credit: Halley Roberts

Biotic Layer

560 billion tons Carbon in living things on land.

Organic Layer Top Soil Subsoil Parent Material 2500 billion tons carbon in organic layer, topsoil, and subsoil.

Atmosphere: 760 billion tons tons carbon Geologic Pool: 5000 billion tons carbon Oceans: 38,000 billion tons tons carbon

credit: Ian Bryson, Flickr

it is estimated that 50-80% of agricultural and degraded soils can be recovered, representing 42-78 billion tons of carbon

Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change R. Lal Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, School of Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, OARDC/FAES, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

credit: Varina Crisfield, Flickr

credit: "Moo Cows." Fernando de Sousa, Flickr

cow patty

credit: "dung beetles" John Friel, Flickr

manure spreader cart
source: Low Tech Magazine

sludge scan from colors

source: Colors Magazine 82 James Mollison, Moosburg, Germany.

source: Susana Secratariat (sustainable sanitation on flickr)

source: Susana Secratariat (sustainable sanitation on flickr)

illustration: Earle Barnhart & Hilde Maingay

Biotic Layer

560 billion tons Carbon in living things on land.

Organic Layer Top Soil Subsoil Parent Material 2500 billion tons carbon in organic layer, topsoil, and subsoil.

Atmosphere: 760 billion tons tons carbon Geologic Pool: 5000 billion tons carbon Oceans: 38,000 billion tons tons carbon

credit: Ian Bryson, Flickr

Flush Toilets: pumpout systems

Hidenori Harada 2010

Flush Toilets: pumpout systems

Hidenori Harada 2010

Yet another bike-ready Portland project.

Source: EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC).

Source: Jetsgroup 2009.

Source: GTZ (Editor) (2005): Vacuum Technology (Low Pressure Systems). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH.

Source: GIZ technical data sheets for ecosan components. Datasheet 004: Ecological housing estate Luebeck Flintenbreite

Flush Toilets: The Aquatron

credit: Aquatron

Source: VERNA Ecology Inc.

Source: SEI Source: EKBO

Source: Mats Johansson, VERNA.

Source: Qiang Zhu 2006.

credit: David and Pearl Omick.

credit: David Omick.

credit: Natural Event, Australia

credit: Natural Event, Hamish Skermer, Australia

credit: Biolan

credit: Biolan

CC-attribution only Flickr user mtsrs

Sanitation in Sanaa, Yemen

Source: GIZ technical data sheets for ecosan components. Datasheet B5: Traditional Dehydration Toilets of Yemen

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful