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(Royal Wiirtembcrg Professor) A uthor oj 'The Material Used in Musical Composition" 'The Theoky and Practicb of Tone-Relations The Homophonic Fokms op Musical Covhositk 'Models of the Principal Musical Forms. . ' New York: G." ktc. SCHIRMER. DESIGNED FOR THE USE OF YOUNG MUSIC STUDENTS.EXERCISES MELODY -WRITING A SYSTEMATIC COURSE OF MELODIC COMPOSITION. Doc. Mus. CHIEFLY AS A COURSE OF EXERCISE COLLATERAL WITH THE STUDY OF HARMONV BY PERCY GOETSCHIUS.

( 1 ><>u by G.Copyright. Schirmer (H) .

trol The effort to con- the formation of these habits. its and command of of for all natural laws. tional therefore obviously the most valuable that a wise educa- purpose can induce.PREFACE i. —nor conception. or should melody. productive or reproductive. counterpoint. which maybe briefly scanned. OS . there are laws governing melodic conduct. to assist the voung student (whether or not he expects to become a composer) to form and to cultivate habits of correct melodic thought. because with all all musical practice. form. be. pave the . 2nd. A thorough apprehension of the conditions of correct melody. way to the full and easy reception other phases of discipline in music they are the only natural preparation successful studies in sight-reading. and there- fore qualified exactly according to the quality and energy of the habits which in early life. or not. reasons for urging such a course of technical practice upon students of music (general. and guide is them as early as possible into proper channels. will is Whether to a question which an answer be found in the book (iii) itself. have been contracted. without harm. instru- mentation and interpretation. The object of this course of musical discipline is. harmony. as well as special students) are two-fold: because the prime object of all theoretical study in music is. It is simply a carefully graded course of exercise in melody-invention. The agencies which conduce to the transition from the former into the latter are touched upon in paragraphs 125 to 129. in common is other operations of mind and body. here. The 1st. is the result of habit. by accident or intention.

September. 1W9.. before the twelfth or thirteenth It 111 . study. or in the I I harmonic study. Percy Goetschius. Not. the key-board. or interlined strictly according to subjei The degree • of ben< fit to be derived. :'.I!. or entirely independent effii of the latter. Bat it will probably prove most ient . Mus.is . they are to be studied as faithfully as the text. either Ok Harmony in from the beginning. in life. the course should cover a year. Mass. as S rule. because is particular phase of musical education likely to be absorbed by the pupil quite as readily through sensuous contact with melodic sounds. — the fixing full of habits. nation with chapters of the latter. by mental Therefore. . For this reason. regular alterts.\t tbe best results will be gauv <1 1 »y bc^innine. its It is a system of which must be persisted until aim. — fa achieved. however.'ri collateral . both at. as induction. is manifestly proportionate to the is nness with which each lesson 01 exercised. of times each movement in is thoughtfully repeated. ) 1 before Harmony fa taken up. this The musical illustrations have been made unusually copious. LTTJf tli. Doc Boston. It is to be Inferred from the above.-—precisely ns pro- any other item of pianoforte technique depends upon the number drill. mud a -a' ay from.

The choice of successive tones (aside from the question of durations) subject. of the upward or down/ward. A melody may follow the line MAJOJR SCALE. CHAPTER MAJOR. fundamentally.EXERCISES IN MELODY-WRITING. 3. in the design and effect of the complete melodic sentence. ESSENTIAL TONES. and Interesting movements. exhibiting sufficient variety to banish every trace of monotony. First Primary Rule. to two Primary Rules of melodic movement. This yields the smooth species of movement called diatonic. Any series of single tones is a The quality of the melody depends upon the choice and duration conditions of good melody are: of each successive tone. conjunct. REGULAR. throughout each chain of three or four successive tones. Unity. sr step-wise progression. DIVISION ONE. 5 . with almost unlim i ted freed o m. is 2. The general Coherency. I. Melody. THE SCALE-LINE. 1.

of the movement aro <'f eeoh Active icale-etep. . and its direction iijiirn nl. ami its proximity to the aa follows: in the Mereet iiieotive or oentra] The tendenoy is most urgent is 7th icale-step.pientlv invariably perllf missible. LB (b) The tendenoy tion somewhat less urgent in tho (ith step. and arc therefore Inert. wmaa . outride of thi* eirole of hermonio repoee.. stops. 3. exterior Interior The progression it- of an Active bcale-step iu tho proper direction is II. 18 are fnaetiv. 7 ill. (c) Still Leal urgent in the — tendency also downward. bermonk repeee. •o-eol when tlicv OOttflriB tin.> -.mUn. solution. 6 5= j= m-j r\f~rm . ! — 2. ft nun ..1 divided into hro olaeeee: •• tad '-t'l • innoiiie oora of the key. it h end 2nd seele-ctepe. ..ir.direction. the 7th. no4 : i which oonstitnte the Tonio They occupy • pi In they lit • outward impulse.I npm I. and its direc- u downward* 4th stop. (d) The is evenly balanced between tho and 3rd steps. pur. For that reason it need not be considered in this connection. inclination of the 2nd BOale-etep 1st lustration: C 7. ral illubtrations: Ex. dieteted by the location and the degree of urgency. from which it is (practically) equally distant. 8th. end are orged by their Impulse to regain the oondition of reei For illustration: r <&. called major. beoenee there. Tin.Uum of and Conse. arc AcHie.N ir.

9b. Ex. erally 8.U =£ Wi4f^ ^= *Pi a r See also. 36. 12. If the Phrase begins. beat of the first measure. ^^ \ I.e. beats be/ore the first full measure. perhaps more.. 3. Ex. (par. upon an measure (upon either accent. or one. ffi T TJ . if a compound measure) and preceded by either of the three tones which constitute the Dominant Triad (see par. 5. genembraces four ordinary measures. thus. Ex. (a) When regular.EXEKGISES IN MELODY-WRITING. . No. Allegrettn. 18. ^ ' II. The smallest complete melodic sentence.) I. 19). the key-note). it begins with one of the (inactive) tones which conThese may be placed upou the first (accented) stitute the Tonic Triad. accented beat of the fourth . called the Phrase. This ending is called the Perfect (b) closes with the Tonic (i. No. THE 4:-MEASURE PHRASE. 50. The Phrase Cadence. Mendelssohn. Ex. with one or more preliminary tones. their value is to be subtracted trom the final measure.

from the 7th. ji. 3. 30.If (a) To repeat a IONS. 1. • r '-S^a 7 Caret. made from an If made from an Active Inactive lone.i 1 11.1 in Chap. Ex.. No. as is to be — 1 1 < - done in the present lesson). . If this skip of a third is i..J11N.. I>npl« i I | I .ir.. aoaleetep [namely.l I I M II rhythm p ". 32. third. depend upon 1 -:irv if the melody makes the leap in the proper direction (from tho tale-step upward. WtC in Inactive tones.I.-. !- | =EES| Ill. OflMM or oftener. is the line of the everywhere. per- . 9. t«> np or down it rding n. Ex. For illustration: A. e. M. For example: *: — -I-F 3.. 6th or 4th. i. 8. | | . from the 6th or 4th step downward.. it invohis uo obligation whatever. I | I i |>I.« itep-wise progressions. the 2nd seale-sfc p is aol Bnbjecl to any of the rules of aetive steps). I (b) II rap rep eic.IN- Ml l. the consaqnenoea No subsequent consideration is direction of the leap. 6d. . Til us (in I C : Tfui. Ex. T ping one ipward or downward by the interval of n diatonic scale-step. as stated in par. Besides tli. Noa. I anJ C . 19. See also Ei Num. 18.\ W1. lii\ a.1 1 the first Primary Bole.

these rules are to become habits.) LESSON A cumber (1) (2) (3) (4) 1.. in the proper direction. G). 4. The in scale-line. and must not desist until he can thus mentally follow. as P. e. with strict regard to the following limitations and directions: Only in major keys. but not until completed . as habits are. collect melodic movement has become a habit of thought. 2/4.IN MEIiODV-WIUTING.— not two successive leaps in the same direction. when completed. the invention must bo prosecuted away from any instrument. 6/8. and G/4-measure. successively. accurately. tones. Note The work should bo. (see — excepting Ex. the tones will soon invest themselves. — — . — i. more or less unconsciously. 4/8.— formed and established. and an occasional skip of a third are to be employed. each melody in one key throughout. only one at a time (perhaps returning. with feeling and purpose. of original melodies (at least one in each key). f or the final cadence-tono (5) The rhythm strictly uniform. the student intttl endeavor to hear each tone as he writes it down. at present. every melodic movement. according In models of Ex. 2 Each is to move in the proper direction. (6) 4). After regular. tone-repetitious. 2/2. one tone to each beat. 3/8. 3/2. Further. 4/4. Without modulations. without the aid of an instrument. according to the chosen measure. i. From Active ^^^j^Ff^ k^J (par. MO. At the same time. is No violation of the natural tendency of Active scale-steps per- mitted in this lesson. 3/4. must lie sung.. e. and then tested at the key-board. to the As 4-measuie Phrases. merely the mechanical application of the given rules. Ex. and all Sxceptional progressions will lie likely to rectify or justify themselves. as shown (7) Of the latter. each melody. Examples and Gb. by persistent systematic effort. f.

* -EEc No. irrog. BOALE LINE. It is alwaya poeeible to evade hcv. uud must be fulfilled. If approached in the direotion <>f th. II -. EXCEPTIONAL.pi ukitinu. along the Una <»f the in the BOrreeponding ii. o. Thua: .-> present.. l Sec also Ex. TLi. however. 2.. oppoeite) direction. Ex.l. alonp the scale.. irrog. i. tin- three A<t 1 \ «• i i -— All fc I I . MmJ« iteps. <>f HM ii ktuiul t.-ir Ibvsolution.s cuuliruia tho r ! example: 0. I reg. -. 1 i M^^P^ irrcg. 52.— at i.. Mid foitM tln-in t<> j>r< >grean m Um opposite direction. th.is yri.-Hl F reg. No. r -t^^^^^^ r.. 47. the natural iucliuutiuu reinforced. bo counteract BeeolntJon.'ii. T* tang irreg..^.« i. bj approaching them. : II irr. 1 1. . CHAPTKK Tin: 1 II.

according to all the directions of the preceding lesson. either by a leap. in which case the melody must immediately turn back. As intimated in par. Gc). arising from the uniformity of be employed.9. In other words.BXXROISES IN MELODY. LESSON A number 2. because the tendency of the 4th scale-step is less urgent than that of other Active tones (par. avoid moving about in the narrow compass of the same 3 or 4 tones. to the preceding tone. the skip of a third may be made in either from an Active scale-step. 1 2. it can turn at any point excepting the 6th or 4th step. in pursuing the line of the scale downward. For illusdirection. rhythm. Irregular (conip. avoid returning too frequently to the same tone. or by step-wise progression. the melody. excepting (7). B). and. of original 4-measuve melodies (at least one in each major key). 11 good * good Somewhat tlio loss objectionable. may turn back (if desired) at any point excepting the 7th scale-step. even — tration : Skip of 3rd from Active tones. as a rule.WRITING. . especially on corresponding beats of consecutive measures. Ex. both the regular and irregular progressions of the Active scale-steps are to The danger of monotony. in pursuing the line of the scale upward. must be counteracted by variety of tone-succession. 9 b. 6. Ex. An obligation is involved only when the leap of a third is made contrary to the natural tendency of the Active tone.

• dom in reoogniaing and employing the principal ohord-linea correctly. and relation to other chords).fundamental tone which is to he the rmu. or by skip ot leap and affords the neoosaary oontraai with khe step-wise pro. r. Thus: may appear as fcu -ffi ^= ^^=^ —^ . and they m <d that chorddiuo in any order. that this i-* probably the most vital of the two Primary Rules. chord fifth. • Thus.•!••> U lilllMJ. Lettere. 10. Unless already familiar with the elementary conditions <>f Harmony. the construction. CHAPTER Tii !: in. relation and don of CHOKDe) npoo melody-formation is so great and constant. ehord of c. — fictions. l The "Soale-line" may be abandoned f<>r -t the ehord-linc for the " Chord-lino. j. constitute the • it iv. and the f the chord i"f its name. 1 i\." or subject to a the scale-line.v LIN Kt i B. A melody may follow the line of tiny good CHORD upward itni <>/• downward.following brief ipomtion so thoroughly. c-e-g. chord nx. and transfer all illustrations to tii. tin* pupil must study tin. with almost uniim- freedom* This yields tin* bon vigorous species of movement called disjunct. Che tones which OOnstitute a chord arc found by adding one higher 8rd after another. to tin. o-4-g. . \:\. i hord third. MS. as to acquire absolute freel.II IN Ml I .. quality. OHOBD I'kim \i. for the "chord of <"": Ex.. The influence of Bjucmohx [la. r key s" frequently and peraeveringly."». at any point in a melody.t.

or Dominant. The Tonic class — Tonic Triad. V 7 ( Five-Seven 4 tones. O Major.Dominant or Sub. Jt m respectively the pOSBlbtoi C t im^ classes or families of chords. g f (the latter a chord-seventh). or VI. Each key comprises three Tonic class. m 3 tones. 13 bnt extreme. 17. in C-major: scale-step. nn any g - order. and called 1) " Tlte Six" (marked VI). (a) The Dominant class consists of a cluster of chords erected upon the fifth scale-step. Dominant 7th-chord. These chords may embrace as many as five tones. . the lowermost of which (the root) is often omitted. Ex. These Tonic chords are limited to three Tones. or Y ( " The Five "). Botnowhat rare. O Major.Dominant class. or O Major. 12. b - d "). and called the Tonic Triad or " Tlie One" (marked and one of subordinate rank erected upon the sixth scale-step.EXEItOTRES TN MELOPY-WRITrNO. consists of two chords. 19." Thus. I. one erected upon the first Tonic note. and Second.13. 18. hence their title " Triad. i Subordinate Tonic Triad. or . a - J c - e . the latter is much less common than the I. They are erected and named as follows in C-major: Dominant Triad.gp 3 tones. Bx. called FUNDAMENTAL HARMONIC PRINCIPLES. Dominant class.

. nunant Tlh. in C-major: the root.iu :.' Sr.. (b) To th« Dominant class bclnnps also a Tria<l of subordinate rank. it is so ran. with omitted Root).>ni>-1>mminant or BuB-DomdUBT class consists of a clnster ohordj ereotod apon the axond soale-step. i I .— containing five tones. Ex. called IV. apaoted npon 11m (JUrd scale-step (the III). of T'. the n II". Ton«*». | != \Viih. e^n Very rare Bab dominant Triad (properly. in precisely the same manner as thoso on the Dominant. \* mfi^m - ututino.minant Tthchord. 14 in any order. o b a. Second iv. eaUad IV. with frequent omissions of Tims. 13). o - { - a - c • e. i: i* Tonea. it ii nut a "good" chord (par. II'. with omitted Root). dominant 7th chord (property. Fit» Vine ". 'JO. Iiicvm. o - f a c. £ =5= d f a - c. Dwataaat »th inmmp.and unimportant that it may ba ignored altogether in connection with melody-invention. •. Beooad Doariaeat Triad.u rxriicisrs is Iv>minanl »th chord. lot mnvenionco S>il. the n H T . ——— d f • — «• * Without Root. . ' IT.

may be fol- The chords Dominant class can only progress easily into those I. 16. — Tliese rules of chord-succession. The pro- gression of a Dominant chord into one of the Second-Dominant class is uncommon. 21. SKIPS. B. the correct application is of the former. and name of the chord-lines represented KULES FOR SINGLE 24. preferably into the more rarely into the VI. are so fully confirmed by the rules of inherent melodic tendency (explained in paragraphs 4-6). not as good as (par. Tonic Ex. necessary to be fully conscious of the qnality by skips in the melody. ( c) The chords of the Second-Dominant class pass most readily into those of the Dominant class. and need not be considered in melody-invention. (C-major) claaa. and in writing. of these chord-classes are as follows: The chords other lowed by) any (b) of the Tonic class may progress into chord of the same key. that careful observance of the latter facilitates.B. N. and to control their movements accordingly.— This table must be reproduced in every major key. 19 ft) Ex. or move- ments. but they may also be followed by those of the Tonic. chord.15 N. f ?! ???"*" ??? ??? ??? VI. of the Tonic class. at present. . Each single skip must obviously represent. of the (i. at the key-board.. The few primary (a) rules which govern the succession. daily for a time. it 23. Nevertheless. For example (C-major) no chord some good m (par. 22. largely. e. 16 Summary 1. 18) TV or II all good.IN MELODY-WRITING.

