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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 26, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2011
Low-Cost Semi-Z-source Inverter for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems
Dong Cao, Student Member, IEEE, Shuai Jiang, Student Member, IEEE, Xianhao Yu, and Fang Zheng Peng, Fellow, IEEE
Abstract—This paper presents several nonisolated semi-Z-source inverters for a single-phase photovoltaic (PV) system with low cost and doubly grounded features. These semi-Z-source inverters employ the Z-source/quasi-Z-source network and only two active switches to achieve the same output voltage as the traditional voltage-fed full-bridge inverter does. The two active switches of the semi-Z-source inverter are controlled complementarily. Different from the traditional single-phase Z-source/quasi-Z-source inverter, shoot-through zero state is not applicable to the semi-Z-source inverter. The input dc source and the output ac voltage of the semi-Z-source inverter share the same ground, thus leading to less leakage ground current advantages over other nondoubly grounded inverters, such as voltage-fed full-bridge inverter. This is a preferred feature for nonisolated grid-connected inverters, especially in PV application. A revised nonlinear sinusoid pulse width modulation method for a semi-Z-source inverter is also proposed. By using this method, desired duty cycle can be generated to output the sinusoidal voltage. Other dc–dc converters with similar voltage gain curve, which can also be used as a single-phase inverter, are also discussed and summarized. A single-phase semi-Z-source inverter prototype is built; experimental results are provided to verify and demonstrate the special features of the proposed circuit. Index Terms—Inverter, low quasi-Z-source, semi-Z-source. cost, photovoltaic (PV),
N RECENT years, due to energy crisis, renewable energy distributed power generators (DGs), such as wind turbine, photovoltaic (PV) cell, fuel cell, and thermoelectric generation (TEG) modules, are becoming more and more popular in industrial and residential applications . Many renewable energy DGs such as PV cell, fuel cell, and TEG module can only output dc voltage, so an inverter interface has to be utilized for grid-connected applications , . Many inverter topologies have been proposed and reviewed recently –. Based on galvanic isolation, these inverters can be divided into two categories: isolated inverters and nonisolated invert-
Manuscript received December 19, 2010; revised March 13, 2011; accepted April 12, 2011. Date of current version December 6, 2011. This paper will be presented in part at the Applied Power Electronics Conference 2011. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor T.-J. (P.) Liang. The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 USA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2148728
ers. Isolated inverters usually utilize a line frequency or highfrequency transformer for electrical isolation. Due to size, weight, and cost considerations, high-frequency transformers are inclined to be used for future applications . For the inverter topologies with a high-frequency transformer, there are several popular approaches. The ﬁrst approach is a single-stage isolated buck–boost inverter or ﬂyback inverter –. This approach usually utilizes less switching devices, and is able to eliminate electrolytic capacitors by using high-voltage low-capacitance ﬁlm or ceramic capacitor for energy storage , –. The second approach is a two-stage approach, with an isolated dc–dc converter in the ﬁrst stage and a full-bridge inverter in the second stage –. A high-efﬁciency high-voltage gain dc–dc converter with soft switching can be designed for the ﬁrst stage , . The second full-bridge inverter stage can utilize high-frequency switches with pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy or line frequency switches just for voltage inversion purposes based on different topologies. The third approach is also a two-stage approach with a high-frequency dc–ac inverter, a high-frequency transformer, and an ac–ac converter , . Transformer-isolated topologies usually have higher voltage gain and safety advantages, but they require more switches with relatively high cost, high complexity, and low system efﬁciency. In some countries, galvanic isolation is not a requirement in the low-voltage grid or power levels below 20 kW . This leads to the development of low-cost transformer-less inverter topologies. The transformer-less inverter topologies can be classiﬁed into two categories: two-stage inverter topologies and single-stage inverter topologies –. The two-stage transformer-less inverter topologies are similar in operation to the second approach of the aforementioned transformer isolated topologies. Different from that approach, a nonisolated dc–dc converter is used in the ﬁrst stage instead –, , , –. In most cases, a full-bridge inverter with line frequency switched devices is used in the second stage to reduce the cost and the switching loss. To further simplify the system complexity and to reduce the cost, single-stage inverter topologies are investigated. The single-stage inverter approach usually consists of two relatively independent dc–dc converters with possible shared passive components and each converter produces a half-cycle sinusoid waveform 180◦ out of phase , , –, , , . However, for the transformerless inverter topologies, if the input dc-source and the grid do not share the same ground, the input dc source, especially for PV cell, may have large leakage current, which will cause safety and electromagnetic interference problems , , .
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a shoot-through zero state can be added to replace the traditional zero state of the inverter and to achieve the output voltage boost function. Z-source and quasi-Z-source dc–dc converters with discontinuous voltage gain. The control differences of the proposed single-phase Z-source inverter with other traditional single-phase Z-source inverter are not discussed. This paper presents a family of single-stage nonisolated semiZ-source inverters that can be used for the aforementioned renewable DG grid-connected application with low cost and doubly grounded features. the sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) . Recently. cost. and system simplicity. Fig. is already discussed in . either extra switches have to be added to the existing topology which will inevitably increase the cost and system complexity or doubly grounded topologies have to be used . The duty cycle of S1 is deﬁned as D. –. which is −Vin to +Vin . 4(a). 2 can output the positive and negative voltages with continuous voltage gain curve. or three-phase motor drive for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) application –. The proposed circuit can achieve the same output voltage as the traditional voltage-fed full-bridge inverter does. 1. 3(a). the doubly grounded nonisolated inverter topologies are preferred topologies for the renewable DG in grid-connected application. as shown in Fig. Because the voltage gain of the fullbridge inverter is a straight line. 4 shows the proposed single-phase semi-Z-source and semi-quasi-Z-source inverters based on the different impedance network. But  only provide the Z-source approach with one cycle control. Voltage gain curve of Z-source and quasi-Z-source dc–dc converters as shown in Figs. which is smaller in size than the traditional Z-source network used in dc side. such as insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and MOSFET. The circuit operation and the modulation strategy of the proposed topology are analyzed in detail and veriﬁed by the experimental results. motor drive. Traditionally. This means that these two topologies can be used as an inverter by providing proper modulation strategy with the duty cycle D changed from 0 to 2/3. 3. 3(b). However.: LOW-COST SEMI-Z-SOURCE INVERTER FOR SINGLE-PHASE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS 3515 In order to solve this problem. To reduce the cost and to increase the system reliability. for the considerations of safety. Therefore. But only the topologies shown in Fig. The traditional Z-source inverters use sinusoidal reference with extra shoot-through reference to output sinusoid voltage and achieve the voltage boost function. many Z-source/modiﬁed Z-source single-phase inverters have been proposed for PV. Z-source and quasi-Z-source inverter as a single-stage transformer-less inverter topology is proposed –. Z-source and quasi-Z-source inverters are applied to the threephase PV or wind power grid-connected generation systems. 3(b). 1 and 2. with only two active switches. Compared with the traditional single-phase Z-source inverters. as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 show the Z-source and quasi-Z-source dc–dc converters with input and output sharing the same ground . II. The corresponding quasi-Z-source inverter derived topology is not discussed either.CAO et al. The semi-Z-source inverter. in order to output sinusoid voltage. And the voltage gain equation in terms of D is also shown in Fig. the proposed semiZ-source inverters share the same form of Z-source network. Fig. The modulation strategy of the proposed circuit is also different. By utilizing the unique LC network. 2. But the Z-source network used in semi-Z-source inverter is in ac side. . as shown in Fig. Fig. . as shown in Fig. Many different PWM strategies have been proposed to control the Z-source inverter or multilevel Z-source inverter based on different methods of placing the shoot-through zero state –. topologies with discontinuous voltage gain curve. 1 shows the Z-source and quasi-Z-source dc–dc converter Fig. 3(a). This paper will concentrate on semi-quasi-Z-source inverter and the PWM control strategy. as shown in Fig. are needed for the operation. Most of these topologies do not have the aforementioned doubly grounded features except . Fig. All of these four topologies can output positive and negative voltages when the duty cycle is changed from 0 to 1. the semi-Z-source inverter has to utilize its nonlinear voltage gain curve to generate a modiﬁed voltage reference. 2 shows the two topologies with continuous voltage gain curve. For the proposed semi-Z-source and quasi-Z-source inverter. These differences are the reasons why the author uses the term semi-Z-source inverter to represent the proposed topologies and to distinguish it from the traditional single-phase Z-source inverter. Fig. Z-source and quasi-Z-source dc–dc converters with continuous voltage gain. 3. PROPOSED SEMI-Z-SOURCE/SEMI-QUASI-Z-SOURCE INVERTERS AND TOPOLOGY DERIVATIONS Figs. only two bidirectional current conducting and unidirectional voltage blocking switching devices. And the output voltage range of the inverter is the same as that of the full-bridge inverter. or UPS applications –.
the sinusoid output voltage can be achieved by using a sinusoidal changed duty cycle. According to the inductor voltage second balance and the capacitor charge balance equations. (a) State I S1 is ON. Duty cycle operation region of the proposed semi-Z-source inverters (solid red line). the proposed inverters are able to output the same voltage range (+Vin to −Vin ) as the full-bridge inverter. 5 shows the voltage gain curve of the proposed semi-Zsource inverters. Because the relationship between the full-bridge inverter output and input voltage is linear in terms of switch duty cycle. we can have the following steady-state equations: 1 − 2D Vo = Vin 1−D VC 1 = IL 2 D Vin 1−D = −Io (1) (2) (3) Fig. 5 with red solid line. (b) State II S2 is ON. and the inductor current is increased. MODULATION OF SEMI-Z-SOURCE INVERTERS Fig. III.5. In order to achieve the sinusoid output voltage. control strategy can be used to output the sinusoid voltage. the semi-Z-source inverters are able to output zero voltage. VOL. the reader could refer to . as shown in Fig. The y-axis is the voltage gain of the inverter. we can get (7). A new duty cycle reference. the inverter can output the positive output voltage. Fig. the duty cycle cannot be changed in a sinusoid manner.5). The correct conduction time of each switch of two-phase legs is generalized by two sinusoid voltage references compared with a triangle carrier voltage. D = 1−D is the duty cycle of S2 as derived in (8). plugging (5) and (6) into (1). which will be discussed in detail in the next two sections. 26. (a) Semi-Z-source inverter. (4) 1−D The output voltage of the inverter can be represented by (5). D Io . the two inductors become the source and the inductor current is decreased. when the duty cycle of S1 changes from (0. a modiﬁed SPWM strategy has to be used in order to output the sinusoid voltage. capacitor C1 and the input voltage source charge the two inductors. Semi-quasi-Z-source operation modes in one switching period.3516 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 6 shows the two states’ equivalent circuit in one switching period using semi-quasi-Z-source inverter as an example for analysis. (b) Semi-quasi-Z-source inverter. 6. 7 shows the traditional single-phase Z-source H-bridge inverter and its modulation method.5–2/3). During this period. 4 Proposed single-phase semi-Z-source inverters. The comparison of the proposed modulation method for semi-Z-source inverters and the traditional single-phase Zsource inverter modulation method will be discussed in detail in the next section: IL 1 = − Vo = V sin ωt M= D= V Vin (5) (6) (7) (8) 1 − M sin ωt 2 − M sin ωt 1 D = . Simple boost control is used as an example. By operating switch S1 with duty cycle changing from 0 to 2/3. NO. and the x-axis is the duty cycle of switch S1 . And the modulation index can be deﬁned as (6). DECEMBER 2011 Fig. When the duty cycle of S1 changes from (0–0. The inductor current reference and the capacitor voltage reference direction are marked in the ﬁgure for the following steady-state equation derivation. 6(a) shows state I when switch S1 is conducted. Fig. the inverter can output the negative output voltage. 6(b) shows state II when switch S2 is conducted. A corresponding nonlinear revised duty cycle has to be used to generate the correct sinusoid output voltage. 12. The two sinusoid ∗ ∗ voltage references vA and vB are 180◦ phase shift from each . as shown in (7) or (8). OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF SEMI-Z-SOURCE INVERTERS Fig. For more detailed dc operation modes of this circuit. 2 − M sin ωt IV. During this period. Because the voltage gain of the proposed semi-Z-source inverter is not a straight line as the full-bridge inverter. has to be used. Switches S1 and S2 are conducted in a complementary manner. Fig. 5. But the output voltage and the input voltage of the semi-Z-source inverter are no longer in a linear relationship with the switch duty cycle. When the duty cycle is equal to 0. Fig.
(b) Versus M and ωt. Proposed modiﬁed SPWM method for semi-Z-source inverters. whereas phase leg B goes to shoot-through state when the lower straight line is greater than the carrier . Normalized device current stress. And the gate signal of S1 is complementary with switch S2 . Two straight lines vP and vN are used to generalize the shoot-through zero state. with the change of ωt. When the reference is greater than the carrier. Fig. When the carrier is higher than the upper straight line. Instead of using the sinusoid voltage reference. Normalized device voltage stress.: LOW-COST SEMI-Z-SOURCE INVERTER FOR SINGLE-PHASE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS 3517 Fig. The switch current stress can be . otherwise. Fig. 8 uses the generation of gate signal S2 as an example The modulation index of the modiﬁed SPWM method is also in the range of 0–1. 10. The modiﬁed voltage reference as derived in (7) can be also used directly to generate the gate signal of S1 . a modiﬁed voltage reference as derived in (8) is used as the reference signal for the conduction of switch S2 in order to output the sinusoid voltage. 8 shows the situation when the modulation index M = 2/3 as an example. ∗ ∗ other. the duty cycle D is limited in the region (0–2/3). By controlling the shoot-through duty cycle. 9 that in order to output the sinusoid voltage. Fig. (a) Versus D. the gate signal generation of S2 needs less calculation of DSP. Fig. which will be discussed further in section VI. 8 shows the proposed modiﬁed SPWM method of semi-Z-source inverters. (b) Versus M and ωt. as shown in Fig. S2 is turned OFF. the traditional Z-source inverter can achieve the different voltage gain. 7. 9 is the output voltage angle ωt. 9 Duty cycle operation region of semi-Z-source inverters when the modulation index is equal to 1. Fig. the sinusoidal output voltage can be achieved. 4(b). Fig.CAO et al. It can be shown from Fig. As shown in (5). which is usually preferred. switch S2 is turned ON. 9 shows the duty cycle operation region with different output voltages when the modulation index is equal to 1. 11. which is in phase with the output voltage. DEVICE STRESS ANALYSIS AND PASSIVE COMPONENT DESIGN The semi-quasi-Z-source inverter. Fig. V. The other region of the duty cycle can also be utilized in other application by using at least two semi-Z-source inverters together. So Fig. is used as an example for the device stress analysis and passive component design. 8. The switch voltage stress can be derived as (9). The x-axis of Fig. Assume the output current is (10) as an example. phase leg A goes to shoot-through state. But in real implantation. (a) Versus D. Traditional single-phase Z-source H-bridge inverter and its modulation method.
16. versus modulation index M and output voltage angle ωt. : VS = Vin + VC = Io = I sin ωt IS = IL 1 + IL 2 = 1 Vin = (2 − M sin ωt)Vin 1−D (9) (10) −1 Io = −(2 sin ωt − M (sin ωt)2 )I. 26. 10 and 11 show the normalized device voltage stress and current stress versus duty cycle D. ωt = 3π/2. DECEMBER 2011 Fig. Fig. 13. which happens when the S1 duty cycle D = 2/3. 13 shows the normalized inductor L1 current stress in terms of duty cycle. VOL. this inverter is especially suitable for low-cost micro-inverter application with high-voltage SiC switching devices . but the switching device number is reduced. (15). Modiﬁed reference signal for two-phase semi-quasi-Z-source inverter with higher output voltage. And the peak current through the device also happens when D = 2/3. 14(b) shows the inductor L1 normalized current ripple versus modulation index M and output voltage angle ωt. 12. the peak voltage across the device happens when D = 2/3. Normalized capacitor C1 voltage ripple and inductor L1 current ripple versus M and ωt. Fig. The inductor L1 peak current is 2I. which is 3Vin . 1−D (11) Fig. (11). 12 shows the normalized capacitor C1 voltage stress in terms of duty cycle. 12. and ωt. 14(a) shows the capacitor C1 normalized voltage ripple versus modulation index M and output voltage angle ωt. and output voltage angle. or M = 1. It also happens when the S1 duty cycle D = 2/3. Figs. Fig. Normalized inductor L1 current stress. The capacitor C1 voltage ripple can be derived as (14). derived as (11). Fig. and ωt. 14: VC 1 = IL 1 D Vin = (1 − M sin ωt)Vin 1−D D Io = −(sin ωt − M (sin ωt)2 )I = D−1 (12) (13) . modulation index. Normalized capacitor C1 voltage stress. Figs. (b) Versus M Two-phase semi-quasi-Z-source inverter. The capacitor C1 peak voltage is 2Vin according to (2). 14. and Fig. or M = 1. So. and output voltage angle. NO. and the inductor L1 current can be derived as (13) by plugging (7) into (4). (a) Versus D. which is two times of the output current peak current. According to (9). which is 3I. Fig. And the inductor current ripple can be derived as (15) assuming L1 = L2 . Fig. (a) Versus D. 10 and 11. 15.3518 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. the L1 inductance value and C1 capacitance value can be chosen according to the peak ripple requirement as shown in (14). The inductor L2 current is derived in (3). The voltage stress of the switching device of this inverter is high. (b) Versus M Fig. ωt = 3π/2. modulation index.
The current-fed Z-source dc–dc converter mentioned in  and  can be used as a single-phase in- Fig. which has already been mentioned in the aforementioned papers. if the voltage reference is the same with the single-phase version.667) to (0–1). 3(b). and output verter. = L1 L1 2 − M sin ωt (15) ΔIL 1 = ΔIL 2 = VI. Fig. Capacitor C1 voltage. many other dc–dc converters with similar voltage gain curves of quasi-Z-source dc–dc converters. The corresponding modiﬁed reference signal with different voltage gain is shown in Fig. Actually. Fig.CAO et al. . Fig. These topologies working as a dc–dc converter have already been mentioned in . the output voltage of a two-phase semi-quasi-Z-source inverter can be increased more. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS A 40-W semi-quasi-Z-source inverter prototype with 40 V input voltage and 28 V output voltage for operation validation purposes is built. the details of circuit operation and modulation strategy of a multi-phase semi-Z-source inverter will be discussed in the future papers.: LOW-COST SEMI-Z-SOURCE INVERTER FOR SINGLE-PHASE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS 3519 Fig. TOPOLOGY EXPANSION AND DISCUSSION The proposed single-phase semi-Z-source inverter can be expanded to two-phase or three-phase inverter very easily. ΔVC 1 = − sin ωt + M (sin ωt)2 Ts (1 − D)Ts IL 1 = I C1 2 − M sin ωt C1 (14) Vin Ts D Vin Ts 1 − M sin ωt . 19. Other single-phase semi-quasi-Z-source inverter topologies derived from the current-fed quasi-Z-source inverter topology. Device gate to source voltage. as shown in Fig. The voltage gain of two-phase or three-phase semi-Z-source inverter can also be increased. 17. which are similar to boost or buck–boost inverters. There are more topologies with the similar voltage gain curves with the proposed singlephase semi-Z-source inverters that can be used as an inverter with similar modiﬁed PWM method. output voltage. which can also be used in the split single-phase application. those topologies are not listed here. 15 shows the two-phase semi-quasi-Z-source inverter as an example. 16. inductor L1 current. The switching frequency of the prototype . Due to the page limit. Due to the page limit. and output current. can also be used as a single-phase inverter with modiﬁed SPWM strategy. current. because the operation range of the duty cycle can be increased from (0–0. output voltage. drain to source voltage. 18. VII. 17 shows some other single-phase inverter topologies derived from the current-fed quasi-Z-source inverter topology . The output voltage of a two-phase semi-quasi-Z-source inverter is twice bigger than the full-bridge inverter with the same input voltage. By changing the voltage reference due to Fig. 16.
the capacitance can be calculated using (14). 20(b) shows the zoomed in waveforms of Fig. capacitor C1 voltage. Two switching devices drain to source voltage and output current. and output Fig. 18–21 show the experimental results of a 40-W semiquasi-Z-source inverter prototype. Fig. 13. which is 4 μF. Fig. 12. Capacitor C1 can be designed using (12).3% of the capacitor voltage. So the total cost of a semi-Z-source inverter is reduced. 22 shows the load step change waveform when the load current is changed from half power to full power. which is 400 μH. 12. 22. Figs. 19 shows the capacitor C1 voltage waveform VC 1 . 10. 21 shows the input voltage Vin . Figs. Fig. and the output current Io . 26. current. (15). 13. 7(a). So the inductance of inductor L1 can be calculated using (15). the inductor current ripple of L1 is designed to be 1/3 of the peak current which is about 1. The input voltage is 40 V. The inductors L1 and L2 are designed using (13). The output capacitor C2 can be designed using the similar procedure which is also 4 μF. Fig. output current. The Zsource network of the semi-Z-source inverter is in ac side.95. two switches drain to source voltage (VDS1 and VDS2 ) and the output current. and 14. 23. and the output voltage and current. 18(b) shows the zoomed in waveform of Fig. 20(a). Inductor L2 can be designed using the same design procedure which is also 400 μH. Because the maximum device stress is 120 V as shown in Fig. 21. as shown in Fig. the modulation index is 0. the multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) from TDK (C5750×7R2E105K) is selected. DECEMBER 2011 Fig. 20. The total size of the Z-source network of . while the traditional single-phase Z-source inverter has the Z-source network in dc side. Input voltage. The voltage ripple of capacitor C1 is limited to 8. Measured efﬁciency curve. output voltage. (14). and the load resistance is about 19 Ω Fig. 18(a). NO. Because the peak voltage stress of capacitor C1 is 80 V according to (12). Fig. the proposed semi-Z-source inverter only utilizes two switches instead of four switches and one diode. the inductor L1 current waveform IL 1 . capacitor C1 voltage. Output voltage and current waveform with load step change from half power to full power.33 A. Fig. and output voltage waveforms. the switch S1 drain to source voltage VDS1 . the peak value of the inductor L1 current is 4 A according to Fig. two MOSFETs from ST (STP75NF20) with 200 V voltage rating are selected to be the switching device. is 50 kHz. Compared to the traditional single-phase Z-source inverters. Because the peak value of the load current is 2 A for the designed prototype. 20(a) shows the Fig. Figs. VOL. the output voltage Vo .3520 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 18(a) shows the switch S1 gate to source voltage VGS1 . Fig. and 14.
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Peng received many awards including the 1991 First Prize Paper Award in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS and the 1990 Best Paper Award in the Transactions of the IEE of Japan. 271–277. “A family of Z-source and quasi-Z-source DC-DC converters. B. R. Cao was the recipient of the presentation award at Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition 2010.” IEEE Trans.  I. Kuang. From 2005 to 2009. Fang Zheng Peng (M’92–SM’96–F’04) received the B. Expo.. and C. 1097–1101. Ltd.  S. degree in electrical engineering at Michigan State University. and wireless switches. Conf. 1. Technologies Conf.. J. IEEE Appl. East Lansing. Electron. Optim. 2011.. 24.1st Power Electron.S. degree at Michigan State University. Muntean. Canada. Ioinovici. Power Electron. Antal. pp. pp. Xianhao Yu received the B. A. . Xie. J. pp. Ong.  D. Electric Power Appl. His research interests include dc–dc converters. Drive Syst. and was engaged in development of power meters.. 2007. Shen.  Y. Yazdian Varjani. Shuai Jiang (S’11) received the B. Roasto. Carr. pp.. Boldea. Yazdian. 55. Balda. Zhang. in 2005 and the M. Aug.  A.  Y. 1. Tapuchi. and A. Axelrod. 2009. Peng. 2008.  J./Jul. Japan. in 2005. 1878–1883. Cao and F. IEEE Int. Expo. he joined Michigan State University as an Associate Professor and he is now a Full Professor of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. vol. Region 1-6 Liaison and AdCom Member-at-Large. His research interests include modeling and control of Z-source inverters. Xu. Agarwal.” in Proc. Electron. he worked for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). 2009. “Experimental studies on a novel single-phase Z-Source inverter for grid connection of renewable energy sources. Yongxi. 2010. Tang. “Single-phase Z-source inverter. 260–270. circuit monitors. and intelligent gate drive for high-power devices.” in Proc. 1–6. “Single-phase uninterruptible power supply based on Z-source inverter. where he initiated a multilevel inverter program and a speed-sensorless vector control project. and M. “Quasi-Z-source based isolated DC/DC converters for distributed power generation.” in Proc. Y. dc–dc converters.CAO et al. H.257–263. Z. Shahparasti. “Modiﬁed Z-source single-phase inverter for single-phase PM synchronous motor drives. China.S. Michigan State University. 192–201. A. Jan. Hangzhou. degree in electronics and information engineering from Shanghai Jiao Tong University.. and control strategy for efﬁciency improvement Dong Cao (S’09) received the B. respectively. His research interests include Z-source inverter/converters. Aust. Saskatoon. Power Eng. 4. From 1992 to 1994. pp. 17–25. He was an IEEE/IAS Distinguished Lecturer for the 2010–2011 term. Shanghai. degree in electrical engineering from Wuhan University. and motor drives.. Symp. He is currently working toward the Ph. and I. “Modiﬁed Z-Source single-phase inverter with two switches. Zhou. N. and the prize paper award from the IEEE Industry Applications Society Industrial Power Converter Committee in 2010. and Ph. micro photovoltaic inverters. Electron.” IEEE Trans. A. pp. Dehghan. China.. 2008. Vinnikov and I.  D. Conf.. 2009.: LOW-COST SEMI-Z-SOURCE INVERTER FOR SINGLE-PHASE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS 3523  F. the Promotion Award of Electrical Academy. PWM DC-DC converters. ﬁrst as a Research Assistant Professor at the University of Tennessee. Dr. in 2009. dc–ac inverters. vol. an Associate Editor for the Transactions. pp. 2010.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Mohamadian. IEEE Power Electron. he worked with Tokyo Institute of Technology as a Research Assistant Professor. 11th Int.D.” in Proc. 2008.D. Rajaei.” in Proc. “Highfrequency switching of SiC high-voltage LJFET.. 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Conf. degree from the University of Saskatchewan. 2008.” IEEE Trans. Ind. X. Antal. Power Electron. Liangchun.. Mohammadian. “Assessing the impact of SiC MOSFETs on converter interfaces for distributed energy resources. 1258–1265. he was with Schneider Electric as an Electronics Design Engineer.S. Zhang. Zhao. multilevel converters. A. power conversion for distributed energy sources. Chair of Technical Committee. utility applications. Univ. Power Electron. In 2000. 24. X. (IEEE early access). “A family of four-quadrant. S. Hotz. pp. A. vol. in 2009 both in electrical engineering. pp. He has served the IEEE Power Electronics Society in many including as Awards Chair. D. and A. Jun. Ind. A.” in Proc. S.S. Electr. 456–460. in 1983 and the M.S. Power Electron. Equipment. China. Z. 245–250.D. 2011. Peng. Boldea. Conf. Z... 2008. pp.  S. S. Lead (principal) Scientist of the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center at ORNL from 1997 to 2000.. Rajakaruna.” in Proc. Dec. no. and J. where he was engaged in research and development of active power ﬁlters. in 1987 and 1990. IEEE 23rd Annu. softswitching. Appl. degree from Michigan State University. pp. S. P. Ming. From 1994 to 2000. no.  M.
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