Grammar

Exercises

Cross-reference to
Arabic Grammar
for the Exercises
Essentials of
Arabic Grammar
Excerpts from
The Textbook
Abdallah Nacereddine.
A New Approach to
Teaching Arabic Grammar.
Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2009.
© Copyright 2010 Abdallah Nacereddine
www.a-nacereddine.com

Quit

Contents (1) * (١) ‫اﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬
Subject

P‫ص‬

1. Separate personal pronouns

1

2. Affixed personal pronouns

2

3. Perfect

4

4. Imperfect

6

5. Imperative

8

6. Subject

9

7. Direct object

9

8. Indirect object

9

9. Annexation

13

10. demonstrative pronouns

15

11. Relative pronouns

18

12. Subjonctive

21

13. Jussive

21

14. ‘Inna’ and its sisters

28

15. ‘Kana’ and its sisters

31

16. Cardinal numbers

34

17. Ordinal numbers

43

18. Agreement of the adjective

46
i

‫ا ﻮﺿﻮع‬
‫( اﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ا ﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ‬١
‫ ( اﻟﻀﻤﺎ ﺋﺮ ا ﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬٢
‫( ا ﺎﺿﻲ‬٣
‫ ( ا ﻀﺎرع‬٤
‫ ( اﻷﻣﺮ‬٥
‫ ( اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬٦
‫ ( ا ﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﻪ‬٧
‫ ( اﺠﻤﻟﺮور‬٨
‫ ( اﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬٩
‫ ( إﺳﻢ اﻹﺷﺎرة‬١٠
‫ ( إﺳﻢ ا ﻮﺻﻮل‬١١
‫ ( ﻧﺼﺐ ا ﻀﺎرع‬١٢
‫ ( ﺟﺰم ا ﻀﺎرع‬١٣
‫ ( إن وأﺧﻮاﺗﻬﺎ‬١٤
‫ ( ﻛﺎن وأﺧﻮاﺗﻬﺎ‬١٥
‫( اﻷﻋﺪاد اﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬١٦
‫( اﻷﻋﺪاد اﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬١٧
‫( ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﻨﻌﺖ‬١٨

‘la’ that denies the whole genus 71 36: Excalamative 72 37. Specificative 56 26. Abbreviated 73 ii ‫إﺳﻢ اﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻤﺎء اﳋﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻇﺮف اﻟﺰﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻇﺮف ا ﻜﺎن‬ ‫اﳊﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬ ‫إﺳﻢ اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫إﺳﻢ ا ﻔﻌﻮل‬ ‫إﺳﻢ اﻵﻟﺔ‬ ‫ا ﻤﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ‫ا ﻔﻌﻮل ﻷﺟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ا ﻔﻌﻮل ا ﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ا ﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﻌﻪ‬ ‫ا ﻨﺎدى‬ ‫ا ﺴﺘﺜﻨﻰ ﺑﺈﻻ‬ ‫ﻻ اﻟﻨﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ‬ ‫ا ﻘﺼﻮر‬ (١٩ (٢٠ (٢١ (٢٢ (٢٣ (٢٤ (٢٥ (٢٦ (٢٧ (٢٨ (٢٩ (٣٠ (٣١ (٣٢ (٣٣ (٣٤ (٣٥ (٣٦ (٣٧ . Vocative 68 34. Concomitate object 67 33. Agreement of the verb 51 21. Noun of instrument 60 29. Adverb of time 53 23. Adverb of place 53 24. Passive participle 59 28. The five nouns 52 22. Diptote 61 30. Elative 48 20.Contents (2) * (٢) ‫اﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ 19. Complement of cause 65 31. Adverb of state 54 25. Active participle 58 27. Exception 70 35. Absoltue object 66 32.

Use of ‘Masdar’ (verbal noun) 83 47. Spacification 76 41. Prolonged 73 40. Time 98 55. Noun of time 77 43. Use of ‘kila’ and ‘kilta’ 88 49. Writing of hamza 95 54. Use of ‘ahadu’ and ‘ihda’ 91 51. Use of ‘ba’dhun’ 89 50.Contents (3) * (٣) ‫اﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ 38. Use of ‘nafsu’ 93 52. Use of ‘kullu’ 86 48. Defective 73 39. Nomina vicis 79 44. Id>| and Miscellanesous 99 iii ‫ا ﻨﻘﻮص‬ ‫ا ﻤﺪود‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎص‬ ‫إﺳﻢ ا ﻜﺎن‬ ‫إﺳﻢ اﻟﺰﻣﺎن‬ ‫إﺳﻢ ا ﺮة‬ ‫إﺳﻢ اﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻌﺖ اﻟﺴﺒﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ا ﺼﺪر‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻛﻼ وﻛﻠﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ أﺣﺪ وإﺣﺪى‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ وﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻬﻤﺰة‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫إذا وﻣﻮاﺿﻴﻊ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ (٣٨ (٣٩ (٤٠ (٤١ (٤٢ (٤٣ (٤٤ (٤٥ (٤٦ (٤٧ (٤٨ (٤٩ (٥٠ (٥١ (٥٢ (٥٣ (٥٤ (٥٥ . Connected adjective 81 46. Noun of manner 80 45. Use of ‘kathirun’ and ‘qalilun’ 94 53. Noun of place 77 42.

) َ‫أَﻧْﺖ‬ ِ‫أَﻧْﺖ‬ ‫أَﻧْﺘُﻤَﺎ‬ ْ‫أَﻧْﺘُﻢ‬ ‫أَﻧْﺘُﻦﱠ‬ Back to the Exercise Contents 1 1st person I we ‫أَﻧَﺎ‬ ُ‫ﻧَﺤْﻦ‬ .1.s.p.p.) they (d. 3rd person 2nd person he you (m.) you (f.) she you (f.) you (d.s.) they (f.) they (m. NOMINATIVE SEPARATE PERSONAL PRONOUNS ُ‫( ﺿَﻤَﺎﺋِﺮُ اﻟﺮﱠﻓْﻊِ اﻟْﻤُﻨْﻔَﺼِﻠَﺔ‬١ The following table gives the nominative separate personal pronouns.p.) you (m.p.

dative and genitive affixed personal pronouns.s. 2nd person ‫ُه‬ ‫ﻫَﺎ‬ ‫ﻫُﻤَﺎ‬ ْ‫ﻫُﻢ‬ ‫ﻫُﻦﱠ‬ َ‫ك‬ ِ ‫ك‬ ‫ﻛُﻤَﺎ‬ ْ‫ﻛُﻢ‬ ‫ﻛُﻦﱠ‬ m. ‫ﻧِِﻲ‬ 1st person s. Back to the Exercise Contents 2 . f.2. f. (1) p. m.p.s. m. f. ‫ي ﻧِﻲ‬ ‫ﻧَﺎ‬ affixed to a verb (See page 32). 3rd person m.p.s. f.p. AFFIXED PERSONAL PRONOUNS ُ‫( اَﻟﻀﱠﻤَﺎﺋِﺮُ اﻟْﻤُﺘﱠﺼِﻠَﺔ‬٢ The following table gives the accusative.s. (1) ‫ ي‬affixed to a noun.p. d. d.

‬‬ ‫‪m.p.‬‬ ‫‪f.‬‬ ‫‪p.‬‬ ‫‪f.s.(3) He speaks with me.‬‬ ‫‪3P.‬‬ ‫‪f.p. s.s.‬‬ ‫‪(1) My teacher .‬‬ ‫‪m.‫‪2.‬‬ ‫‪f.p.(2) He understands me .p. m.‬‬ ‫‪d.‬‬ ‫‪Back to the Exercise‬‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ . THE USE OF THE AFFIXED‬‬ ‫‪PERSONAL PRONOUNS‬‬ ‫‪ (٢‬اِﺳْﺘِﻌْﻤَﺎلُ اﻟﻀﱠﻤَﺎﺋِﺮِ اﻟْﻤُﺘﱠﺼِﻠَﺔِ‬ ‫‪The affixed personal pronouns can be used as:‬‬ ‫اَﻟﻀﱠﻤﻴﺮُ‬ ‫ﻣُﻀﺎف إِﻟَﻴْﻪ‬ ‫‪Pronoun‬‬ ‫‪Possessive‬‬ ‫ـﻲ ﻧِﻲ‬ ‫ـﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ـﻚَ‬ ‫ـﻚِ‬ ‫ـﻜُﻤَﺎ‬ ‫ـﻜُﻢْ‬ ‫ـﻜُﻦﱠ‬ ‫ـﻪُ‬ ‫ـﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ـﻬُﻤَﺎ‬ ‫ـﻬُﻢْ‬ ‫ﻫُﻦﱠ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤِــﻲ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُـﻨَـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻚَ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻚِ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻜُﻤَﺎ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻜُـﻢْ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻜُـﻦﱠ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻪُ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻬَـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻬُـﻤَـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻬُـﻢْ‬ ‫ﻣُـﻌَـﻠِّـﻤُــﻬُـﻦﱠ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫ﻣَﻔْﻌُﻮل ﺑِﻪِ‬ ‫‪Direct‬‬ ‫‪object‬‬ ‫ﻣَﺠْﺮُور‬ ‫‪Personal‬‬ ‫‪pronoun‬‬ ‫‪Indirect‬‬ ‫‪object‬‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُـﻨِـﻲ ‪ 2‬ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَـﻌِـﻲ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُـﻨَـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَـﻌـَﻨـَﺎ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُﻚَ‬ ‫ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَـﻌَـﻚَ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُﻚِ‬ ‫ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَـﻌـﻚِ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُﻜُـﻤَـﺎ ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻌَﻜُـﻤَﺎ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُﻜُـ ْﻢ ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻌَﻜُـﻢْ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُﻜُـﻦﱠ ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻌَـﻜُﻦﱠ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُـ ُﻪ‬ ‫ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻌَـﻪُ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُـﻬَـﺎ ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻌَـﻬَﺎ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُـﻬُـﻤَـﺎ ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻌَـﻬُﻤَﺎ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُـﻬُـﻢْ ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻌَـﻬُﻢْ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻔْـﻬَـﻤـُـﻬُـﻦﱠ ﻳَـﺘَﻜَﻠـﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻌـَﻬُﻦﱠ‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪1P.s.s.‬‬ ‫‪2P.‬‬ ‫‪d. m.

َ‫ــْﻦ‬ ‫ــْﺘُﻤَﺎ‬ Back to the Exercise Contents 4 . 2nd person ‫ــَـ‬ 1st person m. ُ‫ــْﺖ‬ ِ‫ــْﺖ‬ p.s. THE PERFECT ‫( اَﻟْﻔِﻌْﻞُ اﻟْﻤَﺎﺿِﻲ‬٣ The Perfect stem is obtained by cutting the last vowel of the third singular masculine perfect.s. ْ‫ــْﺘُﻢ‬ m. ‫ــُـﻮا‬ f. f. ْ‫ــَﺖ‬ f.3. ‫ــْﺘُﻦﱠ‬ f.p. ‫ــْـﻨَﺎ‬ f.d ‫ـَـﺘَﺎ‬ m.s. m. and the perfect is conjugated by adding to this stem the following endings: 3rd person m.s. َ‫ــْﺖ‬ s.p.d ‫ــَـﺎ‬ d.p.p.

p. m. Conjugation of the verb to write‬‬ ‫‪in the perfect‬‬ ‫‪ (٣‬ﺗَﺼْﺮِﻳﻒ ﻓِﻌْﻞِ‬ ‫ﻛَﺘَﺐَ ﻓِﻲ اﻟْﻤَﺎﺿِﻲ‬ ‫)‪(1‬‬ ‫أَ ﻧَـــﺎ‬ ‫ﻧَــﺤـْــﻦُ‬ ‫أَ ﻧـْــﺖَ‬ ‫أَ ﻧـْــﺖِ‬ ‫أَ ﻧْـــﺘُــﻤـَﺎ‬ ‫أَ ﻧْـــﺘُـــﻢْ‬ ‫أَ ﻧْـــﺘُـــﻦﱠ‬ ‫ﻫـُـــﻮَ‬ ‫ﻫِــــﻲَ‬ ‫ﻫُــــﻤَــﺎ‬ ‫ﻫُــﻤَـــﺎ‬ ‫ﻫُــــﻢْ‬ ‫ﻫـُـــﻦﱠ‬ ‫ﻛَــﺘَــﺒْـــ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻛَــﺘَــﺒْــﻨــَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛَـــﺘَــﺒْـــﺖَ‬ ‫ﻛـَــﺘَــﺒـْــﺖِ‬ ‫ﻛَــﺘَــﺒْــﺘُــﻤَﺎ‬ ‫ﻛَــﺘَــﺒْــﺘـُـﻢْ‬ ‫ﻛـَـﺘَــﺒْــﺘُــﻦﱠ‬ ‫ﻛَـــﺘـَــﺐَ‬ ‫ﻛـَـﺘـَـﺒـَــﺖْ‬ ‫ﻛَــﺘَـﺒـَـﺎ‬ ‫ﻛَــﺘَــﺒَــﺘَــﺎ‬ ‫ﻛَــﺘَــﺒـُــﻮ ا‬ ‫ﻛـَـﺘـَـﺒْـــﻦَ‬ ‫ـْـﺖُ‬ ‫ــﻨْـﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ـْـﺖَ‬ ‫ـْـﺖِ‬ ‫ـْـﺘُﻤَﺎ‬ ‫ـْـﺘُﻢْ‬ ‫ـْـﺘـ ﱠﻦ‬ ‫ُـﻦ‬ ‫ــــ‬ ‫ـ َـــﺖْ‬ ‫ــــَﺎ‬ ‫ــﺘَـﺘَﺎ‬ ‫ـُﻮا‬ ‫ﻮا‬ ‫ــ َﻦ‬ ‫ْـﻦ‬ ‫‪1P.‬‬ ‫‪m.s.‬‬ ‫‪f.p.d. it does not have a prefix.s.‬‬ ‫‪f.p.‬‬ ‫‪f.s.‬‬ ‫‪Remark: The perfect has only a suffix.s.‫‪3.‬‬ ‫‪d.p.‬‬ ‫‪(1) The vowel of the last radical and the suffix.‬‬ ‫‪f.‬‬ ‫‪p.‬‬ ‫‪2P.‬‬ ‫‪m. m.‬‬ ‫‪3P.‬‬ ‫‪m.d. s.‬‬ ‫‪f.‬‬ ‫‪Back to the Exercise‬‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ .

the different persons are expressed by suffixes. It also has some suffixes to denote number and gender as shown below: 3rd person m. THE IMPERFECT ُ‫( اَﻟْﻔِﻌْﻞُ اﻟْﻤُﻀَﺎرِع‬٤ Whereas in the perfect.s. f.p. p.s.p. f. f. ‫ـ ُـ‬ ُ‫ــ‬ ِ‫ـَﺎن‬ ِ‫ـَﺎن‬ َ‫ـُﻮن‬ َ‫ـْﻦ‬ 2nd person ‫ﻳَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﻳَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﻳَـ‬ ‫ﻳَـ‬ ُ‫ﺗَـ ــ‬ َ ِ‫ﺗَـ ـ‬ ِ‫ﺗَـ ـَﺎن‬ َ‫ﺗَـ ـُﻮن‬ َ‫ﺗَـ ـْﻦ‬ m.s.p. Back to the Exercise Contents 6 ‫َأ ـُـ‬ ُ‫ﻧَـ ــ‬ . d.p. m. m. 1st person s. f.d f. the Imperfect has prefixes.s.d m.4.

s.‬‬ ‫‪m. Conjugation of the verb to write‬‬ ‫‪in the imperfect‬‬ ‫‪ (٤‬ﺗَﺼْﺮِﻳﻒ ﻓِﻌْﻞِ‬ ‫ﻛَﺘَﺐَ ﻓِﻲ اﻟْﻤُﻀَﺎرِعِ‬ ‫)‪(1‬‬ ‫أَ ﻧَـــﺎ‬ ‫ﻧَــﺤـْــﻦُ‬ ‫أَ ﻧـْــﺖَ‬ ‫أَ ﻧـْــﺖِ‬ ‫أَ ﻧْـــﺘُــﻤـَﺎ‬ ‫أَ ﻧْـــﺘُـــﻢْ‬ ‫أَ ﻧْـــﺘُـــﻦﱠ‬ ‫ﻫـُـــﻮَ‬ ‫ﻫِــــﻲَ‬ ‫ﻫُــــﻤَــﺎ‬ ‫ﻫُــﻤَـــﺎ‬ ‫ﻫُــــﻢْ‬ ‫ﻫـُـــﻦﱠ‬ ‫أَ‬ ‫ﻧَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﻳَـ‬ ‫ﺗَـ‬ ‫ﻳَـ‬ ‫ﻳَـ‬ ‫)‪(2‬‬ ‫أَ ﻛـْـﺘـُـ ُ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﻧَـﻜـْـﺘُـــﺐُ‬ ‫ﺗَـﻜـْــﺘُــﺐُ‬ ‫ﺗَـﻜـْـﺘُــﺒِــﻴـﻦَ‬ ‫ﺗَـﻜـْـﺘُــﺒَــﺎ نِ‬ ‫ﺗَـﻜْـﺘُـﺒـُـﻮ نَ‬ ‫ﺗَـﻜْــﺘـُـﺒْــﻦَ‬ ‫ﻳَـﻜـْـﺘُــﺐُ‬ ‫ﺗَـﻜْــﺘُــﺐُ‬ ‫ﻳَـﻜـْـﺘُــﺒَــﺎ نِ‬ ‫ﺗَـﻜــْﺘـُـﺒـَـﺎ نِ‬ ‫ﻳَـﻜـْـﺘــُﺒـُـﻮ نَ‬ ‫ﻳَــﻜـْـﺘـُـﺒْــﻦَ‬ ‫ـُـ‬ ‫ـُـ‬ ‫ـُـ‬ ‫ـﻴـ َﻦ‬ ‫ِﻴـﻦ‬ ‫ـﺎ ِن‬ ‫َﺎن‬ ‫ُﻮنَ‬ ‫ـﻮ ن‬ ‫ـ ْـــﻦَ‬ ‫ـُـ‬ ‫ـُـ‬ ‫ـﺎ ِن‬ ‫َﺎن‬ ‫ـﺎ ِن‬ ‫َﺎن‬ ‫ُﻮنَ‬ ‫ـﻮ ن‬ ‫ـ ْـــﻦَ‬ ‫‪1P.‬‬ ‫‪m. s. m.‬‬ ‫‪p.‬‬ ‫‪f.‬‬ ‫‪Remark: The singular and the first person of the plural have no‬‬ ‫‪suffix.p.‬‬ ‫‪2P.d.‬‬ ‫‪d.‬‬ ‫‪Back to the Exercise‬‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ .p.‬‬ ‫‪(2) The vowel of the last radical and the suffix. m.s.‬‬ ‫‪m.‬‬ ‫‪f.p.d.p.‬‬ ‫‪3P.‬‬ ‫‪(1) The prefix.‬‬ ‫‪f.s.s.‬‬ ‫‪f.‫‪4.‬‬ ‫‪f.

‫اُﻛْﺘُﺒِﻲ‬ ‫اِﺟْﻠِﺴِﻲ‬ ‫اِﻓْﺘَﺤِﻲ‬ d. 62) but. the vowrl is kasra. ‫اُﻛْﺘُﺒَﺎ‬ ‫اِﺟْﻠِﺴَﺎ‬ ‫اِﻓْﺘَﺤَﺎ‬ m.s. when the second radical takes fath>a or kasra.5. it takes a short prosthetic vowel. In the triliteral verb. the prosthetic "alif "alif. it is d>amma. َ‫اُﻛْﺘُﺒْﻦ‬ َ‫اِﺟْﻠِﺴْﻦ‬ َ‫اِﻓْﺘَﺤْﻦ‬ (3) to write (2) to sit (1) to open Back to the Exercise Contents 8 . (3) ْ‫اُﻛْﺘُﺐ‬ ْ‫اِﺟْﻠِﺲ‬ (2) (1) ْ‫اِﻓْﺘَﺢ‬ f.p. when it takes d>amma.p. since it begins with two consonants. THE IMPERATIVE ِ‫( ﻓِﻌْﻞُ اﻷﻣْﺮ‬٥ The imperative is formed from the jussive (Chap.s. as the following table shows: 2nd person m. ‫اُﻛْﺘُﺒُﻮا‬ ‫اِﺟْﻠِﺴُﻮا‬ ‫اِﻓْﺘَﺤُﻮا‬ f.

6-7-8. THE CASES OR DECLENSION OF
NOUNS (Subjet, Direct and Indirec objects)

‫( اَﻟﺮﱠﻓْﻊُ وَاﻟﻨﱠﺼْﺐُ وَاﻟْﺠَﺮﱡ‬٨-٧-٦
There are three cases in Arabic and these are indicated merely by
changing the vowelling of the final consonant (except in the dual and
sound masculine plural endings). They are:
a) The nominative case vowelled with d>amma

‫ﻃَﺎﻟِﺐ‬
ُ‫اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬

‫ـُــ‬,

e.g.

a student.
the student.

b) The accusative case vowelled with fath>a ‫ ــَـ ـ‬, e.g.

ً‫ﻃَﺎﻟِﺒﺎ‬

a student.

َ‫اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬

the student.

(Note that tanwi\n

‫ ــًـ‬is supported by

‘alif, thus

ً‫ ا‬.)

c) The dative and genitive cases vowelled with kasra

ٍ‫ ﻣَﻊَ ﻃَﺎﻟِﺐ‬with a student.
ِ‫ ﻣَﻊَ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬with the student.
ِ‫ ﻛِﺘَﺎبُ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬the student’s book.

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Contents
9

‫ــِــ‬

e.g.

6-7-8. THE DECLENSION OF THE DUAL

‫( إِﻋْﺮَابُ اﻟُﻤُﺜَﻨﱠﻰ‬٨-٧-٦
The dual declines as follows:
a)

ِ‫ـَـﺎن‬

in the nominative case, e.g.

ِ‫ﻳَﺘَﺸَﺎﺑَﻪُ اﻟﺘﱠﻮْأَﻣَﺎن‬
b)

ِ‫ـَـﻴْﻦ‬

the twins resemble one another.

in the oblique cases, e.g.

ِ‫أَﻋْﺮِفُ اﻟﺘﱠﻮْأَﻣَﻴْﻦ‬

I know the twins.

ِ‫أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ اﻟﺘﱠﻮْأَﻣَﻴْﻦ‬
ِ‫ﻫَﺬِهِ ﻏُﺮْﻓَﺔُ اﻟﺘﱠﻮْأَﻣَﻴْﻦ‬

I speak with the twins.
this is the twins’ room.

Note that when the dual is annexated, both the article
disappear, e.g.

ِ‫ﻫُﻤَﺎ وَاﻟِﺪَا اﻟﺘﻠْﻤِﻴﺬ‬

they are the pupil’s parents.

ِ‫أَﻋْﺮِفُ وَاﻟِﺪَيْ اﻟﺘﻠْﻤِﻴﺬ‬
ِ‫ﻳُﺤِﺐﱡ وَاﻟِﺪَﻳْﻪ‬

I know the pupil’s parents.

he loves his parents.

