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Introduction 1999-10-01 Rev PA4
Table of Contents
1.1 Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2 Knowledge of the reader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 This is a training document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. System Overview
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9
Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Some General Points About Access Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Main Hardware Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Access Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 AUS, Access Unit Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 AUS Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Test Unit (TAU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Equipment in the Local Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Improved Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3. Hardware Structure, BYB 501
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 BYB 501, a New Building Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Subracks in AXE Access 910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Cabling Inside Access 910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Printed Circuit Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4. Software Structure
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5
Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Set of Parts, CRT level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Access Unit V5 Application, AUV5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Multiple Access Unit Switch, MAUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Multiple Access, Operation, Administration and Maintenance, MAOAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . 58 SDH . . 77 7. . . . . 91 4 . . . . . . . 85 7. . . . . 69 Stand Alone Function. . . . . . 64 New EMRP platform . . . 62 Operation and Maintenance Functions . . . . .AXE Access 910 5. . . . . . . . . . . 57 ADSL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Integration of IP and ATM . . . .1 Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . 71 6. . . 71 Subscriber Line Maintenance Functions. .10 5. . . . 66 V5 Related Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 89 Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 71 Modified and Removed Functions . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . .2 5. .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Functions and Features 5. .3 6. . 74 Definition of a MACCG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation 6. . . . . 85 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Equipment Protection Switching . . . . . . . . . 53 Hardware-Related Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 5. . . .12 53 Chapter Introduction . . . . . .9 5. . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . 55 HDSL . . . . . . .2 6. . . SAF. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . .3 Equipment Protection Switching . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . .2 Maintenance Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Compatible Hardware . . .4 73 Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . 89 Remotely Controlled MDF.4 5. 87 8.7 5. . . . . . . . . . . .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Future Functions 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Definition of Equipment in the Local Exchange . . . . . Maintenance 85 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . .
2 Knowledge of the reader To fully understand the subject matter in this book. Main focus of the contents is on the hardware structure but information is provided describing software as well as operation and maintenance. This book does not provide any information about the compatibility between AXE Access 910 and different versions of APT or APZ.3 This is a training document Please note that this is a training document and not a formal description of the system. it may include simplifications of the system. Implementation details may also change while this book is being written. 1.1 Purpose The main purpose of this book is to describe the new functions and products in AXE Access 910. For accurate information about the system. This will be described in separate documents when the system is released. 5 . Introduction 1. Therefore. please consult the official system descriptions.1. the reader must have some knowledge of AXE as well as the previous version of the subscriber switching subsystem (SSS5). 1. The book gives an overview of the AXE Access 910 and describes some of the most important functions.
AXE Access 910 6 .
Main focus of this document is to describe the AXE Access 910 in indoor version. 7 .1 Chapter Introduction This chapter will give you an overview of AXE Access 910. At the same time.2. referred to as AXE Access 910. One can say that AXE Access 910 replaces the existing SSS/ RSS as some proprietary interfaces are kept. the Ericsson Access 910. you will be able to: • Describe the general system structure of AXE Access 910 • Describe how the different parts of the system co-operate • State the units used in the system and understand their basic functions. can be connected to any suppliers local exchange as long as it supports the standard interface V5. Basic concepts and the main structure of the system will be explained as well as some points about access nodes in general. Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter. can only be connected to AXE exchanges. Figure 2. both indoor and outdoor versions of these two variants are developed in different sizes. More about the V5 interface later on in the book. System Overview 2.2.1 shows the variants developed and how they relate to each other. By reading this chapter. The other variant. One variant. you will get a general picture of the different parts of AXE Access 910 and its functions. 2.2 AXE and Ericsson Access 910 Ericsson develops two variants of the access system Access 910.
the difference between AXE and Ericsson Access 910 is one single board. the development of access nodes takes two paths: one which keeps the access tied to the local exchange and one which tries to loosen-up this connection. In the latter case. For AXE Access 910.3 Some General Points About Access Nodes Today. just as with the old SSS5. 8 . 2.AXE Access 910 AXE Access 910 Ericsson Access 910 In-door This document xDSL Out-door Mini Midi Maxi Mini Midi Maxi AXE management Separate management system (UNIX based) xDSL management Figure 2. In the first case. a combination of V5 and proprietary interfaces are used. proprietary interfaces are still in use. a standardised interface is used: ETSI V5. This means that the access node should be seen as a part of the AXE local exchange.1 Relationship between AXE and Ericsson Access 910 From a hardware point-of-view. Figure 2. The differences between the in-door and out-door version is the mechanics surrounding the subracks.2 illustrates the main idea.
The “transport network” s indicated in Figure 2. This will create a high-capacity access transport network that is very flexible and fully prepared for broadband access.2 AXE Access 910 can be used as a remote access node for an AXE local exchange The access nodes will in most cases be remote from the local exchange. It is best to have one common access node for a large number of services delivered through the traditional copper wire. it is also important to have short subscriber lines as the bandwidth depends on the quality and the length of the subscriber’ copper cable. 9 . How many subscribers in a given area will be interested in the new services? When will they be interested? The absence of precise answers to such questions makes it difficult to plan the network.1 New Services in the Near Future A “hot issue” within telecom is how operators should handle Internet access.2 will in the future most likely be based upon optical fibres in a ring structure. like ADSL (Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line).3. The ideal solution is to have common hardware for all types of access.System Overview AXE Access 910 Core part of AXE Transport network AXE Access 910 AXE Access 910 Figure 2. 2.3. For broadband services. the access nodes are equipped with SDH interfaces which can connect them to the optical fibre (add/drop multiplexers). Please study Figure 2. You will find more information about future functions and features in chapter 8. For that reason. It is difficult for an operator to anticipate the new services coming soon. The main reason for this is economy: putting the access nodes close to the subscribers results in a less costly access network. broadband services and other new functions affecting the access.
4 illustrates the main principle.3.1 Local Exchange V5. European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute. There are two different variants of this interface: • V5. regardless of manufacturer.AXE Access 910 POTS VDSL ? ADSL AXE Access 910 Figure 2. Figure 2.4 The two types of V5 interfaces 10 . • V5. This is already a possibility in mobile systems (e. Many operators wish to have local exchanges and access nodes which come from different suppliers. Multiplexer 1 2 Mbit/s 30 Concentrator 1 2 Mbit/s ~ 1000 V5. GSM) where base stations and exchanges can be supplied by different manufacturers.2 V5 Interface Gives Flexibility An important issue for network operators is the use of an open protocol between the local exchange and the access nodes.1 is used for multiplexers connected by a standard 32-channel 2 Mbit/s line to the local exchange. has developed a standard interface which can be used between the local exchange and the access node: the V5 interface.2 Figure 2.g. These operators can buy the best local exchange and connect that to the best access node.3 PABX ISDN HDSL Future services delivered by AXE Access 910 2.2 is used for concentrators having the ability to concentrate the traffic towards the local exchange. ETSI.
which will be explained in chapter 3.4 Main Hardware Structure 2. 2. The boards in BYB 501 are larger than in the existing SSS based upon BYB 202.5 shows the hardware structure. and concentrates the traffic to a few 2 Mbit/s lines. Different access units are used to deliver different types of services (e. The multiplexer cannot concentrate the traffic.1 Access Unit and Access Unit Switch The hardware structure of AXE Access 910 is much more simple than the SSS5 structure. Line Interface Boards in the context of SSS5.5 The main hardware structure of AXE Access 910 The Access Units (AU) are line boards. and more functions are put on each printed board assembly (PBA). 2 Mbit/s AXE Access 910 PSTN ISDN-PRA ISDN-BA TAU TAU AU AU AU AU AUS ETC ETC RPG RPG AXE core part ETC ETC GS AU AU AUS ADSL TAU TAU AU AU ET AU RPG RPG ETC ETC ETC ETC RP RP RP RP RPB CP-A CP-A CP-B CP-B SDH (155 Mbit/s) Figure 2. POTS. there is a test unit referred to as TAU. Figure 2. TAU stands for Test.System Overview In most applications. the concentrator connects between 500 and 2000 subscribers. We will now leave the hardware for a while and focus on the structure of the system. The mechanics. For test of both the AUs and the subscriber lines. so each subscriber is permanently connected to the same time slot on the 2 Mbit/s link. is based upon the state-of-the-art building practice BYB 501. There are less board types.g. ISDN-BA. HDSL or ADSL). Maintenance and 11 . The AUs differ in size and capacity.4.
How.6 shows a number of AUSs in one access node. The number of subscribers per TAU is determined by the intensity of subscriber line test.4. The TAU corresponds to the SLCT in the old SSS5 structure. In the local exchange. The AUS contains a time switch.1 interface. The V5 variant for multiplexers.8 on page 16. The AUS concentrates the traffic to a few 2 Mbit/s lines towards the local exchange.6. 2. 2. to the group switch. Please study Figure 2.6 on page 22 but the number is in the range of 1-5. there are a number of 2 Mbit/s lines going to the local exchange. RPG stands for regional processor with group switch interface. which is further explained in chapter 2. Several AUs are connected to one AUS by means of standard 2 Mbit/s lines.4. AU AUS AU AU AUS AU AUS Network AU AUS AU To Local Exchange Figure 2.6 AUS in one access node. and a processor. One can say that the AUS network replaces both the EMRP bus and the Time Switch Bus in SSS5. is used. the V5. The AUS network is also based on standard 2 Mbit/s links.2 The AUS Network All the AUSs in one access node are connected to each other. The AUS network. then. The dimensioning of this is explained in chapter 2. and the AUS network Figure 2. The Access Unit Switch (AUS) is the common parts assembled in one single board. a number of RPGs are needed.AXE Access 910 Administration Unit. From each AUS. the 2 Mbit/s lines are connected via ETCs. keyset code receivers. For communicating with the AXE Access 910. Exchange Terminal Circuits. is used for EMRP communication and for the overflow traffic.11.3 V5 interface It was mentioned earlier that the V5 interface is used in AXE Access 910. is 12 . tone senders.
1 software.1 protocol used in AXE Access 910 2. 16 AXE core part Group Switch RPG ETC T.) and is controlled via the V5. there will be special line boards for this type of access as well: • An access unit for HDSL. primary rate access. can also be connected to the AXE Access 910 system. high-speed digital subscriber line • An access unit for ADSL. Access Unit.5 Access Units The general term “access unit” is used to denote all types of accesses that can be used in AXE Access 910. Please study Figure 2. V5. The AU has a powerful processor which runs the V5. 16 AU AU AUS CP-A CP-B Figure 2. The other end of the protocol is in the local exchange where an RPG is used for the V5. there are two main variants for narrowband: • Two different access unit for PSTN access − LIC30 based upon standard SLIC circuits with or without 12/ 16 kHz private meter pulse sending − ALB30 with high functionality requested on some markets only • An access unit for ISDN-BA access (2B+D). 13 . However.1 protocol.1 software.1 AXE Access 910 AU AU T. it is connected directly to the AUS without using any specific access unit.1 interface is only used for AU of type PSTN and ISDN-BA (not for broadband access). Note that the V5.. Different access units will be developed for different types of narrowband and broadband applications. As broadband is included in AXE Access 910..System Overview that possible since the whole AXE Access 910 is a concentrator and not a multiplexer? The answer is that each AU.7 The V5.7. asymmetrical digital subscriber line ISDN PRA. is regarded as a multiplexer (and it is. Today.
Instead of connecting an AU board. The functionality will be in accordance with the ETSI standard. as already mentioned. Speech Network Terminal V5. Please study Figure 2. AU (narrowband) 2. The unit performs the switching functions and concentrates the traffic to the local exchange. Common telephony functions like digit reception of 14 . The PRA connection is made via a standard E1 link of 2 Mbit/s.048 Mbit/s ET ET Figure 2. Figure 2.AXE Access 910 All existing narrowband access units have some common parts. the central unit in the access node. the ET circuit can connect an ISDN PRA connection. Access Unit Switch. contains a large number of ET circuits for connection of 2 Mbit/s E1 links.8 shows a block diagram valid for all types of narrowband access units. Access Unit Switch The AUS is.6 Connection of ISDN-PRA Each AUS.1 2 Mbit/s AUS Line Interface Data AU Control (processor) Power -48V Figure 2.9.8 Block diagram for an Access Unit. MDF AU ET ET DDF ET ET ET ET ET ET AUS PABX ISDN-PRA 2.7 AUS.9 Connection of ISDN Primary Rate Access 2.
DTMF signals and tone sending are also performed by the AUS. The unit performs the following functions:
• Synchronisation of the local time switch (slave to the group switch in
the local exchange)
• • • • •
Switching of speech samples in a 1K time switch Attenuation of speech samples Transmission of tones to subscribers (e.g. dial tone) Reception of DTMF signals (digits from push-button telephones) Connection of the 2 Mbit/s digital links (E1 links).
The unit also contains a new EMRP-T (Extension Module Regional Processor connected to the Time switch) and, in two of the AUSs in every access node, functions for an STR, Signalling Terminal Remote. Figure 2.10 shows the main parts of the AUS.
Access Unit Switch
Clock Sync. ring
ET ET To AU or PRA Switch and attenuation
ET To Local Exchange ET ET
ET To TAU ET
DTMF, tones EMRP-T ET
ET TSW V24 STCON
The main parts of the AUS, Access Unit Switch
Here follows a short description of each unit shown in the figure:
The switch handles 1024 channels of 64 kbit/s each. The switch can also attenuate the speech samples.
One AUS in the access node is master and all other clocks in the node follow the clock of the master. Another AUS has a clock which acts as stand-by master in case of failure. The timing information is distributed
AXE Access 910
via a separate, duplicated, bus in the backplane of the AUS subrack. The hardware is a VCXO, Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator, delivering 16,384 Mhz.
• ET, Exchange Terminals
The ET circuits terminate the E1 links operating at 2 Mbit/s (2.048 Mbit/s). Channel 0 is used for synchronisation and the remaining 31 channels can be used for calls or signalling (e.g. V5.1 signalling). The links conform to ITU standard G.703, G.704, and G.706. The interface is a 120 ohms balanced interface. The standard AUS board has 28 ET circuits.
• HDLC pool
The HDLC circuit is a data communication circuit (high-level data link control) and it is integrated in the microprocessor. The hardware can handle 32 HDLC channels and they will be used for STC-STR communication, AUS interwork via the AUS network, and V5.1 concentration. In the case of standalone traffic, the V5.1 signalling links are terminated in the HDLC circuits.
• DTMF tones
This hardware, that is used to receive DTMF tones, is based upon a DSP, digital signal processor. This hardware has the capacity to handle 32 devices (KRC devices). As well as receiving tones, it also generates them. New tones can be generated without changing the hardware.
• AUS control system
The new powerful EMRP-T will replace the old EMRP, the device processors as well as the STR (in two AUSs per node). In the figure, dashed lines indicate that these latter functions are now handled by the same hardware. The software executed by the new EMRP has to be written in C or C++. Old PLEX-M programs are converted to C before being compiled.
• Serial interface
The AUS has two V.24/V.28 ports for connecting the local debugger and a portable terminal (PC).
2.8 AUS Network
The AUS network is a common name for two separate functions. One function, which replaces the EMRP bus in the old SSS5 structure, is for EMRP-T communication. The other function, which replaces the Time Switch Bus, TSB, in the old SSS5 structure, is for local connections and overflow traffic.
The EMRP ring is the name for the function replacing the EMRP bus. It is used for EMRP-EMRP communication and uses standard 2 Mbit/s links. It is built as a ring because security and information can be sent in both directions on the ring. If one part of the ring becomes faulty, the ring can still handle signalling between all connected EMRPs. Figure 2.11 illustrates the principle, with 6 AUSs in the subrack.
Example with fault: AUS AUS AUS Faulty link AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS
The redundant EMRP ring
The 31 channels on the EMRP ring are not fully used for EMRP communications. The EMRP ring will probably need 4 time slots to have the same capacity as the EMRP bus in the old SSS5. Remaining channels can be used by the Mesh network (see next chapter).
The Mesh network will replace the Time Switch Bus in the SSS5 structure and will consequently be used for calls. The Mesh network will also be implemented by standard 2 Mbit/s links and all AUSs will be connected to each other. That is why it is referred to as a Mesh network. Figure 2.12 shows some examples of configurations with 3 to 6 AUS in one subrack.
3 AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS 5 AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS
4 AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS
AUS AUS 6 AUS AUS AUS
The Mesh network with different numbers of AUSs
via the time switch.13 The TAU in the AXE Access 910 2. Test. Figure 2.the exact number depends on how often it is necessary to perform line measurements.13 shows where the TAU is located in the system. The number of TAU needed for each access node depends on the total number of subscribers as well as the intensity of line tests. in the old structure of SSS5. 2. must communicate with the regional software in the 18 . Please note that the spare AUS is not shown in the figure (there is always one spare AUS for reliability reasons). The TAU can measure the subscriber line as well as test the line circuit by means of simulated subscriber actions such as on and off hook. This means that the subrack is prepared for a maximum number of AUSs and that extensions are made easy and quickly without the need for additional cable work. Maintenance and Administration Unit. connects the TAU to the digital side of the line circuit.AXE Access 910 The Mesh network is pre-cabled according to the customer’ wish of s maximum number of AUSs. TAU has two connections to the Access Units: • one analog test bus which galvanically connects the measurement equipment inside the TAU to the subscriber line and analogue side of the line circuit. AU Test access LIC AUS ET ET LIC TAU Test Head Switch ET ET ET ET ET ET Figure 2. maintenance and traffic control.9 Test Unit (TAU) TAU. The TAU is shared by a large number of subscribers .10 Equipment in the Local Exchange The local exchange contains all the main software functions for operation. is the unit in AXE Access 910 that replaces the SLCT. The test interval is set by the network operator and varies between different operators. stored and executed by the central processor. Central software. subscriber line and circuit tester. • one connection to the AUS which.
• Signalling to ISDN-PRA access One set of RPG is required for the signalling towards PRA access. reliable communication between the local exchange and the access node is vital. PRA access.1 interface requires regional processors connected to the group switch.1 The V5. digit reception. time switch. All AXE Access 910 access nodes will be connected in the same way. • Signalling to TAU A general signalling mechanism has been developed for AXE Access 910. tones. the TAU communication. and I/O). For this reason. developed for the AXE hardware BYB 501.System Overview access node. The hardware required to connect and signal to/from the AXE Access 910 can be divided into the following: • Physical connection of the E1 digital links The connection is made by ordinary 2 Mbit/s ETCs in the local exchange. The reason for this is that it is estimated that 80% of all access nodes will be installed remotely. These regional processors are referred to as RPG.14 shows the hardware required in the local exchange for handling the V5. • Signalling with V5. The RPG is used for this type of signalling too. One difference between the former SSS5 and the AXE Access 910 is that no centrally located version of the AXE Access 910 will be developed. The hardware is the same as any standard ETC. Internal Communication Service. This “transport function” is referred to as ICS. Figure 2. and the “STC-STR” signalling. regardless of location (via ETC in the local exchange). regional processor with group switch interface. 19 . The RPG is used for this type of signalling as well (STC and STR in the old SSS5 structure).1 protocol. • Signalling to EMRP software in AUS This type of signalling is used to send orders to the functions implemented in the hardware in the AUS (for example.
This means that one spare is used for a large number of RPG having the same functionality (e.14 Equipment needed in the local exchange to connect an AXE Access 910 The number of RPG in the local exchange is reduced due to the fact that each RPG has a large capacity and can in that way control several signalling links. one spare RPG for PRA signalling).11 Improved Characteristics A large number of important improvements. relative to SSS5.11. As an example. 2.g. one RPG can serve several access nodes regarding the TAU signalling. have been made in the design of AXE Access 910. a complete list of all small changes and improvements cannot be made here. a reduction of footprint with a factor of 2. The number of subscribers per node and the number of subscribers per subrack (magazine) is more in detail described in chapter 3. The list contains the most important changes in characteristics. All figures and comparisons in the following list have been made in relation to the old SSS5 structure. Figure 2.15 shows an example of a comparison.1 Reduced Footprint If compared with the old SSS5 structure.6 is achieved. The RPGs are working in “n+1” redundancy. 2. 20 .AXE Access 910 To/from PRA To/from AU To/from TAU V3 V5 ICS ETC ETC ETC ETC ETC ETC ETC ETC RPG RPG RPG PRA AU V5 TAU To/from STR in AUS RPG STC-STR ETC ETC Group Switch RPB CP-A CP-B Figure 2.
The corresponding figure for SSS5 is 12. • The AUS has a failure rate of 79 years (Mean Time Between System Failure). Reduced power consumption also means reduced need for cooling.2 Reduced Power Consumption The power consumption has been reduced by some 40% for PSTN subscribers. that gives a lower cost of ownership for our customers.6 = 3 000 PSTN 6 550 PSTN lines per m2 400 4 x Subrack 4 x Subrack Figure 2. the MTBSF is then 16 years. This figure is calculated on faults caused by hardware faults. the MADT is improved with a factor 14 (from 5 minutes down to 0. This will affect the “cost of ownership”.4 minutes.35 minutes).11. in the end. 2. is calculated to 5 minutes per year for a node having 200 PSTN subscribers. reduced costs for both power and cooling. For an access node of 2000 subscribers/B-channels having 5 AUSs.5-0.11.3 Improved ISP. the MTBF is 0.15 Reduction of footprint 2. and. Mean Accumulated Down Time. as less spare parts will reduce costs and capital tied up. In Service Performance The reduced number of circuits and improved design have improved the availability of the system considerably.System Overview 720 720 720 400 4 x LSM 6 x LSM 6 x LSM = 2 048 PSTN 2 370 PSTN lines per m2 600 600 Reduction of footprint by factor 2.11. 21 .6 years (6-7 months). 2. Here are some figures supporting this statement: • For an access node with mixed PSTN and ISDN-BA of some 2000 subscribers/B-channels. • The MADT. • With the optional function equipment protection switching.4 Fewer Board Types A reduction in the number of board types lowers the cost of spare parts for our customers.
the operator gets product identity. serial number as well as position in the access node.11. There are more keyset receivers (KRC) in the AXE Access 910 per subscriber than in the old SSS5. This will simplify the maintenance and reduce the risk of faulty handling. Visual fault indication by means of LED is also provided. 2.5 New Hardware Functionality The hardware contains functions which enable the boards to be identified. time switch bus.AXE Access 910 2. revision information.11.6 Traffic Characteristics The AUS Network has better traffic capacity than the old TSB. Upon command. This makes the AXE Access 910 less sensitive to uneven traffic loads. 22 .
• BYB 202 Still in use today (the blue cabinets) for some parts of AXE. Based upon racks and magazines to hold the printed circuit boards. a New Building Practice 3.1 Chapter Introduction This chapter will give you an overview of the building practice used in AXE Access 910. Hardware Structure. Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter. This means that most supplier’ equipment can be mounted s directly in the mechanical structure without any modifications. • BYB 501 The latest building practice optimized for the new compact hardware. Ericsson’ s main building practice for AXE exchanges between 1986 and 1998. the building practice is given an ABC class. BYB. you will be able to: • Describe the new building practice used: BYB 501 • Describe how the mechanics is built-up and structured as well as some important metrics • Account for the main functions implemented in the hardware of the system. The main features of BYB 501 is that it complies with IEC and ETSI standards. there has been three different building practices in use: • BYB 101 This system was used between 1976 and 1986. During the many years of AXE.3. 3.2. For AXE. BYB 501 3.2 BYB 501. This includes equipment based upon 19 inch racks (common in the computer industry). The building practice has many advantages for the customer and it gives future-proof and flexible mechanics adapted to future broadband services.1 Introduction AXE has always had a certain building practice for our telephone exchanges. 23 .
2. Plug-in units of various sizes may be used in one and the same subrack.2 Cabinets BYB 501 can be built in many different sizes and the size used in Access 910 can be seen in Figure 3.1 400 Cabinet size in Access 910 Cabinets can be placed in different ways depending on the requirements from the customer. 400 600 Back-to-wall Free-standing single row Back-to-back and the possibility to have double-depth cabinet Figure 3.AXE Access 910 3. The subrack in BYB 501 is much more flexible than the magazine in BYB 202. 24 . 1800 600 Figure 3. Other sizes in BYB 501 are 2200 mm height and depth of 300 mm.3 Subracks Subrack is the term used in BYB 501 instead of “magazine” which was used in BYB 202.1.2. Figure 3.2 shows three different alternatives for arrangements of cabinets.2 Possible arrangements of cabinets 3.
3 Basic dimensions of a subrack The subrack is of product type BFD 518 and the backplane is of product type ROJ 605. APZ 212 25). 3. most of the energy is heating the line circuit itself. BYB 501 The standard subrack in BYB 501 is 450 mm wide and it can house up to 21 plug-in units with 20 mm spacing. The main reason for the generated heat is the current feed of the subscriber lines. Figure 3. The cooling principle used in Access 910 is based upon forced cooling using fans and a combination of serial and parallel cooling. In case of short subscriber lines.g. Figure 3.2.4 shows the main principle. 25 . 485 250 300 Figure 3.Hardware Structure. There is also a half-width subrack available if needed (e.3 shows the basic dimensions of the subrack used in Access 910.4 Cooling Cooling for access products is important as much heat is generated by the line circuits.
Two subracks are cooled in series.AXE Access 910 Air flow Subrack Fan Chimney Cable shelf Front Air intake Air guiding plate Back Fan Air intake Figure 3. All cabling is done from the front. The other two are cooled by another fan. 26 . From the cable shafts. the cables are put on cable shelves and then up to the connectors on the front of the board. 3.5 shows the cabling area when looking at the cabinet from above.2.4 Cooling principles of BYB 501 when used in Access 910 It can be seen from the figure that the subracks are cooled by means of a fan that cools two subracks. Figure 3.5 Cabling in BYB 501 in General Cabling is done by means of cable shafts at the side of the subracks inside the cabinet.
Connector Cable shelf Figure 3. The connection of cable shields at the front of a plug-in unit is extremely important to the system’ EMC performance. There is one cable shelf for each subrack located just below the subrack. Figure 3.2.5 Connectors Cabling area when looking at the cabinet from above (cross section) From the cable area at the sides of the cabinet. EMC One of the main objectives in developing the BYB 501 was to create a system with excellent electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).6 The cable shelf and one connector.Hardware Structure. the BYB 501 equipment practice further improves a system’ EMC s characteristics. It is s 27 . EMC is defined as: “the ability of the equipment to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances in that environment. the cables are guided to the correct PCB via the cable shelf.” By means of shielding subracks. side view 3.6 Electromagnetic Compatibility.6 shows the main principle of the cable shelf. cables. plug-in units and components. BYB 501 Back Subrack Front Cabling area Figure 3.
The power is distributed to all plug-in units in the subrack from the two Distribution Units (DU-2 boards) located to the left side in the subrack. Figure 3. 28 . There are two main reasons for doing so: • Subracks installed in customer cabinets meet requirements for EMC without the need for further protection or re-design.AXE Access 910 important to keep the cable from acting as an antenna for radiation to and from the system. which minimises the effects of short-duration voltage transients (spikes) produced by short-circuit currents. Instead.7 shows the design of a single subrack and the parts that have been specially adapted to the EMC requirements.2.7 Power Distribution BYB 501 uses two-step high-ohmic distribution (TS-HOD). Subrack shield Backplane Components shielding cover PIU Shielded cable and connector Figure 3. Similar requirements apply to the earthing of filters for unshielded cables.7 Shielded front panel Shielding of a subrack (top view) 3. No requirements for shielding have been imposed on cabinets. all shielding functions have been allocated to the subrack level. • Cabinet doors can be opened during maintenance work without causing the stipulated emission limits to be exceeded. All plug-in units gets current feed from both DU-2s as can be seen in Figure 3.8.