H i V IV good). lo the the even in.^ (Xs » .^ i j^gf . Thus: B. 18) good).luit (par. ^ good i SI [mgolar imt i i ..n-ti\. 3 I • =1^7 IV II c IV all C. without objection. I \.i.\ upward (p or downward. leap niiiv be made from anj tone. Btep 4 regular P-. tiim-f al • natural . The rale of inherent melodic ooi .16 is in LOD1 wki iin."». While it and •'. VI ImguJat .^. 1 1 ). peotiTe manner in which* they are approached (par.iiis lequently. Btep 8 regular. R • i. <? _*.1 (<> conduct then scalo^tbpt in ths of proper 1 ohord-line. binding apoo the chord lin< -.^-j./* ' f .imi. ??? 1 1 « II W 1 • U r dngle limitation. -.

V1I better. 11 leap of a Third (called a "narrow" skip). 32. however. m From d down m to either of these tones. by scale or chord-line. for they involve a violation of both the . Nos. 6 a. it should. and then turn. 19. In other words. 1. The always permissible. e.. if the scale-tone that follows the skip in the same direction chances to be one of the Active tones. 12. Thus: Ex. than -the followiu^: — «5t ^^m AtrM'Ei ssniiN. 14. 11. No. 52. 18. in the opposite direction. 60. Ex. *2) m From/ to either of these. it is usually sufficiently correct to do so at the second following tone. 19. violates this rule. 20. 2. 4. No. (b) At the same time. 26. pass on only one step. After a wide skip (i. No. Ex. 100. in which case the rule of — " tarniug. 36. 64. 3. Ex. 101. 5. No. while it is rule. Ex. as a. Ex. 18. a 27. |= See Ex. is Any larger leaps than this (called "wide" skips) aresubject to the following general condition: 20. Nos. No. No. Thus: Ex. 20. after a wide leap " will be evaded altogether. 21-1. 117. Ex. =t= ^r*t s a W& :. as _ -a nil*. Ex. any case. and that of par. likely to turn. * * These two progressions aro doubtful in rule of par. Thus: fix. Ex. as has been seen. 5. by continuing in the same direction after a wide skip along the line of the scale. 2. Nos. any distance beyond a third) the melody is very and progress. always more natural to turn back immediately after a wide leap. Ex. See also. "55. 1.I XKKclSIS IN MIMiUV-Wlill'IM!. it is more than likely to assert its natural tendency and resolve properly. *3) *1) To either. (a) If the melody.

§ The Hig All better tiian those »f Ex 2'.-ile-8t<-i». It is of though fur Leea regular. to leap upon an Active tone in tin' other direction >i. in keeping with the rule of par. (though seldom beyond an tone up ward to the tlio f>tli from or 4th btNBM direction iift. r v from . leap of an octave is allowed from any tone. Ma and important It is i 1 •• rule of t pur. after a wido skip").. 23.-•- 1-^'^lj^T^'l^^lll . hut Up 10 Hiiv Active tone in Ioim iiny tli.-r Bs* also pat M| sad Ki N*. . v must not be Inferred. pir. . iiiim. thus: I t ' I • — \ .'JO.M Ex. better. u fn.'. 60 I (b) Or.ip alUiet M^=E^ fruin citl. l(i illx. 27 a. 24.lv /Vom any . 0-ma. ooutm i also possible. and downward to the tf though only along aomo perfectly good chorddine. all h.> -I—I I #*<•* —^ ^ \ | j Poiilitfiil.' direction qpjMtttt the Utter. down to the 6th or 1th Btops).—L to turn be found expedient to take advantage of the back at the second following tone. IP .. 'J'*. it will either afford an additional opportunity of obtaining the irregular progressions given in par.'. 26 '•turning. give* emphasis t«> the Htill more binding In the nil. mitiinil Resolution provides for change of Tim-: b..r thai 1- their ftp. 89. it will v. e up ard to the 7th scale-step.1- 1*» MPI 1 w I. lifraun^of th* \ of th* \ par. w already Been par. license of par.-..I lis. 7). ward (according to be made). aa fb) Tt .'m extmn* OTgmej 7th nc. 9a. (in I the Active tones fire approached by a wide leap irregularly the direction eorrmpemdimg to their He-solution: up to the 7th. Thus: Ex. For illustration: pur 27 a..'. upward or downto the low or bigb pitch of the tone from which the leap is This is simply a wider version of par. jt If . howerer that this is necessary.

I. and skips of a 3rd to be used (i. If the last tone of the faulty groups (faulty. LESSON A The large 3. 13) in a broader sense. 26). single wide skip* e. jor. 25. as before. 6 o). Sing. 7. For example: — Ex. C -major. I Vr 5. 11. 13. and so on. each wide skip followed by the scale-line. as far as the skips extend in the same This rule represents simply the application of the second Pridirection. CONTINUED. in all major keys. or by a rules. 9. with another skip in the same direction (contrary to the general principle of par. (par. (par. narrow leap) may occur. 6 a) And •7 the flame in the direction of figure. after a wide skip. If the melody is to continue. Hh ??? -& ?? * & -#• ??? -*»- 32. it may always be . each CHAPTER IV. according to the above melody when completed. Review par. besides these. and Ex. it may pass into any tone which harmonizes with the tones of the preceding skip..IN MELODY-WRITING. number of original 4-measure Melodies. THE CHORD-LINE. The rhythm uniform. mary Rule (par. and in all the species of scale-line measure prescribed in Lesson 1. 31. because the last tone does not harmonize with the preceding tones) be desired. „V 7 6. and. and play.

n ia 11 higher. | i innii-iy.IT>. lo. probably. The most objectionable progression Baaated fourth. oetave- r. iv be till. f. to a certain extent. K'xxl Thus: bettor Ex. that of the augmajor by the leap from the 4th scale-step ap to . the operation of the ralea of the Bkip (par.|'\ Will 1 IN'. tration: Ex. - fe '.i iUd thu onward to Mine tunc whioh « 1 1 • mm some bearing apon a direction ... The repetition of a tone (par. 9 a) arrests. -i.. dependi ohiefij upon the locution of the accent.• ringla it is always best bean obriona affinity to the ruling What this raling impreoeding Male-tonea harmonic impraarion of 1 For illusnrewoon ia. meM I I I pMXl ..'14. — formed in is.28. Ml l. 26 end 31).jo v .. Thus: \jk nil JJ |Mi < I \ M U fcpv+B 38. i. it in. Tins Important rale eppeara to bare t/i>- skip which foliowi after the Male-line >» t. 27 A(v 1 1 g^^^a^^^^P^^ Ex. ot lower.

?? 37. possible to justify it as derivation from the line of the Incomplete Dominant-7th chord (Ex. from the 7th scale-step down to the 4th step. in dency of the first tone). in triple measure 3. A succession of skips describing the line of some chord (as in Ex. i. 13). keeping with par. G (the inherent tenpar. 29. as a general rule. 4 or 8 beats. The skip of a seventh . and . ^^ V : si Conip. and by image of the chord-line. 11). 30. 9 or 12 beats. coincide in extent with the fundamental rhythmic groups.EXEIM'ISES IN MKLODY-WKITINO. embracing in duple measure 2. if it is an entirely obvious This progression is checked. both by par. G. however. 31. good Ex. 36. 28 a Thus: is only advisable when it occurs either in or as derivative of the Dominant-7th chord-line. each case. 17 complete & 21. It is. 21 the 7th step.. Thus: i Ex. In this way the cbord-imagea will confirm. 5 Possible. should. e. Exs. ^l^I^i^s Allegro. and vice versa. 28 b (the irregular leap to an Active tone). but hazardous. Thus: 7 ' i Ex.

rhythmic design.rt- rhythmio group (through a ball or whole measure) ik">i la then exchanged. diom. BUDJCOt to nmny obvious niodilicaaally. m :\^' • '1= V '/.'. No Ex 61. i.. G. «uilv 1 lif ft • : i Ulnstration: I. All roll - melodic formations of four consecutive tones.. No ft :\H."nlv ii >jmcrnl rule. .' • 1 1 . eepeoiallj when the location of the accented tones is considered. ot f"r the eoehvline. r. AtUgntU I I v» C. I '. Bee also. M. th<« cliord-line ill tint.2. tli. mwa. AlUtfr. Each chord lino ' 2 measure. Anions theae (brmationa maj be classed: ttiona of ehord-$U00e$$Um\ lor there are . at the following aaaae^ It must i><> anderatood chord lino.. :.IN MXIiODl "KITIMi In other words. n<> IOi Ex. f. to which the of the drip do not appear to extendi must be controlled by the the influence whioh many places in a melody where Harmony ezerta orer melody hi peculiarly manifest (par. Ki. IB).

i^^ TTj j j img^Edjgp 3 A 4 . V. If two tones are interposed.EXK11CISKS IN MELODY-WKITINa. For example: A. 7) by interposing an unaccented tone between the Active tone and its resolving tone. 33 (b) The interception of the Resolution of Active scale-steps (par. as no other than unaccented tones can safely be inserted. the location of the tones in the measure is of dominating importance. For example: (par. 2. Here. 21 b. Ex.) better El. the Resolution may be evaded altogther.34. 23 (a) Certain successions of skips in opposite directions. All good • i=f=4=H^ "4 ^^^^ r^^^ I Ex.

I Ex. j^L^U-M Ax rr-\'j_j\. — lf<- : i: . ' Suek run/union ran only arise ^n. ^T^r . l -I * II ' =5 K mujor. they N. Ex. — for a time. \o». I B <„ * n-F^+j^T . H. . 8.^^^. :'•.. with perfect safety. fl So. O._>.-t paragraph.|. — I =^< 7. aUemak 'rims: prmentaiio* of !. who are not yet sufficiently familiar with the chords and the If so. ti.. Alltgro.:<:. 30. KJ Jllt. : MM :». Ex.nl'V-tt l.. may omit this la. are likely to find these minuter distinctions confusing. 5. BTo.IN Ml l. tin- hrewide leaps whioli represent the tones of r»o different oontignon (melody-lines.>». . 3. B. and limit him- . ii N.- I'upils -i«>n.— or any other troublesome paragraphs. 117. dSfeS I— *3=FM^ IX. . from the use of (he irregular and Indie trtattnenl. ^ Lj c._~> '-IR i^g -i..Y No. If the student will avoid these.. 1.UIMS.lllN<i. 'V'^m liKKTiifivcs.

tone. single skip representing some good Chord-line. and. 13) (9 a) Ex. in cor- paragraph 24.— in the direction opposite to that of its Resolution. a. 28 self for awhile to the strict oDservance of the fundamentzi rules. Overcoming natural tendency. he can encounter no difficulty or embarrassment: namely. along the scale. Additional miscellaneous illustrations of figures in parenthesis refer to paragraphs 1. as habits of melodic thought. 36 Chord Sc. Successive leaps in same direction representing a good collective chord-effect. Proper Resolution of the Active Scale-steps. Movement along the Scale-lino or Chord-line' and. paragraph 10. Changing the paragraph 28 direction. paragraph 4. after a wide leap. and regulate themselves. the Andante. sooner or later. and the regular modes of melodic conduct. Chord. exceptional and irregular forms of melodic succession will be found to follow as a matter of course. .XJPKVBBS IN MKLODY-WlUTiyo. Each paragraph 26. once firmly all established in the mind of the pupil. (par. paragraphs 3 and 13. besides these. Approaching an Active tone and paragraph 31. by approaching the responding direction. These few rules practically suffice for primary melodic conduct. all the foregoing chapters. the two Primary Rules.

.l:. Heitiiovbk.|' T /k. • . .'-i^H i s<.1 <KH IN MELODY-W1UTTNO. Allegro.. ^U/jro. iu>p.. 7. (13) fc' ':• i Ji (6a) (386) (The farther analysis is left to the student). I? *fc =F=? *" 7? • r » I r* P (9 a) * I J] (10) (6 b) . V . f^|r^|.. . O. _.rd =| ==|. Ch.'::..| Sc.=| j ^| Ch. IlB»THOV*M.

Andante. Maestoso. fHH -| | t 1 1- 3tZ=t > * r I (10) ^ MENDEL8S0HIT *=** 17. (25) piferd^ " (37) ** ' #-" ' ' ' ' — •-€-J * — (37) (29 a) 14:. Lento. r-^zf^=F=m=E=&^ (10) Andante. AU^ro. Al&pro. ^^^^£^^g ^n . Moderate.BTEBOIBES IM MXLODY-WKITCNa. 27 MOZAKT. j^^=T lO. Il BBg^^^^^^N^fe^^ *~^r (10) 1G. (26) (6 a) (66) (276) 13. ty-' 3_4-L-&—^-1 (26) ^J-P j— —1 (10) tJ-S' ' » I g. a £±r^ (36) 18. 13..

par. lixw).. Recollect. by those students whoso knowledge of Harmony enables them to perform the task successfully. all . BO. and play. each melody when completed. may be harmonised. 3 fiiU.. *^=? SigMtore. A E ti3 -r »«. corresponds to the major scale of the same key-note. •"! N'. Tho nam* in 1>oth dlTMttona.IS MKLODY-W l. Ex. 1. and in all tho ipocios ol ec tie-line ii. Tho 9a and ohord-linea be employed. 40.a i2flj " i ii I I ™. Measure prescribed to Lea on The rhythm uniform. uamhu "Tom RsuTtom" I.i 10.1. The true minor mode. Lou. . the "harmonic form. harmonic i X* -" : (arm. Bchlrmor. t. and Revie* the aote to Lesson and Bing.ii 1 mm . v. Lessons as have been corrected and apBooh melodies of these first prored by the teacher. that is. in major keys..ki. thoroughly. LOMOfl (O. V. :vll . nnmber of 4-measnre melodies. » LESSON A large 4. <: c minor. and apply freely. aooording to the given directions. in the moat comprehensive man* par. in all 1. 89. C-major.lIISil. t CHAPTER MINOR. excepting that the 6th and 3d %oah* Tims: etept art fettered a ohromatia half-step. par.

succession is 17. however. 20. nant-9th chord. is checked either by the irregu(par. This progression. 37. Before proceeding farther. 20 and harmonic movements in minor are regulated npon the the harmonic. formed by leaping from the 6th scale-step up to the 2nd stej). no others. are therefore only valid in C-major. larity of carrying the 6th scale-step 29. is an excepand 7th scale-steps are concerned. explained in the preceding four chapters. All melodic this. the Domi7. as far as the 6th minor melodies. Thus: — Ex. from the 2nd step down to the 6th step. These should not appear in immediate succession. basis of 41. measure 3. superfluous. are therefore similarly valid for minor. like the former. 7. Every minor scale must he written out. according to Ex. in the direction of its Resolution (par. Ex. And tho table of Ex. 40. in the minor mode. 22. form of the scale. ? ? ? 6 ^il^^^l 6 ? ? ? . 15. not in C-minor (Ex. a?). measures 1 and 2. Thus — Ex. 7 . with a few self-evident limitations.KXKUCISI'H IN MF. obrior. is not involved in this restriction). 38. 38. m C -minor. with Thus: Better (par. and played repeatedly. and vice versa. an additional augmented fourth occurs in minor. possible . or of 6). like that of Ex. This also affects a portion of Ex. and a portion of 43. Further. as follows: — 42. 7 The flat is inserted before a for greater clearness. — Ex. All the Scale-conditions and Chord-conditions of the major mode.MiDY-WllITINO. as a very general rule. and like the irregularity of Ex. though very rare. as (i. The flat before a is. Ex. 28 And.:? derivation from the chord-line of the Diminished-7th chord e. Ex. The most noteworthy limitation for tion to par. 28 a): 44. 7. Ex. This nevertheless possible. 15 is also to be written out in every minor mode (with lowered 3rd and 6th steps). 10. chord no. incomplete. of course.. upward leaping it is down upon it. the student must familiarize himself absolutely with this derivation. 28. 6 6).

is perfectly pood Hut the leep from step 7 up to step hed better be avoided 28a). 44. . 37). (Ill ??? ?) ? Thi* Tli. Thne: *-*lM . Additional general illustrations 1. Adlfin. (par. lihyrw M>NDKl«SOH5. 6a. or EtOB Um II. minor. In leaping tron the 8rd icnle step np to the Ttli itep. . Ex. B. 3 m T- r. pur /- ^j t j J Lp»r.KXriU-ISF-S I* Mn.' erm Is checked by several rules. end a. II pood C minor N. as it represents a very improbable chord.augmented fiftli Further. i minor. U-J ..nt leep from Btep down to Step 7.^J'W& ?? ? ? Cmmor. Thus: *«Wj. 28 A."». For illusthe pre. 48. I.--II In r the well-nigh Intolerable interval of tin.nl'T WI1ITH'. 21. i. II Lp»r. •'* — pur. (for on the contrary.'5 i. par.\ ' i:i minor . 31 I 3. -v. tration: Ex.xli >d-7tli ehord . . :• n\ -utiitu fr. par. ' '' ' \' "• A.un ' i\ chord lim\ —either from that of the Ihinitii.. te ^rH^^r^^^M^EEi Bioor. Krrry mu/iral il I u it rat ion given in Chnptrrt I in to IV is to be reviewed and inted in the corresponding minor key (explained Ex.

DIVERSITY OF RHYTHM. number of 4-measure melodies.. e. all . 22. 61. melody may be heightened by employing tones of different time-values (instead of uniform beats. as in the preceding (a) The disposition of these values is Regular. 6 :— and " Tone-Rklatio. . Avoid monotony.EXERCISER IN MELOPY-WRrTTNn. (i. or accented beat-fractions and. Ex. Adagio. Ex. 7. The rhythmic chapters). 8 . No. See also. in all the 1. LESSON A large 5. all the species of Measure prescribed in Lesson details precisely as in Rhythm All Lesson 4. VI. 3. No. . "When the comparatively longer A Ex. . Thus: . heavier) tones occupy the accented beats.. No. 55. 4. when the comparatively shorter (i. | A 4 J . 21. 4. 45. h 1 J regular rhythm . CHAPTER 46. No. 3 Ex. 7 . Ex. 129. minor keys. No. 5. 1 1(5. and uniform. vice versa. lighter) tones occupy unaccented beats.31 I. e. or beat-fractions. 18.' No.xb. effect of a REGULAR. 65. Nos. . Leesou 11. AlUgro. No.

Bee Ton i:> ltioks.s. Bj 22. l. to l.». or baa 1 fiaotiona) arealwaya regular. J J J -J. 'M (excepting Hon. l. occasionally dotted half-note. _•. nj . J J. 7. N. J J J J j . i 8. I 1 anil 5).hi. - oonsferaeted in regular rhythm. " Bzs.rocurcd in (W By placing tea or mora tones a measure tlian the number of its . or 16th-note. . diversity is j. J-notea (as ram Phrase-melody. /Ji I J J = J any other process of lengthening one or moro of the original tones. . and In other words. J J A I A I • J J (b) Uniform division! <>f an entire measure (i. <>r diminished 1 . i". 5. 4.t . \~ by one or two The ID »re paint all divisions.. because they do not oontradiot tlio above conditions. bnt the whole note would be rare. N'-s.|>Y-\VKITIN<1.- Further.notes (as simple division) may both occur. 1 I It is geserallj advisable to moid oaing extreme time-values in the For instance.IS Ml I ." They »re Lmbou Hoe. : m j n n j m A . also. «. from thin itandI i. j. 46.J J J3-J J JOT. of two boats) anil v*. uniform l>ent*«..t2 (excepting Now. the beats indicated 82nd-notea almosl onl of the question. in the signature should constitute the fundamental or average tune-value this may 1** augmented by one or two (rarely three) additions. "I . Thne: Ex. be carufolly rev ie w ed. •IS. Sj no. in 9 or measure. Id mMUM given slno. I J J J = J -T3= : J J J J. Rhythmic diversity is derived from uniform rhythm by the fol- lowing methods: (a) By employing tho dot.

loss or more than three gives addition. The first 3/4 moasure.WRITING. the other gives division.ODY. in tones. Thus: J J J .EXERCISES IN MEI. of beats.. 88 fundamental heats. for instance.

e. like any single Phra. and diveraifJF rhythm in regular forme aooording thonl altering the It. - — (b) The Consequent Phrase follows. the oohea •. may harmonised.34 the l-\l II.l . witli a so-called 8a Put it ' e 1. gins BXaotly like any sinplo Phrase. I <. tirn phrases. different major and minor keys. The first of these ie called tho Antecedent. meaanree each.rt:iin t. one of ike three tonee which eompoee the Dominant Trim!. regular forma. fW. enda. CHAPTER Till- VII. 100). Tho "Period" generally embraoee s mennureR. in t'.• mv. uniform rhythm. Such melodiee by tin- of these l>e two lessons aa navel in d oorrootod and approved teacher.. in Bmploy every ipa i Measure presoribed I ill Loeeon 1. nnmber of tonee in the original form).. 9 and 13/8 Measure. nnmber of the melodiee Invented the la preoeding loeeona. LESSON 7. . if LI \. upon an aooented beal of 1 lth measure. the second one the Consequent Phra a of J 51. Uk j -it.//<<</-'.--. i "f m nown in par. I'. and new melodiee with diversified rhythm. not with the Perfect oadenoe (8 6). A very /no rests maj be inserted. that is. anil writs minor . by pnpila Harmony. idl ternatelv.se. with ..cl'l WKITINli I Melody. A nnmber <>f fonr-meaenre melodiee in 9/8. but : wtik >~ith<n- Semioadenoe. Rhythm diversified. ireful to make Bhorter tonee eteential (see pax. USUallj beginning on the same fseat with which the Antecedent began. ami ending. used ander oonditiona that preserve or erf* emphasise the itntotaral unity of be permiaeible and ef&otiye. (n) T: • !' aooording to par. PERIOD-FORM.. 1 1 . Invent a Large nnmber 48 a. IS Ml l.

Ex.) — Ex. 53. 1. 22). are to differ from those of measure 3. Consequent Phrase 5. Ex. finally. these always differ. and then the entire Consequent Phrase is independent of its AnteThis ultimate formation is called the Period of "contrasting con- and then struction. 2. upon an accented beat of the final (8th) measure.50." For illustration: 1. No. 35 the Perfect cadence. ^ b §§ipp *ai — 4. 1 . — ?=£. Antecedent Phrase. In the first few examples invented.EX*BCIS«8 IK MEXODY-WIUTINU. excepting the last 3 or 4 tones. The formation of such Period-melodies is called "parallel construction. then 6. with the Tonic note. ^4=n (Ex. Antecedent Phrase. 52. Ex. the Consequent Phrase must correspond to the melody of the Antecedent. " Thus: Ex. cedent. No. beg. 2. Consequent Phrase. 2. 3. Thus (in C-major) (Accented or nnacc. i j-*~ i - . See also. . the extent of this similarity between the Phrases is to be diminished gradually. then 2. until. 5. In each succeeding example. cMj h-f^eSS A -major. 53. because of the diversity of cadence. sfcfe x^ 1.48. 2. —:£= = r G-m»jor. 49. 52. ~* :(«=?): Like meas. — more and more tones in measure 7.

namely. large number of B DM in inn melodies.^ tpproprifttraeM Of tins. - • j|= -II s. chiefly n the note to (after) 1. Lesson and par. and then play. when the tighter tones (brief. After correction.|. when completed.- ft brief Rest at tiki oadmtm is demonstrated in example! | 19 and 60). the semioadenoe. CHAPTER IRREGULAR VIII. 51. for com- . i i ' • . 39. (pur. Irregtdar. Sing. is of B4i B iew pur. aro here repeated. RHYTHM.36 BMSOI ' in Mr. subdivisions of beats) occupy comparatively heavier pulses in the group. vice versa. according to par. •when the conditions the heavier (comparatively longer) tones in a measure octight bents or beat fractions of that measure. An oootuioncd reel :it inserted. and.. in Period-form. somo is of these Period-melodies Whore differ the Construction parallel. When cupy comparatively For parison) illustration (the regular forms. 53). W both of -I- • -I»:». Ex. Avoid monotony. differenl Measure preeoribed major and minor keys. : -to.i. thoroughly. the harmonization of tho mny bo harmonized.npv whitimi. 19. all tho species of ion 1. 52). eftoh melody. The disposition of various timo-valucs Regular rhythm are violated. 46a. several parallel construction (pur. LESSON A ally 8. alternately. at Brst. end then gradu- more and more contrasting Rhythm may be diversified (but regular). tee par. Consequent may from that of tho (melodically similar) Antecedent.

»! | I O ^ | J J J regular slightly irreg A I A j Ji n j.1 the tone is j .EXERCISES IN MEIiODY-WIUTINO. 37 m%) tf n * « « \'Tj j I > J /. first beat (or any other accent) is any other tone in the same group (measure). n • I j 3. —otherwise Irregular. /I j j inegular jJj l/jj | |/3 j I ft J /3 |)773 I J jj_0 J JiI 1 J h A W A A A A A I J A J J A | J | J /"j A *. the rhythmic disposition Regular. j J jLtj A i j J /h A i | »i j .n }73 regular rj | regular irregular hJl|JS^3|3 slightly irregular J3.". or at least as Zon<7 as. . jtj - r* regular irregular 1~n In other words : > J > J | 3t3 3t3|- if upon the longer than. I regular irregular T tt \ J irregular \ 0* | regular regular >==«Wj-] # * irregular 1 \ )-= 4 * p=~> 1 1== o a | .|fc.n_TJ ..j|fr«T3h regular A I A | A I a A I A j I j j I j j. j / 3. j Ij j. / 1 > j. . 1 3 nlj irreguiar .

I.«». though usually other words. in the following group «>r measure. of the four-measure Phrase.rntn -j*^ . 12uu) £». 51 e. I tN ItELODl u liITIN. it is more En Ex. i . 1. p^ I — t J Lrectiflod II irreg by recurrence. <'f upon the degree of penoj between the length ploned. ifoiUralo.-. 3 Kt. . or measun i dynomie upon whioh the tone ia miHto en Bth-note only. m BCHVKAB*. aome. — cither immedietely. '2 and and 6. the tone end the oomperotiye i »• :». t Quality.. ">. end 8. "f the heel ox freotion For InBtonoe. nest' • or in namely: mee on meesurea end For exemple: 1 I .". 1. a rhythmie Bgnree ar. und 8 of the eight-measure Period. AtUgrttto.. netpHttg not elweya poeitiTelj wrong. not onreeeoneblj remote.KXBUCIHH r. whtn l:i never objeetioneble.- m 3. Mbxdilsbohx. upon pnlae entitled . than a J-note. 1 * G -mnjcir. or '2 and or 1 4.r. of irregulsrity depends^ of oouroe.' I An Irregular rhjthmio figure mey elweya be justified by racwrring.i. or length.". rectified. eren then. and :s end 7. measure 6 ii more ( . eorrt$ponding meeenre. In fol1> *=* minor. tiieguler to looete e J-note. 8 lowing : ~ ' 1 rocurri'iire in II corresponding mtiMWTHa (j>ar.

with immediate ref- . No. Ex. 5G. 62.EXEKCISES IN MELODY-WIUTJNO. introduced in Phrases or Periods of an otherwise regular and simple design. experiment with former melodies. will Use the varieties of Measure prescribed in Lesson 1. No. 80. 2. 3. No. alternately. different major and minor keys. No. 10. 7. 32. 2. 5 (end). 58. 35. No. 32. Ex. etc. Ex. meas. 4. with Irregular rhythmic measures. Extreme irregularities (par. No. Examine "Tone-Relations. 100. according to the above rules. 55) should be avoided. Then invent new ones. 2^ 8. 55. 11. It of number — be well to limit this exercise to occasional rhythmic irregularities. Ex. LESSON A large 9. Lirreg — d I Lreourrenoea 7. Ex. erence to Irregular rhythm. Nos 3 and 4. 16." Lesson (b) Illustrations No. C. 2 (end). Ex. 2. modifying their rhythm without altering the tones. -rLirro^. 13. No. Ex. 117. 5. 2 . 129. 4-measure and 8-measure melodies. At first. 56. 7. See also. 13. No. Andante. F. Ex. Schumann. Nos. which appears to demand no (m° f f V are found in Ex. particularly par. No. Nos. 2 (end). 54. No. Ex. i of a very common rhythmic justification irregularity in triple measure. * ^3 — -* Jr m Yigoroso. 36. 1 and Ex.

Thus: J—Ll-I Ei. I 1 1 1 • - Period-form.se made upon tbo Tonic . CHAPTER IX. F^B m In F-niajor.1. . scale-step. possible.. J>8.c isi:. Ni> B. Furtlier. 6/8). 3/8. of course. instead In this of falling upon an accent (first beat of the group) us prescribed. Swket IIomk.' r. oh this needed for the final (perfeot) eadenoe. ai a rule." the Ex 52. oase it should. but it ia well to avoid the key-note itself. r*7 The Bemioadenoe. For example: U-iuaJor. 'J . as obvious grace-note.Ifl l \ii. especially in triple measure (3/4. MkdeoM of the tirst Pbra. but. ike tenet qfthe Dominami Tried tlio is prescribed ia par. W^^Home.'. toele-etep of the prevailing kej may be chosen. may bo made. ggp^E^ ^n is AiLD Ljuio Bm. or next lower. Any Ant. in theoenterof somewhat exceptionally! upon seme other than . 51 <j). this ia very excep- tional. be preceded (on the accent) by the next higher. thus to end nt Phrase.S IN MiLODY-WlUTXMG.5-1. EXCEPTIONAL SKMKADENCES. the semicadence-tone may occasionally be shifted to the secoml beat of the group.

The " Repetition " steps. a literal recurrence. 30. Moderate. A ~f » . 11 i i=^s= (par.EXKKCISES IN MliLODY-WlilTCNa.. ±=M=X =T--. (1) may assume the form (2) Of an exact Repetition. or reproduction of the group. SYNTAX OF MELODY. also. -with the exceptional 8-measure melodies in Period-form. (par. LESSON A number of forms of semicadence explained above. Jl-1). 1. namely. No. Mb). applied to an entire group of consecutive tones. 2. 14 1 Ex. Folk-Sono. may be determined by a broader consideration than the application of given rules to each single unit of the melodic succession. 57. — The recurrence. upon the self-same scale- Thus 1. The succession of tones in a Phrase or Period-melody. 59. CHAPTER X. A 4 O No. Ex. B* No. Seo ~r =F=F Ex. by the principle of symmetrical recurrence. — (Ex. lO.^=#=1^ £=^ 58. 56 b) . is 60. or Of a Sequence.

r. '.1 i li \ Hi lir. it bo^ioa npon the cth In ! of the tin- h meaanre. 'j - four nirxiiiri'S. thn hvtt (the with tin.i 'lluntralinns of ran- mOTt than the funilnmoutal rbyUimic k'°"P contains. it ia almost certain to correspond <<> the fundamental rhythmic 6.1ii i.57 m (par. At Bx. the group may begin upon any beat of fur the same reasons. iiiiim ' un. in any case. The " Seqnenoe " 11 ia a reproduction of the st&sr weak tiepe. j. Xn. rj lnin. W a) • . 3. (jrniij's. >. nmy be of almost any Length. U la »ery brief. No. TIiuh: 1. •">. Si. the initial figure mi nwm in: g. Ha i. '>".*'. befttl 56. ^uMUm 3.\ 57. currriiro of a croup of Ittt or v '" i" At Ex. c. No. For illustration: the meaaure. Folk Sono • * aeq nenoe l =F=P II step lower. 01 rtain tateiTal-distanoe group <>f tones upon aboye ok beloa the original tones. and Hx 5G. i. hi v. No.xiernto. tt2.i'i. M6) »t<-p higher. to include 2. AlU^fiL> KXEKC1M-' is UKIXIDY-WIUTIMO.II S. in triple Measure. are Bj 82 .ili .aeeeat it Ex. and.' — . ^^ equeuoe 1 II primp (par. or an entire l'hra»e. beginning At Ex. I.il. and Further. 4 or 8 lii .i. <.itn ia duple Measure. tegg=^«j J * • F lt«pt Iii». but it is frequently exactly one measure. Ei. (whioh review). i. it coven two meo or< beginning with the second U-at At 1 1 m i. K. to bo reproduced in either of these ways. beginning with uueeentMl) beat At l'. AlUjTttLi * E. on e Himrt meaeare. The Initial group or figure.7 Ex. BO. •' ii urn i . 55. and or 12 bean similar to the conditions of pur. i. N" '-'.

by Repetition or Sequence. 5. 2 and 3. For illustration: — (Ex. in reference to the amelioration by symmetrical recurrence.WK1TIM0. tempo. 64. by repetition or sequence. in any case. 29) (par. (Ex. group n. measure 6 ie a repetition of measure 2. that constitute the "parallel construction" of the 50. measure 2 is a sequence of measure 1. — In Ex. may take placo at any point in the Phrase or Period. namely: The recurrence of a group of tones. No. almost any irregularities of melodic succession which may occur. 56. another important and peculiar advantage involved. any perfectly faultless initial This rule is of irregularities of rhythm. 1. 6 c) (par. 566). Gkikg. though they are most common at the beginand. » tyi 3. i C.EXEllCISKS IN HELOSY. or measures). 48 63. as indicated in the last clause of par. 53. (1) (2) At the point of contact of the symmetrical groups. 43--2). 6 a) n. thus* represent corresponding rhythmic pulses (beats ning. D. 8) Allegro. 1. n. (Ex. Any jj^U-U^j group N. Besides the obvious there is structural merit of such unified formations. sequence (Ex.b. 16) 4. Andante. or. 7 are the repetition of whole Period. 31) (Ex. or at least to justify. 56. G-minor. analogoiis to that of par. In Ex. 49. measure 3 is a soqnenoe of measure 2 (threo steps lower) and measures 5. . serves to rectify.B> i i j \ re P- j r r c \m (par. and measure 7 a sequence of In Ex. 6 and measures 1. the sequential recurrence of During group. Lento. . Tho recurrences.

CHAPTER XI. rep. N'-m. CONTINTJED. Mi NVJ. LESSON A tious 11. Chofu. without changing the original direction at any point.4. | (par. but may bo modified. 51*. rep. <ir>. both as repetition and as sequence. 4 I'i. or varied. omitting particles of the initial group . M J. Ml 4. 00. Ex. lo . as follows: (a) By adding one or more intermediate tones. Thus: succession. as a rule. rniirrrmv. MODIFIED. as explained above. Ki 60. 100. Ki No J. Mi.n tin.. In this way the lines of the initial group are somewhat expanded or contracted. :J. Rlightly (not to such an extent as to render their recognition difficult or uncertain). The recurrences of tone-groups. Ki Ki. also. Ki. and vice versa. u. :i. 6f. Ki.o) fl . 17. MELODIC SYNTAX. 1. 1 . r. as shown in the preceding chapter. I. 1 i — •- mod. fioft) n. — possibly. 40 N. . s^ (par.»• «U. REPETITION AND SEQUENCE. by (b) By altering one or another of the original intervals of melodic a step-wise progression to a narrow leap. but. ^5— **< mod. No. GO. or a narrow loop to a wider one. ». ut tin• groups. ricftl Th« iniimfcMt ImportaiMM of brief rests. 2. largo number of 4 and 8-ineuMure melodist.•inphiusi/. 1. need not bo thus exact. is demonstrated in Ex. 3... 1 1 1 ir mui of the qrmmet.rtY. Moderate. and exhibit Um Nos.-i-t of syntax of the Phrases. N. — widening &s F-major.. Kx No. R*t1«-w par 49.t! KXEIU'IHKH IN M KM 'I I V -WHITINO. 6G. No J. with symmetrical repeti- ami sequences of tone-groups. 1 Ki He. No.

^ jtexi&mmf&JIkm m L rood. m*vj J-r+ -*—gmodified seq. 46 tW 4 G.EXIBCI8ES IN MELODT-WBITINa. Further. seq. 52. lA A. con- sisting in the recurrence of only a portion of the original group. 5. seq. 67. For (par. J] 6. FOLK-SOHO. complete seq. AUegro. 5- ^=z: :2=zt partial sequenoes x=t=f group . ' II i ^e-f W^4 F. compl. u n. 52.group GS-minor. . that is. 3. group Brkthovkx. seq. group. 4. rep. the illustration: 1. i nJ . t . 6. L5 _. Lento tt=£ . Allegro.minor. 666) Ex. No. Ex. fc= ^ ? ^Eppa j_^ rood. seq. i D CJ. *~ ^_i mod. AlUgretU n. com- pare last 4 tones with first 4. — . See also. N. measures 1 and 5. Ex.. b. No. n. PiU 3. repetition or sequence may be partial. AUegro. 1. D. Allegro. Ex. No. 3. 56. (|)(Ex. measure 1 and 3. portions of initial group- H g^s mod. J fzb: J (expanded) mud. M / 40).

4-. is a very misleading device. This shifting of the measure. No. (Ex.^ more the is | : LLz'l' "• II dUFerent rhythmic form. Ex. rarely. BO that tho in sum exactly <//>i'</»'</.jj. p. prosodic ar- rangement (of aooented and unaccented tones) not altered. (Ex. It (1) may result: From such parHat recurrences as wero shown in Ex. 60. Further. 58. JHr^ro. on other beats of tho measure. Jt -^-. .RXKBriHM is Mn. unless ho oan succeed in obviating total confusion 09. and belongs. 61. Lento. j-J. . and consequent alteration of tho original prosodic effect. rarely. the recurrence by repetition or sequence rhythmic location. 3. rxmct A ' - . 52. or or doubled. or . 1. Thus: Bkitiiovk*. for a time. properly. sequenoe may appear in a This very effective mode of reoiiRenoe is comparatively harmless (not jeopardizing the reoognisabilitj of tho original <*»s. yet.. in still more may appear a different of measure.i'1'V WUITINfl.:. No... L) . i. it should be avoided by tho student. #). Vo. the repetition or group):— (1) (2) If the If tlit> sum ofbeaU remain* tame. only to the higher ranges of composition.--j 'i-^ • r<|. Further.

| l it L i [ r —»— — *-*-y~*-« J ^THRi (par. (Ex. j -b -Hl jjroup of 2 I>. 81). AUegro. Beetfiovex. 62.ju. mod. 35). Moderato. *(*) 6. -l groups. originally. Allegro. 3. exact.m in | triple dmmJ 3. the recurrence may be modified by being turned bodily in the contrary direction (i. | 2 beats | | seq. | seq. (par. E sg^-^— Uj F-minor. upside down). This is an. excellent device and . e. 64) Crimp.HXXRCI8B8 IN MRTjODY-WIUTINa. APtgro. (2) From adopting a group which contains. exi od. AUecjr JJMj .. 2 beata 4L. less or more than the number contained in a fundamental rhythmic group. 47 becda It is least objectionable tinios in succession.jj-LjU J. £ ! I feF 2-*1 | 1" 2 iH-'ttH L | sequences. 5. Allegro. when the irregular recurrence appears Bereral is — until the original rhythmic location regained. Finally. . m=m 1. 70. For illustration: Ex.

O. 68. (Ex. Epi-j-Uj "* .^cronp •J". Moltn moderato. (par 81) (2Ho) (par 27 o) (26) (28 a) . No. rule-. Iyargo. -* . ouirapondiiig rhythmic locution (not shifted.subjected but MMording to the role of pur. Any tempo. 11. Mkhpilmohh. . •^ irrnnn . ihimI . 52. Largo. 68). Fx."ric dir. phonlil be ftp* flj immk in m 1 . ami. DUIBOVS*. u <— ~' I 1 .w J j ~u partlv ^ont. 3. In this cimc. as to any further confusing inotlilicution that may obscuro the syntactic purThus: pose. should not \». modified j I -1. . Yivaee. co " t<1ir i | i .ISBS rS Mr. rout ilir NO . (he raonrranof should seen In Ei 62.I/Ol>V-V\-UITTNO. riinM-tion fT gronp "J* (08) ( pnrtlv [C „„ t direction . HuraiMd. ^^B . irrnnii y^f=hM fr^^^p^^BI _ <"'" ' lir - . 0*0 * . Q). particularly. „ or: ' Brahma.

extend through the entire Consequent. After correction. and 8-measure melodies. In this case again. a few of these melodies may be harmonized. the construction is "parallel. moasuros 1 and 3. Major and minor alternately. but through o portion only. CHAPTER XII. as in par.64 . with recurrences of toneA large number groups. MELODIC SYNTAX. 71. Each device is to be exercised successively. 4. The recurrence by Sequence may be utilized on a broad scale. 7. that "sequence" is substituted for "repetition. RESUMED. generally will not. CONTINUED. No. Thus: Antecedent Ex." in the conduct of the second Phrase." the only difference being. by repetition or sequence.IN METjODY-WRnTN'O. as a guide for the movements of the Consequent Phrase of a Period-form. The sequential formation need not be exact. 49 Soo also. No changes of key. first throo tonoa. various species of Measure. in the order given above. Ex. And it need not. modified in the manners illustrated. 1. THE PERIOD. from 2/4 to 12/8. it is far more likely to be merely an approximate guide for the Consequent Phrase. LESSON of 4 12. 52.

the cadence-tones are not defined Moording to the rules of Chapters VII and IX.— In Nos. of its length. "T(ixk-i:si.atioxs. V\. Jliipilteis * ==. with some free* — doin in regard to the modifications explained in par. No. to the (•(instruction of the Conse* possibly throughout the latter. and. | ^3l E r ""P *-\-»1 ! ' nr * 5 1 CoiiHrqurnt Bee rJeo. Analogously. Oeaaeqaeat MlKUII II i m :i. only. 66 . 2. 52 and 53. N. may be applied on the same broad the device of recurrence in Contrary direction (par.I I .-3. 1 and 2 of the above example. almost certainly. during s portion. B." Leeaon 48. 72. For example: Ex. compare pan. 70) scale. yet awhile) adjust his own exercises to those rules. but the pupil can easily (and must. Such melodies are known as Periods of "opposite construction". B7. 66. though mnch more probably qui nt Phrase. aateeedeol i Ei?.

Beview. similar to the manner dictated in par. until no more than brief figures (3 or 4 tones) to — of the Consequent are derived from the corresponding measures of the Antecedent. 53. Major and minor alternately. No. 22. —A chromatic progression is the inflection of a letter. number of 8-measure melodies in Period-form. and of contrary direction.WHITIN G See alao. 6. i8. All species of Measure. the derivation may occur at any point. the directions given in Lesson suitable. 73. B. or in the opposite direc- be shortened." Lobsou 18. carefully. ALTERED SCALE -STEPS. — not necessarily the beginning. 3 . The Scale-line . applying the devices of sequence. No. 7 . modified by the chromatic Inflection of certain steps or by the Substitution of such chromatically inflected steps for the corresponding original ones.BXXBOISSS IN MELODY. " TONK-KKLATIOK8. 27. and apply them. No. No. 8. for such a portion of the Consequent Phrase as dences. MAJOR. CHAPTER may be XIII. gradually." . by means of an Acci- dental The chromatic inflections are to be effectuated strictly in accordance with what are known as the "Altered Scale-steps. No where changes of key. 1 . in the later exercises. N. LESSON A large 13. will not interfere with the given rules of the ca- The extent tion) is of coincidence (either as sequence. up to 9/8 or 9/4.

EXERCISES IS MELODY-WHIMS. i^i^l^^^l 4th Stop.Minium I in. in tho vitjnr m<xlr (arranged in Urn order of theil Bt i '• Mi pi Cm»Jor. TheSC STC ii-i follOD frequency and sxoelle&i Origtaal •.. t •p. ) (narkad 4 \ . raised _> g II Id Stop.licatm raised. thmghoat _ Indicate lowered): .

(all Roo. ^^=H : 3 i ^fezH Step. 75 e. (to a certain extent obligatory) progression. The raised Steps all accent?. but and hazardous.13 — par. along any obvious chord-line. . 6- ± lab I leap.— generally step-wise. leap upward or downward.1). (e) On the contrary. or from any tone upward to the lowered 6th Step (becanse resolution). in the direction corresponding to their reso- — lution. 7). from above. the raised 4th and 2nd). 42) (Ex. throughout. (a) The regular Resolution (par. — may easily be approached with an some obvious chord-line (Ex. 40) Ex. 76 a). Thus: in the prevailing key. Scale-step. 71. ( b ) Exceptions The lowered 6th may rare. tion. 76. (d) Very rarely. to the next higher Thus: Ex. of its downward Thus: C-miijor. throughout. e.72. PfEES^B^S=J£gggEEfl C-major. For example: all ? ? ^4 + all?? 2 + Ex. the lowered 6th Step (being a more natural inflec- tion than any other of the altered tones) only. This is also possible with the best raised Steps (namely. the raised tones may be approached with tho opposite from below. C-major. because of the difficulty of confirming an obvious .BXBBOXSBS in MKLoiiY-wurrrNo. 70. however. along irregular skip. — i. . or is of the altered Scale-steps as follows: The lowered Step descends. namely. generally step-wise. for the reason given in par..

U
tratiou:

xuBcuiiH

is

MKLoDY-wamHa.
see par. 77.

chord-line, without cancelling the prevailing key;

For

illus

(0
71

>;.m~Ii

inn

c

hrtra)

G

mivj.T,

Ihioaghoal
iar.lv

(Ex. 40)

[mprobftblt ehord

lini<«, iu

(,'.

I
par. 10,

20

* ???

(c) Further, the

rtdted 4:h

and 9nd

Slept are, rarely,

preued chromed-

totemwatd to the original tones,

— exactly

aooording to the principle of

which review

.

Thus:

Ex.74.

p^^ii^S
(not

C -ni;iji>r.

ffi]

(uut eb)

77. Tlie inflected tones are not to bo considered as changes of the key, nor allowed to cancel the prevailing scale. They are controlled in their movements by the impression of the given key (or scale), which is to remain the satin- throughout each Phrase or Period-melody, for the present.

For general

illustration:

1. AlUgro.
n

-

Bkktiiovrx.

76.

;
:>«

=s^b
,

Ab
2. AVUgro.

major.

II
Al> major.

(Ex. 08, U)

3.

Alltgro.

a

afeEB fe^s
A-niajor. throughout

#

.V*

t3

J

EXEKCISES IN MELODY- WUITINO.

55

i
D-major, throughout
<>. Moderate.

r^^fe
#-„•SCIIUHKUT.

D
7.

major, throughout.

Largo.

(Ki. 74)
Afr-niajor,

throughout
See
also,

Ex.

CJ,

No. 2

(eg)

;

and glanco at

par. ^8.

LESSON
A number
of 4

14.

and 8-moasure melodies, in Major, with occasional inflected Steps. The alterations must not be so brief as to appear to be "grace-notes" only, but must be obviously essential tones; as a rule, not
less fckan a full

beat in length, occasionally longer.

No

changes of key are

to take place (par. 77).

The first few exercises are to contain the best altered tones, and the modes of treatment; then experiments may be made with the more exceptional forms. Review par. 9a; par. 30; par. 39.
regular

CHAPTER

XIV.

ALTERED SCALE-STEPS; MINOR.
78. The inflections of the harmonic minor scale are as follows order of comparative importance)
Original Scale-steps.
(Ex. 37)

(in

the

Altered Scale-stepa.
7

-

Ex.7G.

=^r^Efeg
C
minor, throughout.
4th Step,
raised.

=#=
7th Step,

>
6th Stop,
raised.

2nd

St.].,

loweiod

lowered.'

M
M
t

IN

Ml

LOD1 -WIUTINO.

<-nn doI be ooTiToniontlj enmmaTimfl as the Altered Stops of major; they must be in.li- >tii«lfii ly memoriied.

7i>.

similar ko

The rules for their khoM goreming tin'

liaakinaiit urt*

nearly, tin. ugh not precisely,

u1ut.i1 St.'ps

..f

major.
in

fa)

The

raieed ith step (whieb

appoaw

alike [0 major and minor]

kha

only one thai

ohromatic Inflection of, and ai substitution fur, the original Btep; i. a., it may be Introduced ohromatioallj (par. 75a), <>r from kha neareel neighboring Btep (pur. 756)»orwith a skip from any

may occur both

ai

me

(par. 75c).

Thus:

Ex.77.

C minor, throughout
(h)

augm. 2nd

matically, hut
beai

Tho other altered tones, in minor, should not be introduced chromay appear only us suf>sti!ntiuns for the corresponding Steps; approaohed, M usual, from the nearest neighboring Step. The intro-

duction with a leap is more rare, excepting in the case of the tHiBOd «'>th Step, which may be approached from any higher tone (par. 75c); and the low. red 2nd Step, to which a skip may be made from either side, along the
line of

an obvious chord.

Thus:

Ex. 78.
+J

fonts tlnwl (mil) thus)

1

.11 (all
1

',,,,,1, good)

C-miuor, throughout,

Only as ofautgM of key (Chap. XV).

I—

8O. Ah in major (par. 76 a), the raised Steps are resolved upward, the lowered Stops downward, generally to the adjacent Step. A few excep-

tions are possible, as seen in the following:

Ex.79.

-fl
C-miuor, throughout

* *+**

* $

W --Jy*
(only ilium

Eicri.ti.iii.il.

(par. 70

c)

(par.