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Contents
10

‫ال‬

and

‫ن‬

6-7-8. THE DECLENSION OF THE
SOUND MASCULINE PLURAL

ِ‫( إِﻋْﺮَابُ ﺟَﻤْﻊِ اﻟْﻤُﺬَﻛﱠﺮِ اﻟﺴﱠﺎﻟِﻢ‬٨-٧-٦
The Sound Masculine Plural declines as follows, and takes

‫ ـُـﻮ َن‬in the nominative case, e.g.
َ‫ ﻳَﻜْﺘُﺐُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤُﻮن‬the teachers write.
a)

َ ‫ ـِـ‬in the oblique cases, e.g.
َ ِ‫ أَﻋْﺮِفُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤ‬I know the teachers.
َ ِ‫ أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤ‬I speak with the teachers.
َ ِ‫ ﻫَﺬِهِ ﻗَﺎﻋَﺔُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤ‬this is the teachers’ room.
b)

Note that when the sound masculine plural is annexated, both the

‫ ال‬and ‫ ن‬disappear, e.g.
ِ‫ ﻫُﻢْ ﻣَُﻌَﻠﻤُﻮ اﻟْﻌَﺮَﺑِﻴﱠﺔ‬they are Arabic teachers.
ِ‫ أَﻋْﺮِفُ ﻣَُﻌَﻠﻤِﻲ اﻟْﻌَﺮَﺑِﻴﱠﺔ‬I know the Arabic teachers.
‫ ﻧُﺤِﺐﱡ ﻣُﻌَﻠﻤِﻴﻨَﺎ‬we like our teachers.

article

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Contents
11

g.e.g. It takes d>amma only in the nominative case. Back to the Exercise Contents 12 .6-7-8. e. accusative.) write. ُ‫ﺗَﻜْﺘُﺐُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤَﺎت‬ the teachers (f. i. b) ِ‫ ــ‬in the obliques cases. and takes: a) ‫ـُـ‬ in the nominative case.) ِ‫ﻫَﺬِهِ ﻗَﺎﻋَﺔُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤَﺎت‬ this is the teachers’ room (f. dative and genitive. ِ‫أَﻋْﺮِفُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤَﺎت‬ I know the teachers (f.) Remember: The sound feminine plural never takes fatha. e. THE DECLENSION OF THE SOUND FEMININE PLURAL ِ‫( إِﻋْﺮَابُ ﺟَﻤْﻊِ اﻟْﻤُﺆَﻧﱠﺚِ اﻟﺴﱠﺎﻟِﻢ‬٨-٧-٦ The Sound Feminine Plural declines as follows.) ِ‫أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤَﺎت‬ I speak with the teachers (f. and kasra in the oblique cases.

which is shown by kasra ‫ــِـ‬. ANNEXATION ُ‫( اَﻹِﺿَﺎﻓَﺔ‬٩ A noun followed by another noun in annexation.e. e. ٍ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎبُ ﻃَﺎﻟِﺐ‬ ِ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎبُ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬ the book of a student. i. or ُ‫ ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑُﻪ‬his book (lit. it always terminates in kasra. or the second term of the annexation. the book of his). e. However. the student’s book.g. it takes the genitive case. and being determined by annexation. i. itself.g. may have the tanwi\n or be prefixed with the article ‫ال‬ according to whether it is definite or indefinite. annexated to another noun or pronoun.e. unless it is. in other words. the book of the student.9. it naturally loses its ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎبُ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬ ‫ال‬. it automatically loses its tanwi\n or its ‫ن‬ in the dual and in the sound masculine plural. when a noun is annexated to another noun. the following genitive. Back to the Exercise Contents 13 . The following noun. or pronoun.

Back to the Exercise Contents 14 .g. ANNEXATION (2) (٢) ‫( اَﻹِﺿَﺎﻓَﺔ‬٩ ِ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎبُ ﻃَﺎﻟِﺐِ اﻟﻠﱡﻐَﺔِ اﻟْﻌَﺮَﺑِﻴﱠﺔ‬ َ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎبُ ﻃَﺎﻟِﺒِﻚ‬ the book of the Arabic language student. It is the rule of "Id> Id>a\fa (annexation) that nothing must interpose between the noun and its following genitive. demonstrated by a demonstrative. the adjective. ُ‫ ﻣُﻌَﻠﻢُ اﻟْﻌَﺮَﺑِﻴﱠﺔِ اﻟْﺠَﺪِﻳﺪ‬the new Arabic teacher. e.e.9. the latter. i. or numbered by a number. the demonstrative and the number must come after the genitive. ‫ﻣُﻌَﻠﻢُ اﻟْﻌَﺮَﺑِﻴﱠﺔِ ﻫَﺬَا‬ this Arabic teacher. Consequently. the book of your student. ُ‫ﻣُﻌَﻠﻤُﻮ اﻟْﻌَﺮَﺑِﻴﱠﺔِ اﻟﺜﱠﻼﺛَﺔ‬ the three Arabic teachers. if the noun is qualified by an adjective.

p. e. the demonstrative is placed after these. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS ِ‫( اِﺳْﻢُ اﻹِﺷَﺎرَة‬١٠ The Demonstrative pronouns are as follows: m. nom.s.s. all cases f.. acc.10.. Back to the Exercise Contents 15 .. f. it precedes it.). nom. and f. ُ‫ﻫَﺬَا اﻟْﻜِﺘَﺎب‬ this book. acc.g. and gen. and gen.d.g. all cases Close Distant ‫ﻫَﺬَا‬ ِ‫ﻫَﺬَان‬ ِ‫ﻫَﺬَﻳْﻦ‬ ِ‫ﻫَﺬِه‬ ِ‫ﻫَﺎﺗَﺎن‬ ِ‫ﻫَﺎﺗَﻴْﻦ‬ ِ‫ﻫَﺆُﻻء‬ َ ِ‫ذَﻟ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ َ‫ذَاﻧِﻚ‬ َ‫ذَﻳْﻨِﻚ‬ َ‫ﺗِﻠْﻚ‬ َ‫ﺗَﺎﻧِﻚ‬ َ‫ﺗَﻴْﻨِﻚ‬ َ‫أُوﻟَﺌِﻚ‬ 1) If the demonstrative qualifies a simple noun. and the noun takes the article. all cases m. e.d. But if the noun is defined by a following genitive or a pronominal suffix.. (m.

the demonstrative is put first. َ‫ ﻫَﺬَا ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑُﻚ‬this is your book. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS (2) (٢) ِ‫( اِﺳْﻢُ اﻹِﺷَﺎرَة‬١٠ ‫ ﻛِﺘَﺎبُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻢِ ﻫَﺬَا‬this book of the teacher. Note that the plural form of the demonstrative is used only for persons.10. Back to the Exercise Contents 16 . ‫ﻫَﺬَا ﻛِﺘَﺎب‬ this is a book. ‫ ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑُﻚَ ﻫَﺬَا‬this book of yours. b) If the predicate is defined by the article. the third person is used as a copula to prevent the demonstrative from being taken adjectivally (as in 1).g. and no copula is needed. then: a) If the predicate is an indefinite noun. e. ُ‫ﻫَﺬَا ﻫُﻮَ اﻟْﻮَﻟَﺪ‬ this is the boy. e. 2) If the demonstrative is used pronominally and as a subject of a nominal sentence. e.g. e.g. c) If the predicate is defined by a following genitive or a pronominal suffix. ُ‫ﻫَﺆُﻻءِ اﻟﺮﺟَﺎلُ أَوِ اﻟﻨﺴَﺎء‬ these men or women. ِ‫ ﻫَﺬَا ﻛِﺘَﺎبُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻢ‬this is the teacher’s book. no copula is necessary.g.

This logic is accepted with difficulty by the Western mind. ُ‫ﻫَﺬِهِ اﻟْﻜُﺘُﺐُ وَاﻟْﻤَﺠَﻼت‬ these books and magazines. Back to the Exercise Contents 17 . things (inanimate objects). ُ‫ﻫَﺬِهِ اﻟْﻜِﻼبُ وَاﻟْﻘِﻄَﻂ‬ these dogs and cats. e.g. the feminine singular form is used.10. DEMONSTRATIVES PRONOUNS (3) (٣) ِ‫( اِﺳْﻢُ اﻹِﺷَﺎرَة‬١٠ For animals.

ُ‫ اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐُ اﻟﱠﺬِي ﻳَﻜْﺘُﺐ‬the student who writes. ُ‫ اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐُ اﻟﱠﺬِي أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻌَﻪ‬the student with whom I speak the student who I speak with him). plur. RELATIVE PRONOUNS ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤَﻮْﺻُﻮل‬١١ The Relative pronouns are as follows : Masculine sing. et gen. dual.11. Back to the Exercise Contents 18 (lit. acc. the student who I know him). ُ‫ اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐُ اﻟﱠﺬِي أَﻋْﺮِﻓُﻪ‬the student whom I know (lit. Feminine ‫اَﻟﱠﺬِي‬ ‫اَﻟﱠﺘِﻲ‬ ِ‫اَﻟﻠﱠﺬَان‬ ِ‫اَﻟﻠﱠﺘَﺎن‬ ِ‫اَﻟﻠﱠﺬَﻳْﻦ‬ ِ‫اَﻟﻠﱠﺘَﻴْﻦ‬ َ‫اَﻟﱠﺬِﻳﻦ‬ ‫اَﻟﻼﺗِﻲ‬ or ‫اَﻟﻠﱠﻮَاﺗِﻲ‬ 1) When the relative pronoun refers to any part of the relative sentence which follows except the subject. nom. it may be replaced by an attached pronoun. .

ُ‫ اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐُ اﻟﱠﺬِي أَﻋْﺮِفُ ﻣُﻌَﻠﻤَﻪ‬the student whose teacher I know (lit. and ‫ﻣَﺎ‬ that which. are also relative. ُ‫ أَﻧْﻈُﺮُ إِﻟَﻰ ﻃِﻔْﻞٍ ﻳَﻠْﻌَﺐ‬I look at a child who plays. the student who I write to him). However.g. This is especially difficult for Europeans to appreciate. they are treated as nouns. are followed by a genitive. It is. with the mean- ing whichever. e. 2) The relative pronoun is always omitted when it refers to an indefinite noun. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (2) (٢) ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤَﻮْﺻُﻮل‬١١ ِ‫اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐُ اﻟﱠﺬِي أَﻛْﺘُﺐُ إِﻟَﻴْﻪ‬the student to whom I write (lit. whomsoever. 3) The words ْ‫ﻣَﻦ‬ he who. ُ‫ أَﻧْﻈُﺮُ إِﻟَﻰ اﻟﻄﻔْﻞِ اﻟﱠﺬِي ﻳَﻠْﻌَﺐ‬I look at the child who plays. in which case it is synonymous with 4) ‫ أَيﱡ‬and feminine ُ‫أَﻳﱠﺔ‬ ْ‫ﻣَﻦ‬ and ‫ ﻣَﺎ‬. however. what- soever. whatever.11. sometimes used as a noun. whereas ‫اَﻟﱠﺬِي‬ is usually treated as an adjective governing a noun which has al- ready been mentioned. the student who I know his teacher). Back to the Exercise Contents 19 .

Note also that the plural form of the relatives is used only for persons. Back to the Exercise Contents 20 . the feminine singular form is used.11. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (3) (٣) ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤَﻮْﺻُﻮل‬١١ Attention is to be paid to those parts of speech in which two la\ms are written. For animals and things. namely the dual and the feminine plural.

THE MOODS ُ‫( اَﻟﺮﱠﻓْﻊُ واﻟﻨﱠﺼْﺐُ وَاﻟْﺠَﺰْم‬١٣-١٢ The imperfect has three moods: 1) ُ‫اَﻟﺮﱠﻓْﻊ‬ the Indicative which is distinguished by the third radical having d>amma. 5) fem. i. plur. having suku\n. 2nd pers. sing.. fem. masc. 3) dual. sing. Back to the Exercise Contents 21 . sing.e.12-13.. 3rd pers. 3) ُ‫ اَﻟْﺠَﺰْم‬the Jussive which is denoted by the absence of any vowel with the third radical. 4) masc. 2) 2nd pers. masc. Compare the ending of each one of the three moods: Indicative Jussive Subjunctive 1 2 3 4 5 ‫ــُـ‬ ‫ـْــ‬ ‫ـَــ‬ َ ‫ـِـ‬ ‫ـِـﻲ‬ ‫ـِـﻲ‬ ‫ــَﺎن‬ ‫ــَﺎ‬ ‫ــَﺎ‬ َ‫ــُﻮن‬ ‫ــُﻮا‬ ‫ــُﻮا‬ َ‫ــْﻦ‬ َ‫ــْﻦ‬ َ‫ــْﻦ‬ Endings: 1) 1st pers. except when it is preceded by a jussive or subjunctive particle. when preceded by a subjunctive particle.. when it is preceded by a jussive particle.. and plur.. Note the differences and the similarities between the jussive and the subjunctive.. plur. and fem. 2) ُ‫اَﻟﻨﱠﺼْﺐ‬ the Subjunctive which is distinguished by ending with fath>a.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE PARTICLES ِ‫( ﺣُﺮُوفُ اﻟﻨﱠﺼْﺐ‬١٣-١٢ The Imperfect subjunctive is used after the following particles (conjunctions): 1) ْ‫ أَن‬that. or compound ْ‫ ﻟِﻜَﻲ‬in order to. َ‫أَﻋْﻤَﻞُ ﻛَﺜِﻴﺮاً إِذَنْ أُوَﻓﱠﻖ‬ I work hard. then. 3) ِ‫ ل‬in order to. or ‫ ﻟِﻜَﻴْﻼ‬in order not to. Back to the Exercise Contents 22 . ‫ﻟَﻦْ أُﺧْﻄِﺊَ ﻣَﺮﱠةً أُﺧْﺮَى‬ I shall not make a mistake next time. in that case. I want to learn this language. ‫ ( أَﻻ‬for ‫) أَنْ ﻻ‬ َ‫أُرِﻳﺪُ أَنْ أَﺗَﻌَﻠﱠﻢَ ﻫَﺬِهِ اﻟﻠﱡﻐَﺔ‬ 2) ْ‫ﻟَﻦ‬ that not. ْ‫ إِذَن‬therefore.12-13. ‫ﻟِﺌَﻼ‬ 4) ْ‫ ﻛَﻲ‬in order to. well. َ‫ﻳَﻌْﻤَﻞُ اﻹِﻧْﺴَﺎنُ ﻟِﻜَﻲْ ﻳَﻌِﻴﺶ‬ 5) Man works in order to live. shall not. ‫ﻛَﻴْﻼ‬ in order not to. will not. therefore I will succeed.

8) َ‫ف‬ called causative fa\. I drive slowly in order to avoid fines and accidents. Back to the Exercise Contents 23 . preceded by negative. la|m of denial. THE SUBJUNCTIVE PARTICLES (2) (٢) ِ‫( ﺣُﺮُوفُ اﻟﻨﱠﺼْﺐ‬١٣-١٢ 6) ِ‫ل‬ 7) ‫ ﺣَﺘﱠﻰ‬so that. 10) ْ‫ أَو‬when it is equivalent to either ْ‫ إِﻻ أَن‬unless that. 9) َ‫ و‬called wa\w of simultaneousness. ‫ﻷﺳْﺘَﺴْﻬِﻠَﻦﱠ اﻟﺼﱠﻌْﺐَ أَوْ أُدْرِكَ اﻟْﻤُﻨَﻰ‬ I will deem everything difficult easy until I attain my wishes. or to ْ‫ إِﻟَﻰ أَن‬until that. imperative or prohibitive. in order that. preceded by َ‫ﻣَﺎ ﻛَﺎن‬ or ْ‫ﻟَﻢْ ﻳًَﻜُﻦ‬ َ‫أَﺳُﻮقُ ﺑِﺒُﻂْءٍ ﺣَﺘﱠﻰ أَﺗَﺠَﻨﱠﺐَ اﻟْﻤُﺨَﺎﻟَﻔَﺎتِ وَاﻟْﺤَﻮَادِث‬ was not. َ‫ ﻻ ﺗَﺄْﻛُﻞْ ﻛَﺜﻴﺮاً ﻓَﺘﻤْﺮَض‬Do not eat too much so that you get sick. َ‫ ﻻ ﺗَﺄْﻛُﻞْ وَﺗَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢ‬Do not talk and eat at the same time. until.12-13.

preceded by َ‫ﻣَﺎ ﻛَﺎن‬ or ْ‫ﻟَﻢْ ﻳًَﻜُﻦ‬ َ‫أَﺳُﻮقُ ﺑِﺒُﻂْءٍ ﺣَﺘﱠﻰ أَﺗَﺠَﻨﱠﺐَ اﻟْﻤُﺨَﺎﻟَﻔَﺎتِ وَاﻟْﺤَﻮَادِث‬ was not. 10) ْ‫ أَو‬when it is equivalent to either ْ‫ إِﻻ أَن‬unless that. la|m of denial. ‫ﻷﺳْﺘَﺴْﻬِﻠَﻦﱠ اﻟﺼﱠﻌْﺐَ أَوْ أُدْرِكَ اﻟْﻤُﻨَﻰ‬ I will deem everything difficult easy until I attain my wishes. I drive slowly in order to avoid fines and accidents. until. or to ْ‫ إِﻟَﻰ أَن‬until that. َ‫ ﻻ ﺗَﺄْﻛُﻞْ وَﺗَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢ‬Do not talk and eat at the same time. imperative or prohibitive. َ‫ ﻻ ﺗَﺄْﻛُﻞْ ﻛَﺜﻴﺮاً ﻓَﺘﻤْﺮَض‬Do not eat too much so that you get sick. 9) َ‫ و‬called wa\w of simultaneousness.12-13. in order that. Back to the Exercise Contents 24 . preceded by negative. 8) َ‫ف‬ called causative fa\. THE SUBJUNCTIVE PARTICLES (2) (٢) ِ‫( ﺣُﺮُوفُ اﻟﻨﱠﺼْﺐ‬١٣-١٢ 6) ِ‫ل‬ 7) ‫ ﺣَﺘﱠﻰ‬so that.

ً‫ ﻣَﻦْ ﻳَﻌْﻤَﻞْ ﺧَﻴْﺮاً ﻳَﺠِﺪْ ﺧَﻴْﺮا‬he who does good finds good. ‫ ﻣَﺎ‬what. a command. iii) ‫ أَﻣْﺮ‬an order. THE JUSSIVE PARTICLES (2) (٢) ِ‫( ﺣُﺮُوفُ اﻟْﺠَﺰْم‬١٣-١٢ d) ‫ ﻻ‬called ُ‫ ﻻ اﻟﻨﱠﺎِﻫِﻴَﺔ‬la\ of prohibition. h) ‫ ﻣَﻬْﻤَﺎ‬whatever. when it is from an inferior to a superior. if anyone. which expresses: i) ‫ ﻃَﻠَﺐ‬a request.12-13. ii) ‫ دُﻋَﺎء‬a prayer. when it is from a superior to an inferior. you succeed. no matter how. ْ‫إِنْ ﺗُﺨْﻠِﺺْ ﻓِﻲ ﻋَﻤَﻠِﻚَ ﺗَﻨْﺠَﺢ‬ if you are sincere in your work. if anything. g) ْ‫ ﻣَﻦ‬he who. f) Back to the Exercise Contents 25 . whoever. 2) The following are 12 conditional jussive particles: e) ْ‫ إِن‬if. when it is a matter between two equals. ْ‫ ﻣَﺎ ﺗَﺰْرَعْ ﺗَﺤْﺼَﺪ‬what you sow is you what reap.

wherever. THE JUSSIVE PARTICLES (3) (٣) ِ‫( ﺣُﺮُوفُ اﻟْﺠَﺰْم‬١٣-١٢ ْ‫ﻣَﻬْﻤَﺎ ﺗَﺸْﺮَحْ ﻟَﻪُ ﻻ ﻳَﻔْﻬَﻢ‬ no matter how you explain to him. you find i) something that will please you. َ‫ أَﻳْﻦ‬where. ‫ﻣَﺘَﻰ أَﻳﱠﺎنَ أَﻳْﻨَﻤَﺎ أَﻧﱠﻰ‬ have more or less the same meaning: Back to the Exercise Contents 26 . ‫ إِذْ ﻣَﺎ‬when. j) ‫ أَيﱡ‬which. whenever. َ‫ إِذْ ﻣَﺎﺗَﺄْتِ ﺗَﺠِﺪْ ﻣَﺎ ﻳَﺴُﺮﱡك‬whenever you come. k) l) َ‫ أَﻳﱠﺎن‬when. whenever. ‫ أَﻳْﻨَﻤَﺎ‬wherever. ُ‫ أَيﱡ إِﻧْﺴَﺎنٍ ﻳَﺤْﺘَﺞْ إِﻟَﻰ ﻣُﺴَﺎﻋَﺪَﺗِﻲ أُﺳَﺎﻋِﺪْه‬any man who needs my help.12-13. he won’t understand. whenever. ‫ أَﻧﱠﻰ‬wherever. whichever. m) n) o) ‫ ﻣَﺘَﻰ‬when. if any. I will help him.

12-13. ‫ك‬ p) ‫ ﺣَﻴْﺜُﻤَﺎ‬where. َ ْ‫ أَﻳْﻨَﻤَﺎ أَﻧﱠﻰ ﺗَﺨْﺘَﺒِﺊْ أَﺟِﺪ‬wherever you hide. I find you. I travel with you. no matter how. Note that the suku\n of the jussive becomes kasra before the article ْ‫ اَل‬. you are treated likewise. THE JUSSIVE PARTICLES (4) (٤) ِ‫( ﺣُﺮُوفُ اﻟْﺠَﺰْم‬١٣-١٢ َ‫ﻣَﺘَﻰ أَﻳﱠﺎنَ أَﻳْﻨَﻤَﺎ أَﻧﱠﻰ ﺗُﺴَﺎﻓِﺮْ أُﺳَﺎﻓِﺮْ ﻣَﻌَﻚ‬ each time you travel. Back to the Exercise Contents 27 . q) ‫ ﻛَﻴْﻔَﻤَﺎ‬howsoever. ْ‫ ﻛَﻴْﻔَﻤَﺎ ﺗُﻌَﺎﻣِﻞْ ﺗُﻌَﺎﻣَﻞ‬howsoever you treat others. wherever.

which no longer occupies the first place in the sentence. as well as to begin an ordinary nominal sentence. the subject. though the grammarians translate it by the biblical verily. The particles ‫إِنﱠ‬ and its sisters are as follows: 1) ‫ إِنﱠ‬usually not translated. or by one of its sisters. like ْ‫ﻟَﻜِﻦ‬. becomes the noun of ‫إِنﱠ‬ or of one of its sisters. and takes the nominative case by assimilation to the active subject put after the direct object.14. and takes the accusative case by assimilation to a direct object put before its subject. 2) ‫ أَنﱠ‬that. or in what resembles indirect speech or thought. the predicate becomes the predicate of ‫إِنﱠ‬ or of one of its sisters. is used for indirect speech after verbs other than َ‫ﻗَﺎل‬. ‫ ﻟَﻜِﻦﱠ‬is often prefixed by َ‫ و‬: ‫ وَﻟَﻜِﻦﱠ‬. 3) ‫ ﻟَﻜِﻦﱠ‬but. "INNA NA AND ITS SISTERS ‫( إِنﱠ وَأَﺧَﻮَاﺗُﻬَﺎ‬١٤ The second category of annulers which are assigned to the nominal sentence consists of Preceded by ‫إِنﱠ‬ ‫ إِنﱠ‬and its sisters. but the latter should be followed by a verb. Back to the Exercise Contents 28 . It is used to introduce speech after the verb َ‫ﻗَﺎل‬ to say.