2. This makes it impossible to fully insert a printed circuit board in a position not allowed.Hardware Structure. 5 V = Figure 3.8 Mechanical Keys To avoid that some boards end up in a not allowed subrack position. There are two separated distribution systems in the backplane. the printed circuit boards are equipped with a “mechanical key”.g. 29 . Some combinations of backplane and printed circuit boards will damage the latter. Please study the table below. BYB 501 DU-2 #B DU-2 #A Plug-in Unit .48 V Slot #29 A #1 A #8 A #9 A #16 B DU-2 #B Slot #30 B to slot #1 to #8 to slot #9 to #16 B B Figure 3.9 Power distribution within a subrack 3. Subrack to slot #1 to #8 to slot #9 to #16 DU-2 #A .9 shows the main principle and how the power is distributed in the backplane to all units.48V DC/DC converter = e.8 Distribution of power to all plug-in units The backplane is used to distribute the -48 volt to all plug-in units within the subrack. This allows for failure in one system without having any power failure in any part of the subrack. Figure 3.
3. Multiple Access Unit Switch This subrack contains the switching part of the Access 910 as all the AUS boards are located in this magazine.3 Subracks in AXE Access 910 3. Earthquake resistance can be maintained with additional strengthening elements securing the cabinets to the floor. and plastics.AXE Access 910 Board AU AU-EP AU-EPS AUS AUS-EP (C) TAU TAU-C ET AU ADSL AU Filter Key #5 Key #4 Key #3 Key #2 Key #1 No key X X X X X X X X X X 3. or below the equipment in raised floor. 30 . Figure 3. • Cable distribution system The cable distribution system is either mounted above the equipment in cable trays.10 shows one variant of the MUS subrack. The AUS boards contains all common equipment as well as the switch. The 2 Mbit/s lines from the connected AUs are connected via the AUS-C board. There are different configuration alternatives available and only one can be explained in this chapter. 3. the installation time can be reduced as the mechanics permit fully equipped and tested cabinets to be delivered to the installation site. • Handling and installation With BYB 501. Optical fibre cables and AC power cables may be separated in separate routes.2.9 Miscellaneous about BYB 501 The following could also be added to the description of BYB 501 • Environment management The mechanics. fulfil existing as well as anticipated environmental requirements.1 MUS.
11 shows one configuration alternative for the subrack. The subrack is prepared for having narrowband AU (access units) in position 1-15. If no TAU is located in the subrack. Position 15 has a TAU or a 15:th AU. Here are some examples of capacities: TAU or AU-14 TAU-C # 16 #1 #2 TAU TAU-C # 16 #1 #2 31 .10 One variant of the MUS subrack Up to 6 AUS can be housed in the subrack. DU-2 DU-2 AU-0 AU-1 Figure 3.11 Narrowband access subrack. a TAU in another subrack measures the AUs via cables going to the TAU-C board. NBA Almost the whole subrack is filled with Access Units of type POTS or ISDN. 3. AUs for POTS or ISDN-BA can be mixed in the subrack. This means that AUS and AU can be mixed within the subrack.2 NBA. Different AU boards will be used for POTS and ISDNBA access. a spare AUS is needed in position 13. BYB 501 # 11 # 12 # 13 # 14 # 15 AUS-0 AUS C [AUS spare] [TAU spare] AU-10 AU-11 AU-12 AU-13 # 11 # 12 # 13 # 14 # 15 DU-2 DU-2 AUS-5 AUS C Figure 3. Figure 3.Hardware Structure. If AUS protection switching is implemented.3. Narrowband Access Subrack The narrowband access subrack is used to connect subscribers with POTS and ISDN service.
ACOM) • Test access bus for measurements of line and LIC • Protection switching bus (LCOM) • PULSI extension bus. From an operator’ s perspective. For 32 TAU-C # 16 . it is important that the hardware allows to slowly add more and more broadband accesses. and the broadband AUs in the same subrack. PEBUS 3.3. It is difficult for operators to predict where and when subscribers wish to change from narrowband to broadband access.AXE Access 910 AU for POTS 15 14 13 12 11 AU for ISDN 0 0 1 2 3 No. Figure 3..3 MUA.12 show the possible combinations of boards.. The TAUC boards are interconnected by means of a cable. of subscribers 450 420 390 + 15 360 + 30 330 + 45 The number of TAU used in the cabinets is determined by how often the customer would like to do line measurements.12 Configuration of MUA subrack It can be seen from the figure that it is possible to mix narrowband AUs. The cable contains the following: • A serial RS 485 bus for connection to AU processors (control test access bus. AU/ ET (s) / ADSL # 13 AU / ET (s) / Filter # 14 # 15 AU. As indicated in the text above is it possible to have a TAU common for many subracks. Multiple Access Subrack The multiple access subrack has been developed to meet the demands of mixed access types in one and the same subrack. for POTS and ISDN-BA. or TAU Cell-bus (pos 1-15) DU-2 DU-2 AU/ET #1 AU / ET (s) / Filter # 2 AU/ ET (s) / ADSL # 3 Figure 3.
which runs in the backplane of the subrack.13 shows how one SIS subrack could look like. BYB 501 ADSL lines. This means that the following configuration alternatives are possible (it is assumed that there is a TAU in position 15): AU for POTS 14 10 8 6 4 AU for ISDN 0 1 1 1 1 AU for ADSL 0 1 2 3 4 No. or filter/ADSL boards can be mixed in the positions 1-12 in case of AXE Access 910 (can only be connected to an AXE exchange). The cell-bus. # 12 # 13 # 14 # 15 AU/ASC AUS AUS-C DU-2 DU-2 AU/ET AU/ET/Filter AU/ET(s) /ADSL Cell bus (pos. one complete access node in one and the same subrack. Single Switch Subrack (used in out-door version and Ericsson Access 910) The single switch subrack is.Hardware Structure.13 The layout of the SIS subrack The AUs. The subrack is also optimized for the so called Outdoor-Midi cabinet. TAU TAU-C # 16 #1 #2 #3 33 . 1-11) Figure 3. a filter board is required. The first versions will have 4 subscribers per board pair for ADSL access.4 SIS. of subscribers 420 300 + 15 + 4 (8 in 2:nd rel) =319 240 + 15 + 8 (16) = 263 180 + 15 + 12 (24) = 207 120 + 15 + 16 (32) = 151 3. the ASC board is required. there will be 8 subscribers per board pair.3. TAU and AUs have to be located in the same subrack. In case of a generic access node (Ericsson Access 910). In the future. Figure 3. This means that there are minimum two boards required for ADSL access. as the name indicates. This means that AUS. is used to interconnect the ADSL boards with the ET.
always located to the very right in the subrack (in position 16). The bus is a serial bus (RS 485). The bus continues in the backplane of the subrack to all AUs within the subrack. has cables inter-connecting then different TAU-C boards with each other.AXE Access 910 3. Figure 3. the E1 links to the local exchange are connected to the DDF.14 Cabling inside Access 910. The inter-connection contains: • ACOM The main communication link between the TAU and the AUs. DDF and Local Exchange 30 subscriber lines AUS AUS-C MUS CCF AU NBA To DDF To MDF Figure 3. via a connection field.4 Cabling Inside Access 910 Access nodes contains many cables as subscribers are connected to these nodes.14 show how subscriber lines are connected to the AU and how the AUs are connected to the AUS-C. The bus 34 . digital distribution frame. There are two wires required for each subscriber and there are additional cables needed to interconnect subracks with test buses and 2 Mbit/s lines. example with one AU and one AUS and only one cable of each type shown The TAU-C board. It is not possible to describe all cables and how all subracks are interconnected so one important example is described. • LCOM This is the bus that makes it possible for the TAU to control the optional function equipment protection switching. CCF. From the AUS-C. The interconnection makes it possible for one TAU to control and perform measurements in other subracks. 2 Mbit/s from AU to AUS 2 Mbit/s from AUS to CCF.
BYB 501 interconnects the TAU with the AUS-EP and AU-EP. The inter-connection between the TAU-C boards can be seen in Figure 3. MUS TAU NBA/MUA TAU NBA/MUA TAU NBA/MUA TAU Figure 3. Figure 3. • Test Access The test access connection.15 Bus termination Bus termination Connection of TAU-C boards within one cabinet The TAU-C board also contains logic for fault indication by means of a LED located on each board in the subrack (this is valid for all types of subracks).Hardware Structure. Also this bus continues in the backplane of the subrack. Also this bus continues in the backplane of the subrack.16 shows how the TAU-C is connected to the LEDs. This bus inter-connects the measurement equipment on the TAU with the AU.15. TA U -C 35 .
1 interface Over-voltage protection of the subscriber lines Control of the test access relays. 20. 3. The board is built up around 4 basic parts: LI.5. AUP3 The AU board is the new board used to connect ordinary PSTN subscribers to the AXE Access 910. it contains the same functions as the former LIC board in SSS5. holding 4 or 8 Line Interface Circuits. Detection of off-hook (loop closures) Analogue to digital conversion and digital to analogue conversion 2. network terminal A network terminal terminating the 2 Mbit/s link between the AU and the AUS AUC. However. Basically.5 Printed Circuit Boards 3. 25 or 50 Hz) • • • • • • • 1.1 Access Unit for PSTN. access unit controller A processor with memory and I/O ports 2. it is possible to connect 30 PSTN subscribers to one AU board. The board contains the following functions: • Current feed of the subscriber line can be programmed to be 2 x 400 ohms resistive feed or 30 mA constant current • Ring signal and ring trip (up to 90V and frequencies set to 16. due to increased board size and new building practice.to 4-wire conversion Software controlled input impedance. line interface A line interface built up with two integrated circuits referred to as SLIC (Subscriber Line Interface Circuit) and QSLAC (Quad Subscriber Line Audio processing Circuit) NT.AXE Access 910 Backplane PIU PIU PIU Figure 3. balance impedance and levels V5. 36 TAU-C .16 Fault/service indication 3.
NT T. The I/O ports connected to the processor have the following functions: • Board position The position of the board in the subrack is given to the processor. BYB 501 4. POW. • ACOM The interface is a serial interface (RS485) which interconnects the AUs 37 . 1 ~ 2 ~ 3 ~ 4 ~ SLIC SLIC SLIC SLIC SLIC SLIC SLIC SLIC LI ~ ~ ~ ~ QSLAC Speech Synch.17 shows a simplified block diagram of the board. power A power unit which also generates ring current and. This will make restarts faster. AUP3 The processor has two memory types: • Flash memory This memory is used as a local backup instead of reloading all software from the CP in case of start-up or reload. Fixed for the address within the subrack and via a switch for subrack address. The interface can also be used for local trace and debug. • PBIST.24) interface used during manufacturing test. • RAM memory When the processor is started or restarted.Hardware Structure. optionally.16 HDLC To/from AUS Data Flash QSLAC 30 ~ AUC (processor) RAM I/O SLIC SLIC RG + PRM TAU (Test Access) -32V or -48V +5V -48V POW Board position PBIST (RS232) ACOM (RS485) Figure 3. Figure 3. the contents of the Flash memory is copied to the RAM memory for normal program execution. processor based built-in self test This interface is a standard RS232 (V.17 The AU board for PSTN access. signals to private meters.
18. with two circuits specially developed for ISDN BA. Data Overvoltage protection Ring relay SLIC Speech QSLAC Speech TAU (Test Access) Ringing Battery signal voltage Figure 3.2 Access Unit for ISDN BA There is one specific AU (Access Unit) board developed for connecting ISDN subscribers to AXE Access 910. The board can connect 15 ISDN basic access subscribers in accordance with ETSI standard ETR 080.19 shows the main features of the hardware. The TAU can send orders related to Subscriber Line Maintenance of software upgrades via this interface. They use the same Network Terminal and a similar bus structure. in a simplified way. • A slightly different power supply is used as no ring current is connected to the line interface.to 4-wire conversion and the QSLAC performs analogue to digital conversion (and vice versa). 38 . The functions for one subscriber line can be seen.AXE Access 910 to a TAU. not very great.18 Functions for one subscriber The SLIC performs the 2. • Another processor is used due to higher demands for processing capacity. at this level. 3. in Figure 3. The main differences are: • Another LIC implementation is used. Figure 3. The differences between the AU PSTN and the AU ISDN are.5.
5. 39 .1 on page 36. The latter is an application giving 1.5. This gives up to 8 Mbit/s to the subscriber and up to 1 Mbit/s from the subscriber. The D-channels and the V5. 3. Please study section 3. BYB 501 1 LIC LIC LIC LIC LI Speech and/or data Synch.19 The AU board for ISDN access I/O from the AUC is the same as for the PSTN board. 2 NT T.Hardware Structure.16 HDLC To/from AUS Flash Data 15 AUC RAM I/O LIC LIC +9V -97V +5V TAU (Test Access) POW -48V Board position PBIST (RS232) ACOM (RS485) Figure 3. The main function blocks of the line board can be seen in Figure 3.5 Mbit/s to the subscriber but a cheaper installation without splitters on the subscriber side. The hardware for ISDN subscribers comprises not only the Line Interface Circuit (LIC) but also an HDLC (high level data link control) which handles the D-channel. The line boards have 4 ADSL modems which can be working in so called “Full Rate ADSL” or “Lite” mode.20.3 Access Unit for ADSL The line boards for broadband access is based upon the internationally standardized ADSL technology.1 signalling are multiplexed into channel 16 and taken care of by the RPG in the local exchange.
