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**QUANT-TOOL KIT: SOME IMPORTANT THINGS TO REVISE BEFORE CAT NUMBERS
**

Types of Numbers: Natural numbers (Positive integers) Whole numbers (Non-negative integers) Negative integers Integers Even numbers Odd numbers Prime numbers (exactly 2 factors) Composite numbers (more than 2 factors) Perfect numbers (Sum of all the factors is twice the number) Co-primes (relative primes) (Two numbers whose HCF is 1) Twin primes (Two prime numbers whose difference is 2) : Rational numbers (

p form, p & q are integers, q ≠ 0 ) q

: : : : : : : : : :

1, 2, 3, 4,.... 0, 1, 2, 3,.... − 1, − 2, − 3,.... ...., −2, − 1, 0,1, 2,..... ...., − 2, 0, 2, 4,.... (2n) ....., −3, −1,1,3,... (2n + 1) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11,.... 4, 6, 8, 9,10,.... 6, 28, 496, .. 2 & 3, 8 & 9,.. 3 & 5, 5 & 7,.

2 3 , , 2, 0.5,.. 3 2

:

**Irrational numbers (which cannot be represented in the form of a fraction) : 2,
**

3

5 , e, π ,

0.231764735...)

**Pure recurring decimal to fraction conversion
**

ab 99 Mixed recurring decimal to fraction conversion

Ex. 0.ababab ….. =

Ex. 0.abcbcbc … =

abc − a 990

→ → → → →

1 is the neither prime, nor composite. 2 is the only even prime. If x & y are two integers, then (x + y) ! is divisible by x !. y! The product of ‘n’ consecutive numbers is divisible by n!.

Divisibility of powers:

xn – yn xn + yn n is even divisible by (x–y)(x+y) ---n is odd. divisible by (x–y) divisible by (x+y)

**Some Important points: → → → → → →
**

Every number ‘N’ can be written as N = ap × bq × cr …. . (a, b, c,…. are prime numbers.) If p, q, r ……. are even, ‘N’ is a perfect square. If p, q, r are multiples of 3, ‘N’ is a perfect cube. Number of factors of N = (p+ 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) …..

⎛ a p +1 − 1 ⎞ ⎟ Sum of the factors of N = ⎜ ⎜ a −1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ b q +1 − 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ …. ⎜ b −1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Number of co – primes of ‘N’ , which are less than N = N (1 − 1/ a ) (1 − 1/ b) ….

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests, login to www.TCYonline.com Page : 1

b and c respectively. b) × HFC (a. If it’s divisible by 4 or 25 3 or 9 → check the sum of the digits. then (np –n) is divisible by p The last digit of the powers of 2. of x. y and z.7. y and z (least multiple). b and c respectively. 2. Required number = L. The last digit of the powers of 4 and 9 repeats after every 2nd power. Find the LEAST NUMBER which is exactly divisible by x. y and z leaving the same remainder in each case.M.TCYonline. The last digit of any power of 0. y. If it’s divisible by 3 or 9 11 → check the difference of (sum of the digits in the even places) and (the sum of digits in odd places)….C. of x. (y – b) and (z – c).5. y. AVERAGE _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests.C. Approach of Problem Required number = H. and z (greatest divisor).C. of (x – y). Required number = H. z. y and z leaves the same remainder ‘r’ each case. Type of Problem Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will exactly divide x. y and z leaves the remainders a. Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x. 5. Required number = (L.1. (n –1)! +1 is divisible by n. Find the GREATEST NUMBER that will divide x. 3.C. 6 respectively.F. y and z leaving remainders a. (y – z) and (z – x). 1. n–1 . y and z) – (K). 4. of (x – a). it is always observed that (x. 2 ® → → → → → → Numbers of ways of writing ‘N’ as a product of 2 co-primes = 2 numbers in ‘N’ If n is a prime number.1. 5.M. of x.8 repeats after every 4th power. If it’s divisible by 11 LCM / HCF a × b = LCM (a.No. of x. login to www.C. Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x. 6.a) = (z – b) = (z – c) = K (say).3. If it’s divisible by 2 or 5 4 or 25 → check the last two digits. Find the LEAST NUMBER which when divided by x. b) LCM of fractions = HCF of fractions = LCM of numerators HCF of deno min tors HCF of numerators LCM of deno min ators IMPORTANT RESULTS S. Required number (greatest divisor) = H.F. Divisibility Rules: 2 or 5 → check last digit.F.C.6 is always 0.M. ∴ Required number = (L.com Page : 2 . n is the number of different prime If n is a natural number and p is a prime number.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ N → Sum of these co-primes = × N (1 – 1/a) (1 – 1/b)…. Then. y and z) + r.

11% 9 1 = 7.33% 3 1 = 14.09% 11 1 = 25% 4 1 = 12.66% 15 1 = . login to www.P C..P is the middle number or the average of the first and the last number. Profit of A Profit of B = Amount of A' s investment × No.V Where F.P % discount = Discount × 100 M.com Page : 3 . S. M. x2.P = Cost price. − I. then a/b = c/d = e/f = a + c + e a + c − e k 1a + k 2 c + k 3 e = = b+d+ f b+d−f k 1b + k 2 d + k 3 f Partnership & Share: If there is profit in the business run by two partners A and B then. which are in the ratio r1 : r2 …….P – C.P = Selling price RATIO & PROPORTION If a/b = c/d = e/f. the average is also increased/ decreased/ multiplied/ divided by k.. = Marked price. =Final value I. 6. PERCENTAGE % change = F..... + rn → → The average of consecutive numbers or the numbers which are in A.25% 16 Profit = S. of months of A ' s investment Amount of B' s investment × No.P Discount = M.P – S. If each number is increased / decreased/ multiplied/ divided by a number ‘k’..V. of months of B' s i nvestement _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. …. + rn x n r1 + r2 + .P % profit = Pr ofit × 100 C.33% 12 1 = 11.TCYonline.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sum of items → Average = Number of items ® → Weighted average = x1. rn is.28% 7 1 = 9.67% 6 1 = 33.V.P.5% 8 1 = 8.14% 14 1 = 6.= Initial value Percentage to Fraction conversions: 1 = 100% 1 1 = 20% 5 1 = 50% 2 1 = 16.V x 100 I.xn..V.69% 13 → → → → 1 = 10% 10 1 = 7. r1x 1 + r2 x 2 + .

If x is directly proportional to y. 5. 8.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® Proportion: 1. login to www. loga mn = n logam logaa = 1 log n (m) = a logba = 1 log a b a loga m = m 1 . 7. 10.logam n _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests.P. loga0 = not defined 2. then : Milk left in vessel after nth operation ⎡ x − y ⎤ ⎡ y⎤ =⎢ ⎥ = ⎢1 − x ⎥ Initial quantity of Milk in vessel ⎣ x ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ n n ALGEBRA Laws of indices: → → → → (a ) = a m n mn a–n = 1 n a (ab)m = ambm 1 n a = n a Logarithm: 1. x1 x = 2 y1 y2 2. loga1 = 0 ⎛m⎞ logam – logan = loga ⎜ ⎟ ⎝n⎠ 3. 9. logam + logan = logamn logba = log c a log c b 4.P.com Page : 4 . C. of unit qty of 1 constituent. of unit qty of 2nd constituent. Mixtures: If a vessel contains “x” litres of milk and if “y” litres be withdrawn and replaced by water. and the operation repeated ‘n’ times in all. x1y1 = x2y2 Alligation: Qc Qd c d m → → → → → Cheaper quantity Dearer quantity C. Mean Cost price of unit qty of mixture Qc d − m = Qd m − c d–m m–c st c m d Gives us the ratio of quantities in which the two ingredients should be mixed to get the mixture. 6.TCYonline. If x is inversely proportional to y. then if “y” litres of the mixture be withdrawn and replaced by water.

Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® Remainder Theorem: If f(x) is divided by x – a.. a/b + b/c + c/a ≥ 3 a4 + b4 + c4 + d4 ≥ 4abcd a3 + b3 + c3 ≥ 3abc |a + b| ≤ | a | + | b | |a – b| ≥ | a | – | b | A.... ax +bx + c... the roots are rational Inequalities/ Max.TCYonline.M = a1. + a n n n . the roots are real and distinct If b2 – 4ac is perfect square. The min/ max value = 4ac − b 2 .. then roots are Imaginary If b2– 4ac = 0. the remainder is f (a) Quadratic equations: The general form of Quadratic Equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0 The roots are − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a b a c a Sum of the roots = – Product of the roots = Nature of the roots: If b2 – 4ac < 0.a 2 .M ≥ G... a ± c > b ± c a > b ⇒ ac > bc if c > 0 and ac < bc if c < 0 a > b ⇒ 1/a < 1/b a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ ab + bc + ca 2 ≤ 1+ 1 ( x ) x ≤ 3. H. 1 a1 a2 an _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. 4a Progressions: A.M ≥ H. the value is maximum. the value is minimum.com Page : 5 ..M..M is Arithmetic mean G..M = H. value will come at x = –b/2a If a < 0..M = a1 + a 2 . The min. A. 2 G.M is the Harmonic mean G..a n n 1 + 1 + . A.M = Geometric mean. or max.M = Harmonic mean For any Quadratic expression.M = Arithmetic mean. If If If → → → → → → → → → a > b. login to www. a > 0. Min. the roots are real and equal If b2 – 4ac > 0.M is the Geometric mean H.

ar.TCYonline. ( a = first term.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® A. VB is the speed of B) Resultant Speed: Same direction : Opposite direction: B+W B–W (B is the speed of boat. Tn = a + (n – 1) d Sum of first n terms: S n = n n [2a + (n–1)d] = (First term + Last term) 2 2 G. D = Number of days E = Efficiency W = Amount of work TIME & DISTANCE Distance = Speed × Time Relative speed of A & B: Same direction : Opposite direction : V A – VB V A + VB (VA is the speed of A.com Page : 6 . a + 2d.P : a. Tn = a.. a + d. login to www.r n–1 ( a= first term. H = Number of hours.P: a. …… nth term. a(r n − 1) r −1 Sum of first n terms: S n = Sum of infinite terms of G. ar2.P → → ∑n = 2 ∑n = = a 1− r ( ∑ n is the sum of the first n natural numbers) ( ∑ n2 is the sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers) ( ∑ n3 is the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers) n(n + 1) 2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6 2 → ⎡ n(n + 1) ⎤ ∑ n3 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ TIME & WORK M1D1H1E1 M2D 2H2E 2 = W1 W2 M = Number of men. W is the speed of water) Average speed = Total dis tan ce total time SETS n(A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A ∩ B) n (A ∪ B ∪C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – n(A ∩ B) – n(B ∩ C) – n(C ∩ A) + n(A ∩ B ∩ C) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. r =. ….common ratio) . d = common difference) nth term.

com Page : 7 .I = P ⎜1 + ⎟ −P ⎝ 100 ⎠ Amount = principle + interest PERMUTATIONS / COMBINATIONS → → → → → → → → n Cr = n! (n − r )! r ! n! (n − r ) ! n C0 = nCn = 1.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® INTEREST Ptr S. n C0 + nC1 + …………. nPn = n ! r things can be selected from n things in nCr ways. the hands will coincide 11 times. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests.TCYonline.I = Compound Interest) r ⎞ ⎛ C. of favourable outcomes No. t = time. The hands will make an angle ‘ θ ‘ (0 < θ < 180 ). login to www. 22 times in 12 hours. n things can be placed in n places in n! ways. P = principle. r = rate of interest) (C. nP1 = n. 11 In 12 hours. of all possible outcomes P( A ) = 1 – P(A) P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) P (A ∪ B ∪C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) – P(A ∩ B) – P(B ∩ C) – P(C ∩ A) + P(A ∩ B ∩ C) Odds in favor of A = P(A) : P( A ) Odds against A = P( A ) : P(A) If A and B are independent events P(A ∩ B) = P(A) × P(B) CLOCKS The angle between the hands = 30 H − 11 M 2 0 (Where H → Hour reading & M → Minute reading) → → → The hands will coincide once in every 65 5 minutes.I = Simple Interest.I = 100 n (S.. + nCn = 2n. n persons can sit around the circular table in (n – 1)! ways PROBABILITY Probability = → → → → → → No. r things can be arranged in n places in nPr ways. nC1 = n n Pr = n Pr = nCr × r ! n P0 = 1.