3Sb

)

II

good

and a// the directions given in Lesson 14. iU' l ' f T *— ' = 1 1 1 S 1 Hmtiioven. No FJ in 7th measure) LESSON A number flected Steps. : Bz. with occasional in- Review par. 57 For general 1. in of 4 and 8-measure melodies. IS. pir. 4+ 4 + rMH*-^: „ . 39 par.IM. w ' — i (- * II I Bektuovkn. illustration AU'gro.IU'ISKS IN MKLODY WIUTINU. —fr • This b Ex. Mendelssohn. P^ ^-kUHtL #=^M=^g 1 I J] Mendelssohn. 64. 77 . flat is a non essential embellishing tone. 2 (Bb in 2nd measure. 81.ft E-minor •#-• . . Minor. . ) E-minor. See also." /change of key\ { .

).i Bo-called Modulation.st In the ease. minora. — The ^a-minor From C-major p-signature). —Capital lottOTl indicate major 1>> ft . two with the next higher. U>-miuor (5t> " " " " ). and thru returns to the Original key. (See "Tone-Relations.ut. — — — . and two with the next lower signature Thus: (i. on the other hand. A melody may be OOnduoted sway from Into tlmt of the line of its own scale. ).) The cbango tir. ). the of a Mrf. BUUI I.l).''*!] perfect eadenoe npon the Tonic of the latter.J JV. of sonic This effects . into — e-minor (8t? (NiD^-majoT(6t> V. Rule II. ). of Lessons 88 and 89. into (3-siguature). — <^-ininor (4$ K. or oue flat more or less). namely: one with the mum signature. (^ EP-major (3t> Or: from A!>-major (1^-signature). the melody follows the line of the new wale only for B time ( few bents). But it must. as it is called).. into ^ A-major (3$-signature). (^E-major Or: from f^-minor (3#-signature). CHAPTER xv. ). original scale should bo exchanged only for that Of these there are live. take place after one of the three tones which constitute the Tonic cJiord. ). H'2. ). mbm other key. The change of key may bo made at any point in the Phrase. (4$ " " " " ). HI. or it may be only temporary. OB CHANGES OF KEY. KH IN ill LuDY-WlUTXNd. the modulation is temporary (or transient. makes its (See "Tomb-Bklaxioks. oue sharp more or less. after pausing orer into tlie new key. at pre . N B. melody. MODULATION. e. Mi -minor ^f-minor (38 (2JJ (-0 -signature)." nil of Lesson 40. may l>e permanent. small letters. jxG-»>aJor(3 — e-minor (.) When. upon either an aooented or an unaccented beat. F-major {} *s d-minor (> " " " " ). niil j„r ).ratotaf bay. ] ). 83.

Thus: Ex. Rule may. For illustration: 1. 85. either after the 1st. 81. the last tone of the first key (one of the Inactive Steps given in Rule II) should be transformed mentally into a Scale-step of the prospective key. C-maj. 4th. either the 5th. (a) If possible. in exact accordance with former rules. which indicates very distinctly the Dominant harmony of the key. or the 5th Step of the momentary scale (namely. all five are equally adequate. e. 84. but not at present. or Gth Scale-steps of the desired key.) The most powerful of these "modulatory tones" is the 7th Scale-step (the so-called Leading-tone) still. 5). be used. m — >-*- ^m (b) The most satisfactory result is gained (as far as the melody itself is concerned) by using. the 3rd.. III.kXKltCISES IN ttfiLObY-WlirTlNG. i.. The melody then runs on. -* * v^t mtiniext Q~3 1~ I -| ^ mton»xt- — C-major. C-niaj. 2nd. — after — — — . from the footing thus secured in the new scale. The deflection of the melody into the desired scale reaching one of the Inactive tones indicated in Rule II. ST -^ C major ^ ^ into citlior relat«5il of th« five next * C C= koyn — ff- one __ n II or: *" 1^- I- C-iuujor. the Inactive steps. as soon as the new key is entered. be effected by passing through any one of the five tones which constitute the chord of the Dominaut-9th. - Ex. a tone. in other words. as will bo seen in time. C-maj. an entrance may be effected into the de(Even these may sired key through any other than its 1st and 3rd Scale-steps. t e.— . if properly approached and properly treated. 7th. par. 82 A. 3S 3. *=F =t= m 3 IB 3. or a group of tones.

according to par. If this montal transformation (pur. in the corresponding direction. 82A. 73. would be more definite thus: '/''/ h<><>h. i. at that point. Thus: Ex. if thf lust tone of one scale dou not btiong t/f coating ivy. new key Ex. it should be foreand properly approached.). B2E bffn i good. introduced. — by simply inserting an accidental (see par. then a chromatic progression will need to be made. Is. 3 If such a chromatic movement be necessary. involving a change of direction. e.EXKKCIM. bo that IS MI. U Instantly.. the chromatic progression may be prepared by a wide leap from the opposite side. Thus: S3 -jp 87. IJ I'"- E-*s III H A. 80..I. it very No. Uiua: i I. l. N. 2G. ttisti>i</ui*hes th? tht> fiWdfag twin <>r som«> Othet fcOM from At prtetdtmg our.84.- Not** $ Thus: e«wxl. ibnai i"n pOMibl*(Sz. t<> 85a) is not possible: that is. (a) «een. k 85|| e^^^^(r^ C 1 C — 7l| 5^-H . B.ol'Y WKIIINO. — * t7 ^fl (b) Or.

and implies that the chromatic its minor form). 4=. Ex. illustration (capitals. e. (1) depends Partly upon the location of the foreign tone in the prevailing key. altered tones). 88) f *=T Allegretto. sumption of a Diminished-7th chord (i. 3-zlz -A t*±# MJ f-f-^r- m G_ ^ mf¥^^^m ^ut±^ Allegretto..87. Whether the steps (i. Allegro. 88) i. 61 xc. it must conform to the lists given for major and minor in Exs. tsffii _ 88. tone is taken up in some other part of the harmonic body. in the melody This involves the asitself. (2) It also depends. the Incomplete Dominant-9th. finally. by moving step-wise in the opposite direction. «A Beethoven. (par. the chromatic inflection may be avoided. 66 and 76. But. Thus: — (comp Ex. minor): Moderate Bach. much more largely (very often entirely^upon the . 84-2) For general 1. 3. $ 3. inflected Scalee. e. in where the new key begins. major. for in order to serve as altered Step. 3 1 G foreign tones in a melody are merely (i. into that of another key). teB^j-^' q^if-^-^z^ -J-y^-^-^ (par. Or.. 87 a) ^^ a- (par. small letters. or the indicators of Modulation change of entire scale.IN MELODY-WIUTINO.

9/8. the rhythm freely diversified. oloaing with the perfect oadenoe upon the Tonio of the new key. (a) In phrases in the smaller varieties of Measure.. Into tome oext-related key. as for tho permanent ones illustrated in tho preceding lesson. Ex. i. Hi). the melody passes soon into ono of the five next-related keys. o! 4-meaanrc melodies In Phrase-form. CONTINUED. only. either M in< majority ol OBOea. and. beginning alternately major and minor. 12/8). An occasional altered Stop may bo introduced. with one [permanent] modulation in each. e. after a few beats.IN MKK<»I>Y-WRITIN(». The process of modulation is precisely tho same for trantiemi changes of key. option of tin- OOmpOMT. from 8/8 to 12/8. Ex. only one transient modulation is feasible. CHAPTER XVI. however. MODULATION. No. ttioit. s Measure (0/8. lesson A nnmbei in in. Erery Bpeciee of afeaaure. amaug tho . i" kit h-irmimi. B6. or an a modulatory tone (pnning on into the ooReaponding m Mali).88. returns and closes upon Thus: tho Tonic of the original key. AUtgretto. in the lOOe. as a rule. who. (b) In the larger species of sient two or more tran- modulations may be made in one phraae. 3. may serve ai a genera] model. ~. niuy treat the foreign without Abandonnin-iitary inllectiou i lag the key).

CHAPTER XVII. 5z±l j^==*— H^-l^ # y *— # ^ J2 H LESSON A number of 4-nieasure A. py a. and return (par. t=F TT JLl * J£E fc^g I=fl F- Allegretto. Allegretto. particularly appropriate for the semicadence of a Period beginning in major. returning to the Thus: latter and cadencing upon its Tonic. anil. The best and most common keys and (the selected for the semicadence are. with one transient modulation. melodies in Phrase-form: the smaller species of Measure. 5 next-related . flat less. The Dominant key original signature). Changes of key may occur in the Period-form. the Relative key for one beginning in minor: is The Dominant key . 1. Beethoven. *9b).BXBBOISXS IN JIKMiDV-WltlTTNO. which may be made upon either one of the three tones of the Tonic Triad (Steps 1. in each case. PERIOD-FORMS. as usual.Keys of tho original scale. (par. 89 a). but they are likely to have especial bearing upon the semi- cadence. with two or more transient modulations. MODULATION. or one than the The Relative key same signature). In larger Measures. * (par 02) Ex. In and return I?. (one sharp more. 3 or 5) of a next-related key. 17. il?» *"V. OO. at any point in either Phrase.

All!' U J B- Hi m =V: « £££ ^SCS (overUppinR Scal». * i * -\—g~* - — lines .i»IiY-WlimNCl. «eo par. LESSON A number of 8-measuro melodies in 18. Period-form. final cadence must fall upon the Tonic of the original key. 03) but the During the Consequent Phrase any transient modulations may bo made. ii " Anlocixlciit.m the original signature). directions given in major and minor beginning. Pot illustration : 1. alternately. though boUl urt< possible faf either DB0d6| Mid other next-related keys also.S MI I. th. containing modulations (and occasional altered Steps) as explained above. Tin' most unusual is u MOniOftdttHM m Or one sharp less. the Sulnlonnnant key (OBfl Hat more. according to the Chapters VII and IX. Every species of Measure. .

$E3^ [^^l^gHHi Bk. MENI>EL880HN. The change of key may be effected contrary to Rule II (par. eft* 3ESJ 4. on — condition That the melody progress close the par. after other than the Inactive 1st. from the Step chosen to key.EXERCISES IN MEI. . 3rd or 5th Steps of the key. into a proper tone of the desired key (Rule III. Thus: .ODY-WIUTINQ. Jlndanfe. n CHAPTER XVIII. 91. MODULATION.4 o ->- ^£^a -*—l llegro.— namely. 84). CHROMATIC. 83). . Ex. . j=£=^ fi. 91. 3. EifeEE: s -*—* Beethovkn. Beethoven. !• first chromatically.

b r -is B 3. especislly when two or more such common tones appear in succession.d. illustrating Begin in this devico of chroall matic modulation. 3^ (keys not nextrol. No. Ex. tion).— a vory of modulation. This. No. 90.i<\ w 1. Nos. the application of par. if possible into more urgent and f tli. major and minor Uomatnlj. which illustrates tho point very strikingly). or where there is a pause in the melodic movement (a tone of comparatively long durata and ezoeptiona] method —reproson common. will Eor illustration: SCIILJlKltT. to apprehend tho transformation (Ex. Tliis may even apply to somo more distant key. SCALE-LINI'. but it has a much wider operation.91. withont the formal observance of strict rules <'f modulation. 2. LESSON A number Ifencore (9 l l'J. 5). !>.) SniniERT. 92. and is based npon the general principle that a el mge of hey may atwaye be effected at (<>r through) any tone that is common to both heye eonoemed. if melodic conditions are ter XV (especially II favorable. Sm-li overlapping of scales. ( XIX. 3 usually result as a matter of course from tho application of tho strict rules given in Chapter XV. and extends to many cases not included in these rules..'d next-related key.'sir.*. but moro difficult — — which affords timo and 6.s lensn] exoeptioni to the three rnlei <>f modulation given in Chapend ill) may be justified by mentally transforming oertain tone or tone* oi one key (in> matter which icale-etepa they repre* sent) into aome planaible Btep <>r Step*. species of up to U - CHAPTER OVERLAPPINa 99. AIUqto. 92.1 nsa. a broader sense. and tln-n eontinning slong tln« new lino. Ex. so that tlio lines of the keys overlap for a number of beats (se<j Ex. of 1 and S-measun> melodies. it is true. V Bb i :ii .

%. 60) 6. : M 3=EEgEEgEEE^E3 i — aE . Allegro mod.rx=rf g^£B-i^ •— s ^ fe *—^r -#-*- ^^-!. (Ex. Largo. 87 BRITnOVBtl.t~+h^m AH m fcsi P= IE Ah m 8. Allegro. ifeggip^^ifiteig^ 5.KXHBCISE8 IN MELODY-WRITING. Allegro. Hg=^=. .

mind. (2) By By sequential recurrences (par. involve. (sequence*-. or frequently turned to account in minor for major) of the krv th.>. Umnmumma. " or cadences. 1. 05.ij. in other means.MOHir. All MXl r. Thii t<>w:ir<l MgrMBMBt of Imj1_i.• I .. __-_-U V Ex. may. bo created by many Tho of contact. EXKKCtSK. MUjro.. Then experiments may also be made with more The general harmonic (chord) basis must bo kept well in CHAPTER XX..un.ii (i.ir_ > •_dl LESSON A nnmbor common tones remoto keys. kcyt) . of themselves. or break Sequential recurrences generally the line of the melody. The broadest range (1) of exceptional modulations is that afforded taking advantage of any sufficiently well-defined pause. however. of 4 20. 64).4 TN MEMU»Y-\Vll!IINO. and (or cadence). in $u>>*tttutin>i the tppotiU modt <•. ion wan obviously directed according to Tins is nraallj en eeey ekohengei beosnsa tho relationship.< r Uaai of whioh khe moduli. 98. and 8-mea. Aiitjr.88 . with modulations throngn At first into next-related keys only. 37.-l. -h^-H-=^= D major > -'i .— at tho points " breaks. as explained above. For example: \. such "breaks" in the melodic line. (by overlapping scales).snre melodies. AND AT CADENCES. I (par 91) MK><l>t. niujur for iniiuir. B in. Boneeponding in the oorrmpomdtng major end minor keyi (L See Ex. MODULATION IN SEQUENCES. (P»r Warms. £^E B5 *=t b-minor... I\>r illustration: arly ooineideai -• .

: 1 1 ^=F=] „ (par.. t^PjJsjji^feltgfefl J (sequences. keys remote) A_m_J a- 4. 64) 5. «.)». Largo. l (par.v ±.KXIRCIBES IN MELODY-WRITING. *& I I I It * — I ^^s v^. 91) ^i^^e *— fc=^ <? *=fc Bfefc^ilig^BI^l . ^IJJ^ro. Allegro.. 66) S3 ac *=F =«£ EEgEj mr^^ -I r Beethoven. * s=t jr U. g. (par.

1.7U IN MKUHJY-WIUTINt. AllfjrtUo. . H.

in reality. For illustration: _________________ • I T? fc)x. though they assert themselves (by their tdme-varties) more than intermediate tones. (x raised Scale-steps. AUegr Mekdblbbohx. 71 In the latter case. 1. k •—*• f 1 — 1 rH 1 r— 95. Allegro. .BXSB0ISE8 IN MELODY-WH1TINO.) ^^Fgg^Epp^fe T=F 3. inserted between the tones of certain chord-lines in such a manner as as essential tones. they prove to be. no not to overpower the impression of tho prevailing key.

The best keys for this cadence are. the BOOOnd pair of Phrases differs entirely . for. M nil'-. in reference to parallel and mtrasting construction (par. 3 or 5) of that next-related key into which tho melody may have boen conducted.7j obi arxnzxa LESSON A number ohroms of nn' r 19 meMOIM. falling upon Tonic note of some next-related key.. tilth not less th:in u full Deal in value. fb) The scrawl one is apt to be a perfect cadence. (a) The designs given in Chapter VTT. and may be made nj)on any St. with tho regular perfect cadence. that is. as indicated in par. tones. 50. — the the key very either the (c) Sub-dominant or its Relative. during the third Phrase. closing respectively with cadences in the 4th. The third one is again a light semicadence. rarely to remote keys. four Phrases of four measures cadi. DOUBLE-PERIOD. (d) SM). ftnd. ultimately. fa) The first of these is a light scmicadencc. tin- succession hhould not extend beyond B or ('. — until fb) Then. 2. e. Phrases 3 and 4): at first. or perhaps the Relative of the Dominant. sth. tp of the original key. for a measure or two. and must close. but must then turn back definitely into the original scale. naturally. Compare par. the parallelism is to be diminished gradually until. 90. upon the original key-note. Dominant key (most commonly in a major melody). and may fall upon any tono of the Tonic Triad (Steps 1. the whole I / PkraeeS must correspond (perhaps with a few slight ohanges) to Phrase 1. with occasional continuous -ions. modulations may be freely mads among any of the next-related keys. best. and the greater part of Phrase 4 must pursue the line of Phrase the necessary difference of cadence asserts itself. in each succeeding example. The ohrom mail l briouslj essential. 52 and B8). must be closely followed in the h i!f of the Double-period (i. i>8. Tlio Double-period generally embraces 10 measures. 13th ami 16th measures. or the Relative (usually in a minor melody). 97. The fourth Phrase may also modulate freely. either the Sub-dominant — or its Relative. as no modulation is likely to occur during the first Phrase of this longer design. CHAPTER Tin: XXII.

EXERCISES IN MELODY-WIUTINQ.

715

from the melody of tho
illustration:

first

pair (totally contrasting construction).

For

1.

Andante

tranquillo. (Strictly parallel construction
1.

)

2.
,

3.

4.

Ex. 96.

bfe

M
*

v

t

J-ZlJ
E

7
.

>

,'

£=£&==§

major, throughout.

(par. 58)

t532

g

^
Mkndklsbohn.

10.

11.

12.

13
4

14.

15.

16.

si
3.

J
like

2.— -like 3.— 2 Iike

Z I like 5 -Z I like 6 Z ZS

-N-0

'-<&-

Allegretto. (Partly parallel construction.)

-B)

#-

tt 3=r=ft -ffri

zzzazaz:

like

Phrase

1-

PjA^Z.l^_ f

74

MKI.oDY WlUTINti.

LESSON
A
Hoaa,

28.

nninlxT nf
Bugfainfag

ir.-inru.Mun- Dmilili' periods,
in

major

md

according to the ibo?0 direrminor alternately; modnlnting ut option;
8
i.
I

the prinetpd ipeaiei oi Ifea an

i.

I

ft

B/8,

8

I.

::_\ B/8).

The

hiinnoniziition of

thOM m&lodiea,

after OOrreo tion

and approval bv

tho teacher,

may bo undertaken bj

pnpfll btiniliur with the process.

EXERCISES IN MEL.ODY-W1UTINQ.

75

DIVISION TWO.

UNESSENTIAL, OR EMBELLISHING, TONES.
CHAPTER
XXIII.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN ESSENTIAL AND UNESSENTIAL TONES.
100. Not
and generally
all

the tones in a melody need be essential,

i.

e.,

calling for

special consideration in the process of harmonization.
are,

Many

tones

may
(i.

be,
e.
t

no more than

unessential adjuncts of the principal

the essential or important) tones, which latter they merely serve either to connect or to embellish.
Such embellishing tones have appeared in many of the foregoing illustrations, simply because their employment in composition is so common that but very lew examples could be found in which they are absent.

The distinction between Essential and Unessential tones is determined very largely by their length ; usually, a tone of the value of a full beat is a principal or essential one; and, of two, three, or four quick tones that constitute the subdivisions of a beat, one or more are almost certain to ha
unessential.

But this is only the general distinction. the true one depending, afte*. upon the relation of the tones, whether short or long, to the prevailing chord-line. For illustration
all,

1.

(

all

essential)

3.
"l

(x unessential)

1.
Ex.97.Hfe=^t
CI
tiF

1

I

1

J

*T VI

V

I

This being the case, it follows, here again, that a melody must be designed with strict regard to some harmonic basis, or subconscious chordconcept. (Review pars. 15, 23, 38.) The tones which agree with the momentary chord are the essential or harmonic tones; those which differ from it

tone. or tLuB articulate. (d) Instead of using a the tone may be struck again.m inoi. which the Suspension would probably aggravate. lOl. the Suspension may best be introduced in descending step-wise progressions. especially when applied to tones which have a natural upward tendency. precisely as rhythm tie. Hi <ir i.lv is eMJ t. Thus devised. chromatically) Any tone whirli proyrrsHtfi st<p-xiisr fnlonp tho may be tied lo the following.> l.-ihcct Kinlu with the Suh|h<iiii1oii (•.KXKIM'IHEH IN KILODI-WBITINO.) ^IM^^f^E original lino. result. next lower or Tuna: higher. is its Resolution (c) If irregularities of rence. see Ex. or Inharmooia konea. unless it be applied during some very irregular melodic progression. 2 and 7. -step (Leading-tone). but it is also good in ascending step-wise successions. 7). as repetition: . 102. or raised Steps. 1. and its result is invariably good. they may be redeemed by recur* 5Ga. scale-line. as embelliahjnent by 8u§petttioHm *» Ori«lu»l llne- I ' I ^=cbf=l lli. of the The obligatory movement (par. (a) As a rule.o. like the 7th (b) soil. Suspension forward into the essen- tial tone. niflo. Nos. shown in par. 100. THE SUSPENSION. uiul tlniH ba held over during a fraction of tho value of the latter. embellished This device is as simple as it is effective.k T.i/. eaantial embelUahing.

K J-. 99).EXBRCIflKfl IN MRLODY-WRnTKO. 2. signify no 77 And lessons. (e) When is eral effect (f) If the tie. ning of any beat. either in immediate succession (Ex. 6 and 9. in fact. or as recurrence at corresponding points (see par. emb. 98." £^ £=z£ *==t ^ifl . and in But it is possible at the beginthe majority of the following illustrations). mm=d=t T. or reiteration. the result -will not be an inharmonic Suspension. :*=t IS Bkethovzm. For general illustration: Ex. fel W 7 » suspensionsAllegretto. f_h_ _^ m 7 m-4 3=±£ S &§^m 3. Ab-major. but it will be correct if the tones represent 1. especially when occ\irring repeatedly. the best genobtained at accented beats (as in Ex. Db. 102 c). chord-line. some good AlUgro. 100. Nos. 9 a.major. and practiced applied to single tones in a measure or group. in this form it may more than simple tonefreely in all the preceding repetition. is applied at a skip in the melody. F='=t chordline Trrrr embellished with Original line- m 3. Schubert. as indicated in par. Allegretto i®$f fi i=*z Repetition.

58. The pupil must not only hear each tone difttinotlj as (i. 3^.." Lessons 57 and LESSON 24. a number of 4 and 8-measure melodies (major and minor alternately) with special application of the Suspension. it. Use all ipeeiee of and modulate he writes at option. A. f=^ .II /. Unoiunn.jto. . S. M | i f r^ ' f 'i~ 5 I 1 I **i^^l BOBUBUX. ^EEESEZZg^gg^^gi^^ Ah AIU. D. and embellish then with occasional Suspensions. -m 7. "Tone-Relations. tho harmonic accompaniment). according to the above directions and illustrations.:. where convenient and effective. - * eIIJl Q--?-far&tJ rV B«KTIIOVFN.-. ^' 1 -' 1 > grr il ' ' i n -0 p i f f— i fonn- ' fr . * ' M tssjgEEfc: Original form .II 1 XKIiCI.sKS IN UKIOKY-WKITINO. Invent ire. but must endeavor to realize tho chord-basis also o.. Take a numbrr of former 4 or 8-nieasure melodies.

101 Original form- j_.u^^=g=n B-inajor . or any weighty tone.— Any essential tono in tho original (Bimple) melodic concept. may be anticipated upon a fraction of the preceding beat.— usually a very brief fraction. THE ANTICIPATION. Rule II. CHAPTER XXIV. 103.EXERCISES IN MELODY-WRITDJO. whether essential or not. Thus: Ex.

but re-struck. : l IN Ml I "Li WIUT1NO. aud " Tonk-Relationh. to be embellished with occasional Anticipations. in the —This embellishment involves tone-repetition from is one beat into the next. and must progress step-wise. depends upon the chord-basis. 3. Ii. LESSON A.EX Kill r. with Anticipations. Now melodies.. . 5». S«o also Ex. the second of the two similar tones essential one. This. again. Suspension. and sion. 23. A number of former. as all. if embellishment by Suspen- second tone prove to be the unessential one. Al^ra N. but may manifest clearly through the following conditions: (1) (2) (3) The Anticipation It is If is generally a very short tone. the be the may progress will in any manner. or conception. is not tied to the following repetition. B. will embellishment by Anticipation. No. of the writer. and often not distinguishable from the latter at The difference itself lies solely in the purpose. — and an occasional Suspension." Lesson 00. simple. melodies.

For illustration (or weighty) tones in a 104. AUtgreHo. ^^§p^p E&fe^ S^EEg t- m ^. as #•£— f =r u SrilUBKRT. 102 c. may be filled out. CHAPTER XXV. See also par.i-t r +*—=£ j -. Original form. RtncE III.IN MELODY-WIUTINO. 102. but it may be less than this (rarely more) according to the desired rhythmic effect. Ex. THE PASSING-NOTE. by instating the intermediate scale-step as PaSftifig-note. Usually the Passing-note takes exactly half the value of the first tone. ] »_ -j | =^f4 Embellished with Passing-notes (X)- B (Dominant 9th chord- 3.~. . p jfcit&t_. ^|SEJ^SEEB MOZART. Allegro. 1. — Any skip of a third melody. between two successive essential or reduced to step-wise progression.

Andanfe. . mi anted by the Aral tone. = ^ ^gUiuJ.fiBorrN. without dieplaoing tho Bnl it Si alao poaaible t<> defer the PumbL tono of the original skip. and other material of peat lessons must not bo neglected. -'i1 ! m i r~f onil). 4 and 8 measures. A numhor 1$. to bo embellished with occasional Passing-notes. — with ooccuional Passing-notes. to ^liift it forward) ao thai it anoroeohei apon the beet of tho eoond tone. Tiiwrti i >• awkward raytaai better: Ex.. in <>f Yariotu Bpeoiee Measure.- no tratifnie. with aeernttd Pa ring uotos. as shown above. In Um above illnsPaeeing*note generally oooore. ^fKNnr. Anticipations. r rn unple: Til. jj 1 1 j i . rj f rf i c aa A. in mki v n niriMi. major and minor alternately. skip.. and dividing the Telne. of former melodies.m LESSON 20. ooneeqnently. Suspensions. and.». i £*i^^p|^^ s orig.j v |gg i ii (ri^iinl liuo- with unarmitcd • • t . the lilt t«-r. <>f The rhythmic remit li often muoh Improved by thii meana. thne aeraming the aootnt$d location. good: good: possible: {*.r. i crab. lng~note (L .n l <>. ai within tho beat or group (notion "f the beet. where skips of a 3rd occur. 103. Now melodies. .

or they may be disposed in any other manner between the two essential tones. The two connected passing-notes may be both unaccented (i. 5. and par. 4. by inserting the two intermediate scale-steps successively. 102c. 88 CHAPTER XXVI. AUegro. Original line S better: ±=t H ^s£ *=F Original line- !=*=& possible: S awkward X X #=?= better: Bkkthovek. similarly.KXJBRCISES IN MELODY-WHITINQ. x y -*. CONTINUED. PASSING-NOTES. 105. A skip of & fourth may bo filled out. AUegro. located within the beat or rhythmic group of the first tone).x l -Li— -* f E3 #- i j . 106. 104. 7U rr=i ^5 ^ 6. Ex. according to the deCompare par. .. Andante. e. For illustration: sired rhythmic effect. in the same direction.

Ex. AUejro. Ill) X (E x. actually corroborate. w 3. x (Ex. AUtgretto. alternate diatonic and chromatic passing-notes niny bo used in immediate succession in the same direction. and are therefore more common in ascending. 36. Mrxdklsbohx. gfe 3=3 Ji y 4. Mattes See »Uo. 105. in origin and purpose. the Altered scale-steps (Chapters XIII Mad XIV). For larger spaces. l f w wn*i»jang V. =F1 Ah M^. Adjacent scale-steps may bo connected by the intermediate chroSuch chromatic passing-notes nvitv tone (when the space is a whole step). No. which are more transient. For example: Beethoven. than in descending. 17.. succession. •Ex. 3. X <" .N KXKJU'ISEiJ IX MKLODIWIUTma.. 0—rmtiel tones. und therefore obviously tmtumtttd. first measure 107. Allegro. in being They differ in effect from the Altered Steps. 109) I I .

No. measure 1. As the fourth is the widest interval that can occnr between contiguous chord-tones (namely. The effect of the wliole conjunct group. 106. g^^^gfe 3. 7th or 8ve). can not consist exclusively of inharmonic tones. 108.1XBBC18ES rs MELODY-WKITINO. Dbl. See also Ex. also. from the chord-fifth to the Root above). 2. will be that of unessential tones. but most contain one or more chord-tones. and as such they are to be regarded and treated. . especially in swift successions. Allegro. Saim-Sakns. however. 7. it follows that a line of intermediate passing-notes. 75. 6th. Beethoven. Yivace. For illustration (the harmonic " passing-notes indicated by x in parenthesis): * Ex. inserted between still larger skips (5th.

Ifl BXKBClHia IN MEI/ODT-WUITINQ. Such repeated passing-notes when they are of sufficient time-value. AUtyrttto [l. AlUgro. The lessons. A. employed throughout the foregoing are best may bo applied even to passing-notes.V 2 - •^T]«£ [§/ :iiliL_- |i^£' IV ^= (chromitic puaainc note*) AhL 109. and importance. device of tone-repetition. (110b) Ex. Andante eon moto. 3. 1. n j jj-^a fe ^^^N Rut. 107. . • L e i- 3. AU° molte. to be partly Thus: ScnunKRT. "essential " in effect.

110. the neighboring-tone. New melodies. placing either (b) tone in a simple melodic line. melodies. and repeated). —Any essential its weighty tone whether essential (harmonic) or not. Former tdiatonic. Pruto O. B. 27. at skips of any but with strict /egard to a sensible rhythmic result. (a) Rule its TV. 87 -4. CHAPTER XXVII. - NEIGHBORING NOTES. is that . to be embellished with occasional passing-notes size. e. with the upper or lower neighbor between or. higher or lower Neighbor Very frequently the essential tone precedes. Allegro. and by far the most common form. with direct application of these passing-notes. the neighbor inserted between an ordinary tone-repetition). may occupy But either of the the accented fraction of a beat. in other words. or a may be embellished by be/ore it. thus constituting an embellishing group of three tones (i. . as well as follows. — (c) The group may assume almost any rhythmic form. LESSON A. the essential or principal tone and its recurrence. chromatic. .KXKHCISK8 IN MKIiODY-WJUTINO. three tones optional. The material of former lessons must be remembered. and the values are the simplest. and employed.

h whirh Thun: all three I tones belong to tho sumo beat. or rhvthmio group. tour »wkw»rd rli yttim : tono repetition. the impetus imparted to tho final tone in the group by its embellishing neighbor. vice versa. its own principal tone. always involves two different essential tones. the latter a progressive one.. eiuucllmhc irrej. 109. Tho rules are: (1) If the formation of the group is to be Regular. and. that neighbor is chosen which lies opposite the coming tone. carefully. 108. In other words. - []±±\'^B\l l±i\ri_'\r^}3 — ctubvlllshod with iu-i^hbonn^ uutc» (o). 1. 1 1 12. depends somewhat upon the location of the following tone in the original melodic line. « i II 111. while the latter passes on into another Compare Ex. or. 108. with upper o. the lower neighbor when the following tone lies higher. Whether tho upper or tbe lower neighbor is to be used. with lower o. The former is therefore a local embellishment.XXERCISM IN MFXODY-WmTTNO.. on the contrary. C VI IV Ex. in other words. Thus: is — Ex. the passing-note. with Ex. rhythm: 0=r ^g^Fpi m is. ascending lino— emu. carries it naturally toward tho next tone. essential The difference between the Neighboring-note and the Passing-note that the former turnt back into tone. 103. No. the upper neighbor taken when the next tone lies below. lino— euib. . In this way. the embellishment with a neighboring-note involves only one essential or weighty tone. detceudin.

of the groups will be Irregular. as usual. regular- u ife MOZABT. each may bo turned the same way. i$^m^^m^^^^^m exceptional- S3 Or (2).EXERCISES IN MELODY-WMTIHO. — but In this case. 110. by "uniform recurrence" (par. 56a). Vivace. original line- I—f-O-g—tJL* emuelliabnient- I I Irregular. D-major. ^^^ UP—. irrespective of the direction into the next essential tone. but uniform: 2.-#-# -|__ in a series of such groups. some their irregularity is counteracted. i . embellishment uniform G-major. emb. For example: Regular: Ex.

lij. g-iuiuor. B. Further. Thus: ??? Ex. KX*BCIH1CS IN MEIXUIT-WIUTINO. irrespective of key. Also in e minor (low tied 7Ul Btep). ^^^iP^g^SPB Upper o. (2) The lower neighbor may also agree in notation with the lino of the prevailing scale. tho rhythmic arrangement of such successive (or corresponding) groups is almost certain to be uniform. C. especially in the neighboring note is long) it does so.t^U fL N. 1 1.. G. m^^m^m^'?^ E major. — In any case. throughout. d» in Eb major and c. excepting when the principal tone is tho 7th — .M 4. the noUUion of tho neighboring-notes is subject to the following rules: (1) The u}>per neighbor must always agree with the lino of the prevail- ing scale. throughout.'5. c minor.r. AU*fr: M* -I' I '-' ' Mi.AkT. 111. graceful or rapid melodies. and in melodies of a serious or stately character (or when But ordinarily. throughout. a.- Aiimajor. r •. K. the lower neighbor lies a half-step below its prindpd Ume. C-major.

from any cause. 3. to of simple melodies in uniform. 4 and 8 measures. They may be applied to an occasional single tone. throughout- — LESSON ' — s 28.. e. in various species of Measure. 112. excepting Afr-iuajorv where it is the Loading tone: i .. A number lessons).76) g-niinor. rhythm (from the first five as shown above. at each tone throughout be embellished with 3-tone groups.EXIUIC1SES IN MELODY. if irregular." Or the groups may appear continuously.\b- { i II Soniewhat uncommon.WRITING. Thus: Ex. the melody. . The material of former lessons must not be neglected. if unaccented beats are broken. for «J1 which the lower whole step is almost always chosen. in which case the rhythmic effect must be guarded. the rhythm must be rectified by "recurrence. this will constitute a " Bunning part. i. >/ 6+ (Ex. scale-step (the Leading-tone). New melodies. taining Probably thus in every key con-' g. A. generally excepting the final (cadence) tone." B. Allegro. major and minor alternately. the rhythm will be regular. with special reference to the 3-tone group.