21 shows all the cable positions at the front of the AUS-C.5. Figure 3.4000 Hz. except for the synchronization ring. The front of the AUS has some connectors for connector of a local debugger (software on EMRT-T) and the duplicated synchronization ring. 3. Access Unit Switch The AUS has already be described in great detail in chapter 2.4 Filter for ADSL Each board contains 4 filters (splitters) which are used to separate the narrowband PSTN traffic from the broadband traffic. The POTS band frequency range is set to 300 .5.5.6 AUS-C This board connects all cables. that are connected to the AUS.20 Functions of ADSL line board 3. 40 . 3.AXE Access 910 2 ADSL Modem ADSL Modem ADSL Modem ADSL Modem ATM Core Board Controller 2 2 Cell Bus Interface CellBus 2 Power -48V Figure 3.5 AUS.
If low traffic (less than 0. AU-16 alt. Less in case of low traffic. TAU RST-1 RST-2 RST-3 RST-4 RST-5 AU-14 AU-13 AU-12 AU-11 Maximum 6 E1 links to/from local exchange.5. • Measurement of voltage and current feed from the Line Interface Circuit. • The TAU can simulate subscriber actions such as off-hook and on-hook and then verify that these actions are detected by the Line Interface Circuit. capacitance and voltage on the subscriber line. 41 .21 Cables connected to the AUS-C (front of AUS-C shown) 3.Hardware Structure.23E) up to 17 AUs per AUS. AU-10 AU-9 AU-8 AU-7 AU-6 AU-5 AU-4 AU-3 AU-2 Maximum 15 AUs connected to one AUS.7 TAU The following measurements can be performed by the TAU: • Measurement of resistance. AU-1 AU-0 Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh not used not used Mesh network inter-connecting all AUSs 2 E1 links not used Figure 3. AU-15 alt. BYB 501 RST-0 alt. • Measurement of decadic digits (pulse/pause ratio).
• Test of the ISDN subscriber line. It is this unit that performs the measurements of the subscriber line and the subscriber’ Line Interface Circuit. • A serial link to the main processor system. The test head consists of: s • A multimeter instrument including a micro controller and analog measurement circuits. AU LIC Processor TAU NT Test Head To/from AUS Data I/O ACOM (RS 485) Test Access Bus (T/A bus) Figure 3. • Relays connecting the measurement circuits to the subscriber line or the line circuit via the analog test bus. The TAU-TAU-C connection is done in the backplane of the subrack.22 Processor Power The main structure of the TAU board (note.AXE Access 910 • Measurement of the private meter signal and ring signal sent from the AU.5. only one AU shown as an example) The “test head” is the actual measurement equipment in the TAU. 3. 42 . The cabling of TAU-C is explained in Figure 3.8 TAU-C The board TAU-C is a connection board which connects all cables to the TAU board.22 shows the main structure of the TAU board. as the analog test circuits should be galvanically separated from the other parts of the board.15. The link is an optical link. Figure 3.
Under each function block.1 Chapter Introduction This chapter will give you an overview of AXE Access 910 software structure. you will be able to: • Describe the general system structure of AXE Access 910 • Give a short description of the three set of parts (CRT) created to implement AXE Access 910. The ABC class for a set of parts is CRT. 4. Each set of part is further divided into function blocks (CNT) and hardware function units (COA and BFD). Software Structure 4.4. 43 .1 shows the general structure. The basic structure is explained as well as the set of parts (CRT).2 Set of Parts. is divided into a number of “sets of parts”. Figure 4. Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter. there is one or several software modules (CAA). Important function blocks involved in traffic handling which provide insight into the functions inside the system will also be explained. CRT level SSS. Subscriber Switching Subsystem.
1 interface. is the set of parts within subsystem SSS that handles physical connection and traffical functions for PSTN and ISDN-BA subscribers connected to the Multiple Access Group (MACCG). The set of parts SWITCH and SLM (subscriber line maintenance) are also used for the existing SSS5 product. AUV5 Access Unit V5 Application. 44 . • Traffic handling functions for ISDN-BA and PSTN connected subscribers. For example. 4. • System management for the V5. • Measurement of line down time for PSTN access. Operation.3 Access Unit V5 Application. Administration and Maintenance.AXE Access 910 AXE APT ANT (SSS) MACCG Equipped Cabinets SLM MAOAM AUV5 CRT SWITCH CRT MAUS CRT CNT COA/BFD CNT COA/BFD CNT COA/BFD NBA MAU SIS Access Functions Figure 4.1 MUS Switching Functions Maintenance Functions System structure The following set of parts are unique for AXE Access 910: • AUV5. AUV5. subscribe line maintenance functions are basically the same in both product variants. Multiple Access Unit Switch • MAOAM. The central application functions are: • Protocol handling for Control and PSTN protocols. Access Unit V5 Application • MAUS. Multiple Access.
2 AXE Access 910 Hardware AUPSTN Local Exchange V5. ISDN-BA Layer 1 (2B1Q). Current feeding of the subscriber line. System management for the V5. Subscriber line signalling. The remote PSTN application functions are: • • • • • • • • • 4.2 Blocks in AUV5 for PSTN 45 .1 interface. System management for the V5.1 interface. Analogue to digital conversion.Software Structure • Private metering for PSTN subscribers. disconnection and maintenance of internal signalling paths. Current feeding of the subscriber line.1 RPG Hardware Load Module in EMRP-T AUPSTN SAH GAM DLAU CTRLAU PSTN Regional Software DLAU CTRLAU PSTN Central Software LIAU GAM LIMA SAH CPRM Figure 4. • Measurement of line down time for ISDN-BA and PRA accesses.3. • Redundancy switch over of STs. • Connection. • Communication channel concentration. Blocks for PSTN The blocks in the set of parts AUV5 for PSTN can be seen in Figure 4.1 Protocol handling for control and PSTN protocols. The remote ISDN-BA applications are: Protocol handling for the control protocol.
• PSTN. Analogue to digital conversion. • DLAU.1 System Management and Layer 3 of the Control protocol. The block has commands for connection of Private Metering. • CPRM. It implements the envelope function. In the case of Access 910. The function block PSTN performs message and protocol handling functions for the PSTN layer 3 messages that are conveyed over the internal V5. Control Access Unit.1 Layer 3 port control protocol. Stand-alone Handler The block handles PSTN emergency traffic if the control link to the local exchange is out of order (blocked due to a fault). maintenance. the flow control function and the data link handling. Access Unit PSTN.1 interface.3.AXE Access 910 • AUPSTN. The main functions handled by AUPSTN are: − − − − − − Current feeding of the subscriber lines.1 system management functions and performs the data link management for the control and PSTN data links. 4.1. Central Private Metering. The function block AUPSTN is divided into a number of sub software units (CAY). etc.2 Blocks for ISDN-BA The blocks in the set of parts AUV5 for ISDN-BA can be seen in Figure 4. • CTRLAU. disconnection of Private Metering and printing information about Private Metering connections. Line signalling. the mapping function. AU V5. and maintain signalling channels. Digit reception.1 signalling interface. traffic handling. Each CAY is assigned specific functions for configuration. AU PSTN V5. Generic Access Manager The block allows the operator to connect. Data Link Layer V5. It implements the V5. The block has central software and regional software in the EMRP. measurements. disconnect. PSTN protocol handler. GAM is used for V5 and V3 signalling channels. The function block DLAU is the data link layer handling block for V5. • GAM. The function block CPRM is a command handling block which handles Private Metering connections. The function block CTRLAU performs message and protocol handling of the control protocol messages that are conveyed over a V5.3 46 . • SAH.
the mapping function.1 interface. Control Access Unit. ISDN Layer 3 port control protocol for the AU board.1 RPG Hardware Regional Software in EMRP-T AUBA DLAU CTRLAU MANAU MHAU Regional Software Central Software DLAU CTRLAU MANAU MHAU LIAU LIHHX LIBAMA LIHH PSTNHMA Figure 4.1. The function block AUBA is divided into a number of sub-software units (CAYs).3 Blocks in AUV5 for ISDN-BA (not all interfaces shown) • AUBA. • DLAU. It also maintains the L2 supervision and statistics function for Basic Accesses and participates in the signalling terminal board supervision.Software Structure AXE Access 910 Hardware AUBA Local Exchange V5. Management Basic access Access Unit This function block handles management of terminal end point 47 . Access Unit Basic Access. The function block CTRLAU performs message and protocol handling of the Control Protocol messages that are conveyed over a V5. measurements.1 system management functions and performs the data link management for the Control and PSTN data links. The main functions handled by AUBA are − − − − ISDN Layer 1 AU System Management and Layer 3 of the Control protocol. • MANAU. the flow control function and the data link handling. It implements the V5. It implements the envelope function. The function block DLAU is the data link layer handling block for V5. AUBA consists of remote software (AUC) and hardware. • CTRLAU. maintenance. etc. Each CAY is assigned specific functions as configuration. Data Link Layer V5. traffic handling.
AXE Access 910 identification. PSTN protocol handler for PSTN over ISDN-BA The block is used for the function PSTN over ISDN-BA. Line Interface Access Unit The block acts as an interface for the GAM and it contains administration of user ports and bearer channels as well as blocking and deblocking of the interface. Local Exchange CSR-D CSKD CSFSK Hardware CSR-D CSKD CSFSK Regional Software Central Software CSR-D CSKD CSFSK Figure 4. • LIHHX Similar function as LIHH but for the so called XSS part (existing source system). Figure 4. 4. all blocks are used to send information to the subscribers. It supports the so called H-link. • MHAU. • LIBAMA. • PSTNHMA.3 Blocks for GS Connected Equipment There are three blocks in AUV5 that have hardware connected to the Group Switch. The block consist of central and regional software. Message Handler basic access Access Unit The function block buffers and analyses the layer 3 messages coming from the user.4 Blocks in AUV5 for group switch connected equipment 48 . Basically. The block contains the interface to the hardware for PSTN traffic or “homehighway access”. • LIAU. Line Interface Basic Access Multiple Access The block is the device owning block for the BA devices and contains subscriber line functions. subscriber data administration and traffic handling. layer 2/layer 3 interwork and layer 3 supervision and statistics.4 shows the hardware and the blocks. • LIHH The block is used for the function PSTN over ISDN-BA and is the device owner for the PSTN part. MHAU also builds layer 3 messages in the network to user direction. Examples of functions are blocking and deblocking.3.
Code Sender FSK signalling The hardware sends FSK (frequency shift keying) signals to subscribers. 49 . MAUS This set of parts implements the functions needed for the AUS. The hardware has 32 devices and it is connected to the Group Switch. The hardware has 32 devices and it is connected to the Group Switch. Code Sender/Receiver Digital The hardware sends MFC signals which can be used to send signals to older PABXs.5. so called C-channels • Administration of different applications which can be connected to the platform. 4.1 signalling channels. The hardware has 16 devices and it is connected to the Group Switch. Digital The hardware sends DTMF signals to the subscribers. The blocks included in MAUS can be seen in Figure 4. Access Unit Switch. Code Sender. Functions implemented are: • Administration of the AUS hardware and fault supervision • Switching functions between connected ET interfaces and the internal DSP device (digital signalling processor implementing KRC and tone sending) • Keyset receiver and tone sending from the DSP • Concentration of V5.Software Structure • CSR-D. calling line presentation). • CSFSK. • CSKD. It may be used for Direct In Dialling towards PABXs or towards subscribers in some markets.4 Multiple Access Unit Switch. Many markets use this function for A-number presentation (CLIP.
50 . Functions such as network node. Digital Path Historical Data This block stores quality supervision data (logging of data received from DIPST). • AUS. Exchange Terminal There are two variants of ET blocks in the set of parts: − − ET for the access node side taking care of hardware supervision and test of the ET circuits on the AUS board. The block seizes time slots and performs traffic measurements. configuration. Access Network Handler This block owns and handles the AUS Network interconnecting all AUSs in the same access node. and maintenance for other blocks. • DIPHID. Digital Path Supervision and Test The block handles the DIPs between the access node and the local exchange. Access Unit Switch This block is the hardware owner of the AUS board and it co-ordinates administration.AXE Access 910 AUS Board Hardware Local Exchange ETC Regional Software in EMRP-T Central Software TS TS KRT KRT AUS AUS ET ET ET ET Regional Software in RP TS TS KRT KRT ET ET RST RST155 DIPST DIPHID ET ET AUS AUS TSMT TSMT ANH ANH ETDIF DIPST Figure 4. and clock handling are also performed by the block. ET for the local exchange side taking care of the same things but for the ETs located in the local exchange. DIP and device administration. • ET.5 Blocks in MAUS The blocks have the following functions: • ANH. • DIPST.
MAOAM This set of parts contains functions for operation and maintenance related to AXE Access 910. Administration and Maintenance. • KRT. Keyset code Receiver and Tone sending This block is the merged KR2 and SSTONE and takes care of keyset code reception and tone sending. platform when selecting time slots for signalling (e.Software Structure • ETDIF. Remote Stage Traffic.5 Multiple Access. Operation. Generic Access Manager. The main features are: • Command interface for configuration of the system for maintenance • A communication service (ICS) for communication between applications in the CP and applications in the TAU or AU • An interface to the GAM platform for connecting the TAU • TAU handling in general. 51 . • RST. 4. • TS. Time Switch The block connects and releases paths in the time switch in the AUS. • RST155.6.g. • TSMT. Time Switch Maintenance The block administrates some operation and maintenance functions related to the time switch. The block also interworks with the GAM. Remote Stage Traffic This block owns the traffic channels in the 2 Mbit/s lines between the access node and the local exchange. The set of parts consists of 15 blocks as depicted in Figure 4. V5). Exchange Terminal Interface This is an interface block adapting the RST block to the standardized ET interface used in AXE. 155 Mbit/s Same as for RST but handles the 155Mbit/s interface between the local exchange and the Access 910.