h is the height) ( a and b are two sides and θ is the angle between them ) a+b+c 2 = = Equilateral triangle Circle Sector Regular hexagon 1 ab sin θ 2 s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c ) .TCYonline. d are sides) 2 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. d2 are the diagonals) ( a and b are the two parallel sides and h is the distance between them) Triangle ( b is the base. login to www. b. c are the three sides ) ⎛ ⎜h = 3 ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ a ⎟ ( a is the side. b. b = breadth) ( a and b are two sides and θ is the angle between them. s = 3 2 h2 a = 4 3 ( a. c. s = a+b+c +d ( a .com Page : 8 . h is the height) Rhombus Trapezium (d1 . h is the height ) ⎟ ⎠ πr2 θ × πr2 360 ( r is the radius) (θ is the angle made by the sector at the center ) radiusRegular ( a is side) 6× 3 2 a 4 Cyclic Quadrilateral = (s − a)(s − b)(s − c )(s − d) .Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® Square Rectangle Parallelogram a2 lb ab sin θ = ah 1 d1 d2 2 1 (a + b) h 2 1 bh 2 AREA ( a is side) ( l = length.

com Page : 9 . login to www. Cuboid l b 2h (l + b) 2(lb + bh + lh) lbh l = length b = breath h = height a 2.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® VOLUME Nature of the solid Lateral/ curved surface area h S. Cube a 4a a 2 6a 2 a 3 a = length of edge 3.TCYonline. Right prism (perimeter of base) × Height 2 (area of one end) + lateral surface area Area of base × height r 4. Right circular cone πr l πr(l + r) 1 2 πr h 3 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. Right circular cylinder h r 2πrh 2πr(r + h) πr2h r = radius of base h = height of the cylinder 5. 1 (Perimeter 2 Right pyramid of the base) × (slant height) Area of the base + lateral surface area 1 (Area of 3 base) × height h = height r = radius l = slant height h l r 6. No Shape of the solid Total surface area Volume Abbreviations Used 1.

A P H θ B B C If θ is one of the angle other then right angle. Cot θ = P B P _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. These ratios are called trigonometric ratios.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® r = radius 7. Sphere • r –– 4πr2 4 3 πr 3 r r = radius 2πr 2 8.TCYonline. Sec θ = . Cos θ = H H Tan θ = P B Cosec θ = H H B .com Page : 10 . if θ be the angle between AC & BC. then the side opposite to the angle is perpendicular (P) and the sides containing the angle are taken as Base ( B) and the hypotenuse (H). we can have six types of ratios. Hemisphere 3πr 2 ⎛2 3⎞ ⎜ πr ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ GEOMETRY Diagnol of Cube and Cuboid: The length of diagonal of a cuboid = The length of a diagonal of a cube = a Polygons: l2 + b 3 2 + h 2 Sum of all external angles of any polygon = 360o Sum of all internal angles = (n – 2) 180o Number of diagonals in a polygon = nC2 – n = n(n − 3) 2 Pythagoras Theorem AB2 + BC2 = AC2 Basic Trigonometric Ratios In a right triangle ABC. In this type of triangles. Sin θ = P B . login to www.

if D and E are the respective mid-points of sides AB & AC. AB2 + AC2 = 2(AD2 + BD2) B Incentre: This is the point of intersection of the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle. b. login to www. Cos A = b2 + c 2 − a2 2bc Cos B = c 2 + a2 − b2 2ac Cos C = a2 + b2 − c 2 2ab ( a. b. c are the sides opposite to the angles A. (b) The centroid divides each median from the vertex in the ratio 2 : 1.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® Cosine Rule In triangle ABC with sides a. we have the following rules. C respectively ) Similar Triangles If ∆ABC and ∆DEF are similar. AB BC AC = = DE EF DF Area of ABC ⎛ AB ⎞ ⎛ BC ⎞ ⎛ AC ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ Area of DEF DE EF ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ DF ⎠ 2 2 2 Centroid: (a) The point of intersection of the medians of a triangle. c. In the adjacent triangle ABC. D C (a) (b) BL AB = LC AC A θ θ AI b + c = IL a c I B a L b C Mid-point Theorem A line joining the mid points of any two sides of a triangle must be parallel to the third side and equal to half of A that (third side).com Page : 11 . then D E 1 DE II BC and DE = BC 2 B C _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. (Median is the line joining the vertex to the midA point of the opposite side).TCYonline. (c) To find the length of the median we use the theorem of Apollonius. B.