After The only circumstance in which anything is allowed to interpose between these particles and their accusative is when the accusative is an indefinite noun. the verb to be is understood. Back to the Exercise Contents 29 . it is (was) as if. After them.14. would God. "INNA NA AND ITS SISTERS (2) (٢) ‫( إِنﱠ وَأﺧَﻮَاﺗُﻬَﺎ‬١٤ 4) 5) 6) 7) ‫ ﻷنﱠ‬because.g. ‫إِ ﱠن‬.. as though. e.. therefore a predicate may follow in the nominative case. if only.comparatively rare in modern Arabic. ‫( إِﻧﱠﻪُ ﻟَﺮَﺟُﻞ ﻋَﻈِﻴﻢ‬verily) he is a great man. ‫ ﻛَﺄنﱠ‬as if. َ‫ ﻟَﻴْﺖ‬would that. All these particles resemble verbs. or ‫ ﻫُﻨَﺎ‬here. ‫ ﻟَﻌَﻞﱠ‬perhaps . and the predicate is an prepositional phrase. in that they must be followed either by a noun in the accusative case. or by an attached pronoun which is grammatically considered to be in the accusative case. the predicate is sometimes strengthened by َ‫ل‬.

e.14. The prepositional phrase then comes after the particle. e.g. Back to the Exercise Contents 30 .g. The predicate is also put before the noun when the latter is suffixed with a pronoun referring to the substantive contained in the prepositional phrase. ‫إِنﱠ ﻓِﻲ اﻟﺴﱠﻴﱠﺎرَةِ ﺳَﺎﺋِﻘَﻬَﺎ‬ (verily) the driver of the car is inside. "INNA NA AND ITS SISTERS (3) (٣) ‫( إِنﱠ وَأﺧَﻮَاﺗُﻬَﺎ‬١٤ or َ‫ﻫُﻨَﺎك‬ there. َ ِ‫إِنﱠ ﻓِﻲ اﻟْﻤَﺪْرَﺳَﺔِ ﻃُﻼﺑﺎً وَﻣُﻌَﻠﻤ‬ (verily) there are teachers and students in the school.

or spend the night. 6) َ‫ ﺑَﺎت‬to be or become during the night. which no longer occupies the first place in the sentence. the predicate of the subject becomes the predicate of َ‫ﻛَﺎن‬.g. the subject. 2) َ‫ أَﺻْﺒَﺢ‬to be or become in the morning. 3) ‫ أَﺿْﺤَﻰ‬to be or become in the forenoon. becomes the noun of َ‫ﻛََﺎن‬. 1) Back to the Exercise Contents 31 . 4) ‫ ﻇَﻞﱠ‬to be or become in the daytime. 7) َ‫ ﺻَﺎر‬to become. or by one of its sisters. ً‫ﻛَﺎﻧَﺖِ اﻟْﺤَﻴَﺎةُ ﺟَﻤِﻴﻠَﺔ‬ life was beautiful. and takes the accusative case by assimilation to to the adverb of state or condition ‫ ﺣَﺎل‬.15. 5) ‫ أَﻣْﺴَﻰ‬to be or become in the evening. e. or of one of its sisters. The following are َ‫ﻛَﺎن‬ and its sisters: َ‫ ﻛَﺎن‬to be. KA|NA AND ITS SISTERS ‫( ﻛَﺎنَ وَأَﺧَﻮَاﺗُﻬَﺎ‬١٥ Preceded by َ‫ﻛَﺎن‬ to be. and remains in the nominative case by assimilation to the active subject.

9) َ‫ . ‫ﻇَﻞﱠ‬.ِ‫ ب‬can be preceded by the preposition َ‫ﻟَﻴْﺲ‬ and be in the dative case. These four verbs can be conjugated in the perfect or imperfect. 8) َ‫ ﻟَﻴْﺲ‬not to be. Back to the Exercise Contents 32 .g. This verb is conjugated in the perfect only. ‫أَﺿْﺤَﻰ‬.ﻣَﺎﻓَﺘِﺊ‬11) ‫ . or ْ‫ﻟَﻢ‬. ‫ أَﻣْﺴَﻰ‬may have the meaning of َ‫ﺻَﺎر‬ to become.ﻣَﺎزَال‬10) َ‫ . 13) َ‫ﻣَﺎدَام‬ The verb as long as. Note that the predicate of to strengthen the negation. to mean that the action is still continuing. are used preceded by the negative particle ‫ﻣَﺎ‬. and when used it has the meaning of the imperfect. َ‫دَام‬ long as. preceded by ‫ﻣَﺎ‬. The four preceding verbs َ‫ زَال ﻓَﺘِﺊَ اِﻧْﻔَﻚﱠ ﺑَﺮِح‬to cease. ‫ﻻ‬. e.15. is used to express as َ‫ﻣَﺎدَام‬ is used only in the perfect. Note that the first five verbs َ‫ﻛَﺎن‬. َ‫أَﺻْﺒَﺢ‬.ﻣَﺎاﻧْﻔَﻚﱠ‬12) ‫ح‬ َ ِ‫ﻣَﺎﺑَﺮ‬. The verb to continue. KA|NA AND ITS SISTERS (2) (٢) ‫( ﻛَﺎنَ وَأﺧَﻮَاﺗُﻬَﺎ‬١٥ All the preceding verbs can be conjugated. ٍ‫ ﻟَﻴْﺲَ اﻟْﺒَﻴْﺖُ ﺑِﻜَﺒِﻴﺮ‬for ً‫ ﻟَﻴْﺲَ اﻟْﺒَﻴْﺖُ ﻛَﺒِﻴﺮا‬the house is not big.

e. KA|NA AND ITS SISTERS (3) (٣) ‫( ﻛَﺎنَ وَأﺧَﻮَاﺗُﻬَﺎ‬١٥ The predicate of َ‫ﻛَﺎن‬ and its sisters can be simple. ِ‫ﻛَﺎنَ ﻋَﻤَﻠُﻪُ ﻓِﻲ اﻟْﻬَﻮَاءِ اﻟﻄﱠﻠْﻖ‬ he used to work in the open air (lit. Back to the Exercise Contents 33 . e. ً‫ﺻَﺎرَتِ اﻟْﻤَﻌِﻴﺸَﺔُ ﻏَﺎﻟِﻴَﺔ‬ living is becoming expensive. ِ‫ﻛَﺎنَ اﻟﻄﱠﺎوُوسُ أَﻣَﺎمَ اﻟﺸﱡﺒﱠﺎك‬ the peacock was in front of the window. consisting of a verbal or nominal sentence. consisting of one single expression. the employee his work was pleasant). or of a preposition and its complement. his work was in the open air).g. ً‫ﻛَﺎنَ اﻟﻨﱠﺎسُ ﻳَﻘْﺮَؤُونَ ﻛَﺜِﻴﺮا‬ ً‫ﻛَﺎنَ اﻟْﻤُﻮَﻇﱠﻒُ ﻋَﻤَﻠُﻪُ ﻣُﻤْﺘِﻌﺎ‬ people used to read a lot. i.15.e. or complex. the task of the employee used to be pleasant (lit. i.

It is best to divide them into groups. they are one of the most complex aspects of the written language. in Arabic. ‫ ﻛِﺘَﺎب وَاﺣِﺪ‬one book only. ِ‫إِﺛْﻨَﺘَﺎن‬ feminine. Back to the Exercise Contents 34 ِ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑَﺎن‬ . b) (i) two(٢) ِ‫ إِﺛْﻨَﺎن‬masculine.THE CARDINAL NUMBERS ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٦ Although it is easy to learn the Arabic numerals for dialectal use. Hence. the word ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎب‬. starting with the numbers one and two. Even the Arabs themselves often make mistakes. This number is rarely used. as the dual ending indicates this meaning. as in the French language. It is usually used as an adjective placed after the noun with which it agrees in gender and case. since the indefinite singular noun in Arabic means one or a. or un livre in French. e. and ‫ وَاﺣِﺪَة‬feminine. so means two books. By writing or saying ِ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑَﺎنِ إِﺛْﻨَﺎن‬. (iii) When the numeral one is used. takes the form of the active participle. (ii) It is rarely used. 1) 1 and 2 a) (i) one (١) ‫وَاﺣِﺪ‬ masculine.g. a certain emphasis is given the word two. it means only. means a book or one book.16.

the definite and the indefinite. e. b) Normally. ٍ‫ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔُ رِﺟَﺎل‬three men.g. case. Back to the Exercise Contents 35 .g. ُ‫ ﻛُﺘُﺐُ أَﺣْﻤَﺪَ اﻟْﺨَﻤْﺴَﺔ‬Ahmad’s five books. the number is often placed after it. They take the masculine form when the noun counted is feminine. c) When the noun counted is definite or annexated.16.g. these numbers are placed in front of the noun to which they apply and which takes the plural in the genitive case. it is treated as an adjective. 2) 3 to 10 ١٠ ٩ ٨ ٧ ٦ ٥ ٤ ٣ a) These numbers take the feminine form when the noun counted is masculine in gender. e. ٍ‫ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔُ رِﺟَﺎل‬three men (lit. a triad of men). ٍ‫ﺛَﻼثُ ﻧِﺴَﺎء‬ three women. e. like an adjective. It follows the noun and agrees with it in gender. ُ‫ اَﻟْﻜُﺘُﺐُ اﻟْﺨَﻤْﺴَﺔ‬the five books. like one. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS (2) (٢) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٦ (ii) When used. This anomaly is common to other Semitic languages.

accusative. 3) 11 to 19 ١٩ ١٨ ١٧ ١٦ ١٥ ١٤ ١٣ ١٢ ١١ a) Eleven and twelve. e. َ‫ أَﺣَﺪَ ﻋﺸَﺮَ إِﺛْﻨَﺎ ﻋَﺸَﺮ‬masculine. ٍ‫ أَﻋْﺮِفُ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔَ ﻃُﻼب‬I know three students. that the noun would have taken in the sentence.g. nominative.16. or dative-genitive. they naturally lose their tanwi\n. agree in gender with the noun counted. َ‫ إِﺣْﺪَى ﻋَﺸْﺮَةَ إِﺛْﻨَﺘَﺎ ﻋَﺸْﺮَة‬feminine. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS (3) (٣) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٦ d) If the numbers 3 to 10 are placed in front of a noun.e. Back to the Exercise Contents 36 . ً‫ إِﺣْﺪَى ﻋَﺸَﺮَةَ أَو إِﺛْﻨَﺘَﺎ ﻋَﺸْﺮَةَ ﺑِﻨْﺘﺎ‬11 or 12 girls. if it had not been counted. ٍ‫ أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔِ ﻃُﻼب‬I speak with three students. i. they are declined and take the same case. The noun itself is placed in the genitive plural.g. e) When they are placed in front of a noun. e. ٍ‫ ﻳَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠَﻢُ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔُ ﻃُﻼب‬three students speak. ً‫ أَﺣَﺪَ ﻋﺸَﺮَ أَوْ إِﺛْﻨَﺎ ﻋَﺸَﺮَ وَﻟَﺪا‬11 or 12 boys.

d) These numbers are followed by a noun in the accusative singular. e. but the ten agrees in gender with the noun counted. their gender is reversed in relation to the noun counted.16. 11 to 19. e. they agree in gender with the noun counted. ً‫ ﺧَﻤْﺴَﺔَ ﻋَﺸَﺮَ وَﻟَﺪا‬15 boys. i. 4) 10 a) It should be noted that. it follows the rule set out under 2) a).g. ً‫ ﺧَﻤْﺲَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَةَ ﺑِﻨْﺘﺎ‬15 girls. c) The numerals 11 to 19 are not declined. e.g. Back to the Exercise Contents 37 . even when they take an article.e. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS (4) (٤) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٦ b) The gender of the units in the compound numbers from 3 to 9 is reversed. َ‫ إِﺛْﻨَﺎ ﻋَﺸَﺮ‬and َ‫ إِﺛْﻨَﺘَﺎ ﻋَﺸْﺮَة‬whose oblique cases take the form َ‫ إِﺛْﻨَﻲْ ﻋَﺸَﺮ‬and َ‫ إِﺛْﻨَﺘَﻲْ ﻋَﺸْﺮَة‬. They always carry a fath>a. with the exception of the unit of the number 12. when ‫ ﻋَﺸْﺮ‬and ‫ ﻋَﺸَﺮَة‬are used alone. as in the examples above.e. When they are used in a compound number. i.g.

b) As from 20. 5) 20 to 90. the ‫ ش‬takes a fath>a. In compound numbers.g. c) The ‫ ش‬of ‫ﻋَﺸَﺮَة‬. takes a fath> ath>a. the numbers between the tens are formed by placing the unit before the ten and joining them with the conjunction Back to the Exercise Contents 38 َ‫و‬ . b) The ‫ ش‬of ‫ﻋَﺸْﺮ‬.16. e. ٍ‫ ﻋَﺸْﺮُ ﻧِﺴَﺎء‬10 women. without ta\' marbu\ta.g. i. َ‫ ﺧَﻤْﺴَﺔَ ﻋَﺸَﺮ‬fifteen. e. i.e. ً‫ ﺧَﻤْﺴَﺔَ ﻋَﺸَﺮَ رَﺟُﻼ‬15 men. It takes a suku\n when used in compound numbers. . ‫ ﻋَﺸْﺮ‬ten. when ‫ﻋَﺸْﺮ‬ is used alone. a takes suku\n. ٩٠ ٨٠ ٧٠ ٦٠ ٥٠ ٤٠ ٣٠ ٢٠ a) The tens from 20 to 90 are used in both the masculine and feminine forms and are declined like nouns in the sound masculine plural. when ‫ ﻋَﺸَﺮَة‬is used alone. e. with ta\' marbu\ta. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS (5) (٥) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٦ ٍ‫ ﻋَﺸَﺮَةُ رِﺟَﺎل‬10 men.e.g. ً‫ ﺧَﻤْﺲَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَةَ إِﻣْﺮَأَة‬15 women. the ‫ﻋَﺸْﺮ‬. with َ‫ـُـﻮن‬ in the nominative and َ ‫ـِـ‬ in the oblique cases. ‫ ﻋَﺸَﺮَة‬ten. َ‫ﺧَﻤْﺲَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَة‬ reverse of fifteen.

just as those from 11 to 19. invariable. (ii) The numeral 100 is followed by a noun in the genitive singular. ٩٠٠ ٨٠٠ ٧٠٠ ٦٠٠ ٥٠٠ ٤٠٠ ٣٠٠ ٢٠٠ ١٠٠ a) (i) ‫ﻣِﺌَﺔ‬. ٍ‫ ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔُ ﺳَﻨَﺔ‬100 years. is often written ‫ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔ‬. c) The numbers from 20 to 90. ‫ ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔ‬remains invariable. ٍ‫ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔُ ﻛِﺘَﺎب‬ 100 books. but the "alif is not pronounced. (6) 100 to 900. (ii) The number 200 loses its ‫ ن‬when it is immediately followed by a noun. e. b) (i) ِ‫ﻣِﺎﺋَﺘَﺎن‬ 200. it loses its tanwi|n. (iii) When it is followed immediately by the noun. Back to the Exercise Contents 39 . e. as do all the hundreds. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS (6) (٦) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٦ َ‫ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔ وَﻋِﺸْﺮُون‬ twenty three.16. Both elements are declined.g.g. are followed by a noun in the accusative singular. hundred.

is followed by a noun in the genitive singular (see examples above). the numbers from 3 to 9 which precede it to form the hundreds from 300 to 900 take the masculine form and are often joined into one word. (iv) In compound numbers above 100. a) and 1. For example. the noun follows the rule applied to the last element. even though the correct form is ‫ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔ‬ (ii) The number ٍ‫ﺛَﻼثُ ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔ‬. therefore the three in 300 does not have a ta\' marbu\t>a. The number ‫ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔ‬ being feminine.g.000 follow the same rule as ‫ ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔ‬100 Back to the Exercise Contents 40 . in 103 men. like ‫ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔ‬. (iii) The numbers from 300 to 900 are followed by a noun in the genitive singular.000 and upwards and ِ‫ أَﻟْﻔَﺎن‬2. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS (7) (٧) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٦ ٍ‫ ﻣِﺎﺋَﺘَﺎ ﻛِﺘَﺎب‬200 books.000 ِ‫ ﻣِﺎﺋَﺘَﺎن‬200. is feminine. (iii) ِ‫ﻣِﺎﺋَﺘَﺎن‬.16. ٍ‫ ﺛَﻼﺛُﻤِﺎﺋَﺔ‬300. e. 7) ‫ أَﻟْﻒ‬1. c) (i) 300 to 900. the rule for three must be applied and therefore the noun must be in the genitive plural.

000 books. Back to the Exercise Contents 41 ِ‫أَﻟْﻔَﺎن‬. ٍ‫ﻣﺎﺋَﺘَﺎ ﻛِﺘَﺎب‬ 200 books. 11 to 19. e. ٍ‫ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔُ آﻻف‬three thousand. d) Remark. Its plural is either ‫ آﻻف‬or ‫أُﻟُﻮف‬.16. e. ٍ‫ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔُ آﻻفِ ﻛِﺘَﺎب‬3.g. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS (8) (٨) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٦ b) ‫ أَﻟْﻒ‬is a masculine noun.g. c) When ‫أَﻟْﻒ‬.000 books. ِ‫ﻣﺎﺋَﺘَﺎن‬. ٍ‫ ﺛَﻼﺛُﻤِﺎﺋَﺔِ أَﻟْﻒِ ﻛِﺘَﺎب‬300. and is followed by a noun in the genitive singular. ٍ‫ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔَ ﻋَﺸَﺮَ أَﻟْﻒَ ﻛِﺘَﺎب‬13. ً‫ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔَ ﻋَﺸَﺮَ أَﻟْﻔﺎ‬thirteen thousand. It follows the same rule applied to the numbers from 3 to 10.000 books. whether it is in the singular. When it is immediately followed by a noun. like . ٍ‫ ﺛَﻼﺛُﻤِﺎﺋَﺔِ أَﻟْﻒ‬three hundred thousand. loses its ‫ن‬. it loses its tanwi\n.000 books.g. the dual or the plural. e. ٍ‫ أَﻟْﻔَﺎ ﻛِﺘَﺎب‬2. is immediately followed by a noun. 100 to 900.

Back to the Exercise Contents 42 َ‫ و‬.000 This number follows the same rule as for ‫أَﻟْﻒ‬ 1. e. a) Descending order: the thousands are placed first. In both cases. . or b) Ascending order: the units are placed first. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS (9) (٩) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٦ 8) 1.16. this practice is not used in modern Arabic.000. 9) The numbers composed of thousands. ٍ‫ﺳَﺒْﻌَﺔ وَﺛَﻼﺛُﻮنَ وَﺧَﻤْﺴُﻤِﺎﺋَﺔٍ وَﺗِﺴْﻌَﺔُ آﻻف‬ However. followed by the hundreds. hundreds.000. followed by the tens. tens. the units are placed in front of the tens. َ‫ﺗِﺴْﻌَﺔُ آﻻفٍ وَﺧَﻤْﺴُﻤِﺎﺋَﺔٍ وَﺳَﺒْﻌَﺔ وَﺛَﻼﺛُﻮن‬ 9.537. then the hundreds and the thousands. each linked by the conjunction َ‫ و‬. and units can be formed in two different ways: either in descending order or in ascending order.g.g. each linked by the conjunction e. then the units and the tens.

e. ‫ أُوﻟَﻰ‬feminine singular. َ‫ أَوﱠﻟُﻮن‬sound masculine plural. ٍ‫)ﺛَﺎن‬ ُ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻟِﺚ‬the third ُ‫ اَﻟﺮﱠاﺑِﻊ‬the fourth ‫ اَﻷُوﻟَﻰ‬the first ُ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻧِﻴَﺔ‬the second ُ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻟِﺜَﺔ‬the third ُ‫ اَﻟﺮﱠاﺑِﻌَﺔ‬the fourth Back to the Exercise Contents 43 . i. more or less. from the corresponding cardinal numbers and follow the pattern ‫ﻓَﺎﻋِﻞ‬.17. 1st is an exception.e. Masculine Feminine ُ‫ اَﻷوﱠل‬the first ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻧِﻲ‬the second (indef. ُ‫ أَوَاﺋِﻞ‬broken masculine plural. as it is an elative. THE ORDINAL NUMBERS ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻟﺘﱠﺮْﺗِﻴﺒِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٧ ُ‫ اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻟﺘﱠﺮْﺗِﻴﺒِﻴﱠﺔ‬the Ordinal numbers from 2nd to 10th derive. a comparative and a superlative.g. ُ‫ أَوﱠل‬instead of ُ‫ أَأْوَل‬masculine singular.. ُ‫ أُوَل‬broken feminine plural.

the ordinal numbers are used like cardinals.17. The two parts of the ordinal numbers from 11th to 19th are not declined. masculine feminine َ‫ اَﻟْﺤَﺎدِيَ ﻋَﺸَﺮ‬the eleventh َ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻧِﻲَ ﻋَﺸَﺮ‬the twelfth َ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻟِﺚَ ﻋَﺸَﺮ‬the thirteenth َ‫ اَﻟﺮﱠاﺑِﻊَ ﻋَﺸَﺮ‬the fourteenth َ‫ اَﻟْﺤَﺎدِﻳَﺔَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَة‬the eleventh َ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻧِﻴَﺔَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَة‬the twelfth َ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻟِﺜَﺔَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَة‬the thirteenth َ‫ اَﻟﺮﱠاﺑِﻌَﺔَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَة‬the fourteenth Back to the Exercise Contents 44 . THE ORDINAL NUMBERS (2) (٢) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻟﺘﱠﺮْﺗِﻴﺒِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٧ ُ‫ اَﻟْﺨَﺎﻣِﺲ‬the fifth ُ‫ اَﻟﺴﱠﺎدِس‬the sixth ُ‫ اَﻟﺴﱠﺎﺑِﻊ‬the seventh ُ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻣِﻦ‬the eighth ُ‫ اَﻟﺘﱠﺎﺳِﻊ‬the ninth ُ‫ اَﻟْﻌَﺎﺷِﺮ‬the tenth ُ‫ اَﻟْﺨَﺎﻣِﺴَﺔ‬the fifth ُ‫ اَﻟﺴﱠﺎدِﺳَﺔ‬the sixth ُ‫ اَﻟﺴﱠﺎﺑِﻌَﺔ‬the seventh ُ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻣِﻨَﺔ‬the eighth ُ‫ اَﻟﺘﱠﺎﺳِﻌَﺔ‬the ninth ُ‫ اَﻟْﻌَﺎﺷِﺮَة‬the tenth After 10th. All the cases take a fath>a. which take the normal form in the two genders. except when they are composed of the above-mentioned numbers.