CHAPTER 114.uir tone croups? i B C j— I J 1 11 jrdL throu^lmut. Ill. while studying these somewhat confusing forms.*. And bear mind. 3. HHEGHBOBXNG NOTES. AlUyro. XXVIII.3. Thus: 1. form- (2 By adding a passing-note (before or after). principal tone 110 6). reference to the distinction between neighboring and N. — Review par.M IS UKl. CONTINUED. . fundamental. live. in a mum tones inuy be nlttged to four. F. in in passing-note. wnbalHihing groups of three m\. as well as followed. Those. by (par. that its every neighboring-note must be preceded.oL>Y-\UUTING. ie^^^lsgllplii orig. or more tODM in many ways: (1) By adding to the B-tOM group (either before or after) any tone which belongs to the choril-linc of the MMBtttl tone.

precisely as shown above.LRRCIBE3 IN MELODY-WRITINQ. 1. tones i ^i^g^f?^^^^ X X orig. at first. tones -mm^^m | 3. Allegro Wbbkk. fc "^i^^rif orig. in groups of at least five tones then be enlarged. In 4-tone group*. emb. —which may awkward rhythm Ex.note between reiterations of their principal tone. For illustration. This will result. Allegro. Allegro. i . •A. Thus: 1. 4 tone | Bkkthoviw. /r Ffe& B2£ (3) f=^*|iT £ffi^FF t=4^=3 (115) ^ p I By inserting first one and then the otlier neighboring. 5-tone groups- 2. 115.

AlUgro.•^ ZT- - _ nui i i I 5. (Ex. [A'^V t£ x : =3: J Jit* j 8 tone t ^j g^^^^^^^^^^^i S.^ (Ex. AlUgro. m»_ (Ey . U) Chopih. (Ex. 113) O. Allegro. Allegro. m^^m F G. .114) ._. IP^H 1 A3 I -^.

116. Allegro. 1. 109).-#- ^E^r P^ g^^^P^^P^ Allegro. by repetition of the neighboring-note (similar to par. SCIU'DKItT. Andante.^-^3=x itr^r^I 1 1 I I o o o o t -fif-F m-L-U_Ld=fc=t 1 @ -o o- » T 7 IE ^&b=b . m H ft4— 3. N. X o o o f o o o f m m m jES. B. CJV- (4) More Thus: rarely. i— s- fc:- #—. X FJI- X V- ^ H^ ^r -^^^J.EXERCISES IN MEIiODT-WBITINO. X Ex. 96 later: o o o o o Chopin. lO.

with r?=*zt£ 9 unaccouted Li in CH1IMltl. (1) tional. lin«_ . la uniform rhythm. For example: mrfjj.il AppOgg. of the 2-tone group are opbut the appoggiatura is most commonly placed upon the aooented fraction of the beat (like the suspension.«H)V-\VlUTINO. iii Um preceding lesson. The neighboring-note. LESSON A. to bo ftnballiahed with OOOasional single points. either :it 29. moreover. and the appoggiatura is quito frequently longer than its principal like these. reference New melodies. and forming an embellishing group of but A«0 tones (oompsre par. NEIGHBORING-NOTE AS APPOGGIATURA. changing the original location of the essential tone by shifting it forward). and the location.IN Ml I. 110a and b). » | irgij tnib. oris. In this connection it is lta details are subject to the rules given in Bailed an A poggiatUTUt — p Chapter XXVII. be placed simply hqfort the latter.) s 4. and. as prefixed grace-note. AlUfro. A lew tarmac melodiM these larger groups. instead of appearing thus ?)p(>re/m reiteraton<\ may. with especial to these forms of cmbel- lithmeai CHAPTER XXIX. mm^^^mm later (accented App. MMMBtad- to lie 2. prmstding it only. tions of its principal llf». AtUyro. The rhythmic form. or throughout. as indicated 11. or the accented passing-note. tone.

t. (acc - App) •7.) ^^^^^^gtess^a o £ o^ °^~-*- °^s *. App. °< O. line (38 c)- . ^'^^ ^ ^rfei original lino- cmb. 8.t. 97 f jg^fel 5. Allegro. ftwto. Lento. *- r> Chopin. orig. 3= tL *. emb. Moderate. (unacc.) original line (38c) fc e f r p i> J lJ 3 £b=S J=g=r ' >r U^ uU ^ d Schumann.EXERCISES IN MELODY-WRITINQ. (unaccented A pp.

iss X i T E v Ihraoghoat x mm 10. ^ •» . :*—#-Hf—^^E -^ Scill-MANH. ' ' mod. Nos.. C^^3:fe^Vggg^^^ Dt oris. rep. 117.lino. Xo 5) l. the upper neighbor is the more common. ^ iS^i^sss * ±=t 12. d^-tn G-m^jor. The prreatest influence rted by the location of the preceding tone.. ^ E (2) tura. as in Ex. i . primarily. II' V IV Alltjro. for instance: »'>. Tho choice between upper or lower neighboring-note. 7. by the rules given above. (ronlinwitiwi of Kx. . ? A«r-7ro. or in uniform figures.—i a. in practical composition. 117. But. 2 and S. the utmost freedom is exercised in this choice.'. tfoa. H. 1 '. Tn general. 11. [W O O ^. as appoggiamay be determined.rntn. 9 and 11). either aooording to the direction into tho following essential tone (see Ex. MFHom/wonx. IV lO. H.IS Ml LOHY-WKITINO.

99 An upward movement (especially with a skip) is usually made to the upper appoggiatura. r ~] essential tones- m (3) ± 33 possible.TiODY-WRTTTNQ. 117. the appoggiatura is best approached (from any distance) in the direction opposite to that of its Resolution (its obligatory step-wise progression into its principal tone). 6. Nos. No. with ^=t essential tones. 113 (Exs. 25. or any of the. 119. 28 a. •with —lower neighbor: =r ===J^^E3 * l ^'n_|l J . —following— boRt embellishort-thus. but misleading: m and 112). For example: AndanU. the only exceptions occur and in No. . Schubert. This rule prevails almost throughout Ex. The notation The presence of the appoggiatura defined exactly according to the rules given in par. Ex. £e= ^^m See also Ex. 31 (Ex. 8 (second half of each measure). 121. 118. 5. 13. For illustration: — A. 14). given in par. This simply corroborates the rule given in par. 5 (second measure). but misleading. of the following tone. and a downward progression to the lower one.EXEBCT8ES IN MF. I __i__Jzi be8t I thns. e. 75 c. i.. & is in No. and again in par. of an appoggiatura justifies exceptions to the rule of same direction. 11. of course. Ex. upperneighbor : : —^ n possible. Ill (4) successive skips in the 12.

essential tone i<mb. and that illustrated in Ex. major and minor alternately. and with similar. or at each tone throughout melodies of uniform rhythm).120. Ex. in of embel- various species of Measure. thus producing a new variety of Compare Ex. (b) As usual. though much heightupper and lower neighbor may successively precede their mutual principal tone. 11(5. and observe the distinction between the 3-tone group.) en. and the time-values are almost wholly optional. (a. LESSON A. the group may appear in any reasonable rhythmic form. 108. to giatnra. DOUBLE-APPOGGIATURA In a similar manner. Now lishment. melodies.121 orig. either of tho 3 tones may occupy the accented fraction of the beat or rhythmic group.— with especial reference to this form Former deviooa must bo borne in mind and omployed.100 KXinCISEH IM MEI/ODT-WIUTTKQ. but passes first over to the opposite neighbor (of the same principal tone). in 2-tone groups. The details of treatment conform For example: to the rules and illustrations of the preceding chapter. cither at single points. The first nppoggiatura does not progress directly into its principal tone. •<!. 4 and 8 measures. affect. both the For example: Ex. this use oi both neighbors. B.'g. as Douhl^-uppoggintura. bo embellished with tho appog- of former molodioa. 115.A number (in 30. CHAPTER XXX. line — eoib tm-u S^Pil^ £fc . with Double-api»oj.

101 ^ I o 3. 5.IN MEIXJDY-WIUTIWO. Allegro. jEj>-l»ter:-frrf m ! ^=r 4—4- ^EEE ^ . Ah I V I Eb V7 I orig. AUegretto. line. ?F£ -0 —^^—^ 'f—r — £=l Gb i- G. Lento.

^^m^^^^m^^ a. Thus: in BUCceuion. Donble-appoggiatnra pn as fol ad lowed. 121 LOB to a new epeoiee ot four-tone gronp.—in either order. 7^F IS ii —— o— °— ] S- . by the principal tone. ^. effeotiye end oommon forma in the entire range of melodic embel* Lishment The reiteration of the principal tour is asperated by bath the nppei and lower neighbor rhythmic form. I5KKT1IOVIX.t&A uuuicisKa is HELODT-wnmso. and in any rational Ex. thna extending the Bgnree shown in Exs. whiofa is one of the most conTenient.u:l^ -'>>~ ttda : rt i- a h. -iitly the ^ Choi or. 11 117. --'\'^m 3. Allegro. 122. <r D 1 nr nnH I is |f ? V tv Ere in. V. aiujto. Any.

' 1 ' I 1° ^ X^ f-min. Bmtrovik. liue. ^^^^gH^lS —^ . . .EXERCISES IN MELODY-W1CITINO. Allegro. 103 4. l ^l^^^^fl emb. cf-minor.Andante. ' 1 I "° AbV. * ^ ~ ' ~i 7. X^ Allegretto.. eif^^E^ Orig. ° 6. rresto. ^ 3 3 I ' I I— *—- -'o _ x H MOZAHT. . Eb 5. illfrtfro. ^ 8.

f^Hll C I- ii^s S.C -r— r-it^— T-j-r I h O. 2 *. AtUtjrtUo grazioto. In ruro is InemnMd kfai InitlllOW.*» *. AlUgr T^ I a l j ! " === o o o o ES ^feffgg: Original line . 3. .-. Original line- 1 . to Ibfl niiinl>«-r <>f Uipho thru.WHITING. bj ratoning ton. with Triple appo^x ^^3^mm ' I I TIiuh: 3.alkfrffto. 128 tj ^=\3= EuentioJ tone— emb.. * K---. . " : '-\ U. to tho IntepOMd neighboringAnt nppoggifttam Mom p»««inK on Into anM&tUl Kx. Schubert. AtUgro. i £XRBCISIi3 IN MELODV.. nct4-s 118. a*.

The Double-appoggiatura sometimes appears in connection with the Suspension. New melodies. 119. U*^ p —czco '^ —— . with special reference to this form of embellishment. r^** o_ ==t^ -o— S mLf =0 ZirzZo — f-l i t^T >:<? LESSON A. either above or below. Hence. of former melodies. is always a neighbor of the following essential tone. B. it may be regarded as an appoggiatura. or continuously. ioo 5 __ E-m^jor. as is made manifest in Chapter XXIII. as "indirect Resolution " of the latter.EXERCISES IN MKIiODT-WIUTINO. before the essential tone follows. For example: — — . eitha occasionally. major and minor. because of its invariable application at a step-wise progression. A number 31. to be embellished -with the Double appoggiatura. CONTINUED. and be conducted first into the opposite neighbor. in the 3-tone and 4-tone groups above illustrated. CHAPTER XXXI. APPOGGIATURAS. The Suspension. 4 and 8 measures. in various specie of Measure. precisely as shown in par. 116 a.

AlUtr* Hi initial liu. exoeptfan to this rulo is. which it most resembles in origin and charact. CI V CI einb. The remit il best when tho principal tones are both harmonic. after properly following its principal tone. lctj< down a 3rd. as that it oppoait (a) • neighbor ol that principal tone.-r). or after nwinging over into tho -O. . is a pass- A ing-note.li.wt$t Rt$oluHtm into prinfijml tone. AtUgro. The strict rulo of is. even when one. the vpper neighbor may iuterveuo betweeo two principal tunes that represent a dmeending ttep^wite progression. tho neighboring-note. and usually atari (liko the anticipation. \l PH-fU l m uvimm i pxeeeding ohepten. may In other words. AXLtjra. peculiar.ft. u • I II 3.— either Immediately. 125."— neighboring-note is alwm/s unaccented. but quite oommon. that the wpper neighboring-note. This. its Men thronghont tho must befoBotoed By a ttep. — Thus: Ex. but it is applicable to any weighty tones.106 . with the Unresolved neighbor (uppor)- Essential tones 2. tho "Unresolved. 1--K. KXr. or each of them.S IS MKI^«I>Y WKiriNU. lk'^ ' m (wo Er 123-2).

" *=t=F a-minoror C-major- m^mmsmm Ex.£_ Not l>5. it is properly speaking an anticipation. Adagio. L.— of which.. . unless tbo key remains Cora throughout. * :fcfc m i j i i i . Beethoven.EXKRCISEH IN MKLODY-WIUTINQ. (later) 6. 107 Emb. the latter must agree in notation with the scale of the following principal tone. as above stated. Thus: 1. Essential tones- 126. Allegro.. — 3=^=?=^ Original lino- f&J If a modulation is made during a step-wise descending melodio passage which is to be embellished with the unresolved neighbor. Allegretto. 7G J 2.

128. Thus: Ex. 5. . with special reference to these embellishments. AXUqto. i.. U. New melodies. tie] nee. the tower neighbor: to t Lng. and with un« to be embellished with resolved neighboring-notes. i: &±E S3SPH Mo/. of former simple melodies (including those of Lesson 24). b(7 VHatds.ODY WKiriNM.n (d) When the rhythm is uniform. UJ A. as shown above. as in Home of the above illustrations. this derioe rt.I OS XSBCXSKM IS MKI. A number ^^^^a^i LESSON 32.AKT.nl reversed. i< I rarely. Therolei oorrespond ho Andantf Ex. and the tempo rapid. Suspensions with indirect Resolution. s.- . between Thus: 1. these unresolved neighbors may often (not always) be analyzed as a Doublo-appoggiatura. -J .

that its systematic exercise is of vital importance to the student who aims to acquire habits of healthy and facile melodic — conduct. This process of melodic evolution is so natural and so wholesome. or Dominant chords. the result of deliberate intention. so positive and so instructive. Hence. in advanced musical thought. they are none the less surely thus simple in their original germinal form. erly that its presence 122. smooth. well-balanced (as concerns the rhythmic and syntactic exterior). illustrations are to be very studiously examined and Germ (chord-line): Ex. though it is certain to be felt) a part of the line of the scale. even when they appear to have issued spontaneously from his mind. or complete Phrase. The application of these various classes of embellishments is apt. Bbi_ AUtgretto. =&£ melodic evolntion. an — The following analyzed: 1. to be determined upon some broader basis than the general purpose of ornamenting individual tones of a simple melodic line. and while such products are not.KIZBCI8ES IN liELODY-WTUTIUO. and free from eccentricity. or the simplest elements of the Tonic chord. out of two or three fundamental tones. ornate melodic sentence may conceal (perhaps so clevmay scarcely be heard. . and must have existed in this simple form in the firmly established melodic habits of the composer. at least free from extreme and that the manipulation of it into an ornate Phrase shall be coherent. 100 CHAPTER XXXII. as a rule. The development or evolution of an elaborate melodic figure. and the evidences of its presence in classic melodic thought are so clear. has been repeatedly exhibited in the foregoing examples. many cases. The only irregularities. perfectly f/udtless rules are: that the fundamental tones (the germ) shall form a and natural melodic figure.129. directly. in 121. EVOLUTION OF MELODIC GERMS. by miscellaneous methods of embellishment and repetition. in their complete ornate and characteristic shape.