When two circles touch. B O 2P C 9. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. P Let O be the centre of the circle.com Page : 12 . If PAB is a secant and PT is a tangent. The length of the direct common tangent (PQ) = (The dis tan ce between their centres)2 − (r1 − r2 )2 P Q r1 O r2 O 14. 10. The length of the transverse common tangent (RS) = ( The dis tan ce between their centres )2 − ( r1 + r2 )2 O r1 R S r2 O i _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. The angle inscribed in a semicircle is 90o. A line from centre and perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord. their centres and their point of contact are collinear. login to www. If the two circles touch externally. If two chords AB and CD intersect externally or internally at P. 8. 4. If two chords of a circle are equal. their corresponding arcs have equal measure.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® Properties of a Circle 1. There can be one and only one circle through three non-collinear points. then PT = PA × PB 2 B A P T 13. 3. If the two circles touch internally. 6. Degree measure of an arc is the angle subtended at the centre. Equal arcs subtend equal angles at the center. the distance between their centres is equal to sum of their radii. 5. ∠BOC = 2 ∠P.TCYonline. then PA × PB = PC × PD A B P D B C A P C D 12. 7. 2. the distance between the centres is equal to difference of their radii. Angle at the centre made by an arc is equal to twice the angle made by A the arc at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. 11.

y1) and B (x2. y2) is y − y1 = y 2 − y1 (x − x1 ) x 2 − x1 Intercept form Equation of a line (non-vertical) with slope m and cutting off intercepts a and b from the x-axis and y-axis respectively is x y + = 1. Incentre: It is the point of intersection of the internal angle bisectors of the angles of a triangle. a b _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. and the incentre by ⎜ ⎜ ⎟. y) from O (0. If A (x1. then its centroid is given ⎛ x1 + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 ⎞ ⎛ ax 1 + bx 2 + cx 3 ay 1 + by 2 + cy 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. y2) has the co-ordinates ⎛ x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 ⎞ . y1) and (x2.Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY Distance formula: If A (x1. y2) be two points. 0) is | OP | = Section formula: The point which divides the join of two distinct points A (x1. m1 + m2 ≠ 0 . distance of a point P (x. m1 + m2 ⎟ ⎝ m1 + m2 ⎠ In particular. m1 ≠ 0. . b = | CA | and c = | AB |. y2) in the ratio m1 : m2 internally.TCYonline. B (x2. y1). has the co-ordinates ⎜ ⎜ and externally. ⎜ m −m m1 − m 2 ⎟ 1 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ m1x 2 + m2 x1 m1y 2 + m2 y1 ⎞ ⎟ . then | AB | = (x 2 − x1 )2 + (y 2 − y1 )2 x2 + y2 In particular. y1) and B (x2. Equation of a line: One point form Equation of a line (non-vertical) through the point (x1. login to www. Two-point form Equation of a line (non-vertical) through the points (x1. m2 ≠ 0. m2 ≠ 0. the mid-point of the segment joining A (x1 y1) and B (x2. ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 Centroid and Incentre formulae: Centroid: It is the point of intersection of the medians of a triangle. . y2) and C (x3. by ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a+b+c a+b+c 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Where a = | BC |. y1) and having slope m is y – y1 = m (x – x1).com Page : 13 . is ⎛ m1 x 2 − m 2 x 1 m 1 y 2 − m 2 y 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ m1 ≠ 0. m1 – m2 ≠ 0 . y3) be the vertices of a triangle.

Top Careers & You _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ® Some important points: (a) Slope of a line parallel of x-axis is zero. y2) is Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0. then m1m2 = – 1. y1). y1) and B (x2. y1) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is L= ax 1 + by 1 + c a2 + b2 c−d a 2 + b2 (j) Distance between parallel lines. is – a . B (x2. (b) Slope of a line parallel to y-axis is not defined. y2) and C(x3. b ≠ 0. (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Slope of a line equally inclined to equal the axis is −1 or 1. Length of perpendicular from the point (x1.TCYonline. Slope of the line through the points A (x1. If m1 and m2 be the slopes of two perpendicular lines (which are oblique). y3) are the vertices of a triangle then its area is equal to = 1 mod of x 2 y 2 1 2 x3 y3 1 x1 y1 1 = 1 x 1 (y 2 − y 3 ) + x 2 (y 3 − y 1 ) + x 3 (y 1 − y 2 ) 2 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For free online tests. Slope of a line making equal intercepts on the axis is −1. login to www. ax + by + c = 0 and ax + by + d = 0 Area of triangle: If A (x1.com Page : 14 . b y 2 − y1 x 2 − x1 Slopes of two parallel (non-vertical) lines are equal.

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