ً‫ﻳَﺪْرُسُ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐُ اﻟﺜﱠﺎﻟِﺚُ ﻟُﻐَﺔً ﺛَﺎﻧِﻴَﺔ‬ the third student studies a second language. in the definite and indefinite with the noun.g.g. THE ORDINAL NUMBERS (3) (٣) ُ‫( اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻟﺘﱠﺮْﺗِﻴﺒِﻴﱠﺔ‬١٧ The ordinal numbers from 20th to 90th are the same as the cardinal numbers. e. in gender.17.g: Masculine Feminine َ‫ اَﻟْﺤَﺎدِي وَاﻟْﻌِﺸْﺮُون‬the 21st َ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻧِﻲ وَاﻟْﻌِﺸْﺮُون‬the 22nd َ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻟِﺚُ وَاﻟْﻌِﺸْﺮُون‬the 23rd َ‫ اَﻟْﺤَﺎدِﻳَﺔُ وَاﻟْﻌِﺸْﺮُون‬the 21st َ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻧِﻴَﺔُ وَاﻟْﻌِﺸْﺮُون‬the 22nd َ‫ اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻟِﺜَﺔُ وَاﻟْﻌِﺸْﺮُون‬the 23rd The ordinal numbers are treated as adjectives. َ‫ﻋِﺸْﺮُون‬ َ‫ اَﻟْﻌِﺸْﺮُون‬the twentieth twentieth The ordinal numbers between the tens as from 20th are formed by placing the units in front of the tens and joining the two elements with the conjunction ‫و‬. e. e. except for those from 11th to 19th. Back to the Exercise Contents 45 . They agree in case.

ُ‫اِﺳْﻢ‬ ِ‫اِﺳْﻢُ اﻟﻨﺴْﺒَﺔ‬ ordinal number. it is used in the feminine singular.e. comparative and superlative. elative. As regards the adjective whose substantive is an irrational plural. Back to the Exercise Contents 46 . passive participle. the indefinite and the definite. THE ADJECTIVE ُ‫( اَﻟﺼﻔَﺔُ أَوِ اﻟﻨﱠﻌْﺖ‬١٨ ُ‫اَﻟﺼﻔَﺔُ أَوِ اﻟﻨﱠﻌْﺖ‬ the Adjective is used to denote a state or condition and quality. except for the comparative which is used only in the masculine singular.18. The adjective which comes after its substantive agrees with it in gender. i. plural of animal and things. i. number. They are: 1) ِ‫اِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻔَﺎﻋِﻞ‬ 2) ِ‫اِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮل‬ 3) ‫اَﻟْﻌَﺪَدُ اﻟﺘﱠﺮْﺗِﻴﺒِﻲﱡ‬ 4) ِ‫اِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮل‬ assimilate adjective.e. There are seven types of adjectives which we have already studied. case. or will study. 5) ِ‫اِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤُﺒَﺎﻟَﻐَﺔ‬ intensive adjective. 6) ِ‫اﻟﺘﱠﻔْﻀِﻴﻞ‬ 7) active participle. relative adjective. each one in detail.

.. sing. dual and plur.18.. sing. Take note of the agreement of the adjective with its substantive. Back to the Exercise Contents 47 . dual and plur.. sing.. c) the nice dog. d) an interesting book. b) the hard-working student. and compare groups a) and b) with groups c) and d). sing... dual and plur. THE ADJECTIVE (2) (٢) ُ‫( اَﻟﺼﻔَﺔُ أوِ اﻟﻨﱠﻌْﺖ‬١٨ Examples: a) c) ‫ﻃَﺎﻟِﺐ ﻣُﺠْﺘَﻬِﺪ‬ ِ‫ﻃَﺎﻟِﺒَﺎنِ ﻣُﺠْﺘَﻬِﺪَان‬ َ‫ﻃُﻼب ﻣُﺠْﺘِﻬِﺪُون‬ b) ُ ‫اَﻟْﻜَﻠْﺐُ اﻟﻠﱠﻄِﻴ‬ ‫ﻒ‬ ِ‫اَﻟْﻜَﻠْﺒَﺎنِ اﻟﻠﱠﻄِﻴﻔَﺎن‬ ُ‫اَﻟْﻜِﻼبُ اﻟﻠﱠﻄِﻴﻔَﺔ‬ d) ‫اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺔُ اﻟْﻤُﺠْﺘَﻬِﺪَ ُة‬ ِ‫اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺘَﺎنِ اﻟْﻤُﺠْﺘَﻬِﺪَﺗَﺎن‬ ُ‫اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎتُ اﻟْﻤُﺠْﺘَﻬِﺪَات‬ ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎب ﻣُﻔِﻴﺪ‬ ِ‫ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑَﺎنِ ﻣُﻔِﻴﺪَان‬ ‫ﻛُﺘُﺐ ﻣُﻔِﻴﺪَة‬ a) a hard-working student. masc. dual and plur. fem.

‫أَﺷَﺪﱡ‬ stronger. e. Back to the Exercise Contents 48 . followed by a noun in the ac- cusative (a verbal noun as a rule). ‫ أَﻗَﻞﱡ‬less. The elative is always formed from the three radicals. from َ‫ﺗَﺴَﺎﻣَﺢ‬ ً‫ أَﻗَﻞﱡ اﺳْﺘِﻌْﻤَﺎﻻ‬less used.g. ً‫ أَﻛْﺜَﺮُ ﺗَﺴَﺎﻣُﺤﺎ‬more tolerant. stronger as to redness). and by following the pattern ُ‫أَﻓْﻌَﻞ‬. or the Comparative and the Superlative.19. THE ELATIVE ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟﺘﱠﻔْﻀِﻴﻞ‬١٩ The Elative. It is formed from words with more than three consonants and the words of the form ُ‫أَﻓْﻌَﻞ‬ for colors and defects by using ُ‫ أَﻛْﺜَﺮ‬more. the form is ‫( أَﻫَﻢﱡ‬for ُ‫)أَﻫْﻤَﻢ‬. from َ‫اِﺳْﺘَﻌْﻤَﻞ‬ ً‫ أَﺷَﺪﱡ ﺣُﻤْﺮَة‬redder (lit. When the second and third radicals are identical. is formed by eliminating all the additional letters.

g. it is preceded by ‫( ﻣِﻤﱠﺎ‬for ‫)ﻣِﻦْ ﻣَﺎ‬. e. the Arabs prefer to use the elative as a noun. but a whole sentence or an adverbial determination. e. instead of using the superlative.g.19. Back to the Exercise Contents 49 with an attached . with a verb or the preposition ْ‫ﻣِﻦ‬ pronoun.g. it agrees in gender and number with the noun to which it refers. with the feminine form ‫ﻓَﻌْﻠَﻰ‬. The superlative is used as an adjective. Consequently. THE ELATIVE (2) (٢) ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟﺘﱠﻔْﻀِﻴﻞ‬١٩ The elative is used only in the masculine singular. e. rather than as an adjective. followed by a genitive. Singular ‫أَﻛْﺒَ ُﺮ‬ ‫ﻛُﺒْﺮَى‬ Masculine Feminine Dual Plural ‫أَﻛْﺒَﺮَا ِن‬ ِ‫ﻛُﺒْﺮَﻳَﺎن‬ ‫أَﻛْﺒَﺮُو َن‬ ‫ﻛُﺒْﺮَﻳَﺎت‬ However. If the second part of the comparison is not a noun. ِ‫ﻓِﺒْﺮاﻳِﺮُ ﻫُﻮَ أَﻗْﺼَﺮُ ﺷَﻬْﺮٍ ﻓِﻲ اﻟﺴﱠﻨَﺔ‬ February is the shortest month of the year instead of ِ‫ﻓِﺒْﺮاﻳﺮُ ﻫُﻮَ اﻟﺸﱠﻬْﺮُ اﻷﻗْﺼَﺮُ ﻓِﻲ اﻟﺴﱠﻨَﺔ‬ though the latter is permissible.

than it yesterday). Back to the Exercise Contents 50 . THE ELATIVE (3) (٣) ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟﺘﱠﻔْﻀِﻴﻞ‬١٩ ِ‫اَﻟﻄﱠﻘْﺲُ أَﺟْﻤَﻞُ اﻟْﻴَﻮْمَ ﻣِﻨْﻪُ أَﻣْﺲ‬ the weather is more beautiful today than it was yesterday (lit. than it was yesterday). or ِ‫اَﻟﻄﱠﻘْﺲُ أَﺟْﻤَﻞُ اﻟْﻴَﻮْمَ ﻣِﻤﱠﺎ ﻛَﺎنَ أَﻣْﺲ‬ (lit. Note that the elative is equivalent to the comparative of superiority and to the relative superlative.19. It does not include the comparative of equality.

it is always in the masculine or feminine singular according to its subject. but not in number. preceding and following the subject.20. the verb preceding its subject agrees with it in gender. It is especially noted that when the verb in the third person comes before the subject. In other words. THE VERBAL SENTENCE ُ‫( اَﻟْﺠُﻤْﻠَﺔُ اﻟْﻔِﻌْﻠِﻴﱠﺔ‬٢٠ A verbal sentence is a sentence which starts with a verb followed by its subject. in the sentence below: ُ‫ﺗَﺠْﻠِﺲُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤَﺔَُ وَﺗَﻜْﺘُﺐ‬ ُ‫ﻳَﺠْﻠِﺲُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻢُ وَﻳَﻜْﺘُﺐ‬ ِ‫ﺗَﺠْﻠِﺲُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤَﺘَﺎنِ وَﺗﻜْﺘُﺒَﺎن‬ ِ‫ﻳَﺠْﻠِﺲُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤَﺎنِ وَﻳَﻜْﺘُﺒَﺎن‬ َ‫ﺗَﺠْﻠِﺲُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤَﺎتُ وَﻳَﻜْﺘُﺒْﻦ‬ َ‫ﻳَﺠْﻠِﺲُ اﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻤُﻮنَ وَﻳَﻜْﺘُﺒُﻮن‬ The teacher sits and writes (fem. sing. The normal sentence order in Arabic is for the verb to come first. Back to the Exercise Contents 51 . dual and plur.. Compare the two verbs.). and masc..

Nom. ap- pended to a noun or to an affixed pronoun other than the first person of the singular. after rejecting the tanwi\n decline by lengthening the preceding vowel. ِ‫ ﻓَﻢ‬or ‫ﻓِﻲ‬ ‫ﻓَﻢ‬. َ‫ ﻓَﻢ‬or ‫ﻓَﺎ‬ ُ‫ ﻓَﻢ‬or ‫ﻓُﻮ‬ Back to the Exercise Contents 52 .21.ذِي‬whilst instead of ُ‫ﻓُﻮه‬ or ‫ﻓَﻮَه‬. ِ‫ﺣَﻤِﻴﻪ‬ The word ‫ذُُو‬ ُ‫أَﺧُﻮه‬ ُ‫أَﺑُﻮه‬ ِ‫أَﺧِﻴﻪ‬ ِ‫أَﺑِﻴﻪ‬ ُ‫أَﺑَﺎه‬ ُ‫أَﺧَﺎه‬ owner or possessor of a thing. the mouth. ‫ﺣَﻢ‬ a father-in-law. which is used becomes either Acc. Nom. which is always con- nected to a following substasntive in the genitive. e. has in the accusative case ‫ذَا‬. ُ‫ﺣَﻤَﺎه‬ Gen. THE DECLENSION OF THE FIVE NOUNS ِ‫( إِﻋْﺮَابُ اﻷﺳْﻤَﺎءِ اﻟْﺨَﻤْﺴَﺔ‬٢١ The words ‫أَب‬ a father. and in the genitive case ‫ .g. ُ‫ﺣَﻤُﻮه‬ Acc. ‫ أَخ‬a brother. Gen.

22-23. Back to the Exercise Contents 53 . e. by land or by air. It is an answer to the question where?. e. 2) ِ‫ ﻇَﺮْفُ اﻟْﻤَﻜَﺎن‬the Adverb of place is a noun used to explain the place where an act takes place.g. ADVERBS OF TIME AND PLACE ِ‫( ﻇَﺮْفُ اﻟﺰﱠﻣَﺎنِ وَاﻟْﻤَﻜَﺎن‬٢٣-٢٢ 1) ِ‫ﻇَﺮْفُ اﻟﺰﱠﻣَﺎن‬ the Adverb of time is a noun used to explain the time in or during which an act takes place. ً‫أُﺣِﺐﱡ اﻟﺴﱠﻔَﺮَ ﺑَﺮّاً أَوْ ﺑَﺤْﺮاً أَوْ ﺟَﻮّا‬ I like to travel by sea.g. ً‫ﻧَﻌْﻤَﻞُ ﻧَﻬَﺎراً وﻧَﻨَﺎمُ ﻟَﻴْﻼ‬ we work during the daytime and sleep at night. It is an answer to the question when?.

ِ‫رَأَﻳْﺘُﻪُ وَﻳَﺨْﺮُجُ ﻣِﻦَ اﻟْﺒَﻴْﺖ‬ I saw him going out of the house.g. ُ‫ اَﻟْﺤَﺎل‬is used to describe the condition or circumstance obtaining at the time when the action of the main verb takes place. but it could be a verbal or a nominal sentence. a) It is ordinarily indefinite and derived. It may be an active or a passive participle. STATE OR CONDITION ُ‫( اَﻟْﺤَﺎل‬٢٤ ُ‫ اَﻟْﺤَﺎل‬State or condition or the Circumstantial accusative. In other words.24. an accusative expressing a state or condition of the object in actual connection with those acts. ً‫ ﻳَﺴْﺘَﺮِﻳﺢُ رَاﻗِﺪا‬he is resting lying down. b) It is mainly expressed with one word. It it is put in the accusative.e. e. i. Back to the Exercise Contents 54 . e. it is an object expressing a transitory state. though it may also be permanent. ً‫ ﻳُﺴَﺎﻓِﺮُ ﻣَﺴْﺮُورا‬he travels pleased. as in the previous example.g.

STATE OR CONDITION (2) (٢) ُ‫( اَﻟْﺤَﺎل‬٢٤ ِ‫ ﻳُﻐَﺎدِرُ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐُ اﻟْﺠَﺎﻣِﻌَﺔَ وَﺷَﻬَﺎدَﺗُﻪُ ﻓِﻲ ﺟَﻴْﺒِﻪ‬the student leaves the university with his diploma in his pocket.24. as there should be either ِ‫ﺻَﺎﺣِﺐُ اﻟْﺤَﺎل‬ or both to connect them with action to which ُ‫اَﻟْﺤَﺎل‬ َ‫و‬ or an affixed pronoun the subject or object of the refers. Back to the Exercise Contents 55 . َ‫و‬ is a connector.

sugar. There are various kinds of specification: 1) Specification of weight. If you say: ً‫ اِﺷْﺘَﺮَﻳْﺖُ رَﻃْﻼ‬I bought a pound. or anything. one does not understand what you mean by a pound. for example. SPECIFICATION ُ‫( اَﻟﺘﱠﻤْﻴِﻴﺰ‬٢٥ ُ‫اَﻟﺘﱠﻤْﻴِﻴﺰ‬ Specification is an indefinite substantive placed immedi- ately after the preposition of which it limits or defines the predicate.25. which could be a pound of tomatoes. Back to the Exercise Contents 56 .g. ً‫ﺷَﺮِﺑْﺖُ ﻓِﻨْﺠَﺎﻧﺎً ﻗَﻬْﻮَة‬ preposition or ٍ‫ﻓِﻨْﺠَﺎنَ ﻗَﻬْﻮَة‬ or ِ‫اﻟْﻘَﻬْﻮَة‬ َ‫ﻓِﻨْﺠَﺎﻧﺎً ﻣِﻦ‬ I drank a cup of coffee. and measure. by saying: ً‫ اِﺷْﺘَﺮَﻳْﺖُ رَﻃْﻼً ﻟَﺤْﻤﺎ‬I bought a pound of meat.g. or with the ‫ﻣِ ْﻦ‬. e. e. Specification may also be expressed with annexation. as in the previous example. It is put in the accusative. unless you specify it.

g. SPECIFICATION (2) (٢) ُ‫( اَﻟﺘﱠﻤْﻴِﻴﺰ‬٢٥ ً‫اِﺷْﺘَﺮَﻳْﺖُ ﻣِﺘْﺮاً ﻧَﺴِﻴﺠﺎ‬ I bought a meter of cloth. e. Back to the Exercise Contents 57 . e.25. how many children do you have? 3) Specification of number: a) the genitive plural after the cardinal numbers from 3 to 10. e. c) the genitive singular after the cardinal numbers 100 and 1000.g.g. e. 2) Specification after َ‫ﻛَﻢْ وَﻟَﺪاً ﻟَﻚ‬ ْ‫ ﻛَﻢ‬. ٍ‫ﻳَﺒْﻠُﻎُ ﻋَﺪَدُ أَﻋْﻀَﺎءِ ﻫَﺬِهِ اﻟْﺠَﻤْﻌِﻴﱠﺔِ ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔَ ﻋُﻀْﻮ‬ the members of the associ- ation are 100 in number. b) the accusative singular after the cardinal numbers from 11 to 99. ِ‫ﻳَﻌْﻤَﻞُ اﻟْﻤُﻮَﻇﱠﻔُﻮنَ أَرْﺑَﻌِ َ ﺳَﺎﻋَﺔً ﻓِﻲ اﻷﺳْﺒُﻮع‬ officials work forty hours a week. ِ‫ﻟَﻪُ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔُ أَوْﻻد‬ he has three children.g.

from َ‫ ﺟَﻠَﺲ‬to sit . ‫ ﻛَﺎﺗِﺐ‬writing.g.26. Back to the Exercise Contents 58 .g. teaching. from the imperfect ُ‫ ﻳَﻨْﺘَﺼِﺮ‬. ‫ ﻣُﻨْﺘَﺼِﺮ‬victorious. ‫ ذَاﻫِﺐ‬going. from َ‫ ﻋَﻠِﻢ‬to know. from the imperfect ُ‫ ﻳَﺴْﺘَﻌْﻤِﻞ‬. from the imperfect ُ‫ ﻳُﻌَﻠﻢ‬. 2) It is formed from the derived forms of the triliteral verb in the imperfect by substituting the phoneme ‫ﻣُـ‬ for the prefix of this tense. e. ‫ ﻋَﺎﻟِﻢ‬scholar. e. scientist. ‫ ﻣُﺴْﺘَﻌْﻤِﻞ‬user. from َ‫ ﻛَﺘَﺐ‬to write. from َ‫ ذَﻫَﺐ‬to go. from the imperfect ُ‫ ﻳُﺴَﺎﻓِﺮ‬. by infixing a lengthening "alif after the first radical. THE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻔَﺎﻋِﻞ‬٢٦ ‫ إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻔَﺎﻋِﻞ‬The Active participle is a noun formed to indicate that which performs the action. writer. and giving a kasra to the second radical. ‫ ﺟَﺎﻟِﺲ‬sitting. and by giving kasra to the consonant before last. It has two types: 1) It is of the form ‫ﻓَﺎﻋِﻞ‬ for the simple triliteral verb. ‫ ﻣُﺴَﺎﻓِﺮ‬travelling. ‫ ﻣُﻌَﻠﻢ‬teacher.

‫ ﻣَﻔْﺘُﻮح‬open. from َ‫ ﻋَﺮَف‬to know. ‫ ﻣَﻌْﺮُوف‬known. e. Back to the Exercise Contents 59 . THE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮل‬٢٧ ِ‫ إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮل‬The Passive participle is a noun formed to indicate the action of the verb which the subject experiences. from the imperfect ُ‫ ﻳُﻨَﻈﻢ‬. from َ‫ ﺟَﻬَﻞ‬not to know. ‫ ﻣَﻜْﺘُﻮب‬written.27. and by giving fath>a to the consonant before the last. ignore.g. e. ‫ ﻣُﻨَﻈﱠﻢ‬organized. ‫ ﻣُﻐْﻠَﻖ‬closed. from َ‫ ﻓَﺘَﺢ‬to open.g. There are two types: 1) the pattern is ‫ﻣَـ‬ ‫ﻣَﻔْﻌُﻮل‬. 2) It is formed from the derived forms of the triliteral verb in the imperfect by substituting the phoneme ‫ﻣُـ‬ to the prefix of this tense. from َ‫ ﻛَﺘَﺐ‬to write. It is formed by prefixing the phoneme to the simple triliteral verb. ‫ ﻣَﺠْﻬُﻮل‬unknown. preced- ed by d>amma after the second radical. from the imperfect ُ‫ ﻳُﻐْﻠِﻖ‬. an infixing a lengthening wa\w ‫ و‬.