MACCG Administration The block handles the configuration commands for the MACCG as well as printout of exchange data. Digital Line TAU This block handles layer 2 messages between the TAUs and the RPGs. • DLTAU.AXE Access 910 Hardware TAU RPG Regional Software MXTAU MXTAU DLTAU DLTAU Central Software TAUCMAN TAUCMAN MAADMC MAADMC NNADMC NNADMC AUSCORD AUSCORD BBMAN BBMAN AUMAN AUMAN TAUMAN TAUMAN AUCORD AUSCORD MXTAU MXTAU LITAU LITAU DLTAU DLTAU PSHWCTL PSHWCTL FCMAH FCMAH ALTAU ALTAU CTRLLED CTRLLED TEAU TEAU Applications Figure 4.6 Blocks in MAOAM The main functions of these blocks are: • MXTAU. Message Multiplexer. TAU-C Manager The block is the hardware owner of the TAU-C board which contains functions for test access selection. The block is implemented in regional and central software. • MAADMC. Broadband Manager The block is the hardware owner for the broadband hardware boards and the block makes it possible to define and remove hardware. • BBMAN. external alarm connection as well as LED control. 52 . The block maintains a list of all boards. TAU This block is the layer 3 message handler for messages between the CP and the TAUs. • TAUCMAN.
Control of LED in MACCG The block handles commands and printouts to configure the LED control function within an access node (MACCG). External Alarm Handler The block handles external alarms connected to the access nodes. • PSHWCTL. TAU Manager The block is the hardware owner of the TAU and handles functions like configuration and blocking of the hardware. Co-ordination of AUS Protection Switching The block handles the co-ordination of protection switching for AUS within one access node (MACCG).Software Structure • AUMAN. • NNADMC. Co-ordination of AU Protection Switching The block handles the co-ordination of protection switching for AU within one access node (MACCG). Network Node Administration The block handles all command related to the concept of Network Node (please study chapter 6). • TEAU. Function Change Multiple Access Handler The block is responsible for software upgrades of device processor software (processor software in TAU and AU processors) • CTRLLED. • TAUMAN. The block also handles the configuration of the AUs. 53 . Test Manager for Access Units The block is responsible for the tracing and debugging function within AU and TAU. • ALTAU. • FCMAH. • AUSCORD. • AUCORD. Protection Switching Hardware Control The block controls the protection switching procedure. Access Unit Management The block is the hardware owner of the AUs and it receives information about faults in the AUs and inserts/removes alarms.
AXE Access 910 54 .
However. Figure 5.1 Hardware Identification Hardware identification enables each hardware unit (PCB. printed circuit board) to identify itself. • Describe how equipment protection switching is implemented. 55 . 5. • Describe ADSL and SDH and how it is implemented in AXE Access 910.1 Chapter Introduction This chapter will give you information about functions in AXE Access 910 not described in any other chapter. Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter. for example R1A Serial number Physical location in the subrack. the telephonyrelated functions described in chapter 2 will not be described again.2. there are some specific AUS functions that are described here. EMRP-T • Describe the different V5 functions in the system. The identification information is supplied to the AXE Hardware Inventory Management System which helps the operator keep track of the hardware installed at each site. Hardware identification is a standard function in BYB 501. New Functions and Features 5. you will be able to: • Describe some important hardware functions in the new building practice used. 5. for example. for example ROJ 123 45 Revision information.2 Hardware-Related Functions 5. For example.1 shows an example of a printout of an Access Unit.5. • Describe the main functions and features of the new EMRP platform. This information makes operation and maintenance easier and cheaper as less manual inventory work is required. This means that the each board can indicate: • • • • Product identity.
This makes operation and maintenance easier as one common function receives all the alarms related to one site (for example one RSS in a basement of a large house). Many fault situations in live exchanges are caused by human errors.1 Example of printout of hardware inventory 5. The fault indication helps the repairman to pull out the correct unit when changing a board. cooling and transmission alarms. HARDWARE INFORMATION DATA MACCG TOWER PRODUCTNO BFB 520 08/1 PIU AUS-1 PIUPOS 2 RESULT EXECUTED REV R1A SERIALNO A87AAAEZLH HARDWARE SPECIFIC INFORMATION INFO1 INFO2 ROA 510 02/1 INFO3 ROA 510 02/1 INFO4 INFO5 END Figure 5. The unit should not be pulled out.3 External Alarms External alarms are used to indicate alarms from external sources. for example. 56 . 5.2.AXE Access 910 EXHWP:PIU=AUS-1. fire. Up to 6 external alarms can be connected to each TAU-C (to the front of the board).2. • Steady light from LED The unit is blocked and can be pulled out. • Flashing LED The unit is faulty but not blocked. These alarms are transmitted into the alarm system of AXE. burglar.2 Visual Fault Indication All Plug-In Units (PIU) have a visual fault indication on the board. The LED indication is made by small light emitting diodes (LED) having the following functions: • Extinguished LED The unit is fault-free and should not be pulled out.
Inside the MUS subrack. the stand-by is activated and replaces the faulty unit.2 28 Main principle of AUS protection switching 57 . The principles of protection switching in AXE Access 910 is to have spare units that can be connected in case of faults. there is a protection switching bus which all AUS-EP connects to. When a fault occurs in an active unit. 5. The two variants of the functions available in the system are described in the following two chapters. Figure 5.3 Equipment Protection Switching Equipment protection switching is a function which will significantly increase the reliability of the AXE Access 910 access nodes. In the back plane of the MUS subrack. The function can be used to: • Increase In Service Performance by having redundant units in the system • Introduce planned maintenance. one of the AUSs will be a spare AUS.1 Equipment Protection Switching of AUS The main idea behind this function is to reduce the disturbances when an AUS gets faulty. The AUSC board will be replaced by a board referred to as AUS-EP (equipment protection). up to 450 subscribers cannot use their telephone. The main idea behind the function is taken from transmission systems where one cable is active and the other is stand-by.2 shows the main principle.New Functions and Features 5. AUS-EP Up to 28 E1 28 AUS AUS-EP Up to 28 E1 28 AUS AUS Spare Protection Bus in backplane of MUS subrack Figure 5.3. The probability of an AUS of getting completely faulty (blocked) is low but when it happens.
3 shows how it is implemented and Figure 5. 5.4 shows how a faulty AU is replaced by the spare AU. The function is based upon a special subrack. The protection bus is wired with a cable between the subracks making it possible to have one spare AU of each type for the whole node (up to 3000 PSTN subscribers).AXE Access 910 If an AUS gets fault. all E1 links previously connected to the faulty AUS is now connected to the spare AUS. The higher costs for the function can well be compensated by reduced maintenance costs for the operator. and a new board type: AU-EP.The AU-EP connects all cables to the AU and it also has the ability to connect all 30 subscribers and the E1 link to the protection bus.2 Equipment Protection Switching of AU This function makes it possible to have protection switching on AU level. This means that a faulty unit can be replaced at scheduled visits to the site instead of almost immediately.3. The main reason for having this function is to introduce “planned maintenance”.3 Main principle of AU protection switching 58 . As the spare AUS is connected to the protection bus. Figure 5. the AUS-EP will switch all E1 links to the protection bus in the backplane of the MUS subrack. and blocked by the system. having a protection bus in the backplane. Subrack A AU-EP 30 E1 AU-EP 30 E1 AU-EP AU 30 x LIC AU 30 x LIC AU Spare 30 x LIC Subrack B AU-EP 30 E1 AU 30 x LIC Protection Bus Figure 5.
6 mm cable • Up to 8. which stands for high-speed digital subscriber line. The distance depends on the quality of the copper wires.8 mm cable. HDSL makes it possible to connect digital PABXs via ordinary copper wires avoiding expensive coaxial cables or optical fibre cables. Please study Figure 5. The interface will be a standard G.5.4.048 Mbit/s.0 km with 0.5 km with 0.4 HDSL 5.4 One faulty AU is replaced by a spare AU 5.New Functions and Features Subrack A AU-EP 30 E1 AU-EP 30 E1 AU-EP AU 30 x LIC AU 30 x LIC AU Spare 30 x LIC Subrack B AU-EP 30 E1 AU 30 x LIC Blocked AU Protection Bus Figure 5.4 mm cable • Up to 6.703 interface with a bit rate of 2. Note that HDSL requires 4 wires and not 2 as in ordinary subscriber access. Here are some examples related to the existing HDSL product from Ericsson: • Up to 3.1 General About HDSL HDSL. is a technology which makes it possible to have up to 2 Mbit/s digital transmission on a 4wire copper cable.5 km with 0. 59 .
impulse nose and radio frequency disturbers. Today. was first specified in 1995. 60 . • ADSL Lite specified in 1997 The main idea is to create a “low-budget” ADSL which is easier to instal and thus cheaper for the subscriber.5 ADSL 5. The system components can. Many factors may affect the delivered bandwidth: • • • • cable type (diameter and isolation material) length of the copper cable loop structure in the access network noise sources like crosstalk. slightly simplified.6.5 Example of an HDSL application 5.5 Mbit/s from the network to the subscriber The exact bit rates are hard to specify as it depends on the quality of the access network. be seen in Figure 5. The term “asymmetrical” is used because the bit rate is higher in the direction towards the subscriber than in the other direction.5 to 1 Mbit/s in the other direction. there are two main variants of ADSL on the market: • “Ordinary” ADSL as first specified in 1995 This gives up to 8 Mbit/s from the network to the subscriber and some 0. which stands for asymmetrical digital subscriber line. The technology allows up to 1.5.1 General About ADSL ADSL.AXE Access 910 PABX 2 Mbit/s 4 Figure 5.
Bits/subchannel Disturbance Subchannel 255 POTS Frequency Upstream Downstream 1. there are only 128 subchannels. In ADSL.7 shows the main principle of DMT. DMT The number of sub-channels and their usage differs to some extent between ADSL and ADSL Lite.New Functions and Features Video and TV (digital) Telephony Internet via PC ATM.5.2 DMT. Lower frequencies are not used as the telephone traffic will be sent there. It means that the modem is actually using a large number of frequencies to transmit the data. If some frequencies are disturbed by the access cable. 5. 25. In Figure 5. Discrete Multitone DMT is the technology used by the ADSL modems.5 or 8 Mbit/s POTS/ISDN NT 0.6 Main principles of ADSL The NT in the figure is a “Network Termination” and it contains the ADSL model as well as some interfaces such as Ethernet. In the latter. Figure 5.7 Main principle of discrete multitone. they are not used and the total bandwidth is reduced.7 it can be seen that the lowest frequencies are used by the POTS traffic and it is the task of the filter to separate the traffic. POTS traffic will be sent to the AXE local exchange and broadband traffic will 61 .1 Mbit/s Ethernet Figure 5. it is the filter that separates the POTS traffic from the broadband traffic.3 .1 MHz Figure 5.6 Mbit/s 1.
the ADSL layer.8 The function of the filters The main difference between ADSL and ADSL Lite is that the subscriber side in ADSL Lite can be without filter (or splitter). • ATM Adaptation Layer number 5. ATM is based upon small packets referred to as cells. AAL-2 This protocol handles variable bit-rate for services requiring real-time. Framing is done to keep track on bits used for traffic and operation and maintenance. There are synch words to keep track on the frames (compare with channel 0 in an ordinary 2 Mbit/s system). Within ATM. ATM stands for asynchronous transfer mode and is developed by the telecommunications industry to support both real-time and non-real-time applications.8 shows the main principle of the filter. On top of the physical layer. Figure 5. Subscriber side ADSL modem Highpass filter Lowpass filter Exchange side Highpass filter Lowpass filter ADSL modem Broadband traffic POTS traffic POTS line interface (LIC) Figure 5. Internet access for web services or e-mail could be an example of an application. • ATM Adaptation Layer number 2. An example could be coded speech at other bit rates than 64 kbit/s. AAL-5 This protocol handles bursty data traffic with non-real-time requirements. Each cell has a 48 byte pay-load and a 5 byte header. there is an ATM layer. In ADSL.5. They are: • ATM Adaptation Layer number 1. for example.AXE Access 910 be sent via an Exchange Terminal to a broadband network built-up by. This simplifies the installation and can thus be a cheaper product for the operator and in the end the subscriber. there are more things than simply DMT. Internet routers. AAL-1 This protocol handles constant bit rates. 5. Circuit emulation and real-time video are examples of applications using this layer. there are different protocols serving different types of applications.3 The Exchange Side The exchange side has three main components as was described in chapter 3: 62 .
one 34 Mbit/s line if higher capacity is required. All broadband units within the subrack are connected to a so called cellbus. one 155 Mbit/s line based on SDH (please study chapter 5. The Internet protocol used is PPP.6 on page 64). This means that it is the cell-bus port on this board that determines who should have access to the bus at any given moment. There are different variants of the ET board available. 5.6 interfaces Protocols.048 Mbit/s links connected to one board. Two ATM-F 25. The speed of the bus is about 850 Mbit/s. The cell-bus runs in the backplane of the subrack and is a high-speed bus based upon cells similar to ATM. you will. Frequencies below 4 kHz are only sent to the telephone. an IP protocol is used on top of the ATM protocol AAL-5. including dial-up telephone connections. • STM-1.5. Inside the NT. An Ethernet interface based upon the 10BaseT interface. find the following: • • • • 5.5. an Example ATM is used as it supports different types of services with different demands. • The Exchange Terminals (ETs) The ETs connect the broadband access parts with the broadband core parts. In most cases there is a so called edge router connected to the network to take care of the internet traffic. In that case. the ADSL access will be used for Internet access. A small ATM multiplexer. 63 . which is intended for use over serial lines. Figure 5. • E3. The variants available are: • E1. It is referred to as ATU-R. among other things. Point-to-Point Protocol. It is usually the ET board that is “master” on the bus.5 The remote ADSL modem. • The Filters The role of the filters was to separate the POTS traffic from the broadband traffic. up to 4 x 2. In most cases.4 The Subscriber Side The subscriber has the little “box” referred to as Network Termination.New Functions and Features • The Access Unit for ADSL This PCB contains the ADSL modems as well as other subscriber unique equipment.9 shows the protocols used over the ADSL access. Which one selected depends on the traffic demands from the connected subscribers and how the operator has built the access transport network.