. 4. melodic form. l^ppg'-'^^hHI ii. Tr0i&\£ IV I . Germ (chord linc-n): Allegro. <.«>nT-wnnTso. Gorm* (chord line*): 3 - 2=U * r^r^s g^y^p-^P^^^a^ melodic form- .HI KXKIKI -IVi in Mri.Tm (chonl line): ? it -i'T:=n=i= melodic evoliitiou- = • i'iii 3. .

Adagio. Ill v f'J».r W ^m^ fu' J J J j_ui «. Germ fJLbM > 1 ] .IN MELODY-WRITING.

Hy »c*Jr lin. Q«rn (»calt>): AlUjro ¥> s* t— — — otcz|-V-^ I i -4-- ta > - — Hfc 1 ^». $ * # I '# - " .-i t ft • -» : ^ir^ L' * AU/jr<rro.nl. g y_ r^t.Y « KlIINW hi. IN MKl. ' J hj g^ = =a= +T=H * « . feJ=^ HUfHJJF/fl _= 10.119 i» M C. i Itrms (scale and chord): *'2 * J.riu (.

SCHUBBBT § ss 13. Germs: chord & fes^E9g|i=E=rI si * irr-y ^l^^l^=M±= S=t t=*=t=F Allegro. ^^-I-tH^^^^^N^^^ .KXEKCI8ES IK MKLODY-WIUTIKO. ^^^^a^g^^^^pn h» 14.. Germ (descending and ascending 3rds): fc=t :c K"-^ e=e F=t=ft Alfe^ro. &7 r Ejfazz^l Melodic form (expanded to double measures). Allegro 113 mmi.

— '- I I 123.i^rrfro. «. derived directly from the scale. 4 ' 1 J . common property.. or from some primary chord-line.^S| " 3^S% » --I g ^5^ Male p . ' ' . EXERCISES IS MPLol'YWKITINO. f f 7 f "J J li d- Jy " J=» (96) It 4~T jP^ jKH^=Mf°5^ f~ i i i 'r _lf r . AtttgrtUo.114 I". like the soil. -p. — V -- ——7 ' I i * * r f z r_L n. are.. r f " i ^ 17. J. -|. — . open to the use of all humanity. Such simple germs.

124. LESSON The evolution 4. 130 modified rrpvtition- . or to heighten the effect of. 3. the application of these embellishing processes may serve to disguise. Science of Originality. Sequences. or proven. 33. 8.— exhibits the individuality of the cr/mposer. Further. 106. But their manipulation. Review the text of Chapters and XI. Eepetitions. ornate and melodic sentences. merely common souse. and Recurrences of former figures or phrases in general. see Ex. CONTINUED. or the degree of discrimination and "taste" that he has acquired by persistent and thorough exercise of such established technical methods as those expounded in the present treatise. 10. 100. 115 In the choice of these germs no originality can bo exercised. and the extent. 4.—VtR method. that may possibly lead onward into yet undiscovered — modes occult. thoroughly: X Ex.EXEItCISKS IN MELODY-WRITING. Ex. 12 or 16 measures in length (major and minor alternately. out of simple germs. No. MELODIC EVOLUTION. of complete. of treatment. This is one of the most obvious and natural phases of the apparently but in reality very manifest. and examine and analyze the following. 115. the particular quality and calibro of his innate mnsieal susceptibility. No. and in all species of Measure). Ex. of their embellishment and development. No. imitating the melodic and rhyth- mic methods shown in the above example. characteristic. CHAPTER XXXIII.

._.-..- 1. mod. & inodifiod recurrence.. Allfjro modrratn (120a) . original phraso. F=F original melodic phrase... lino melodlo . ° -» mod repetitio repetition Bin 1 1 • i •. _ 7 ...J naJ uipI. • t. > '-.s is MKLODY-wnrriNO.'-' if' » %fg 3 r~ # : -*~2 rl ~~~~ ^^ t C..116 i:xn:nsK.-no> I ClIOPIH. rvMtitioD l ^.mIu- 1 ^j=B^M^=d Una niixlilW reoiirr. original _. C Aliejro mof/o. AlUgretto...._. p^^^^^m^s^m -*? • *- — modified recnrrenco- (120a) FJ..

f^^a^^fesspg^g 3 . 3 . mmm CHoriN. «> 3ZE^ # ** -{ * » modified recurrouce. JT. Ej t^g^ffif^^j^p r^inrmodified recurrence.KXBKCISES IN MELODT-WIUTINO. 117 -again— Jater — 1L. 7. Adagio.

rep. ' _- ' '0tfJt=}*±& m UWM ft•«. 7— t I I -4- r-rttt =T_z:-tU=fil»=f: T t 'I » r* lJ lO.. Bekthovik.: pliiaao. modified repetition. P Ut«r:--i n iniKlill. 9. .).-—=r<l Q inixlifi) recurrence.il -''00 ^ . 1 a2 I te *£ £# = .in>. s M^^^r*^^'^ik i i modified recurrence (incl. mod. Sym. Larghetto.

EXERCISES IN MEEOU*- WHITING.

119

$

^^^BWte^l

*

-0-

£

^^~~^*-

***t

^*.

^~

12. Adagio.

i

#*3
AiT
Original figure

a^toidi
stj^*~^7
1

* X

^^^P— r
J

*

Beethoven.

1

t

^

disguised sequence-

13.

(comp. par.

121.)

Adagio, espressivo.

B
Germ

H

h

I

I

Eg^i^a^a
Melodic form.

(mod. sequence):

b^=4^g3Jgg^c£S5^£gj; a^fe^Kayi^-P^yi^g:

|feg^t^ fe=£5S

^

|

^l

* These tones represent a "passing-group" (109, extended), in sequential formation.

120

KXCR.IHRd IS MIILODY -WKITINO.

It

(i.riu <«i<juonoo):

Mozaiit.

lfV AlUgro
l

gratinio:

^=frU^^=^
-

A Ordinal

lino

^
,1

m_
1

n-p

^^^a
la*t figure,

agpaaded..

•• Thin la*t illustration comes undor tlitt head of "manipulation" more upon rhythmic modification than melodic embellishment.

In goQerali it

U

based

LESSON
A. Former,
tition.

34.

or new, £ and 8-nieasuro melodies, with embellished repe-

1$.

Melodies, of optional length, with special application of the modi-

fied (embellished) repetition, sequence,

and recurrence.

Simple harmonic accompaniment may be added,
the teacher.

at the discretion of

EUCRCISEB IN MKLOUT-WKITIUQ.

121

CHAPTER XXXIV.
MELODIC EXPRESSION.
125. As
exercise in

CONCLUSION.
is

stated in the Preface, the foregoing

melody invention, only, not melody conception. For the latter there is, and should be, no other guide than the individual impulses of the maturing composer, founded upon, and controlled by, such natural and correct habits of melodic thought as he may have been fortunate enough to
establish iu early youth.

a course of systematic

The transition from invention into conceptior is signalized by the increasing assertion of personal emotional impulses {feeling, as distinguished from thought), through which the element called Expression is instilled into
the otherwise purely mechanical product, and the distinctions of Style, both
individual and general, are created.

126. The presence of this element of Expression is manifested by an independent inclination to discriminate between the following attributes of musical style:
(a) Between the major and minor Modes; the latter of which is more passionate and sombre, the former brighter and more vigorous in effect,
as a

common
(b)

rule.

Between the duple and triple species of fundamental Rhythm the former more sturdy, the latter more graceful. (c) Between rapid and slow Tempo, or degree of fundamental motion. This distinction influences, somewhat, even the technical formation of the melodic sentence; in slow, or moderate, tempi, there is likely to be more considerable ornamentation is appropriate and scale than chord-derivation even extreme necessary, and much diversity of tone-values is possible. contrary, in more active or rapid tempi, c&ortf-derivation is apt to On the over scale-derivation, though rapid scale-passages (as embelpredominate lishment by passing-notes) are by no means infrequent; less ornamentation is likely to appear, and diversity of time-values is more limited, i. e. the rhythm is more nearly uniform. (d) Between such conventional Styles as distinguish one class of composition from another (i. e. the Waltz from the Nocturne, the March from These are subject to no other laws than those of conthe Barcarolle, etc.). vention, or popular usage, and are best learned by observation.

;

f

,

more advanced

All of these general qualities of melodic conception demand the discipline of musical Form, and can therefore be exercised only experimentally and briefly, at the discretion of the teacher, in the

127.

present course of melodic practice.

[i that dforded by the mmoI The simply mechanical Of '• melodizing. the effect of strain or ten- . diminishes the effect and value of its musical meaning. l -\K The details of melodie afleeta. these ohangea of feeling are tibru]. an increase of emotional tension. and the bearing of the above upon them. the The chord-7th and and even obtrusive accented. morease or decrease of the djegree or when more the tones progress in tkipe. arouse exactly similar impressions of increasing or decreasing volume or emphasis of feeling. or piano effects) corroborate perhaps violent. may be deaeribed approximately m fol- lowa: (<i) An amtnchng qnoccaai on ol tour-. khe rarying sbadai ol oloeely endeavor to follow and oonflrm.issian<a>>. lengthened.. it natural and wholeeome artificial stimulus of deflniti aignifioaal Bxpreaeion la melody-inrention. conspicuous. is similarly abrupt and vigorous. ordinarily. either way. If placed upon the accented beats. chord-third sweeter and more flexible. its location upon an unaccented beat. or its contraction to a brief time-value. as a rule.. (f) The musical sense in the and value (g) The definition of tonal meanings. li calculate. their effect (in is 9th. and utmost gentleness or remoteness. If it bo placed upon the accented beat.! to arouse and develop tlio Btndent'i individual sense of Bxpraaakm.HI KXKiwirtErt IN MMUOtl WBBM VOCAL SETTING. the extremes of fortissimo and />ionissimo indicate. these may be emphasized by simultaneous sndden changes of register or pitch. scale) successions. such musical meaning as it possesses (absolute or comparative). (e) Siuklen swift. (d) The changes in force indicated by tretcendo and diminuendo. and smooth Whereat. changes of force {nl>ruj>t forte. (c) The progression in chromatic tones is more se<luctir>> <>>• }>.. they impart these respective qualities to the entire rhythmic group in which they occur. and the suspensions. than diatonic (i." of u UlM <>r stanza of text. if prolonged. about in proportion to the size of the skips. tlong the scale-line. or if its time-value be increased. a deteenohng mo* 01 anion. if heightened. e. change. proportion to the degree of their dissonance). may be roughly stated thus: The chord-root is po w erful. Thi and i". poaeible. impulses of em6tion. or emphasis. indiealea. irhioh And their parallels in the nn. e.liihitions of poetic erproaaion. is brought out with corresponding force. or the chord-fifth soft and tender. ins. — of a tone is powerfully influenced by its location rhythmic group. and usually in proportion to their speed.t and positive. utmost power or HfloniW. M stated at />. are keen. effect (b) The of ttep-wiee progressions is that of gradual stress of feeling. on the other hand. And. the effect of winch. and prepare for its untraniiiieled operation in the domain of obtolutt (iustru- m m p neantal) nraaio. i. respectively. pootio and proaodk (at dim1amatA»y) t iM||M| ol the given text. • nation. wide skips.

The I. distinctions may be tested iu the melodic examples given in this book. Appoggiaturas aro similar. while 1. accented syllables and important words should be set to the comparatively accented. in two or more notes set to one word or syllable must be connected. The following examples briefly illustrate these rules. 3. Cantatas. or slur. Anthems and Songs (i. L. Thy re - buke ken hi* heart. some of which should be reviewed with special reference to the quality of Expression.l31. cresc. . lower. 2.EXEIICISE3 IN MELODY. or longer.FEi5i f-minor. mp ~= ' ~ZL P -n—0- dim. unaccented syllables and unimportant words should be set to comparatively unaccented. 123 still sion is created. The pupil may find numerous others. tie. joyous. in English Oratorios. Ex. vigorous expression. Recitative. Allegro. consistent That the emotional contents of the text should be corroborated. 132. notation. That notes set to separate words or syllables must be detached. f Ex. i. That the rhythmic vice versa. but usually more pro- nounced These. e. and. tones. principal rules of vocal setting are: details in the melody should agree closely with the prosodic effects of the text. II. or shorter. tones. e. graceful expression mp 133. pathetic expression. and other. Andante. 130. . either by beam.. iu effect. Moderate Largo.X-* ^=P^^ charm ing - tight. higher. composed originally to English words): III. by employment of the distinctions of melodic expression above explained.WR1T1NO..

IM :N MI. ml^0^Q\C: LESSON The melodio 35. and of brief stanzas. • r. lilMNU. e. they may bo harmonized. or from secular At first. very numerous studies in metrical Phrase. After correction and approval by tho teacher.>lui tn^ tiyJU. not strictly poetic writings. or from tbo Psalms and other parts of tho Bible. setting of linos. i. . or provided with a simple instrumental accompaniment. TlXTDX. or Double-period form. Period. metrical..UiHV V. from church hymn- books. a few BZeroieei in Recitative form. eAarm - . Afterwards.

First The Scale-link. Continued Transient Modulations . DIVISION ONE. Continued. Summary of Rules (par. Major Altered Scale-steps. Exceptional Chapter The Chord-line Second Primary Rule Fundamental Harmonic Principles Rules for Single Skips 12 13 15 19 Chapter IV The Chord-line. Regular Chapter VI Chapter VII The Period-form Irregular Rhythm 34 Chapter VIII Chapter IX Chapter 36 Exceptional Semicadences 40 41 41 X Syntax of Melody Repetition and Sequence. Continued Application to the Period-form Chapter XIII Chapter XIV Chapter Altered Scale-steps. 36) 24 25 28 31 Chapter V Minor Diversity of Rhythm. ESSENTIAL TONES. Minor Modulation. Exact Chapter XI Chapter XII Syntax of Melody. or Changes of Key 55 58 62 62 XV Chapter XVI Modulation. 39) Miscellaneous Illustrations (Ex. Continued Repetition and Sequence. Regular 5 Primary Kule 5 7 10 12 The Four-measure Phrase Chapter II III The Major Scale-line. Modified 44 44 49 49 51 Syntax of Melody.126 TABLE OF CONTENTS. page Chapter I Majob.

"|- I'o.ino-notes.h. . • I form 63 Will. 116 121 Melodic Expression Vocal Betting 122 . Cbapter XXIII Definition or DlBTlHUTlOM hetween Essential and Uh75 76 79 RsSI. TONES. Continued 9'2 XXIX Nl IGIUioUINO-NOTE AS APPOQC. . UNESSENTIAL. OuMIUIW to Pi n. The The Anticipation (single) XXV The Passing-note 81 Ciiimii XXVI Passing note (successive) 83 84 Chromatic Pussing-note Repeated Pseaing note 86 87 CHAPTER XXVII Chapter XXVIII. . III.. . NBOHBOBXHO-NoTI* . XVII. Continued Disguised Recurrences . is is BbQUBBOM.. Evolution of Melodic Germs Melodic Evolution.Nei.nv Chapter XXII The Duuule-pkkiod Form DIVISION TWO. XXX XXXI DOITILE-APPOOOIATURA Appoggiatura. I 63 AppliMtlOB ClIAI-TKK ('im-ir-i.hihoi-.VTKN is.LATURA 96 100 105 106 109 11". CHArTEIt . OR EMBELLISHING. CHAPTER Chapti i. MM Ciiai-ih.Monri.NTIAL Tf)NKS Tho CHArrrn XXIV QfUI ieii Suspension.NUM. . Continued Unresolved Neighboring-note Chapter XXXII Chapter XXXIII Chapter XXXIV.ATMN. G5 66 G6 68 70 72 \I\ M-iTivii Overla]>]>i:iK BOftlt HI li&M CiuiiEK XX I'iim-teu Mom i An.126 I'AIW r. . . and at Cidincii XXI Chromatic Mr.

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