‫ ﻣِﻔْﻌَﻠَﺔ‬and ‫ ﻣِﻔْﻌَﻞ‬. ‫ ﻗَﺺﱠ‬to cut. It resembles the noun of time and place. from َ‫ ﻓَﺘَﺢ‬to open. were added recently by the (linguistic) Academy. scissors. beginning with the mi\m ‫ ﻣِـ‬. from ‫ﻣِﺼْﻌَﺪ‬ elevator.g. e. THE NOUN OF INSTRUMENT ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻵﻟَﺔ‬٢٨ ِ‫إِﺳْﻢُ اﻵﻟَﺔ‬ The Noun of instrument describes the instrument with which the action is carried out. It takes the form of: ‫ ﻣِﻔْﻌَﺎل‬. The other forms. from ‫ﻣِﻠْﻌَﻘَﺔ‬ spoon. from ‫ﻣِﻜْﻨَﺴَﺔ‬ broom. َ‫ ﻛَﻨَﺲ‬to sweep. mainly ‫ﻓَﻌﱠﺎﻟَﺔ‬ and ‫ ﻓَﻌﱠﺎل‬. Back to the Exercise Contents 60 . ‫ﻣِﺼْﺒَﺎح‬ lamp. from ّ‫ﻣِﻘَﺺ‬ َ‫ ﺻَﺒَﺢ‬to beam. from َ‫ ﺻَﻌِﺪ‬to go up.28. َ‫ ﻟَﻌِﻖ‬to lick.g. e. but this letter is vowelled with kasra instead of fath>a. ‫ ﻣِﻔْﺘَﺎح‬key.

dative and genitive. plur. viz ‫ ـــُـ‬in the nominative. ‫ﻣَﻜْﺘَﺐ‬ of of ُ‫ﻣِﺼْﺒَﺎح‬ ‫رِﺳَﺎﻟَﺔ‬ of ‫ﻃَﺎﺑَﻊ‬ and other broken plurals of similar forms.29. and ‫ ـــَـ‬in the accusative. Diptotes are those which have only two terminations. ُ‫ﻓَﻌَﺎﺋِﻞ‬ as ُ‫ رَﺳَﺎﺋِﻞ‬letters. either triptotes or diptotes. in the singular number. and ‫ـــِــ‬ in the dative and genitive. plur. viz ‫ ـــُـ‬in the nominative. plur. The following types of noun are diptotes: 1) Broken plurals of the following forms: ُ‫ﻣَﻔَﺎﻋِﻞ‬ ُ‫ ﻣَﻜَﺎﺗِﺐ‬offices. e. Triptotes are those which have three terminations to indicate the different cases. 2) Broken plurals which end in hamza preceded by "alif mamdu\da. ‫ ـــَـ‬in the accusative. Back to the Exercise Contents 61 . as ُ‫ﻣَﻔَﺎﻋﻴِﻞ‬ as ُ‫ ﻣَﺼَﺎﺑِﻴﺢ‬lamps. and take no tanwi\n. plur. DIPTOTES ِ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻤْﻨُﻮعُ ﻣِﻦَ اﻟﺼﱠﺮْف‬٢٩ Undefined substantives and adjectives are. of ُ‫ﻓَﻮَاﻋِﻞ‬ as ُ‫ ﻃَﻮَاﺑِﻊ‬stamps.g.

plur. ‫ ﻋَﻄْﺸَﻰ‬thirsty. of of ‫وَزِﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺻَﺪِﻳﻖ‬ 3) Broken plurals which end in "alif maqs>u\ra: ‫ ﻓَﻌْﻠَﻰ‬as ‫ ﻣَﺮْﺿَﻰ‬sick people. color and defect (physical or moral) nouns of the form ُ‫ أَﻓْﻌَﻞ‬and their feminine ُ‫ ﻓَﻌْﻼء‬. of ‫ﻣَﺮِﻳﺾ‬ ‫ ﻓَﻌَﺎﻟَﻰ‬as ‫ ﻳَﺘَﺎﻣَﻰ‬orphans. of ‫ﻳَﺘِﻴﻢ‬ 4) Also the following plurals: ُ‫ أُوَل‬first.g. ُ‫ أَﻛْﺒَﺮ‬bigger. Back to the Exercise Contents 62 . plural of ‫ﺷَﻲْء‬ 5) The following feminine forms: ُ‫ ﺣَﻤْﺮَاء‬red. plur. ‫ﻛُﺒْﺮَى‬ greatest. ُ‫ أَﻓْﻌِﻼء‬as ُ‫ أَﺻْﺪِﻗَﺎء‬friends. 6) The masculine singular elative. plural of ُ‫آﺧَﺮ‬ ُ‫ أَﺷْﻴَﺎء‬things. ‫ ذِﻛْﺮَى‬remembrance. ُ‫أَﺷْﻘَﺮ‬ blond. e. plural of ُ‫أَوﱠل‬ ُ‫ أُﺧَﺮ‬others. DIPTOTES (2) (٢) ِ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻤْﻨُﻮعُ ﻣِﻦَ اﻟﺼﱠﺮْف‬٢٩ ‫ ﻓُﻌَﻼ ُء‬as ُ‫ وُزَرَاء‬ministers. plur. plur.29.

ُ‫ أَﺣْﻤَﺪ‬Ahmad.g Back to the Exercise Contents 63 . Su‫ع‬ad. َ‫ﺳِﺘﱠﺔُ ﺿِﻌْﻒُ ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔ‬ 6 is the double of 3.g.g. ُ‫ ﺑَﺎرِﻳﺲ‬Paris. silly. e. ُ‫أَﺣْﻤَﻖ‬ stupid. DIPTOTES (3) (٣) ِ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻤْﻨُﻮعُ ﻣِﻦَ اﻟﺼﱠﺮْف‬٢٩ ُ‫ أَﺣْﺪَب‬hunchback. hungry. ٍ‫ﺳَﺒْﻌَﺔُ أَﻛْﺜَﺮُ ﻣِﻦْ ﺳِﺘﱠﺔَ ﺑِﻮَاﺣِﺪ‬ 7 is more than 6 by one. whether personal or geographical.g. Egypt. 8) Adjectives of the form ُ‫ﻓَﻌْﻼن‬ ُ‫ﺟَﻮْﻋَﺎن‬ whose feminine is ‫ﻓَﻌْﻠَﻰ‬. 10) Distributive numerals of the form ُ‫ﻣَﻔْﻌَﻞ‬ and ُ‫ﻓُﻌَﺎل‬. whose feminine is 9) The numerals which end in ‫ة‬ ‫ﺟَﻮْﻋَﻰ‬ when used alone as pure num- bers. ُ‫ﺳُﻌَﺎد‬ ُ‫ﻣِﺼْﺮ‬ Sulaiman.29. e. ُ‫ﺳُﻠَﻴْﻤَﺎن‬ ُ‫ع ﻋَﺎﺋِﺸَﺔ‬A’isha. e. 7) Most proper names. e.

29. LES DIPTOTES (4)
(٤) ِ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻤْﻨُﻮعُ ﻣِﻦَ اﻟﺼﱠﺮْف‬٢٩

‫ﻣَﺜْﻨَﻰ‬

two by two,

َ‫ﺛُﻼث‬

three by three.

11) In compound proper names of the class called

ّ‫ﻣُﺮَﻛﱠﺐ ﻣَﺰْﺟِﻲ‬

compound, the first word is usually not declined at all,

and the second follows the diptote declension, e.g.

‫ﺑَﻌْﻠَﺒَﻚﱡ‬

Baalbek;

ُ‫ﺑَﻴْﺘَﻠَﺤْﻢ‬

or

ُ‫ﺣَﻀْﺮَﻣَﻮْت‬

ُ‫ﺑَﻴْﺖَ ﻟَﺤْﻢ‬

Hadhramaut;

Bethlehem.

Note that diptotes are treated as triptotes when they are made definite by the article, by an affixed pronoun or by annexation, e.g.
Nom.

ِ‫اَﻟْﻤَﻜَﺎﺗِﺐُ ﻣَﻜَﺎﺗِﺒُﻜُﻢ ﻣَﻜَﺎﺗِﺐُ اﻟْﺒَﺮِﻳﺪ‬

Acc.

ِ‫اَﻟْﻤَﻜَﺎﺗِﺐَ ﻣَﻜَﺎﺗِﺒَﻜُﻢ ﻣَﻜَﺎﺗِﺐَ اﻟْﺒَﺮِﻳﺪ‬

Gen.

ِ‫اَﻟْﻤَﻜَﺎﺗِﺐِ ﻣَﻜَﺎﺗِﺒِﻜُﻢ ﻣَﻜَﺎﺗِﺐِ اﻟْﺒَﺮِﻳﺪ‬

the offices, your offices, post offices.

Back to the Exercise

Contents
64

30. THE COMPLEMENT OF CAUSE

ِ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮلُ ﻷﺟْﻠِﻪ‬٣٠
ِ‫ اَﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮلُ ﻷﺟْﻠِﻪ‬the Complement of cause is a verbal noun in the
accusative mentioned after the verb to express aim or purpose. It is
the answer to the question why? e.g.

ُ‫ﻻ ﻳَﻠْﻌَﺐُ اﻟﻄﻔْﻞُ ﻣَﻊَ اﻟْﻜَﻠْﺐِ ﺧَﻮْﻓﺎً ﻣِﻨْﻪ‬
the child does not play with the dog, because he is afraid of him.

ِ‫ﻳَﺠْﺘَﻬِﺪُ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐُ ﻓِﻲ دُرُوﺳِﻪِ أَﻣَﻼً ﻓِﻲ اﻟﻨﱠﺠَﺎحِ ﻓِﻲ اﻻِﻣْﺘَﺤَﺎن‬
the student studies hard hoping to pass the exam.

‫ﻳَﻜْﺬِبُ اﻟﻨﱠﺎسُ ﺧَﺠَﻼً ﻣِﻦْ ﻗَﻮْلِ اﻟْﺤَﻖ‬
people lie because they are ashamed to tell the truth.

ِ‫ﻳَﻌْﻤَﻞُ اﻟْﻤَﺮْءُ ﻛَﺴْﺒﺎً ﻟِﻘُﻮتِ ﻳَﻮْﻣِﻪ‬
one (man) works in order to earn one’s (his) livelihood.

ِ‫ﻳَﺘَﻈَﺎﻫَﺮُ اﻟﺸﱠﻌْﺐُ اِﺣْﺘِﺠَﺎﺟﺎً ﺿِﺪﱠ اﻟْﺤُﻜُﻮﻣَﺔ‬
the people demonstrate in order to protest against the government.

ِ‫ﺗَﻤْﻨَﺢُ اﻟﺪﱠوْﻟَﺔُ اﻟﻄﱠﻠَﺒَﺔَ ﻣِﻨَﺤﺎً دِرَاﺳِﻴﱠﺔً ﺗَﺸْﺠِﻴﻌﺎً ﻟَﻬُﻢْ ﻋَﻠَﻰ اﻟﺪرَاﺳَﺔ‬
the State grants a scholarship to students in order to encourage
them to study.

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Contents
65

31. THE ABSOLUTE OBJECT

ُ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮلُ اﻟْﻤُﻄْﻠَﻖ‬٣١
ُ‫ اَﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮلُ اﻟْﻤُﻄْﻠَﻖ‬the Absolute object is a verbal noun in the accusative repeated after the same verb in order to:
1) give stress, e.g.

ً‫ﻳَﻌْﻤَﻞُ ﻋَﻤَﻼ‬

he does work.

2) describe the manner of the action, qualified by an adjective, e.g.

ً‫اِﺳْﺘَﻘْﺒَﻠَﻪُ اﺳْﺘِﻘْﺒَﺎﻻً ﺣَﺎرّا‬

he welcomed him warmly (lit. he welcomed
him a warm welcome).

In this connection, it must be mentioned that Arabic has no adverbs.
The adverbial concept is obtained by using adjectives mostly and
nouns in the accusative case, e.g.

ً‫دَاﺋِﻤﺎ‬

always, from the adjective

‫دَاﺋِﻢ‬

lasting, perpetual, perma-

nent.

ً‫ ﻗَﺮِﻳﺒﺎ‬soon, shortly, from the adjective ‫ ﻗَﺮِﻳﺐ‬near, close.
ً‫ ﻃَﻮِﻳﻼ‬a long time, from the adjective ‫ ﻃَﻮِﻳﻞ‬long.
ً‫ ﺣَﻘّﺎ‬really, truly, from the noun ّ‫ ﺣَﻖ‬truth, right.
ً‫ ﻃَﺒْﻌﺎ‬of course! certainly! from the noun ‫ ﻃَﺒْﻊ‬natural disposition,
temper, nature, character.

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Contents
66

ٍ‫ﻻ ﻳَﺬْﻫَﺐُ اﻟْﻤُﻮَﻇﱠﻒُ وَزَﻣِﻴﻠَﻪُ ﻓِﻲ اﻟْﻤَﻜْﺘَﺐِ ﻓِﻲ ﻋُﻄْﻠَﺔ‬ the employee does not go on vacation at the same time as his colleague at work. َ‫ أَدْرُسُ وَاﻟﻠﱠﻴْﻞ‬I study during the night. put after َ‫و‬ used to mean with. as: َ‫ أَﺗَﺠَﻮﱠلُ وَاﻟْﺒُﺤَﻴْﺮَة‬I walk along the lake.32. by or during. THE CONCOMITATE OBJECT ُ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮلُ ﻣَﻌَﻪ‬٣٢ ُ‫اَﻟْﻤَﻔْﻌُﻮلُ ﻣَﻌَﻪ‬ the Concomitate object or the object in connection with which something is done is a noun in the accusative. Back to the Exercise Contents 67 . ْ‫ ﻳُﺴَﺎﻓِﺮُ اﻷوْﻻدُ وَوَاﻟِﺪَﻳْﻬِﻢ‬children travel along with their parents.

and which is put sometimes in the nominative. is gener- ally preceded by one of the ِ‫ﺣُﺮُوفُ اﻟﻨﺪَاء‬ interjections. ِ‫ ﻳَﺎ ﻣُﻌَﻠﻢَ اﻟْﻌَﺮَﺑِﻴﱠﺔ‬O Arabic teacher! Back to the Exercise Contents 68 . sometimes in the accusative. 1) It is put in the nominative without tanwi\n : a) If it is a proper name. e. ُ‫ ﻳَﺎ وَﻟَﺪ‬O boy! ُ‫ ﻳَﺎ ﺳَﻴﺪ‬O Mister! 2) It is put in the accusative: a) If it is followed by a genitive.g. e. The most com- mon is ‫ ﻳَﺎ‬. It requires after it a noun not defined by the article. e.33. ُ‫ ﻳَﺎ ﻣُﺤَﻤﱠﺪ‬O Muh>ammad! mmad ُ‫ ﻳَﺎ ﻓَﺎﻃِﻤَﺔ‬O Fa\ti>mah! ah b) When the particular person or thing called is indefinite and directly addressed. or the Vocative. THE VOCATIVE ‫( اَﻟْﻤُﻨَﺎدَى‬٣٣ ‫اَﻟْﻤُﻨَﺎدَى‬ the person or the thing called.g.g.

e.g.g. THE VOCATIVE (2) (٢) ‫( اَﻟْﻤُﻨَﺎدَى‬٣٣ b) If it is assimilated to the noun annexated. e. ً‫ ﻳَﺎ ﻣُﺴَﺎﻓِﺮاً اِﺣْﺠِﺰْ ﺗَﺬْﻛَﺮَﺗَﻚَ ﻣُﺴَﺒﱠﻘﺎ‬O traveller. ً‫ ﻳَﺎ ﻗَﺎرِﺋﺎَ ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑﺎ‬O you who are reading a book! c) When the person or the thing called is indefinite and is not directly addressed.33. make your reservations in advance! Back to the Exercise Contents 69 .

apart from Fari\d. Fari\d is the exception. ً‫ ﺟَﺎءَ اﻟﻄﱡﻼبُ إِﻻ ﻓَﺮِﻳﺪا‬the students came. or in the same case as the generality.34. The exception. and the students are the generality. and the general term is mentioned. when the preposition is negative and the generality is mentioned. as regards cases. EXCEPTION ُ‫( اَﻻِﺳْﺘِﺜْﻨَﺎء‬٣٤ The commonest way of expressing Exception using the particle ُ‫ اَﻻِﺳْﺘِﺜْﻨَﺎء‬is by ‫ إِﻻ‬. Thus.g ‫ ﻣَﺎ ﺟَﺎءَ اﻟﻄﱡﻼبُ إِﻻ ﻓَﺮِﻳﺪاً أَوْ ﻓَﺮِﻳﺪ‬no students came apart from Fari\d. is considered of three kinds: 1) It is put in the accusative. when the proposition is in the affirmative. 2) the exception may be put either in the accusative. Back to the Exercise Contents 70 . e.g. two important elements are involved: the thing or person excepted and the Generality. e. as shown in the previous example. In Exception.

in the same way that ‫ إِنﱠ‬introduces the subject of the nominal sentence in the accusative. when it has been sufficiently indicated.35. is called the noun of ‫ ﻻ‬. Back to the Exercise Contents 71 . It is always indefinite with no tanwi\n. nothing. The predicate may be omitted. LA| THAT DENIES THE WHOLE GENUS ِ‫( ﻻ اﻟﻨﱠﺎﻓِﻴَﺔُ ﻟِﻠْﺠِﻨْﺲ‬٣٥ ِ‫ ﻻ اﻟﻨﱠﺎﻓِﻴَﺔُ ﻟِﻠْﺠِﻨْﺲ‬la\ that denies the whole genus. as when one asks: ? ِ‫ ﻫَﻞْ ﻫُﻨَﺎكَ أَﺣَﺪ ﻓِﻲ اﻟْﻤَﻨْﺰِل‬is there anyone in the house? or ? ‫ ﻫَﻞْ ﻫُﻨَﺎكَ ﺷَﻲء‬is there something? and you reply: َ‫ ﻻ أَﺣَﺪَ ﻻ ﺷَﻲْء‬nobody.

EXCLAMATION ُ‫( اَﻟﺘﱠﻌَﺠﱡﺐ‬٣٦ The Arabic language possesses two forms for expressing ُ‫اَﻟﺘﱠﻌَﺠﱡﺐ‬ surprise or wonder. i.e. i. wonder or exclamation. the object that causes surprise. e.36. Exclamation: 1) The third person masculine singular perfect of the verb of the َ‫أَﻓْﻌَﻞ‬. e. (which is the same as the form of the comparative in the accusative case) preceded by ‫ ﻣَﺎ‬followed by the subject in the accu- form sative.g. ! ِ‫ ﻣَﺎ أَﺣْﺴَﻦَ اﻟْﻮَرْدَ ﻓِﻲ اﻟْﺤَﺪِﻳﻘَﺔ‬what nice roses there are in the garden! 2) The second person masculine singular imperative of the form َ‫أَﻓْﻌَﻞ‬ followed by the preposition ِ‫ ب‬with the genitive.g.e. ! َ‫ أَﻛْﺮِمْ ﺑِﺼَﺪِﻳﻘِﻚ‬what a generous person your friend is! Back to the Exercise Contents 72 .

or b) into a regular "alif "alif. Back to the Exercise Contents 73 . THE ABBREVIATED. a) ِ‫ أَﻛْﺘُﺐُ إِﻟَﻴْﻪ‬I write to him.g.37-38-39. b) ُ‫ﻧَﺮَاه‬ we see him. without the two dots. "alif that can be abbreviated. put at the end of a word. ‫ﻣَﺸَﻰ‬ to walk. which can be a regular "alif as in ‫ ﻋَﺼَﺎ‬a staff or an "alif maqs>u\ra as in The "alif maqs>u\ra is ‫ى‬ ‫ﺻَﺪَى‬ an echo.g. ‫ﻣَﺘﻰ‬ when. e. ‫ ي‬. (iii) ‫ أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ اﻟْﻔَﺘَﻰ‬I speak with the young man. THE PROLONGED AND THE DEFECTIVE ُ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻘُﺼُﻮرُ وَاﻟْﻤَﻤْﺪُودُ وَاﻟْﻤَﻨْﻘُﻮص‬٣٩-٣٨-٣٧ 1) ُ‫ اَﻟْﻤَﻘْﺼُﻮر‬The Abbreviated is a noun ending with ُ‫اَﻷﻟِﻒُ اﻟْﻤَﻘْﺼُﻮرَة‬ "alif maqs>u\ra. after a fath>a pronounced like "alif. The abbreviated stays the same in all cases. However. (i) ‫اﻟْﻔَﺘَﻰ‬ ‫ ﻣَﻦْ ﻫُﻮَ ﻫَﺬَا‬who is this young man? (ii) ‫ أَﻋْﺮِفُ ذَﻟِﻚَ اﻟْﻔَﺘَﻰ‬I know that young man. it turns into a) a real ‫رَأَى‬ to see. ‫ﻋَﻠَﻰ‬ on.g. in a preposition. with two dots if it is followed by a pronoun. e. e.

THE PROLONGED AND THE DEFECTIVE (2) (٢) ُ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻘُﺼُﻮرُ وَاﻟْﻤَﻤْﺪُودُ وَاﻟْﻤَﻨْﻘُﻮص‬٣٩-٣٨-٣٧ 2) ُ‫ اَﻟْﻤَﻤْﺪُود‬the Prolonged is a noun ending in a hamza. when indefinite. e. ‫ﻗَﺎﺿِﻲ‬ judge.g.g. ٍ‫ﻳَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻗَﺎض‬ ً‫أَﻋْﺮِفُ ﻗَﺎﺿِﻴﺎ‬ a judge speaks. ِ‫ﻧَﺴْﺘَﻤِﻊُ إِﻟَﻰ اﻷﻧْﺒَﺎء‬ 3) we listen to the news. I know a judge. ً‫ أَﺗَﻤَﻨﱠﻰ ﻟَﻚَ ﺷِﻔَﺎءً ﻋَﺎﺟِﻼ‬I wish you a speedy recovery. Back to the Exercise Contents 74 . ُ‫ اَﻟْﻤَﻨْﻘُﻮص‬the Defective is a noun ending in ‫ ي‬. e. e. preceded by an "alif. ‫ﻣُﺤَﺎﻣِﻲ‬ lawyer. THE ABBREVIATED. ‫اَﻟﺴﱠﻤَﺎءُ ﺻَﺎﻓِﻴَﺔ‬ the sky is clear. ‫ ﻏَﺎﻟِﻲ‬expensive. the ‫ي‬ of the defective. ٍ‫أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ ﻗَﺎض‬ I speak with a judge. In the nominative and genitive cases.37-38-39. It declines regularly.g. disappears but reappears in the accusative.

g ِ‫ﻳَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ اﻟْﻘَﺎﺿِﻲ أَوْ ﻗَﺎﺿِﻲ اﻟﺼﱡﻠْﺢ‬ the judge or the justice of the peace speaks.37-38-39. e. but is not expressed in the nominative and genitive.THE PROLONGED AND THE DEFECTIVE (3) (٣) ُ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﻘُﺼُﻮرُ وَاﻟْﻤَﻤْﺪُودُ وَاﻟْﻤَﻨْﻘُﻮص‬٣٩-٣٨-٣٧ When defined by the article ْ‫ اَل‬or by annexation. ِ‫أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ اﻟْﻘَﺎﺿِﻲ أَوْ ﻗَﺎﺿِﻲ اﻟﺼﱡﻠْﺢ‬ I speak with the judge or the justice of the peace. It is expressed only in the accusative. Back to the Exercise Contents 75 . ِ‫أَﻋْﺮِفُ اﻟْﻘَﺎﺿِﻲَ أَوْ ﻗَﺎﺿِﻲَ اﻟﺼﱡﻠْﺢ‬ I know the judge or the justice of the peace. THE ABBREVIATED. the ‫ ي‬of the defective is written.

e. or ‫أَﺧُﺺﱡ‬ I specify.40. It is to be explained by an ellipsis of ‫أَﻋْﻨِﻲ‬ I mean. the students.referring to it.generally of the first. Back to the Exercise Contents 76 . the students of Arabic.g. rarely of the second person . َ‫ ﻧَﺤْﻦُ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬we. It must always be determined by the article or by annexation. ِ‫ ﻧَﺤْﻦُ ﻃُﻼبَ اﻟﻠﱡﻐَﺔِ اﻟْﻌَﺮَﺑِﻴﱠﺔ‬we. SPECIFICATION OR PARTICULARISATION ُ‫( اَﻻِﺧْﺘِﺼَﺎص‬٤٠ ‫اَﻻِﺧْﺘِﺼَﺎص‬ Specification is the name given to a noun in the ac- cusative preceded by a pronoun . The specification or the particularisation is the noun which the pronoun represents and to which the statement made refers. without any verb intervention.