048 Mbit/s E2 8 Mbit/s MUX E3 34 Mbit/s MUX E4 140 Mbit/s MUX MUX 565 Mbit/s Figure 5.1 PDH and SDH PDH. The development of SDH started some 10 years ago and the main characteristics are: • Not bit interleaved as address information is sent along with the information.10 Bit rates in PDH The problems in PDH has to a great extent been solved in SDH. flexibility was lacking.10.AXE Access 910 User Internet layer ATM layer or Ethernet Physical layer PPP Ethernet 10BaseT Ethernet 10BaseT NT AU ADSL ET Router PPP AAL-5 ATM ADSL ATM ADSL ATM SDH AAL-5 ATM SDH Figure 5. which stands for Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy. The different bit rates in PDH can be seen in Figure 5.9 Example of an Internet connection via the Ethernet interface 5.6. However.6 SDH 5. This makes it possible to “drop” the information even at high bit rates. • The multiplexers are software controlled. was developed to increase the capacity of digital transmission. PDH is: • bit interleaved which makes it impossible to extract data at higher rates than 2 Mbit/s • controlled by hardware which makes the multiplexers inflexible. • Developed for higher bit-speeds (Giga bit/s) 64 . This means that the operator can configure the network from a remote terminal. E1 2. as the different transmission standards evolved. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
STM-n STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 Bit rate 155 Mbit/s (electrical or optical) 622 Mbit/s (optical) 2500 Mbit/s (optical) (2.6.6. Terminal Multiplexer Add/Drop Multiplexer SMUX (AXD 155) SMUX (AXD 155) Figure 5. there is a duplicated switch and interfaces. However.6. Either as a so called terminal multiplexer (TM) or as a so called add/drop multiplexer (ADM). the 155 Mbit/s.New Functions and Features 5. for higher bit rates. there are basically two ways to use the multiplexers. only optical format will do. 5. 65 .11 shows the two variants.2 Bit Rates in SDH The basic bit rate in SDH is 155 Mbit/s.12 shows the main components inside the multiplexer. Just as in PDH. Figure 5. Figure 5. it is possible to have electrical format by using a coaxial cable.4 Inside an AXD 155 Inside an SDH multiplexer. The table below shows the different bit rates.5 Gbit/s) STM-64 10 000 Mbit/s (optical) (10 Gbit/s) ~120 000 Number of 64 kbit/s calls ~1900 ~7500 ~30 000 For the lowest bit rate.3 Add/Drop and Terminal Multiplexers In SDH. It is possible to have optical format too. This bit rate is referred to as STM1. Synchronous Transport Module-1.11 Terminal and add/drop multiplexers in SDH It is the same hardware that can be used as a terminal or an add/drop multiplexer. 5. the bit rates are increased by a factor 4 in several steps. what they are referred to and the number of simultaneous calls on the same optical fibre pair/coaxial cable pair.
This means that the function is an APT function and not. This means that the access node can be connected to an electrical or optical ring and configured as an add/drop multiplexer. 2 Mbit/s Figure 5. is in fact an SDH multiplexer.7 Operation and Maintenance Functions 5.6. an APZ function.13. The AUs belong to APT and they are “invisible” to the APZ.AXE Access 910 Interface East Interface A B Tributary A B Tributary Switch A Interface West Switch B Interface A B Tributary e. OMC). an Operation and Maintenance Centre. which is used in the MUA subrack for broadband access. AXE Local exchange SDH optical ring. The operating system for the AU contains most of the 66 .g. The future access network will look like the example in Figure 5.12 Blocks inside an AXD 155 5.7. 155 Mbit/s Router Figure 5.5 Usage of SDH in AXE Access 910 The ET board. as the Program Test System.1 Central Trace and Debug This function makes it possible to perform tracing and debugging in Access Unit software from a centrally located position (for example.13 The access transport network when SDH is used 5.
Examples of trace and debug activities are: • • • • • Display of system and process status Tracing of operating system signals Simulation of operating system signal sending Read and write in the physical memory Restart control.15. The system downloads the s parameters via the TAU. 67 . OMC. Please study Figure 5. but communication with the AU and presentation of results are made by APT.New Functions and Features functions.14 Local and central trace and debug 5. various configuration parameters are sent to the AU board and stored in the processor’ memory.14. Please study Figure 5. For this.2 AU Configuration This function makes it possible to configure the analogue line circuits from the local exchange or from an Operation and Maintenance Centre. It is also possible to connect a portable PC directly to an AU (and TAU for that matter) and perform the same trace and debug activities. Local trace and debug Local Exchange Central trace and debug Figure 5.7.
The memory of the AU/TAU can be upgraded from the central control system in the local exchange.7. In AXE Access 910.AXE Access 910 AU AU AUS ETC Group Switch RPG AU AU TAU TAU CP-A CP-B Figure 5. there is still need for a processor that takes care of the following functions: 68 . The reason for such an upgrade could be new functions. Software Upgrade (Local/Central) The software in the AU and in the TAU is stored in a so called FLASH memory which retains it during power off. 5. setting of market-specific parameters etc.15 Download of configuration parameters to the AU Examples of parameters that can be downloaded to the AU are: • • • • 5.3 Line signalling parameters Transmission parameters Semi-permanent connection indicator Private metering indicator. In the old SSS5 structure. There will be two ways to load the software in the AU/ TAU: • One which uses the TAU as the loading platform • One which directly loads the software into the AU/TAU.8 New EMRP platform One important part of the AUS is a completely new EMRP platform. In the AUS. The contents of the FLASH memory are copied into the primary memory of the AU/TAU processor upon initial start and restart. among other things. the AU/TAU must be blocked and taken out of traffic. correction of software. the V5 protocol. the Access Units have a powerful microprocessor executing. there was one EMRP. For this. In the basic configurations. Extension Module Regional Processor. for each LSM (Line Switch Module). the LSM connected 128 PSTN subscribers or 64 ISDN-BA subscribers.
69 . Signalling Terminal Remote.New Functions and Features • Regional software for the time switch (TSR). In most applications there will be 32 HDLC circuits and two V. no CP-EMRP load is needed during the restart. The reason for having this name is of course that all buses have been removed and the EMRP is connected to the time switch and uses connections via the time switch to communicate with other units in the system. The name of the EMRP is EMRP-T where the T stands for “time switch connected”. The chosen processor is based upon Motorola PowerQUICC which contains all functions needed for a standalone processor except for the memory. Signalling Terminal Remote.16 Parts in the new EMRP The CPU is a 32-bit micro processor running at 25.17.24 interfaces. Figure 5. The software is compressed in the FLASH memory to save space. Support circuit Clock CPU Flash memory RAM memory System bus HDLC I/O.16 illustrates the general principle of the new EMRP. In two of the AUS in each access node. However. When implemented like this. 50 or 66 MHz and powered by 3. The FLASH memory will be 6 Mbyte and the RAM memory 16 Mbyte. This will shorten the time needed for the restart. the STR is referred to as STR-T. the STR function will be implemented in software and be part of the EMRP.3 V. there will be functionality for STR. Keyset Code Receivers and tone handling (KRT) and some more functions • In two of the AUSs: functions for the STR. 40. If all the software can be stored in the FLASH memory. The software modules of the EMRP can be seen in Figure 5. V24 Figure 5. The FLASH memory is used as a local backup and will be used for reloading the RAM memory in case of restarts. The solution is to have a microprocessor powerful enough to replace the old EMRP and the old STR.
allocation of memory − Process scheduling. APZ: EMGFDS EMGFDR TEETR EMRPB-T Figure 5. “job table” • Boot and Basic System − Cold start.17 Software modules in the EMRP The following information shows what the operating system does and how its functions have been divided into smaller parts: • OS Kernel − Memory handling. determines which process to run − Inter-process communication. handles signals between processes − System timing.AXE Access 910 Boot OSE-Delta STR-T CSL EMRP-T Application Reset APT: TSR KRTR etc. reset and power-on − Load and store program in Flash memory − Compress and decompress programs • Start and Restart − Hardware reset − Warm restart of operating system − Warm restart of application • Memory Management − Physical memory handling − Memory allocation and memory protection • Real Time Clock • Diagnostic Functions − Overload protection − Load measurements 70 .
Depending on the traffic. V5. 5. will terminate the V5. Inside the AUS. the RPG executes the V5 software and the AU processor executes the V5 software in the AU.1 signalling channel between the AU and the AUS.1 as each AU is a multiplexer. 16 ETC T.19 shows the main principle. or with a unit other than AXE Access 910. the HDLCpool. In the local exchange.9. 5. Figure 5. However. in the AUS. 16 Group Switch RPG AU AU AUS CP-A CP-B Figure 5.18 Internal V5 signalling between the RPG in the local exchange and the AUs The V5.1 or V5. The amount of signalling traffic on one channel.9.1 protocol and multiplex the signalling traffic to one time slot/channel towards the local exchange.18 shows the main principle.9 V5 Related Functions 5. Figure 5. CCC The C-channel is the V5.New Functions and Features 5. 71 . According to the V5. any time slot can be used. a large number of Cchannels may be concentrated in the AUS.1 protocol. From the AUS to the local exchange.1 signalling uses time slot 16 in the E1 link between the AU and the AUS.2.1 Access Unit V5 Application The V5 interface is used between the local exchange and the Access Units in the access node.3 C-channel Concentration. The external V5 signalling could be a radio access system like DRA 1900 or any other type of access node supporting V5. for only 30 subscribers. several C-channels can be concentrated to one C-channel (statistically multiplexed). time slot/channel 16 should be used for this signalling. The interface uses V5.1 AU AU T. is not great (particularly not for PSTN).2 External Interfaces External V5 signalling means that the local exchange talks to an external unit outside the AXE Access 910.9. high level data link control pool.
are transferred to another RPG if the original processor becomes faulty. Each configuration has to be dimensioned individually.20 illustrates the main principle. 5.1.1. the number of AUs connected to one AUS is in the range of 14-15. 16 HDLC CP-A CP-B Figure 5. One group of RPGs handles one type of protocol. In most cases. The main aim of GAM is to enable different types of signalling protocols to access a group of RPGs.20 RPG V5.19 C-channel concentration The concentration of C-channels is always done on an individual AUS basis.AXE Access 910 AU AU T. Group Switch AXE Access 910 ETC ETC ETC ETC ETC ETC Figure 5. Figure 5. Executive RPG V3 (PRA). As the name indicates. 16 AUS ETC Group Switch RPG AU AU T.4 Generic Access Manager. Executive RPG V5. GAM The Generic Access Manager is not a function that is unique to AXE Access 910 but one can say that it is essential for the AXE Access 910 concept. Stand-by RPG V3 (PRA). The number of concentrated C-channels that can be handled per RPG depends on the processor used and the traffic. Redundant hardware can be defined which means that all channels handled by one RPG. it is the function used for many types of accesses. Stand-by Example of signalling terminals administrated by GAM 72 .9.
1 signalling and can send call requests to software inside the AUS. • The function will only allow traffic to emergency numbers and no “normal” traffic between subscribers. 5. 73 . incorporate a lot of experience. 5. The following functions will be included in AXE Access 910: • • • • • • • Test calls Seizure supervision Howler External line test Subscriber-assisted line tests Repairman-ordered line tests Line circuit test.New Functions and Features Note that one single command is needed to arrange signalling from one E1 link.11 Subscriber Line Maintenance Functions All the well proven functions for Subscriber Line Maintenance will be copied from the “old” SSS5 and reused in the AXE Access 910. SAF This function existed in the “old” SSS5 and is used in AXE Access 910 with some modifications. These functions.10 Stand Alone Function. allocate an RPG. reserve a channel in the E1 link and then interconnect the two via the group switch. The following points can be made about the SAF function: • The SAF function can only deliver PSTN calls. • The Mesh network carries all the traffic between the AUSs. • The HDLC circuits in the AUS terminate the V5. The most important types of calls are those to emergency numbers (112 in most countries in western Europe). • An optional announcing machine can deliver a recorded message during the period of the restricted traffic. which have been developed over a number of years. The main aim of the function is to allow certain traffic in the access node even if the link to the local exchange is broken. ISDN calls are not handled during SAF mode. The GAM function will then establish a path through the time switch.
AXE Access 910 74 .
Access Group All V5 control channels controlled by the same RPG are grouped in a so called access group. In case of reconfigurations due to hardware faults. most of the new commands and printouts will be found in the chapter.2 Concepts The OPIs used to operate the AXE Access 910 introduce some new concepts. all control channels are kept together. Access Network The term originates from the ETSI standard V5. 75 . Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter. The information is based upon the definition of a node in a test plant and some details may change in the released product. 6.” • Communication Path Signalling information originating from the V5. the STR is included in the EMRP-T.1 Chapter Introduction This chapter will give you some information about how AXE Access 910 is defined by means of commands. • AN. At the remote end. not in the order of importance. However. • CSL. Control Signalling Link The duplicated 64 kbit/s signalling link between an STR and an STC. • CSP.1 communication software or from the ISDN subscriber’ D-channel. The concepts are listed in alphabetical order. Control Signalling Path A signalling link terminating in an RPG instead of in an STC. you will be able to: • Describe new concepts used in the commands when operating the AXE Access 910 • Define a new access node by means of commands. • AG. s • Communication Channel (C-channel) A 64 kbit/s time slot on a V5. A complete access node is defined by command. This chapter describes some of the most important concepts used in OPIs and commands. Operation 6.6.1 and is defined there as: “a system implemented between the Local Exchange (LE) and user. replacing part or the whole of the local line distribution network.1 interface used to carry one or more communication paths.
