg-1oC-1, 2010 Jkg-1oC-1, 3500 Jkg-1oC-1 2. = (52 32) = 20oC Q = mc = 4 x 452 x 20 = 36 160J 3. Heat removed, Q = 1.575 x 105J , m = 1.5kg Q = mc 1.575 x 105 = 1.5 x 4200 x Q = 25oC Final temperature of the water = 34 - 25 = 19oC 4. Power of kettle, P = 2.4kW = 2400W Mass, m = 4.5kg Change in temperature, = 100 - 28 = 72oC Q = mc Pt = mc 2400 x t = 4.5 x 4200 x72 T = 567s Assumption : All the heat supplied by the heater of the kettle is adsorbed by the Water. No heat is lost to the surroundings.

(Assessment) 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. A

6. (a) As the water falls, it loses potential energy. Some of its potential energy is converted to heat energy. (b) mgh = mc 10 x 800 = 4200 x = 1.9oC 7. mv2 = mc x 3602 = 150 x = 432oC

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Physics form 4

8. (a) High density and greater mass at the base makes the pot more stable. Low c heats the pot faster. (b) Low density of aluminium reduces the total weight of the pot. Aluminium does not react with most food substances. (c) lead is poisonous. High density of the lead makes the pot heavier even before putting in food items.

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