Such nouns are nearly always of the form ‫ﻣَﻔْﻌَﻞ‬ or ‫ﻣَﻜْﺘَﺐ‬ office. َ‫دَرَس‬ َ‫ﻧَﺰَل‬ to study. from ‫ﻣَﻌْﻤَﻞ‬ factory. or to work. or if the verb has ‫ و‬wa\w as a first radical. َ‫ﻛَﺘَﺐ‬ place. to descend. from house. from ‫ﻣَﺪْرَﺳَﺔ‬ ‫ﻣَﻨْﺰِل‬ ‫ﻣَﻔْﻌَﻠَﺔ‬. and giving to the second radi- cal fath>a. e. from to write. or the time or occasion of the action. NOUN OF TIME AND PLACE ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟﺰﱠﻣَﺎنِ وَاﻟْﻤَﻜَﺎن‬٤٢-٤١ ِ‫ إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟﺰﱠﻣَﺎنِ وَاﻟْﻤَﻜَﺎن‬The Noun of time and place expresses the place where the action of the verb is accomplished. from ‫ﻣَﻮْﺿِﻊ‬ ‫ﻣَﻔْﻌِﻠَﺔ‬. Back to the Exercise Contents 77 . It is formed like the imperfect active of the first form of the verb.g.41-42. َ‫وَﺿَﻊ‬ to place. if the imperfect has fatha or d>amma. by ‫ﻣَـ‬ substituting the syllable for the prefix. if the imperfect has kasra. and kasra. َ‫ﻋَﻤِﻞ‬ school.

from ‫اِﻟْﺘَﻘَﻰ‬ ‫اِﺳْﺘَﺸْﻔَﻰ‬ to meet. NOUN OF TIME AND PLACE (2) (٢) ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟﺰﱠﻣَﺎنِ وَاﻟْﻤَﻜَﺎن‬٤٢-٤١ ‫ﻣَﻮْﻋِﺪ‬ appointment. to seek a cure. from ‫ﻣُﺴْﺘَﺸْﻔَﻰ‬ a hospital. to set (sun). the passive participle takes the place of the noun of time and place. e. For the derived forms. Back to the Exercise Contents 78 . from ‫ ﻣَﻐْﺮِب‬West.41-42. from َ‫ﻏَﺮَب‬ َ‫وَﻋَﺪ‬ to promise. ‫ﻣُﻠْﺘَﻘَﻰ‬ a meeting place.g.

43. ً‫ ﻧَﻈَﺮَ إِﻟَﻴْﻪِ ﻧَﻈْﺮَة‬he looked at him once. THE NOMINA VICIS ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤَﺮﱠة‬٤٣ ِ‫إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻤَﺮﱠة‬ Nomina vicis. it is a noun that indicates the number of times the action has taken place. 1) If derived from the simple triliteral verb. e. termination Back to the Exercise Contents 79 . e. Or again. it has the form of ‫ ﻓَﻌْﻠَﺔ‬. ً‫ ﻳَﻨْﺘَﻘِﺪُ اﻧْﺘِﻘَﺎدَاتٍ ﻣُﺘَﻌَﺪدَة‬he makes many criticisms. 2) It is derived from the augmented forms by adding the feminine ‫ ة‬to the verbal noun. ً‫ ﻳَﺴْﺘَﻌْﻤِﻠُﻪُ اﺳْﺘِﻌْﻤَﺎﻻتٍ ﻛَﺜِﻴﺮَة‬he gets many uses out of it. ٍ‫ دَقﱠ اﻟْﻬَﺎﺗِﻒُ ﺛَﻼثَ دَﻗﱠﺎت‬the telephone rang three times.g. is a noun that expresses the doing of an action once.g.

Back to the Exercise Contents 80 . e. ِ‫اِﺳْﺘَﻘْﺒَﻠَﻪُ اﺳْﺘِﻘْﺒَﺎﻟَﺔَ اﻷﻣِﻴﺮ‬ he welcomed him like a prince. 2) It is derived from the derived forms by adding the feminine termination ‫ة‬ to the verbal noun. ِ‫اِﻧْﺘَﻔَﺾَ اﻟﺸﱠﻌْﺐُ ﺑِﻜَﺎﻣِﻠِﻪِ اﻧْﺘِﻔَﺎﺿَﺔَ اﻟﺮﱠﺟُﻞِ اﻟْﻮَاﺣِﺪ‬ the whole nation rose up like one single man. it indicates the manner in which the action takes place.g.g. 1) It is derived from the simple triliteral verb. ‫ﺗَﻨْﻈُﺮُ إِﻟَﻰ ﻛُﻞ ﻃِﻔْﻞٍ ﻧِﻈْﺮَةَ اﻷم‬ she looks at every child like a mother. THE NOUN OF KIND OR THE NOUN OF MANNER ِ‫( إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟﻨﱠﻮْعِ أَوْ إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻬَﻴْﺌَﺔ‬٤٤ ِ‫ إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟﻨﱠﻮْعِ أَوْ إِﺳْﻢُ اﻟْﻬَﻴْﺌَﺔ‬the Noun of kind or the Noun of manner is a noun that indicates the manner of doing what is expressed by the verb. and has the form of ‫ﻓِﻌْﻠًﺔ‬. ِ‫ﻳَﻀْﺤَﻚُ ﺿِﺤْﻜَﺔَ اﻟﻄﻔْﻞ‬ he laughs like a child. Or again. e.44.

even if the following noun to which it belongs is in the dual or plural. ‫ ﻫُﻮَ وَﻟَﺪ ﻣُﻬَﺬﱠب‬he is a well-educated boy. Back to the Exercise Contents 81 . whereas it agrees with the preceding substantive in case and in respect of the indefinite and the definite.g.g. when it precedes the subject. to the following noun with which it agrees only in gender. THE CONNECTED ADJECTIVE ّ‫( اَﻟﻨﱠﻌْﺖُ اﻟﺴﱠﺒَﺒِﻲ‬٤٥ ‫ اَﻟﻨﱠﻌْﺖُ اﻟﺴﱠﺒَﺒِﻲﱡ‬the Connected adjective. Yet the adjective is still left in the singular. agrees with it only in gender. as a prefixed predicate. The adjective may refer to the substantive either directly (in which case it is a simple adjective). by virtue of a following word which is connected with it. In the latter case. or indirectly. e. ُ‫ ﻫُﻮَ وَﻟَﺪ ﻣُﻬَﺬﱠﺑَﺔ أُﻣﱡﻪ‬he is a boy whose mother is well educated.45. e. the adjective belongs. not in number. e.g. just like a verb. ‫أَﺑْﻨَﺎؤُﻫَﺎ‬/‫إِﺑْﻨَﺎﻫَﺎ‬/‫ ﻫِﻲ إِﻣْﺮَأَة ﻣُﺘَﻌَﻠﻢ إِﺑْﻨُﻬَﺎ‬she is a woman whose son/two sons/sons are educated. only by attraction.

as in the previous example. and consequently both remain in the nominative. of which the substantive is the subject. as in a regular nominal sentence. the second substantive and the adjective which follows it really form together a nominal sentence. if the substantive precedes the adjective. THE CONNECTED ADJECTIVE (2) (٢) ‫( اَﻟﻨﱠﻌْﺖُ اﻟﺴﱠﺒَﺒِﻲﱡ‬٤٥ The following noun must contain an affixed personal pronoun. and the adjective the predicate.45. the connected adjective becomes a simple adjective. as in: ِ‫ ﻫُﻮَ وَﻟَﺪ أَﺑُﻮهُ ﻛَﺮ‬he is a boy whose father is generous. Back to the Exercise Contents 82 . On the other hand. Otherwise.

This word designates an abstract declinable verbal noun. he has entered. in general. and which expresses an action or a manner of being with no idea of time. the place from where anything goes forth. nor plural. again. because it contains only the radical letters. e. MAS>DAR VERBAL NOUN OR INFINITIVE ُ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﺼْﺪَر‬٤٦ ُ‫ اَﻟْﻤَﺼْﺪَر‬Mas>dar a means an origin. whereas the verbal noun not infrequently has a letter or more of increase. it has its own object. other grammarians consider the verb in the perfect.g. e. has no dual. e. Back to the Exercise Contents 83 . as being the etymological root. because most Arab grammarians derive the compound idea of the finite verb from the simple idea of the substantive. which.g. َ‫ دَﺧَﻞ‬he entered.g. it has two uses: 1) As a verb. bal noun of َ‫ دَﺧَﻞ‬.46. It is so termed because some grammarians consider it as the source from which the verb derives. because. We may compare with it the Greek infinitive used with the article as a substantive. where it originates. ‫دُﺧُﻮل‬ which is the ver- It is called a verbal noun. a source. However. mainly the 3rd person masculine singular. number or person.

no smoking. we have the alternative of Back to the Exercise Contents 84 . and an object understanding has both a subject َ‫اَﻟﺪﱠرْس‬ ِ‫اَﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬ the lesson.g. because it has a double meaning both as a noun (substantive) and as a verb. as ‫ اِﻗْﺘِﺼَﺎد‬means both economy and to economize. َ‫ أُﺣِﺐﱡ اﻻِﻗْﺘِﺼَﺎد‬meaning at the same time : I like economics. ِ‫ﻣَﻤْﻨُﻮع اﻟﺪﱡﺧُﻮلُ وَاﻟﺘﱠﺪْﺧِ ُ وَاﻟْﺒُﺼَﺎقُ وَوَﻗُﻮفُ اﻟﺴﱠﻴﱠﺎرَات‬ No admittance. because in modern Arabic. economy and I like to economize. There is also an in-between stage. the object goes into the accusative. we may speak about ‫ﺗَﻨْﺴِﻴﻖ‬ coordination. Instead of using a verbal noun. no spitting. While the subject is put in the genitive. no parking.g. but it is really the verbal noun of َ‫ﻧَﺴﱠﻖ‬ to coordi- nate. MAS>DAR VERBAL NOUN OR INFINITIVE (2) (٢) ُ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﺼْﺪَر‬٤٧ َ‫اَﻟْﻤُﻌَﻠﻢُ ﻣَﺴْﺮُور ﻟِﻔَﻬْﻢِ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐِ اﻟﺪﱠرْس‬ the teacher is pleased. the teacher is pleased for the understanding of the student the lesson). In other words. it is called a verbal noun. 2) As a noun. though the verbal force is not absent. e. e. The verbal noun ‫ﻓَﻬْﻢ‬ the student. in which the Mas>dar acts grammatically exactly as a noun. because the student understands the lesson (lit.46.

e. he writes or he will write. in the subjunctive. The Arab lexicographers give the Mas>dar the third place. a verbal noun can be used. Instead. by enouncing it. ٍ‫ أُرِﻳﺪُ ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑَﺔَ رِﺳَﺎﻟَﺔ‬I want to write a letter (lit. e. ً‫ أُرِﻳﺪُ أَنْ أَﻛْﺘُﺐَ رِﺳَﺎﻟَﺔ‬I want to write a letter (lit. َ‫ أُرِﻳﺪُ أَنْ أَﻛْﺘُﺐ‬I want to write (lit. in the accusative. e. Back to the Exercise Contents 85 . I want the writing of a letter).g.g. writing. I want that I write).g.46. MAS>DAR VERBAL NOUN OR INFINITIVE (3) (٣) ُ‫( اَﻟْﻤَﺼْﺪَر‬٤٧ using a verb conjugated in the same person. after the verb in the 3rd person masculine singular. َ‫ أُرِﻳﺪُ اﻟْﻜِﺘَﺎﺑَﺔ‬I want to write (lit. in the perfect and the imperfect. ً‫ﻛَﺘَﺐَ ﻳَﻜْﺘُﺐُ ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑَﺔ‬ he wrote or he has written. I want the writing). I want that I write a letter. preceded by the subjunctive particle ْ‫أَن‬.

3) If the leading substantive is indefinite. every.47. THE USE OF KULLUN ّ‫( ﺣُﻜْﻢُ ﻛُﻞ‬٤٧ 1) If the leading substantive is definite and signifies something single and indivisible. Back to the Exercise Contents 86 . 2) If the leading substantive is definite. ِ‫ﻛُﻞﱡ اﻟْﺒِﻼد‬ ّ‫ﻛُﻞ‬ means whole. a) When preceding. which itself then follows in the genitive. as in the whole country. ّ‫ﻛُﻞ‬ means all. e. ّ‫ﻛُﻞ‬ means each. but a plural or collective.g. ِ‫ﻳَﺪْرُسُ ﻛﻞﱡ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬ all the students study. it declines as if it were the leading substantive. ّ‫ ﻛُﻞ‬may precede or follow a definite substantive. each student. ِ‫ ﻛُﻞﱡ اﻟﻨﱠﺎس‬all mankind. as in ِ‫ ﻛُﻞﱡ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬all the students. as in ُ‫ ﻛُﻞﱡ ﻃَﺎﻟِﺐ‬every student.

g. ْ‫ﻳَﺪْرُسُ ﻛﻞﱡ اﻟﻄﱡﻼبِ ﻛُﻠﱡﻬُﻢ‬ ْ‫ﻳَﻌْﺮِفُ اﻟﻄﱡﻼبَ ﻛُﻠﱠﻬُﻢ‬ all the students study (all of them). 114). ِ‫ﻳَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ ﻛﻞ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬ he speak with all the students. However. b) When the substantive is put first. it must be annexated to a pronominal suffix agreeing with the leading substantive. (See also Chap. he knows all the students (all of them).47. THE USE OF KULLUN (2) (٢) ّ‫( ﺣُﻜْﻢُ ﻛُﻞ‬٤٧ ِ‫ﻳَﻌْﺮِفُ ﻛﻞﱠ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬ he knows all the students. Back to the Exercise Contents 87 . e. ْ‫ﻳَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ اﻟﻄﱡﻼبِ ﻛُﻠﻬِﻢ‬ he speaks with all the students (all of them). ّ‫ﻛُﻞ‬ is placed after it and agrees with it.

1) If annexated to a noun. ‫ أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﻴْﻦِ ﻛِﻠَﻴْﻬِﻤَﺎ‬I speak with both students. ‫ أَﻋْﺮِفُ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﻴْﻦِ ﻛِﻠَﻴْﻬِﻤَﺎ‬I know both students.g. THE USE OF KILA| AND KILTA KILTA| ‫( ﺣُﻜْﻢُ ﻛِﻼ وَﻛِﻠْﺘَﺎ‬٤٨ ‫ﻛِﻼ‬ for masculine and ‫ ﻛِﻠْﺘَﺎ‬feminine.48. Nom. e. ‫ ﻳَﺪْرُسُ ﻛِﻼ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﻴْ ِﻦ‬both students study. They are always used annexated to a dual. Back to the Exercise Contents 88 . ِ‫ أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊَ ﻛِﻼ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﻴْﻦ‬I speak with both students. a pair. 114).g. both. Acc. they decline as the dual. ‫ ﻳَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎنِ ﻛِﻼﻫُﻤَﺎ‬both students speak. 2) If annexated to a pronoun. ِ‫ أَﻋْﺮِفُ ﻛِﻼ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﻴْﻦ‬I know both students. (See also Chap. Gen. Acc. a pronoun or a definite noun in the genitive. e. they do not decline. Nom. Gen.

the role of a subject and a direct or indirect object. a little of takes a definite noun in the genitive. ٍ‫ إِنﱠ ﺑَﻌْﺾَ اﻟﺸﱠﺮ أَﻫْﻮَنُ ﻣِﻦْ ﺑَﻌْﺾ‬to choose the lesser of the two evils.) like each other. no matter what the noun it represents is. e. BID>‫ع‬UN AND BID>‫ع‬ATUN ‫( ﺣُﻜْﻢُ ﺑَﻌْﺾ وَﺑِﻀْﻊ وَﺑِﻀْﻌَﺔ‬٤٩ 1) ‫ﺑَﻌْﺾ‬ a part.) like each other. e. playing. it should be masculine singular. at the same time. mostly in the plural. some. a few.g. If the verb ُ‫ ﺑَﻌْﺾ‬governs precedes it immediately.g. THE USE OF BA‫ع‬D>UN. It can also used sometimes in the singular. ِ‫ ﺑَﻌْﺾُ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬some or a few students. where it is used twice.49. ً‫ ﻳُﺤِﺐﱡ اﻟﻄﱡﻼبُ ﺑَﻌْﻀُﻬُﻢْ ﺑَﻌْﻀﺎ‬the students (masc. The first ‫ﺑَﻌْﺾ‬ must always be appended to a pronominal suffix. e. ‫ ﺑَﻌْﺾ‬may be reflexive and reciprocal. e. a portion. having the meaning of each other.g.g. Back to the Exercise Contents 89 . ٍ‫ ﻳَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﺑَﻌْﻀُﻬُﻢْ ﻣَﻊَ ﺑَﻌْﺾ‬they speak with each other. ً‫ ﻳُﺤِﺐﱡ ﺑَﻌْﻀُﻬُﻦﱠ ﺑَﻌْﻀﺎ‬they (fem.

THE USE OF BA‫ع‬D>UN. Back to the Exercise Contents 90 . when unaccompanied by another number and signifying from 3 to 10. But ً‫ﺑِﻀْﻌَﺔَ ﻋَﺸَﺮَ رَﺟُﻼ‬ ً‫ﺑِﻀْﻊَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَةَ إِﻣْﺮَأَة‬ some ten men. their gender is reversed. e. however.49. some ten women. ٍ‫ﺑِﻀْﻊُ ﻧِﺴَﺎء‬ a few women. a few. ٍ‫ﺑِﻀْﻊُ رِﺟَﺎل‬ a few men. the masculine form ُ‫ﺑِﻀْﻊ‬ may be used for both gen- ders. several are construed like the num- bers from 3 to 10 which they represent.g. ُ‫ﺑِﻀْﻌَﺔ‬ some. Generally. BID>‫ع‬UN AND BID>‫ع‬ATUN (2) (٢) ‫( ﺣُﻜْﻢُ ﺑَﻌْﺾ وَﺑِﻀْﻊ وَﺑِﻀْﻌَﺔ‬٤٩ 2) ُ‫ ﺑَﻌْﺾ‬.

THE USE OF "AH> H>ADUN AND "IH> H>DA| ‫( ﺣُﻜْﻢُ أَﺣَﺪ وَإِﺣْﺪَى‬٥٠ ‫ أَﺣَﺪ وَإِﺣْﺪَى‬one. meaning someone. anyone. وَاﺣِﺪ‬but the latter is more commonly used as an adjective. the former is used as a substantive.g. ‫ أَﺣَﺪ‬may be used either positively. e. or negatively. somebody.g. ? ِ‫ ﻫَﻞْ ﻳَﺴْﻜُﻦُ أَﺣَﺪ ﻓِﻲ ﻫَﺬَا اﻟْﻤَﻨْﺰِل‬does anyone live in this house? ٍ‫ أُرﻳﺪُ أَنْ أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢَ ﻣَﻊَ أَﺣَﺪ‬I want to speak with someone. is used like ‫ .g. e.g. and takes a definite noun in the genitive.50. ‫رَﺟُﻞ وَاﺣِﺪ‬ a single man. someone. 1) ‫ أَﺣَﺪ‬masc. ِ‫ أَﺣَﺪُ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬one of the students. ْ‫ أَﺣَﺪُﻫُﻢ‬one of them. e. e. Back to the Exercise Contents 91 . somebody. one man.

) speaks. e. Back to the Exercise Contents 92 . is used like I do not know anyone in this town.50. ‫وَاﺣِﺪَة‬ and treated the same as ‫ أَﺣَﺪ‬. THE USE OF "AH> H>ADUN AND "IH> H>DA| (2) (٢) ‫( ﺣُﻜْﻢُ أﺣَﺪ وَإِﺣْﺪَى‬٥٠ ِ‫ﻻ أَﺣَﺪَ ﻓِﻲ اﻟْﻤَﻨْﺰِل‬ there is no one in the house. ِ‫ أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻣَﻊ إِﺣْﺪَى اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎت‬I speak with one of the students. ِ‫ﻻ أَﻋْﺮِفُ أَﺣَﺪاً ﻓِﻲ ﻫَﺬِهِ اﻟْﻤَﺪِﻳﻨَﺔ‬ 2) ‫ إِﺣْﺪَى‬fem.g. except that it does not decline but remains the same in all the cases. ِ‫ أَﻋْﺮِفُ إِﺣْﺪَى اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎت‬I know one of the students. ِ‫ ﺗَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ إِﺣْﺪَى اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎت‬one of the students (fem.

e. and fem. The following noun may be singular or plural.51.g. it is used invariably when annexated to a noun. ِ‫اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎت‬/ِ‫اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺔ‬/ِ‫اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬/ِ‫ﻧَﻔْﺲُ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬ Acc. and put in the genitive. it declines as if it were the leading substantive. Here we deal with it only when it precedes the noun (See Chap. may precede or follow the noun. Back to the Exercise Contents 93 . However. As regards gender. Nom. ِ‫اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎت‬/ِ‫اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺔ‬/ِ‫اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬/ِ‫ﻧَﻔْﺲِ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬ The same student(s) masc. 114). But it must be definite. THE USE OF NAFSUN ‫( ﺣُﻜْﻢُ ﻧَﻔْﺲ‬٥١ ‫ ﻧَﻔْﺲ‬the same. ِ‫اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎت‬/ِ‫اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺔ‬/ِ‫اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬/ِ‫ﻧَﻔْﺲَ اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺐ‬ Gen.

masc. ِ‫اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎت‬/ِ‫ﻗَﻠِﻴﻞ ﻣِﻦَ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬/‫ﻛَﺜِﻴﺮ‬ Acc. and fem.g. they are invariable. However. Nom. they decline as if they were the leading substantive which follows in the dative. and in the dative. invariably.52. 2) as nouns followed by the leading substantive which must be plural. e. As regards gender. e. THE USE OF KAT_IRUN AND QALI|LUN ‫( ﺣُﻜْﻢُ ﻛَﺜِﻴﺮ وَﻗَﻠِﻴﻞ‬٥٢ ‫ ﻛَﺜِﻴﺮ وَﻗَﻠِﻴﻞ‬kat_irun and qali\lun are used: 1) as adverbs. ِ‫اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎت‬/ِ‫ﻗَﻠِﻴﻼً ﻣِﻦَ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬/ً‫ﻛَﺜِﻴﺮا‬ Dat. ً‫ﻳَﻌْﻤَﻞُ ﻛَﺜِﻴﺮاً وَﻳَﺘَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻗَﻠِﻴﻼ‬ he works a lot and speaks very little. ِ‫اﻟﻄﱠﺎﻟِﺒَﺎت‬/ِ‫ﻗَﻠِﻴﻞٍ ﻣِﻦَ اﻟﻄﱡﻼب‬/ٍ‫ﻛَﺜِﻴﺮ‬ many/less students. They are joined to it by means of the preposition ْ‫ ﻣِﻦ‬. after ْ‫ ﻣِﻦ‬. definite. Back to the Exercise Contents 94 .g.

a) Preceded by a lengthening letter "alif "alif. if it has d>amma as a vowel. َ‫ ﺗَﺴَﺎءَل‬to ask oneself.53. b) Not preceded by any lengthening letter. ‫إِﻧْﺴَﺎن‬ man. 2) In the middle of a word. ً‫دَاﺋِﻤﺎ‬ always. b) it is written under "alif "alif. if it has kasra as a vowel. THE WRITING OF HAMZA ِ‫( ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑَﺔُ اﻟْﻬَﻤْﺰَة‬٥٣ ِ‫ ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑَﺔُ اﻟْﻬَﻤْﺰَة‬the Writing of hamza. Back to the Exercise Contents 95 . ‫ أَب‬a father. The rules for the writing of hamza hamza are as follows: 1) At the beginning of a word.g.g. ّ‫ أُم‬a mother. e. a) It is written on "alif "alif. e. if it has kasra as a vowel. if it has fath>a or d>amma as a vowel. if it has fath>a as a vowel. (i) it is written on the line. ‫ ﺗَﻔَﺎؤُل‬optimism. (iii) it is written on ya|' (without the two dots). (ii) it is written on wa|w.

g. fath>a or suku\n. Back to the Exercise Contents 96 . َ‫ﺳُﺌِﻞ‬ to be asked.53. ‫ ﻫُﺪُوء‬quiet. if one of the two vowels (the one hamza has and the other preceding) is kasra. ‫ ﻣَﺴْﺆُول‬responsible. it is written on the line.g. or one is fath>a. ‫ ﻣَﺴْﺄﻟَﺔ‬a question. e. wa\w or ya\'. ‫ﺑِﺌْﺮ‬ a well. ‫ﻣَﺎء‬ water. THE WRITING OF HAMZA (2) (٢) ِ‫( ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑَﺔُ اﻟْﻬَﻤْﺰَة‬٥٣ (i) it is written on ya|'. (iii) it is written on "alif "alif. ‫ﺳُﺆَال‬ a question. if both vowels are fath>a. ‫ﺑَﻄِﻲء‬ slow. and the other is d>amma.g. and the other is suku\n.g. َ‫ﺳَﺄل‬ to ask. e. a) Preceded by a lengthening "alif "alif. e. 3) At the end of a word. if one of the two vowels is d>amma and the other is fath>a or suku\n. ‫ﻓِﺌَﺔ‬ a group. (ii) it is written on wa\w. e.

g. ‫ﻧَﺒَﺄ‬ news. if it is preceded by kasra. if it is preceded by d>amma. ً‫ﺷَﻴْﺌﺎً ﻓَﺸَﻴْﺌﺎ‬ bit by bit. it is written on the line. if it is preceded by fath>a. little by little. ‫ ﺗَﻨَﺒﱡﺆ‬prediction. (ii) it is written on wa\w. e. ‫ﻣُﺨْﻄِﺊ‬ to be wrong. ‫ﺷَﻲْء‬ a thing. THE WRITING OF HAMZA (3) (٣) ِ‫( ﻛِﺘَﺎﺑَﺔُ اﻟْﻬَﻤْﺰَة‬٥٣ b) Not preceded by a lengthening letter. Back to the Exercise Contents 97 .g. c) Preceded by suku\n. e. (i) it is written on "alif "alif. ‫ﺟُﺰْء‬ a part. (iii) it is written on ya\'. Note that if the preceding letter is a ya\' and hamza has tanwi\n. e. it is written on ya\' and tanwi\n is written on "alif .53.g. a.