• MACCG. the software blocks RGEXR. • PIU.3. DLAU. Link Access Protocol for V5 Signalling between the AN (access node) and the local exchange follows the standard LAPV5. EXRUI defines the software to be executed and stored in the RPG. • LAPV5. EXEMI defines • • the EM individuals in the RPG. MHAU. defines the RPG with TYPE=RPG1A.1 protocol software and communicates with the Access Units for both PSTN and ISDN BA.1 supports subscriber multiplexers while the V5. The maximum physical size is two full cabinets with in total 8 subracks. The RPG is defined by the following commands: • • EXRPI. Extension Module Used to show how AXE can be extended with new hardware.1 shows a printout of the EMs in the RPG used for Access Unit control. The APT part uses s the MACCG. The block STAU will have 32 devices. access unit switch. RPFDR belong to the APZ and the blocks STAU. Figure 6. CTRLAU. printed circuit board. In AXE Access 910. the term denotes the APZ’ view of the access node.2 standard supports concentrators. 76 .3 Definition of Equipment in the Local Exchange 6. NTCOI and EXDUI are used to connect the RPG to the group switch. In AXE Access 910. See description of the MACCG. An LAPV5 frame is the frame format used for all types of signalling information. • V5 A set of ETSI standards for connection of access nodes (AN) to the local exchange (LE). MANAU. one for each V5 channel. • GAM. • EMG. Multiple Access Group The term used in AXE Access 910 software to denote one complete access node (one EMG). The V5. Generic Access Manager An AXE function developed to control different types of accesses via controlling channels. Plug-In Unit Is a generic name for all types of PCB. PSTNAU and PSTNHMA will be defined. • Network Node A concept used to denote an AUS. Extension Module Group The term used in the “old” SSS to denote a complete group of subscribers connected to the same TSB/STR pair. 6.AXE Access 910 • EM.1 RPG for AU Communication The RPG handling AUs executes the V5. GAM is used by AXE Access 910 when connecting V5 C-channels to AXE as well as ISDN-PRA accesses.
2 TYPE RPG1A RPG1A RPG1A EM 0 1 2 EQM STTAU-0&&-31 DLTAU-0 MXTAU-0 TWIN CNTRL PRIM PRIM PRIM PP STATE WO WO WO Printout of EM in one RPG used for TAU communication One RPG can control up to 30 TAUs.2 E per subscriber.EM=ALL. The number of TAUs per MACCG differs from customer to customer.Operation EXEMP:RP=82. EXEMP:RP=80. 6. However.2 shows a printout from an RPG communicating with a TAU. The present number of channels enables all V5 channels to be connected from one MACCG to one RPG if the traffic is less than 0. EM DATA RP 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 END Figure 6.1 TYPE RPG1A RPG1A RPG1A RPG1A RPG1A RPG1A RPG1A EM 0 1 4 5 6 7 10 EQM STAU-0&&-31 DLAU-0 CTRLAU-0 PSTNAU-0 MANAU-0 MHAU-0 PSTNHMA-0 TWIN CNTRL PRIM PRIM PRIM PRIM PRIM PRIM PRIM PP STATE WO WO WO WO WO WO WO Printout of EM in one RPG used for AU control There can be several concentrated V5 links connected to one and the same RPG.3. Figure 6.EM=ALL. the command EXRUI and EXEMI will have other parameter values as other software should be stored and executed by the RPG. The definition is the same as for the RPG used for AU communication.2 RPG for TAU Communication An RPG is also needed for the communication between the local exchange and the TAUs in the MACCG. two RPGs per MACCG will be needed. then 2 TAUs per MACCG will be used and that means that one RPG can handle some 15 MACCGs (one RPG for up to 37000 PSTN subscribers). If a standard value is used. 77 . EM DATA RP 80 80 80 END Figure 6. For higher traffic loads.
4 shows the printout of one of the STCs in the local exchange.3 shows a printout of the RPG used for PRA access. primary rate access. GAM. Figure 6.5 Definition of ETC in the Local Exchange The last type of equipment that has to be defined in the local exchange is the ETCs terminating the E1 links from the MACCG. 78 . is connected via the Generic Access Manager.3. most STCs will be implemented in an RPG (referred to as STC-G).4 TYPE STC2C EM 1 EQM CLC-4 TWIN CNTRL PRIM PP STATE WO Printout of EM for the STC 6. the test exchange had “traditional” STCs in the local exchange.3. EM DATA RP 84 84 84 84 END Figure 6. The commands will not be shown here as there are no differences between them and those in the SSS5. The RPG is defined as shown earlier in this chapter but the software and individuals differ in the two commands EXRUI and EXEMI.EM=ALL.4 Definition of STC In the example studied. EM DATA RP 53 END Figure 6. EXEMP:RP=53. Figure 6. In the near future. 6. EXEMP:RP=84.AXE Access 910 6.3 TYPE RPG1A RPG1A RPG1A RPG1A EM 0 1 2 3 EQM STPRAE-0&&-31 DLPRAE-0 MANPRAE-0 MHPRAE-0 TWIN CNTRL PRIM PRIM PRIM PRIM PP STATE WO WO WO WO Printout of EM in one RPG used for PRA access The present version of the RPG can control 30 ISDN-PRA accesses.EM=ALL.3 RPG for PRA Communication ISDN PRA. to the RPG in the local exchange. This means that they have to be defined by the commands EXRPI and EXEMI.3.
which defines the EMG. AUS The AUS is a completely new unit but many commands from the old SSS5 have been reused. has not been changed since SSS5. EXEEI is • used to define the equipment in each EM.RPB=57. The software identities for this application can be seen in the printout in Figure 6.RPA=53.5 shows the printout of the definition made by the commands above.1 Definition of MACCG and EMG The first command to use is: EXEGI:EMG=SWITCH-01. Note again that EMG is an APZ concept and is used to address the access node from APZ functions. Multiple ACCess Group: EXMCI:MACCG=SWITCH-01. The new EMRP-T has to be defined in each AUS but the commands are basically the same as in the old SSS5: • • EXEPI defines EXEUI is the EMs. The VAR parameter specifies the number of AUSs in the MACCG. EXEGP:EMG=SWITCH-01. The parameter TYPE is set to EMRPT1A.VAR=6.EMG=SWITCH-01. This command.4.2 Definition of Access Unit Switch.6. MULTIPPLE ACCESS GROUP CONNECTION DATA MACCG SWITCH-01 END Figure 6. EMG DATA EMG SWITCH-01 END EXMCP.STRTYPE=STRT1A. The following command defines the MACCG. 79 . The printout in Figure 6. used to define the software that should be loaded into the EMRP-T.Operation 6. Figure 6.4 Definition of a MACCG 6.4.5 VAR 6 EMG SWITCH-01 TYPE REMOTE REMOTE SIDE A B LINK CLC-4 CLC-5 ST WO WO MAST IDLE IDLE EMGNUM 2 2 Printout of EMG data and MACCG data 6.6 shows the names used as well as the software identities (software identities from a test plant with preliminary software are shown).
4. between the AXE Access 910 and the old SSS5. devices (from block RST) to the route. should also be defined. There are no major differences.4. • • • • • 6. Figure 6.EM=0.7 shows a printout of the Plug-In Unit’ position. the SNT (Switching Network Terminal) EXDRI connects NTCOI defines EXDUI connects Definition of the Position of AUS When the AUS has been defined. in relation to these definitions. its position in the hardware can be defined by command EXPUI. route data. A software route in block CJ. s 80 .4 EXROI creates EXRBC alters a bothway route with DETY=RST. the devices to the SNT.6 EQM 203 140 140 203 203 203 203 140 140 01 054 007 03/3 05/5 04/4 06/6 178/F9 195 R1B06 R1A03 R1A03 R2A03 R2A01 R2A01 R2A01 R1B01 R1A01 AUS-0 KRT-0 TS-0 ETAUS-0 STCON-0 SAH-0 SUP H’0045 H’00B2 H’00AC H’0095 H’0016 H’00D1 H’00DD H’00A3 H’00C8 Printout of EMG software and equipment data 6.3 Definition of Routes and Devices The next step is to define the routes and devices needed between the access node and the local exchange. Combined Junctor.AXE Access 910 EXEDP:EMG=SWITCH-01. EMGEM SOFTWARE UNIT AND EQUIPMENT DATA EMG SWITCH-01 EM 0 SUNAME SUID EIEX1R 9000/CAA TEETR 9000/CAA EMGFDR 9000/CAA AUSR 9000/CAA KRTR 9000/CAA TSR 9000/CAA ETR 9000/CAA STCONR 9000/CAA SAHR 9000/CAA END Figure 6.
The parameter VAR indicates the number of “ports” available in the hardware. The port. In the old SSS5 and in the first phase of the AXE Access 910 there is no reference to the concept “network node”.PORT=27. Figure 6. It is completely new in AXE Access 910. 81 . NNUPI:NODE=AUS-0. A “port” is the same thing as an ET device handling an E1 link. The command defines the equipment connected to each port. PLUG-IN UNIT DATA MACCG SWITCH-01 END SR 1 POS 1 PIU AUS-0 STATE BLSTATE STANDBY Figure 6. NNCOI:NODE=AUS-0.VAR=2. is used for the E1 link to the local exchange. in this case.8 shows a printout of the network node when E1 links to the local exchange have been defined.4. This command defines the network node.5 Definition of Network Node Network node is a term used to denote the AUS and all the E1 links connected to it.7 Printout of the position of a PIU 6.DEV=RST-0&&-31.Operation EXPUP:PIU=AUS-0. The network node is defined with a new group of commands starting with the letters NNxxx.
DTDII:DIP=0LITAU.DEV=LITAU-0. is responsible for maintenance-related activities in the MACCG.PORT=21. The hardware connections between the TAU and the AUs are via buses between the subracks and also in the backplane of each subrack (LCOM and ACOM).PORT=21. digital path. has to be used in the command defining the TAU. Administration and Maintenance Unit.NODE=AUS-0.AXE Access 910 NNUPP:NODE=AUS-0. NETWORK NODE USER TO PORT CONNECTION DATA NODE AUS-0 PORT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 DEV DIP INTCONN YES YES YES YES YES YES YES RST-32&&-63 RST-0&&-31 END Figure 6. subrack.4. Test. 82 . The TAU is first of all connected to the AUS by connecting it to the network node: NNUPI:NODE=AUS-0.6 Definition of TAU The TAU. The parameter SR. The TAU is connected to port number 21 of the AUS and the next action will be to define the DIP.8 Printout of Network Node 6.
9 Printout of Control Group data (only partly shown) 6. EXTGP:MACCG=SWITCH-01. Please study Figure 6. DTDII:NODE=AU-0.MACCG=SWITCH-01.10 shows how the TAU and three AUs have been connected to the AUS (network node).SR=0. The same commands are used and the parameters are almost the same. The digital link then has to be activated by the command DTIDC.7 Definition of Access Unit The Access Units are defined in a similar way as the TAU. .. Figure 6.DIP=0LIAU. The definition of the subracks can be printed by command EXTGP. The commands below define one AU: NNUPI:NODE=AU-0.CG=0. END Figure 6....PORT=7.PORT=7.4.POS=15.POS=1. EXPUI:PIU=AU-0.9. TEST MAINTENANCE AND ADMINISTRATION UNIT CONTROL GROUP DATA MACCG SWITCH-01 PIU TAU-0 SR 0 PIU AU-0 AU-1 . 83 .MACCG=SWITCH-01.DEV=LIAU-0. EXTGI:PIU=TAU-0. The command EXTGI is used for this definition. (?) It was mentioned earlier in this chapter that a TAU is connected to one or more subracks for controlling the AUs from a maintenance perspective.Operation The TAU’ position in the subrack is defined in the next step: s EXPUI:PIU=TAU-0.
the RPG-based signalling terminals in AXE. the commands below have to be used. operation and maintenance is simplified. 84 .AXE Access 910 NNUPP:NODE=AUS-0. the different applications are handled as different “access groups”.RPTYPE=RPG.e. Each type of access (i.AG=5. In GAM. protocol) must have a dedicated RPG. GNACI:DIP=0LITAU. One access group comprises all interfaces connected to the same RPG. NETWORK NODE USER TO PORT CONNECTION DATA NODE AUS-0 PORT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 DEV DIP INTCONN YES YES YES YES YES YES YES LIAU-0 LIAU-1 LIAU-2 LIAU-3 0LIAU 1LIAU 2LIAU 3LIAU LITAU-0 0LITAU RST-32&&-63 RST-0&&-31 END Figure 6.10 Printout of Network Node 6.4. By having one common access manager.AG=4.8 Connection via Generic Access Manager. This means that the TAU communication and V5 protocols have to be connected to different RPGs.RPTYPE=RPG. GNACI:DIP=0LIAU. To connect the TAU and the AUs to two different RPGs. GAM GAM is a function for connecting several different types of accesses to the same signalling platform.
When the command is executed, GAM defines a path from the DIP in the command to an RPG belonging to the access group. The access group is created when the first interface is connected to it. By defining the same access group number, it is possible to connect more interfaces to the same access group. Figure 6.11 illustrates the general principle.
DIP AU AU T.16 AUS AU AU ETC
GAM reserves a path between the DIP and the RPG
Figure 6.12 shows a printout of the two access groups to the TAU and to the AUs.
GNACP:AG=4; GENERIC ACCESS MANAGER CONNECTION DATA AG ORDER AG APPTYPE RPTYPE 4 4 RPG END
GNACP:AG=5; GENERIC ACCESS MANAGER CONNECTION DATA AG ORDER AG APPTYPE RPTYPE 5 5 RPG END Figure 6.12
DIP 0LIAU 1LIAU
TS 16 16
Printout of Generic Access Manager data
Connection of AU to V5
The Access Units are still not connected to the V5.1 interface. The command EXPCI will connect each port on the AU to a specific, fixed, time slot in the V5.1 interface. Interface number 0 will be connected to time slot 1, and the process continued until all the 30 interfaces have been given a time slot. As usual, time slots 0 and 16 are excluded as they are used for synchronization and V5.1 signalling.
AXE Access 910 EXPCI:PIU=AU-0,DIP=0LIAU,DEV=LIMA-0&&-29; EXPCI:PIU=AU-1,DIP=1LIAU,DEV=LIBAMA-0&&-14;
The first command connected a PSTN access unit and the latter one an access unit for ISDN basic rate access.
All the defined equipment has to be deblocked before service can start. The new deblocking commands are:
The command deblocks a network node (an AUS).
The command deblocks a Plug-In Unit (PIU) of type AU or TAU.
Connection of Subscribers
There are no new or modified commands used to connect subscribers to the system. As an example, the SULII command is still used to connect an ordinary PSTN subscriber:
For ISDN subscribers, the commands IUDCI, IUANI and IUAPC are still used.
Connection of Primary Rate Access
Primary rate access, PRA, is connected in a very similar way as AU and TAU. The commands are the same but some parameters differ:
This command connects the PRA to the network node AUS-0 at port number 18 (the ET device number 18).
This command defines the DIP, digital path, between the AUS and the PABX.
Figure 6.13 shows the printout of the GAM connection data.
GNACP:AG=6; GENERIC ACCESS MANAGER CONNECTION DATA AG ORDER AG APPTYPE RPTYPE 6 2 RPG END Figure 6.13
Printout of Generic Access Manager data for Primary Rate Access
7.1 Chapter Introduction
Maintenance will change a lot when the new AXE Access 910 is introduced. The repair procedures will not change much but the maintenance efforts should be substantially lower with AXE Access 910 than with the existing SSS5.
After completing this chapter, you will be able to: • Describe the fundamental maintenance principles used in AXE Access 910 • Understand how the maintenance principles affect the total system characteristics.
7.2 Maintenance Principles
Much effort has been put into improving the overall system characteristics. Any system replacing an older version must be better than its predecessor. There are many different parts that have been modified to make the system characteristics superior.
More Robust Design
The AXE Access 910 has much less cabling than the SSS5 as more functions are put on single boards. Cables have connectors at each end, and these give problems when they get dirty or when they start to oxidize. By reducing the number of cables in the switch, these risks are reduced.
Different Communications Paths for Traffic and Maintenance
Thanks to the TAU, the traffic and maintenance functions do not have to use the same communication channel between the local exchange and the access node. Figure 7.1 illustrates the main principle.
AXE Access 910 n x V5.1 interface. The SNMP protocol is the main standard protocol in the computer and data communications industry.5 Maintenance of Broadband Functions The narrowband access units in AXE Access 910 are all managed and maintained by AXE. Another difference is that most maintenance function for the broadband part rely on the maintenance protocol SNMP. you also reduce the total risk of having faults stopping your system. ADSL). 7. designing and implementing maintenance functions in its telecommunication systems. defined by IETF.3 Same Functions for Subscriber Line Maintenance Ericsson has a very long tradition of inventing. For this reason we have retained the same SLM functions in the AXE Access 910.4 Less Hardware Each circuit and component has a certain probability of becoming faulty. there is a separate management system inherited from ANx-DSL.1 Separate communication channels for traffic and maintenance Because of this principle. internet engineering task force.2. The functions for Subscriber Line Maintenance (SLM) have all been developed over a great number of years for AXE Access 910’ s predecessor.. For the broadband parts (e. 7. Less hardware means less faults in the hardware. new traffic functions do not have to interfere with the maintenance traffic. the probability that both communication paths might be faulty. Simple enough.1 for traffic AU AU AUS ETC Group Switch RPG RPG AU AU TAU TAU 38 kbit/s for maintenance 64 kbit/s for maintenance ETC CP-A CP-B Figure 7. is extremely low. and could be considered “state of the art”.g. 7. By reducing the number of components in a system. ANx Management System. Similarly. It also means that future maintenance functions can use the maintenance path without interfering with the traffic in the V5.2. 88 ..2. The system is referred to as “ANxMS”. simple network management protocol. the SSS5.
• The line Down Time is improved from 5 down to 0. the maintenance cost for the system is reduced dramatically. • Faults affecting more than one line board is reduced by a factor of 20 from one occurrence every 16 years to once every 320 years. Here are some figures related to a node with 2000 subscribers: • Faults affecting the traffic is improved by a factor of 6.Maintenance 7. 89 .35 minutes.3 Equipment Protection Switching By having any of the optional function “AUS protection switching” or “AU protection switching”.
AXE Access 910 90 .
Future Functions 8. By using a standard 19-inch building practice. AXE Access 910 will in the future use further decreased hardware.2 Compatible Hardware The hardware in AXE Access 910 is based upon BYB 501 which is fully adapted to broadband applications. it is easy to integrate 3:rd party products or datacom products in the building practice. This chapter gives some information about future plans regarding hardware and IP/ATM integration. a router or an ATM switch can easily be co-located in the same cabinet if there is free space. Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter. This is important when high frequencies are handled by the boards. They can buy a future-proof system which can be expanded with broadband applications as they become available.8. Our customers benefit from having hardware that is fully adapted to broadband. This hardware allows the operator to freely mix narrowband and broadband accesses. the “system on board” was started. 8. 91 . For example. you will be able to: • Describe the advantage of having a remotely controlled MDF • Describe how AXE Access 910 can be upgraded in the future to meet new demands. for example the AUS.1 Chapter Introduction AXE Access 910 is not just a new access node. It is the start of a new access node platform that will be used for many types of narrowband and broadband applications. Next step will be to have “systems on chip” meaning that an ASIC contains all the functions of a system. The development plans are still not detailed enough to s specify when different applications are available. all subracks are like sealed metal boxes which give them good EMC characteristics. With the introduction of the AUS. Please note that this information is rather preliminary and that plans may change due to products launched by competitors or for other reasons that are not under Ericsson’ control. For example.
The external cabling is designed to operate in the outside environment while the internal cabling is more simple regarding insulation. someone has to go out to the site and move the cable if a subscriber wishes to change service. • The operator can increase revenue by having a faster connection to new services. is a connection field which terminates external cabling and. using jumpers. if a subscriber. The switch is analogue and built up by means of relays.AXE Access 910 8. The MDF connects one subscriber line to one Line Interface Circuit (LIC). mechanical cross connect. The remotely controlled MDF solves this problem by having a switch in the MDF. As the MDF is a static connection field. Figure 8. For example. allows interconnection to internal cabling.3 Remotely Controlled MDF A Main Distribution Frame.1 Remotely controlled MDF 92 . The switch is referred to as MXC. • The operator can decrease the operation costs significantly by avoiding staff going to the access node each time a subscriber wishes to change service. wishes to have ISDN BA. MDF. The advantages of the remotely controlled MDF are many: • The operator can provide a new access service in a few minutes instead of within hours or days. connected to a LIC delivering POTS. the subscriber’ line has to be physically moved to s another position.1 illustrates the main principle. Remotely Controlled MDF POTS ISDN-BA HDSL ADSL Customer Care Centre Figure 8. This switch makes it possible for the operator to remotely connect the subscribers to other LICs that provide new services.
8. AXE Access 910 will support this service once standardisation is settled. ATM will give the IP traffic “carrier class” and real-time problems in IP are taken care of by ATM.4. This will give a digital speech communication endto-end with higher quality.4.2 Voice over ATM Voice over ATM is a planned addition to the Access 910 product family. 8. 8.Future Functions An alternative to the MXC is to combine the LIC for POTS with the ADSL modem on the same board. There are several alternatives discussed within different standardisation bodies. This reduces the need for changing hardware position in the MDF as the combined line board itself creates the switch-over (from POTS to ADSL).4.3 Integration of IP IP can be carried by ATM in a highly efficient way. 8. AXE Access 910 has a migration strategy towards future broadband solutions. This means that AXE Access 910 already from the beginning has the possibility to carry IP traffic.1 Voice over DSL There is a possibility to have a derived voice channel carried by the DSL transmission system. 93 .4 Integration of IP and ATM Both Internet Protocol (IP) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are important components in the future network that will carry both voice and data.
AXE Access 910 94 .
AU 11 access unit. AUS 12 access unit. access group 75 ALB30 13 ALTAU. Access Unit V5 Application 44 AXE hardware inventory management 55 B BBMAN. ATM adaptation layer 62 Access Network Handler. access unit management (function block) 53 AUPSTN. access unit for ISDN-BA 38 AU (PSTN). AUS 50 access unit switch. AUS Connection board 40 AUSCORD. access unit basic access (function block) 47 AUCORD.9. 37 ADM. add/drop multiplexers 9 ADSL 60 ADSL Lite 60 AG. ANx management system 88 attenuation of speech samples 15 AU (ISDN). access network 75 ANxMS. external alarm handler (function block) 53 AN. ANH 50 access unit for ADSL 39 access unit for ISDN BA 38 Access Unit Switch. co-ordination of AUS protection switching (function block) 53 AUV5. co-ordination of AU protection switching (function block) 53 AUMAN. add/drop multiplexer 65 ADM. Index 19 inch rack 23 A AAL. access unit PSTN (function block) 46 AUS control system 16 AUS Network 12 AUS. broadband manager (function block) 52 BYB 101 23 BYB 202 23 BYB 501 23 C cabinet in BYB 501 24 95 . definition of 83 ACOM 34. access unit for PSTN 36 AU configuration 67 AU processor 36 AUBA. access unit switch 14 AUS-C.
CCF 34 cooling principles 25 CPRM. code sender/receiver digital (function block) 49 CTRLA. DIPAUS 50 Digital Path Supervision and Test. data link layer V5 (function block) 46. tones 16 E electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 27 96 . 82 NNUPI. code sender FSK signalling (function block) 49 CSKD. control access unit (function block) 46 CTRLLED. control access unit (function block) 47 CTRLAU. control signalling path 75 CSR-D. DIPST 50 distribution unit. 83 EXPUP 81 EXRBC 80 EXROI 80 EXTGI 83 EXTGP 83 GNACI 84 GNACI. DU-2 28 DLAU. control of LED in MACCG (function block) 53 D D-channel 39 definition of RPG 76 Digital Path Access Unit Switch. code sender. central private metering (function block) 46 CSFSK. PRA access 86 GNACP 85 NNBLE 86 NNCOI 81 NNUPI 81. control group 75 Clock in AUS 15 command BLPUE 86 DTDII 82 EXDRI 80 EXDUI 80 EXEDP 80 EXEGI 79 EXEGP 79 EXEPI 79 EXEUI 79 EXMCI 79 EXMCP 79 EXPCI 86 EXPUI 80. digital (function block) 49 CSL. control signalling link 75 CSP. 84 NTCOI 80 SULII 86 communication channel 75 connection field. digital line TAU (function block) 52 DMT. 47 DLTAU.AXE Access 910 cabling in BYB 501 26 C-channel 71 central trace and debug 66 CG. PRA access 86 NNUPP 82. discrete multitone 61 DTMF.
line interface access unit (function block) 48 LIBAV5. line interface circuit (ISDN-BA) 38 LIC30 13 local exchange 18 M MAADMC. multiple access group 76 MAOAM. in TAU 42 97 .706 16 GAM 72 GAM. Multiple Access Subrack 32 multimeter instrument.703 16 G. V5 (function block) 48 LIC. local exchange 75 LIAU. internal communication service 19 ISDN PRA connection 14 ISP. generic access manager 76 GAM. Operation. Administration and Maintenance 44 MAUS. Multiple Access Unit Switch 44 MAUS. in service performance 21 K Key-set code Receiver and Tone sending. MACCG administration (function block) 52 MACCG. extension module 76 EMG. line interface basic rate access. performed by TAU 41 mechanical key 29 mesh network 17 MUA. Multiple Access. generic access manager (function block) 46 H hardware identification 55 HDLC pool 16 HDSL 59 I ICS. link access protocol for V5 76 LCOM 34 LE.Index EM. function change multiple access handler (function block) 53 filter for ADSL 40 FLASH memory 68 Flash memory 37 footprint 20 function blocks 43 G G.704 16 G. ETDIF 51 external alarms 56 F FCMAN. multiple access unit switch 49 measurements. extension module group 76 EMRP ring 16 EMRP-T 69 Exchange Terminal Interface. KRT 51 L LAPV5.
network node administration (function block) 53 NT. TAU-C manager (function block) 52 TAUMAN. maintenance and administration unit 18 TAU-C board 42 TAUCMAN. plesiochronous digital hierarchy 64 PIU. definition of 82 TAU. protection switching hardware control (function block) 53 PSTN. subscriber line maintenance 88 SNMP. Single Switch Subrack 33 SLIC 13 SLIC. synchronous digital hierarchy 64 set of parts 43 Signalling to EMRP software in AUS 19 signalling to ISDN-PRA 19 signalling to TAU 19 SIS. subscriber line interface circuit 36 SLM. definition of 76 S SAF function 73 SDH.AXE Access 910 Multiple Access Unit Switch. synchronous transport module-1 65 STR-T 69 subrack in BYB 501 24 switching of speech samples 15 T TAU board 41 TAU. Network Termination (for ADSL) 61 P PDH. TAU manager (function block) 53 98 . test. network terminal 36 NT. RST 51 RPG. Narrowband Access Subrack 31 NNADMC. quad subscriber line audio processing circuit 36 R RAM memory 37 RAM. random access memory 37 reception of DTMF 15 Remote Stage Traffic. Multiple Access Unit Switch 30 N NBA. PSTN protocol handler (function block) 46 Q QSLAC. plug-in unit 76 power consumption 21 power distribution 28 PowerQUICC (processor used in EMRP-T) 69 protection switching 57 protection switching of AU 58 protection switching of AUS 57 PSHWCTL. set of parts 49 MUS. simple network management protocol 88 Software upgrade of AU and TAU 68 STM-1.
28 16 V5 71.Index test access bus 35 test. TS 51 TM. 76 V5.1 10 V5.2 10 visual fault indication 56 99 . TAU 11 time switch 15 Time Switch Maintenance. TSMT 51 Time Switch.24/V. terminal multiplexer (SDH) 65 transmission of tones 15 two-step high-ohmic distribution (TS-HOD) 28 V V. maintenance and administration unit.
AXE Access 910 100 .
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