‫‪ (٥٤‬اﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪ -‬اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫‪54.Hours‬‬ ‫وَاﺣِﺪ ‪١‬‬ ‫إِﺛْﻨَﺎنِ ‪٢‬‬ ‫ﺛَﻼﺛَﺔ ‪٣‬‬ ‫أَرْﺑَﻌَﺔ ‪٤‬‬ ‫ﺧَﻤْﺴَﺔ ‪٥‬‬ ‫ﺳِﺘﱠﺔ ‪٦‬‬ ‫ﺳَﺒْﻌَﺔ ‪٧‬‬ ‫ﺛَﻤَﺎﻧِﻴَﺔ ‪٨‬‬ ‫ﺗِﺴْﻌَﺔ ‪٩‬‬ ‫ﻋَﺸَﺮَة ‪١٠‬‬ ‫ﻋِﺸْﺮُونَ ‪٢٠‬‬ ‫ﺛَﻼﺛُﻮنَ ‪٣٠‬‬ ‫أَرْﺑَﻌُﻮنَ ‪٤٠‬‬ ‫ﻣِﺎﺋَﺔ ‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫أَﻟْﻒ ‪١٠٠٠‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫أَوﱠلُ‬ ‫‪1st‬‬ ‫اَﻟْﻮَاﺣِﺪَةُ‬ ‫‪1 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﺛَﺎﻧِﻲ‬ ‫‪2nd‬‬ ‫اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻧِﻴَﺔُ‬ ‫‪2 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ﺛَﺎﻟِﺚ‬ ‫‪3rd‬‬ ‫اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻟِﺜَﺔُ‬ ‫‪3 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪4th‬‬ ‫اَﻟﺮﱠاﺑِﻌَﺔُ‬ ‫ﺧَﺎﻣِﺲ‬ ‫‪5th‬‬ ‫اَﻟْﺨَﺎﻣِﺴَﺔُ‬ ‫‪5 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫ﺳَﺎدِس‬ ‫‪6th‬‬ ‫اَﻟﺴﱠﺎدِﺳَﺔُ‬ ‫‪6 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫ﺳَﺎﺑِﻊ‬ ‫‪7th‬‬ ‫اَﻟﺴﱠﺎﺑِﻌَﺔُ‬ ‫‪7 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫ﺛَﺎﻣِﻦ‬ ‫‪8th‬‬ ‫اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻣِﻨَﺔُ‬ ‫‪8 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫ﺗَﺎﺳِﻊ‬ ‫‪9th‬‬ ‫اَﻟﺘﱠﺎﺳِﻌَﺔُ‬ ‫‪9 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫ﻋَﺎﺷِﺮ‬ ‫‪10th‬‬ ‫اَﻟْﻌَﺎﺷِﺮَةُ‬ ‫‪10 o’clock‬‬ ‫ﺣَﺎدِيَ ﻋَﺸَﺮَ‬ ‫‪11th‬‬ ‫اَﻟْﺤَﺎدِﻳَﺔَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَةَ‬ ‫‪11 o’clock‬‬ ‫ﺛَﺎَاﻧِﻲَ ﻋَﺸَﺮَ‬ ‫‪12th‬‬ ‫اَﻟﺜﱠﺎﻧِﻴَﺔَ ﻋَﺸْﺮَةَ‬ ‫‪12 o’clock‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪30‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬ ‫رَاﺑِﻊ‬ ‫‪1000‬‬ ‫‪Back to the Exercise‬‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫‪4 o’clock‬‬ . Tme .Hours -‬‬ ‫اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻷﺻﻌﻠِﻴﱠﺔُ‬ ‫اَﻷﻋْﺪَادُ اﻟﺘﱠﺮْﺗِﻴﺒِﻴﱠﺔُ‬ ‫اَﻟْﻮَﻗْﺖُ ‪ -‬اﻟﺴﱠﺎﻋَﺔُ‬ ‫‪Cardinal numbers‬‬ ‫‪Ordinal numbers‬‬ ‫‪Time .

"ID_ D_A AND LA٥ ْ‫( إِذَا وَ ﻟَﻮ‬٥٥ ‫ إِذَا‬and ْ‫ﻟَﻮ‬ if are mostly used not as jussive. when the verbs are used in the perfect. can be used. e. However. i. With ْ‫ﻟَﻮ‬ both tenses. to mean the future. ‫ إِذَا دَرَﺳْﺖَ ﻫَﺬِهِ اﻟﻠﱡﻐَﺔَ ﺑِﺠِﺪﱟ ﺗَﺘَﻌَﻠﱠﻤُﻬَﺎ‬if you study this language earnestly. 1) ‫ إِذَا‬The verb immediately following ‫إِذَا‬ is used in the past tense.55.g.e. 2) ْ‫ﻟَﻮ‬. but only as conditional particles. imperfect. you will learn it. if I speak. perfect and imperfect. ُ‫ﻟَﻮْﻻ أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ ﻻ أُﺧْﻄِﺊ‬ if I do not speak. َ‫إِذَا ﺳَﺎﻓَﺮْتُ أَﻛْﺘُﺐُ إِﻟَﻴْﻚ‬ if I travel. َ‫ ل‬is prefixed to the second verb.e.g. ُ‫ﻟَﻮْ أَﺗَﻜَﻠﱠﻢُ أُﺧْﻄِﺊ‬ negative particle. Back to the Exercise Contents 99 . or to ‫ﻣَﺎ‬. I will not make mistakes. The second verb is used in the presentfuture. if the verb is negative. e. I will make mistakes. I will write to you. i. perfect.

/"0$1$2$% .3"4$56$7 "#$% had I travelled. )89":)."-$%)* . Back to the Exercise Contents 100 .55. I would not have made any mistake at all.' <$=$> "3"?$@"A!" 6$B$% C6D"-$E "F$G"5!" "H$% "#$% had I not done anything. "ID_ D_A AND LAW (2) (!) "#$% $& '$()* (++ $. I would have written to you.

‫ﺗﻤﺎرﻳﻦ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ Arabic Grammar Exercises Based on the Textbook: Abdallah Nacereddine. IN: AuthorHouse. A New Approach to Teaching Arabic Grammar.a-nacereddine. © Abdallah Nacereddine 2010 www.com . Bloomington. 2009.

a tick will appear in the box. click on Grammar.HOW TO USE THE EXERCISES To do the exercise. and try again. . click on a box. check the rule. If not. If you reply is correct.

The Indirect object 9.The Impératve 6. The Jussive 14.4 ( @ AB C$D. The Relative pronouns 12.-. The Affixed personal pronouns 3 The Perfect 4. ‘Inna’ and its sisters P] 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 3 ($)$*' +. The Imperfect 5. The Direct object 8. The Separate personal pronouns 2. The Demonstrative pronouns 11.*' ( E 9F0G' ( H +I")J' ( K L9"MJ' NO' ( 5P C$Q$*' NO' ( 55 (9"3*' R-S ( 56 (9"3*' TUV ( 58 "WX'$YZF [\ ( 5: .Contents (1) !"#$%&' Sujet 1.-%*' 01"234' (6 7)"*' (8 (9"3*' ( : 0. The Subjonctive 13. The Annexation 10.<' ( = >?"./*' 01"234' (5 +. The Subject 7.

Agreement of the verb 21. ‘Kana’ and its sisters 16. The Elative 20. The Passive participle 28. The Active participle 27.4' NO' (6@ C$D.Q<' `'a?<' (5@ +_b_X0%4' `'a?<' (5E cD/4' +dB"e. The Adverb of time 23. Agreement of the adjective 19. The Specificative 26. The Cardinal numbers 17. (6P +f2g' h"2O<' (65 [". The Noun of instrument P] 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 4 ($)$*' "WX'$YZF ["^ (5= +_.Contents (2) !"#$%&' Subject 15. The five nouns 22.4' +dB"e.%4' NO' (5K >D. The Ordinal numbers 18.The Adverb of state 25. The Adverb of place 24. (5H >_3.U4' i0j (66 ["k*' i0j (68 C"l' (6: U__2%4' (6= >?".*' NO' (6E +4m' NO' (6H .

The Prolonged 40.e*' C$D.*' (86 q`"/*' (88 rsB t/u%f*' (8: v/w. The Vocative 34. ‘la’ that denies the whole genus 36: The Excalamative 37. The Defective 39. The Exception 35. C$D. The Noun of place 42. The Complement of cause 31. The Diptote 30.4 +_I"/4' r (8= RwD%4' (8@ 9$-d*' (8E ]$d/*' (8H `Fa2*' (8K ]"-%Yr' (:P ["k*' NO' (:5 [".U4' NO' (:6 . The Noun of time P] 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 5 ($)$*' i0-4' n. ($/2*' (6K Ao.Contents (3) !"#$%&' Subject 29.*' (8P p. The Spacification 41.V< C$D.*' (85 AD. The Absoltue object 32. The Abbreviated 38. The Concomitate object 33.

The Use of ‘Masdar’ (verbal noun) 47. The Nomina vicis 44. The Use of ‘kathirun’ and ‘qalilun’ 53. Id>| and Miscellanesous P] 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 6 ($)$*' L0*' NO' (:8 +x_W4' NO' (:: 7bbf4' cD/4' (:= a-*' Nky (:@ >^ Nky (:E "%.%}. ~_)'$. The Connected adjective 46.S Nky (=5 >_. The Noun of manner 45. The Use of ‘kila’ and ‘kilta’ 49.^F z^ Nky (:H {DB Nky (:K qay\F ayZ Nky (=P v. Time 55. The Use of ‘kullu’ 48.F '•\ (== . The Writing of hamza 54.Contents (4) !"#$%&' Subject 33. The Use of ‘nafsu’ 52. The Use of ‘ahadu’ and ‘ihda’ 51.|F 0_u^ Nky (=6 LU2W4' +B"%^ (=8 c|$4' (=: +d. The Use of ‘ba’dhu’ 50.

‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪. The Separate personal pronouns -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫أﻧﺖَ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪7‬‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ا ﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ‪1.‬‬ ‫وﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬة‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫أﻧﺖَ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح‬ ‫أﻧﺖِ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎب‬ ‫درس‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬ)ة(‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻌﻠﻢ ‪.

The Separate personal pronouns -‬‬ ‫‪(5‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﻮن ‪.‫‪8‬‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ا ﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ‪1b.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻣﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﻃﻼب‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎت‬ ‫أﻧﺖَ‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫أوﻻد‬ .‬‬ ‫أﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫‪(8‬‬ ‫أﻧ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫أﻧ‬ ‫‪(6‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎن‬ ‫ﻃﻼب‬ ‫‪(7‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺗﻼﻣﻴﺬ ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻚِ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻬﺎ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻠﻚَ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻠﻚِ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻤ ﻣﻊ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫أﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺒ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫كَ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ه‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ درﺳﻲ ‪. The Affixed personal pronouns -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﲡﻠﺲ اﻟﺒﻨﺖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻠﻤـﺘـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪9‬‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ا ﺘﺼﻠﺔ ‪2.

‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮأ‬ ‫ﻗﺮأﺗﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺮأﻧﺎ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻤَﺖْ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺒْﺖَ‬ ‫ﻗﺮأن‬ .‫ا ﺎﺿﻲ ‪3.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮا‬ ‫‪(7‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ درﺳﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺒَﺖْ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺒْﺖُ‬ ‫‪(8‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻬﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻤْﺖِ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻤْﺖَ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻤْﺖُ‬ ‫‪(6‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻟﻐﺘﻜﻢ ‪. The Perfect -‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪ (5‬ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻊ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻲ ‪.

The Imperfect -‬‬ ‫‪(5‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻊ زﻣﻴﻠﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲡﻠﺴ‬ ‫أﺟﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﲡﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻠﺲ‬ ‫‪(7‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻨﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺮأن‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮأن‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺮؤون‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻤ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮؤون‬ .‫‪11‬‬ ‫ا ﻀﺎرع ‪4.‬‬ ‫أﺗﻜﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬ ‫‪(6‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺮﺳﻴﻚِ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﺤﻮن‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﺤﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺘﺤﻮن‬ ‫‪(8‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻜﻦ ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻚِ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺒﻲ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺐْ‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻟﻐﺘﻜﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻋﻤﻼ‬ ‫اﻋﻤﻠﻮا‬ ‫اﻋﻤﻠﻦ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻊ أﻣﻜﻦ ‪.‫اﻷﻣﺮ ‪5.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻮا‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺒﻮا‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻜﻤﺎ‬ . The Imperative -‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ درﺳﻚَ‪.

‫اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪6.‬‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐُ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐِ‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻊ أﻣﻬﻤﺎ ‪. The Subject -‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪرس ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬةَ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬاتُ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬاتُ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺒﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻟﺪان‬ ‫اﻷوﻻد‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ا ﻮﻇﻔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐُ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬاتِ‬ ‫ا ﻈﻔﺎن‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ا ﻮﻇﻔﻮن‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐَ‬ ‫ا ﻮﻇﻒ‬ .

‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺘُﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺗَﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺗِﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻮن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﳉﺪد ?‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺘِﻬﺎ‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎبُ‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ .‫‪14‬‬ ‫ا ﻔﻌﻮل ﺑﻪ ‪7. The Direct object -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ اﻟﻮﻟﺪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎبَ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎﺑﺎً‬ ‫ﺑﺎ َ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺄل ا ﻌﻠﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻋﻦ زﻣﻴﻠﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻼب‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﲢﺐ اﻷم ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.

‬‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﻮن واﻟﻄﻼبِ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﻟﺪﻳﻦ وﺑﻨﺎﺗُﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞَ‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﻮن واﻟﻄﻼبُ‬ ‫واﻟﻄﻼبُ‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫واﻟﻄﻼبِ‬ ‫ﻧﺪرس ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺟﺪﻳﺪة ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼ ِ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞِ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞُ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ا ﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻊ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔٍ‬ ‫ا ﺪرﺳﺔِ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔَ‬ . The Indirect object -‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﻃﻼب ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪15‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﺠﻤﻟﺮور‪8.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﻟﺪﻳﻦ وﺑﻨﺎﺗِﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﻟﺪان وﺑﻨﺎﺗِﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﻟﺪﻳﻦ وﺑﻨﺎﺗَﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﳒﻠﺲ ﻣﻊ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.

‫‪16‬‬

‫اﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪9. the Annexation -‬‬

‫‪(1‬‬

‫ﻫﺬا ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎب‬
‫ﺑﺎبَ‬
‫ﺑﺎبُ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ا ﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻊ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬ ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﻮاﻟﺪان‬
‫واﻟﺪي‬
‫واﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬

‫اﻟﻮاﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬

‫‪(3‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺑﻨﺖ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬
‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﺔَ‬
‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﺔُ‬

‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﺔِ‬

‫‪(2‬‬

‫‪ (4‬ﲡﻠﺴ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔِ‬

‫اﻟﺒﺎبُ‬

‫ﻣﻊ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﺪﻳﻘﺘِﻚ‬

‫ﺻﺪﻳﻘﺘُﻚ‬

‫‪Grammar‬‬

‫اﻟﺼﺪﻳﻘﺘَﻚ‬

‫٭‬

‫‪Contents‬‬

‫اﻟﺼﺪﻳﻘﺘِﻚ‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫اﺳﻢ اﻹﺷﺎرة ‪10. The Demonstrative pronouns -‬‬

‫‪(1‬‬

‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻵﻧﺴﺔ زﻣﻴﻠﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻳﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺬا‬
‫ﻫﺬه‬
‫ذﻟﻚ‬
‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ا ﻌﻠﻢ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬ‬
‫ذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﻫﺬا‬

‫‪(3‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﻗﺮأت ﻛﻞ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻜﺘﺐ ?‬
‫ذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻫﺬا‬
‫ﻫﺆﻻء‬

‫‪(2‬‬

‫ﻫﺬه‬

‫‪ (4‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﻤﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﺴﻴﺪان ?‬
‫ذاﻧﻚ‬

‫ﻫﺎﺗﺎن‬
‫‪Grammar‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﻳﻦ‬

‫٭‬

‫‪Contents‬‬

‫أوﻟﺌﻚ‬

‫‪18‬‬

‫اﺳﻢ ا ﻮﺻﻮل ‪11. The Relative pronouns -‬‬

‫‪(1‬‬

‫أﻋﺮف اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻳﺪرس ﻫﻨﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺬي‬
‫اﻟﻠﺬي‬
‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ أﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫أﻋﺮف اﻟﺒﻨﺘ‬
‫اﻟﻼﺗﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻠﺘ‬
‫اﻟﻠﺘﺎن‬

‫‪(3‬‬

‫ﻧﺤﺐ اﻟﻠﻐﺎت ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻧﺪرﺳﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﻼﺗﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬

‫‪(4‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ اﻟﻄﻼب ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻳﺪرﺳﻮن ﻫﻨﺎ ?‬
‫اﻟﻠﺘﺎن‬
‫اﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻠﺬان‬
‫اﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ‬

‫‪(2‬‬

‫‪Grammar‬‬

‫٭‬

‫‪Contents‬‬

‫اﻟﻠﺬان‬

The Subjunctive -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫أرﻳﺪ أن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻌﻚ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮَ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮي‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫أود أن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻨﺎول ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟﻐﺪاء ﻣﻌﻰ ‪.‬‬ ‫أﺗﻜﻠﻢُ‬ ‫أﺗﻜﻠﻢْ‬ ‫أﺗﻜﻠﻢَ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻀﻠ أن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة ‪.‫‪19‬‬ ‫ا ﻨﺼﻮب ‪12.‬‬ ‫أدﻋُﻚ‬ ‫أدﻋُﻮَك‬ ‫أدﻋَﻚ‬ ‫أدﻋُﻮك‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﺎذا ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻳﻦ أن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻜﺘﺎب ?‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﺮَ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﺮيَ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﺮي‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻜﻢَ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮُ‬ .

‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺴﺎك‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺴﻰ ك‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺴﻚ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻧﺴﻴﻨﺎك‬ . The Jussive -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ أﻣﺲ إﻟﻰ ا ﻜﺘﺐ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﺮي‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﺮْ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻨﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻣﺪة ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ذﻫﺒﺖ‬ ‫أذﻫﺐ‬ ‫أذﻫﺐُ‬ ‫أذﻫﺐْ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻔﺴﺘﺎن ﺑﻌﺪ إﻟﻰ أﻣﻚِ‪.‫‪20‬‬ ‫اﺠﻤﻟﺰوم ‪13.‬‬ ‫ﻧ َ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ‫رأﻳﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺮيْ‬ ‫ﻧﺮى‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻗَﻂﱡ )أﺑﺪا( ‪.

‬‬ ‫اﳉﺪﻳﺪُ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﳉﺪﻳﺪَ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻛﺄن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺗﻮأﻣﺎن ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﻘﺲ‬ ‫ﻃﻘﺴﺎً‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻘﺲُ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻞ ا ﻮﻇﻒ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﺸﻐﻮل ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬان اﻟﻄﻔﻼن‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻳﻦ اﻟﻄﻔﻼن‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻳﻦ اﻟﻄﻔﻠ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻘﺲَ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪاً‬ ‫ﻫﺬان اﻟﻄﻔﻠ‬ ‫إن اﻟﺴﻼم واﻷﻣﻦ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻬﺪدان ‪.‫‪21‬‬ ‫إن وأﺧﻮاﺗﻬﺎ ‪14. ‘Inna’ & its sisters -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫إن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺑﺎرد ﺟﺪا اﻟﻴﻮم ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎ ﻴﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﺎ ﻴﺎن‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎ ﻴ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎ ﻴ‬ .

‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺮورا ٍ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺮوراﺗﺎً‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺮورات‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺮورةً‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎزاﻟﺖ ﻫﺬه اﻟﺴﻴﺎرات ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎردٍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎرد‬ ‫ﺑﺎردً‬ ‫ﺑﺎرداً‬ ‫ﺻﺎرت اﻷﻣﻬﺎت ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻴﻮم ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﻴﺪﻫﻦ ‪. ‘Kana’ & its sisters -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎن اﳉﻮﱡـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺟﺪا أﻣﺲ ‪.‫‪22‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎن وأﺧﻮاﺗﻬﺎ ‪15.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪةً‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪاﺗﺎً‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪةٍ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪاتٍ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻠﻐﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺻﻌﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔُ‬ ‫اﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔَ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫أﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔً‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫أﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ .

The Cardinal numbers -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫أﻋﻤﻞ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ اﻷﺳﺒﻮع ‪.‫‪23‬‬ ‫اﻷﻋﺪاد اﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ‪16.‬‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛ ًﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔً‬ ‫ﺛﻼثَ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔَ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺷﻘﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺲ ﻋﺸﺮة‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮة‬ ‫‪ (4‬ﻳﺪرس ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬه ا ﺪرﺳﺔ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫أﻳﺎمٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﺎً‬ ‫أﻳﺎﻣﺎً‬ ‫ﻳﻮم‬ ‫أﺗﻜﻠﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻟﻐﺎت أﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﻼبٍ وﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎتٍ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ﻃﻼب وﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎت‬ ‫٭‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐٍ وﻃﺎﻟﺒﺔٍ‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎً وﻃﺎﻟﺒﺔَ‬ .

The Ordinal numbers -‬‬ ‫أﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪.‫‪24‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫اﻷﻋﺪاد اﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﻴﺔ ‪17.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬه ﻫﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﺮة أراه ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔِ ﻋﺸﺮةِ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲَ ﻋﺸﺮَ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔِ ﻋﺸَﺮ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔَ ﻋﺸﺮةَ‬ .‬‬ ‫اﻷوﻟﻰ‬ ‫أوﻟﻰ‬ ‫أول‬ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫‪ (4‬أﺗﻐﺪى ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﳋﻤﻴﺲ‬ ‫اﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﳋﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﳋﺎﻣﺲ‬ ‫أﺑﺪأ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎ ‪.

‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﳉﺪﻳﺪاتِ‬ ‫اﳉﺪﻳﺪةَ‬ ‫اﳉﺪﻳﺪاتَ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪةً‬ ‫‪ (4‬ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ ا ﻮﻇﻔﻮن ﻟﻐﺎت ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻼً‬ ‫اﳉﻤﻴﻞِ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻞٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮف اﻟﻄﻼب ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ ا ﺪرﺳﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪25‬‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﻨﻌﺖ ‪18. The Agreement of the Adjective -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫أﺳﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺰل ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫أﺟﻨﺒﻴﺎﺗﺎً‬ ‫أﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔٍ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫أﺟﻨﺒﻴﺎتٍ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫أﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔً‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪةٍ‬ ‫اﳉﺪﻳﺪةَ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪاً‬ ‫اﳉﺪﻳﺪَ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺮف ﻫﺆﻻء ا ﻌﻠﻤﺎت ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.

‬‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔً‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ ا ﻨﻈﻤﺔِ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔٍ‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ .‬‬ ‫أﻧﺸﻄﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺸﻂ‬ ‫أﻧﺸﻂُ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﲢﺐ اﻷم ﺑﻨﺘﻴﻬﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪. the Elative (Comparative and Superlative‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺖ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻦ أﺧﺘﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳ‬ ‫‪ (4‬اﻷ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺮﺗ‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﺟﻤﻞ‬ ‫أﻧﺸﺎط‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮﺗ‬ ‫ا ﺘﺤﺪة ﻫﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ‪.‫‪26‬‬ ‫أﻓﻌﻞ اﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ )‪19.‬‬ ‫أﺟﻤﻞُ‬ ‫أﺟﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻤﻠﺔُ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﺎر ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺒﺎر ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪرس وﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻮن وﻳﺠﻠﺴﻮن‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻮن وﻳﺠﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻠﺴﺎن وﻳﻜﺘﺒﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻠﺲ وﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻠﺴﺎن وﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻜﻼب ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺒﺢ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﺤﻮن‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﺤﻦ‬ .‫‪27‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪20. The Agreement of the verb -‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ا ﻌﻠﻤﻮن إﻟﻰ اﻟﻔﺼﻞ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻞ وﻳﺠﻠﺲ‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪرﺳﻦ وﻳﻌﻤﻠﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺪرﺳﻦ وﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺪرس وﻳﻌﻤﻠﻦ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ درﺳﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻠﺲ وﻳﻜﺘﺒﺎن‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻞ وﻳﺠﻠﺴﻮن‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎت ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.

The five nouns .‬‬ ‫أﺑَﺎه‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫أخُ‬ ‫اﻷﺑَﺎه‬ ‫اﻷﺑَﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ا ﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻊ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬه ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻷﻣﱡﻪ‬ ‫أﻣﱡﻮه‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫أبٍ‬ ‫أﻣﱠﻪ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫أﻣﱡﻪ‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .‬‬ ‫أﺧُﻮ‬ ‫أﺧَﺎ‬ ‫أﻋﺮف ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺟﻴﺪا ‪.‫‪28‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻤﺎء اﳋﻤﺴﺔ ‪21.‬‬ ‫أبِ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫أﺑَﻪُ‬ ‫أخ‬ ‫أﺑِﻲ‬ ‫اﻷبِ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻃﺒﻴﺒﺔ ‪.-‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ زﻣﻴﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ‪.

The Adverb of time -‬‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻘﺲ ﺑﺎرد ﺟﺪا ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ا ﺴﺎءَ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ا ﺴﺎءِ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎءً‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎء‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺎحُ ﻳﻮمِ اﻟﺴﺒﺖِ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬا اﻟﺼﺒﺎحَ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎً‬ ‫ﻛُﻞ ﻳﻮمٍ‬ ‫ﻛﻞﱡ ﻳﻮمٍ‬ ‫ﻛﻞﱠ ﻳﻮﻣﺎً‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺴﺎدﺳﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛُﻞﱠ ﻳﻮمٍ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬا اﻟﺼﺒﺎحِ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻔﺘﻮح ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬا اﻟﺼﺒﺎحُ‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺎحَ ﻳﻮمِ اﻟﺴﺒﺖِ‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺎحَ ﻳﻮمَ اﻟﺴﺒﺖِ‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺎحَ ﻳﻮمَ اﻟﺴﻴﺒﺖَ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺮق اﻟﺸﻤﺲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪29‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻇﺮف اﻟﺰﻣﺎن ‪22.

‫‪30‬‬

‫‪(1‬‬

‫ﻇﺮف ا ﻜﺎن ‪23. The Adverb of place -‬‬

‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨﺖ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻻ أﻓﻌﻞ ذﻟﻚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧَﻚ‬

‫‪(2‬‬

‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧُﻚ‬

‫وﺷﻤﺎل‬

‫‪(3‬‬

‫ﻴﻨﺎً وﺷﻤﺎﻻً‬

‫ٍ وﺷﻤﺎلٍ‬

‫ﻴﻨﺎً وﺷﻤﺎل‬

‫ﻫﺬا اﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﻣﻌﺮوف ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺮﻗﺎً وﻏﺮبٍ‬

‫‪(4‬‬

‫ﻣﻜﻨَﻚ‬

‫أﻧﻈﺮ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧِﻚ‬

‫ﺷﺮق وﻏﺮب‬

‫ﺷﺮﻗﺎً وﻏﺮﺑﺎً‬

‫ﺷﺮقٍ وﻏﺮبٍ‬

‫ﻳﺼﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ا ﻮﻇﻔﻮن إﻟﻰ ا ﻜﺘﺐ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞَ اﻟﻮﻗﺖِ‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞَ اﻟﻮﻗﺖَ‬

‫‪Grammar‬‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞُ اﻟﻮﻗﺖِ‬

‫٭‬

‫‪Contents‬‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞُ اﻟﻮﻗﺖُ‬

‫‪31‬‬

‫‪(1‬‬
‫‪(2‬‬
‫‪(3‬‬

‫اﳊﺎل ‪24. The Adverb of manner -‬‬

‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﺮك اﻟﺒﺎب ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺨﺮج ‪.‬‬
‫ا ﻔﺘﻮ َ‬
‫ح‬
‫ﺎذا ﺗﻨﺎﻣ‬

‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮح‬
‫ــــــــــ ‪.‬‬

‫واﻗﻔﺎً‬

‫واﻗﻔﺔً‬

‫واﻗﻔﺔ‬

‫واﻗﻒ‬

‫ﻳﻌﻮد اﻟﻌﻤﺎل إﻟﻰ ا ﻨﺰل ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﺴﺎء‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺒ‬

‫‪(4‬‬

‫ا ﻔﺘﻮحُ‬

‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺎً‬

‫ا ﺘﻌﺒﻮن‬

‫ﻣﺘﻌﺒﻮن‬

‫ا ﺘﻌﺒ‬

‫ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ أﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ?‬
‫ﻣﺴﺮورات‬

‫ﻣﺴﺮوراﺗﺎً‬

‫‪Grammar‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺮوراتٍ‬

‫٭‬

‫‪Contents‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺮورةً‬

‫‪32‬‬

‫‪(1‬‬
‫‪(2‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ‪25. The Specificative -‬‬

‫آﺳﻴﺎ أﻛﺜﺮ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻦ أوروﺑﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻜﺎن‬
‫ﺳﻜﺎﻧﺎً‬
‫ﻛﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻟﻚ ?‬
‫وﻟﺪ‬

‫‪(3‬‬

‫أوﻻداً‬

‫أوﻻد‬

‫وﻟﺪاً‬

‫اﺷﺘﺮﻳﺖ رﻃﻼ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬
‫ﳊﻢٍ‬

‫‪(4‬‬

‫ﺳﻜﺎنٍ‬

‫اﻟﺴﻜﺎنُ‬

‫ﳊﻤﺎً‬

‫اﻟﻠﺤﻢُ‬

‫ﳊﻢ‬

‫ﻋﻤﺮ اﺑﻨﻪ ﺛﻼث وﻋﺸﺮون ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﻮاتٍ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔً‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻨﻮات‬
‫‪Grammar‬‬

‫٭‬

‫‪Contents‬‬

‫‪33‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪26.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﻮب‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺗﺐ‬ ‫أأﻧﺖ ﻫﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻟﻬﺬا ا ﺆﺗﻤﺮ ?‬ ‫ا ﻨﻈﱠﻤَﺔُ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ا ﻨﻈﻤَﺔُ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ أﻧﺘﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎع ?‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮَﻛﻮن‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﻛﻴﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮِﻛﻮن‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ اﻟﺪول ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻟﻸ ا ﺘﺤﺪة ?‬ ‫ا ﺆﺳﺴَﺔُ‬ ‫ا ﺆﺳﱠﺴَﺔ‬ ‫ا ﺆﺳﱠﺴﺎت‬ ‫ا ﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ . The Active participle -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ‪.

The Passive participle -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬا ا ﻨﺰل ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻵن ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤَﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﺎً‬ ‫ا ﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﻫﻢ رﺟﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺑﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻗﻮن‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ا ﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ا ﻮﺛﻮﻗﻮن‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﱠﻤَﺔ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫إﻧﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﺗﺒﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‫‪34‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ا ﻔﻌﻮل ‪27.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻨﺎً‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻧﺎً‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺎً‬ ‫ﻫﺬه اﻟﺴﻴﺪة ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺟﺪا ‪.

‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮح‬ ‫أﻓﺘﺢ اﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺑـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣُﺼﻌﺪ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﲢﺔ‬ ‫ﻣَﺼﻌﺪ‬ ‫أﻛﻨﺲ ب‬ ‫ﻣِﻜﻨﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣِﺼﻌﺪ‬ ‫ــــــــــ ‪. The Noun of instrument -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫أﻓﺘﺢ اﻟﺒﺎب ﺑـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪35‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ اﻵﻟﺔ ‪28.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮح‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح‬ ‫ﻓﺎﲢﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫أﺻﻌﺪ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺪور اﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺎس‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮد‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺲ‬ .

‬‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺑﺎطَ وﻋﻤﺎنَ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫أﺳﻮداً ‪/‬ﺑﻴﻀﺎءً‬ ‫أﺳﻮدَ ‪/‬ﺑﻴﻀﺎءِ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺑﺎطِ وﻋﻤﺎنِ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺑﺎطِ وﻋﻤﺎنَ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮن ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ ‪. The Diptote -‬‬ ‫أﻛﺘﺐ ﺑﻘﻠﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻋﻠﻰ ورﻗﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪36‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ا ﻤﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﺮف ‪29.‬‬ ‫أﺳﻮدَ ‪/‬ﺑﻴﻀﺎءَ‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻧﺄﻛﻞ أﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺷﺮﻗﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻋﻢِ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫أﺳﻮدٍ‪/‬ﺑﻴﻀﺎءٍ‬ ‫ا ﻄﺎﻋﻢِ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻋﻢَ‬ ‫ا ﻄﺎﻋﻢَ‬ ‫ﺳﺄﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﻫﺬه اﻟﺴﻨﺔ إﻟﻰ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ا ﻜﺎﺗﺐَ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐَ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺑﺎطَ وﻋﻤﺎنِ‬ ‫ا ﻜﺎﺗﺐِ‬ .

‬‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺠﺎجٍ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺠﺎﺟﺎً‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎجُ‬ ‫أرﻛﺐ اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻄﺎر ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﳋﻮفَ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﻓﺎً‬ ‫ﺧﻮفٍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮف‬ ‫ﻧﺪرس اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ ‪.‫‪37‬‬ ‫ا ﻔﻌﻮل ﻷﺟﻠﻪ ‪30.‬‬ ‫رﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫رﻏﺒﺔً‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ اﻟﺸﻌﺐ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺠﺎج‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫رﻏﺒﺔٍ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔُ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺿﺪ اﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ‪. Complement of cause -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ اﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻜﻠﺐ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺒﺎً‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺴﺐَ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐٍ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .

‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎدٍ‬ ‫ا ﻌﺮﻓﺔُ‬ .‬‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎدَ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎلٍ‬ ‫اﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔَ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎداً‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫أﻋﺮﻓﻪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ‪.‫‪38‬‬ ‫ا ﻔﻌﻮل ا ﻄﻠﻖ ‪31.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫إﻗﺎﻣ ٍﺔ‬ ‫إﻗﺎﻣﺔً‬ ‫إﻗﺎﻣﺔُ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺣﺎرا ‪. The Absolute object .‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻻ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎلِ‬ ‫ﻜﻦ اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ‪.-‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫أﻗﻴﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺒﺪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ داﺋﻤﺔ ‪.

The Concomitate object -‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ا ﻤﺮﺿﺎت ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫وواﻟﺪاﻫﻢ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫واﻟﻠﻴﻞُ‬ ‫وﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫وواﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ‬ ‫وواﻟﺪﻳﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﻮاﻟﺪاﻧﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ا ﻮﻇﻒ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ا ﻜﺘﺐ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻄﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫وزﻣﻼﺋِﻪ‬ ‫وزﻣﻴﻠِﻪ‬ ‫وزﻣﻴﻠُﻪ‬ ‫وزﻣﻴﻠَﻪ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .‬‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺤﻴﺮةُ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫وﺑﺤﻴﺮة‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺤﻴﺮةَ‬ ‫وﺑﺤﻴﺮةٍ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺎﻓﺮ اﻷوﻻد ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪39‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ا ﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﻌﻪ ‪32.‬‬ ‫واﻟﻠﻴ َ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫أﲡﻮل‬ ‫وﻟﻴ ً‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ــــــــــ ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮُ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪِﻳﺮَ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪﺧ‬ ‫ﻨﻮع ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻦ ﺳﻜﺎرة‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪِﻳﺮاً‬ ‫ا ﺪﻳﺮُ‬ ‫ــــــــــ ‪.‫‪40‬‬ ‫ا ﻨﺎدى ‪33.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻦٍ ﺳﻜﺎرةٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻨﺎ ﺳﻜﺎرة‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﺣﺠﺰ ﺗﺬﻛﺮﺗﻚ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮاً‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻢُ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻨﺎً ﺳﻜﺎرةً‬ ‫ا ﺴﺎﻓﺮُ‬ . The Vocative -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ?‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤ ًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻢَ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻢُ‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺎح اﳋﻴﺮ ﻳﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ا ﺪرﺳﺔ‪.

The Exception -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎد ا ﻮﻇﻔﻮن إﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ إﻻ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪41‬‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ‪34.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪُ‬ ‫واﺣﺪٍ‬ ‫واﺣﺪاً‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻋﺎد ا ﻮﻇﻔﻮن إﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ إﻻ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪٍ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪُ‬ ‫واﺣﺪاً‬ ‫ﻻ أﻋﺮف ﻣﻦ ا ﻮﻇﻔ‬ ‫واﺣﺪاً‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪٍ‬ ‫إﻻ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪاً‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻋﺎد إﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ إﻻ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪٍ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪُ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪُ‬ .

‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪَ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺷﻲء ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪. ‘La’ that denies the whole genus -‬‬ ‫ﻻ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﲢﺖ اﻟﺸﻤﺲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎتِ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪاً‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪُ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎتَ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎتٍ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺷﻲء ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ رﺧﻴﺺ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﻤ‬ ‫ﺛﻤﻴﻨﺎً‬ ‫ﺛﻤ ٍ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺗﺎً‬ ‫ﺛﻤ‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫َ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢّ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢُ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤّﺎً‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢﱠ‬ ‫ﻻ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ا ﺪرﺳﺔ ‪.‫‪42‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻻ اﻟﻨﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺲ ‪35.

‫‪43‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ ‪36.The Exclamative -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻄﻘﺲ ﻫﺬه اﻷﻳﺎم !‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫أﺑﺮدِ‬ ‫أﺑﺮدَ‬ ‫أﺑﺮدُ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ أﻃﻮل ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻴﻮم !‬ ‫اﻟﺪرسِ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫اﻟﺪرسُ‬ ‫درس‬ ‫اﻟﺪرسَ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ أﺟﻤﻞ ﻫﺆﻻء ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ !‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎتِ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎرد‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎتُ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎتَ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺎ أﻟﻄﻒ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ !‬ ‫ﻫﺬان اﻟﻮﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻳﻦ اﻟﻮﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻳﻦ اﻟﻮﻟﺪان‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬان اﻟﻮﻟﺪان‬ .

‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪٍ‬ ‫واﺣﺪاً‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻦَ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪُ‬ .‬‬ ‫ا ﺒﻨِﻲ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ا ﺒﻨَﻰ‬ ‫ا ﺒﻨًﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ?‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨَﻰ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ا ﺒﻨُﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔًﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨِﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨًﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﻳﻦ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺘ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔٍﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔ ُ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫أﻋﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬا ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪44‬‬ ‫ا ﻘﺼﻮر ‪37. The Abbreviated -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬا ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻲ‪.

The Defective -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫أﺑﻮه ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺟﺪا ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻓِﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻓِﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻓَﺔ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲِ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻓِﻴَﺔ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟِﻴﺎً‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻻً‬ ‫أﻋﺮف ﻫﺬا ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪45‬‬ ‫ا ﻨﻘﻮص ‪38.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎمٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻘﻤﻴﺺ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲَ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻏﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻣﺎً‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲُ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎء ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻴﻮم ‪.

‬‬ ‫ا ﺴﺎءِ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺎءً‬ ‫ا ﺴﺎءَ‬ ‫ا ﺴﺎءُ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ داء ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪. The Prolonged -‬‬ ‫أﺷﺮب ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﺒﺎرد ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎءُ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ا ﺎءِ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎءَ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎءِ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﺒﺎح إﻟﻰ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪46‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ا ﻤﺪود ‪39.‬‬ ‫دواءً‬ ‫دواءٍ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫دواء‬ ‫٭‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎءٍ‬ ‫اﻟﺪواءُ‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ا ﺎ َء‬ ‫ا ﺎءُ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ زرﻗﺎء اﻟﻴﻮم ‪.

‫‪47‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎص ‪40.‬‬ ‫ﻃﻼﺑﺎً‬ ‫ﻃﻼب‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬ‪. The Specification -‬‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻧﺪرس أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮﻧﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫أﻧ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎﺗﺎً‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﺎتَ‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﺎتُ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﺎتِ‬ .‬‬ ‫واﻟﺪيْ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫واﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﺪا‬ ‫واﻟﺪان‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻧﺤﺐ ﻋﻤﻠﻨﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻃﻼبُ‬ ‫ﻃﻼبَ‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ا ﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ‪.

‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﺪرس اﻟﻄﻼب ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎ ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪.‫‪48‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ا ﻜﺎن ‪41.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮق‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻣُﺨﺘﺒِﺮ‬ ‫ﻣِﺨﺘﺒَﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻗﻲ‬ ‫ا ﺸﺮق‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺻﺪﻳﻖ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻣﻦ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮب‬ ‫ا ﻐﺮب‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮوق‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮوب‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻣَﺨﺘﺒَﺮ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻣُﺨﺘﺒَﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﻣﻦ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.The Noun of place -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.

‬‬ ‫اﻟـﻤَـﺸﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟـﻤُـﺸﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺘﺎء‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺘﻮي‬ .‬‬ ‫ا ﺼﻴﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻴﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻴﻒ‬ ‫‪ (4‬ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻜﺎن ﻳُﻘﺎم ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﺘﺎء ‪.‬‬ ‫ا ﻮﻋﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻋﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻋﺪ‬ ‫ا ﻐﺮب‬ ‫ا ﻴﻌﺎد‬ ‫‪ (3‬ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻜﺎن ﻳُﻘﺎم ﻓﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﻔﺎ ‪. The Noun of time -‬‬ ‫ﻳﺄﻛﻞ اﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮب‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮوب‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻠﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﶈﺪد ‪.‫‪49‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﺰﻣﺎن ‪42.

‫‪50‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ا ﺮة ‪43.‬‬ ‫دﻗﺘﺎن‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻘﺔً‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫دﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﻔﻖ اﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺛﻤﺎﻧ‬ ‫دﻗﺎتٍ‬ ‫دﻗﺎت‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮﺧﺘ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﺧﺘﺎن‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻗﺔٍ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﺮخ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻘﺎتٍ‬ ‫ﺻﺮخ اﻟﻄﻔﻞ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻗﺎً‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻃَﺮﻗﺔً‬ ‫دق اﻟﻬﺎﺗﻒ ﺛﻼث ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪. The Nomina vicic -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻃﺮق اﻟﺒﺎب ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺿُﺤﻜﺔ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻟِﻌﺐَ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺿِﺤﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺿَﺤﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﻠﻪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻷﻣﻴﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟِﻌﺒﺔَ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻟِﻌﺒﺔُ‬ ‫ﻟَﻌﺒﺔَ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺤﻚ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻄﻔﻞ ‪.-‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﻫﺬه ا ﺮأة إﻟﻰ ﻛﻞ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ أم ‪.‫‪51‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ‪44.‬‬ ‫ﻧِﻈﺮة‬ ‫ﻧُﻈﺮة‬ ‫ﻧَﻈﺮة‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻘﻂ واﻟﻔﺄر‪.‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﺔِ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎلَ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎلِ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﺿﺤﻚ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﺔَ‬ . The Noun of manner .

‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮوﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮوﻓﻮن ﻣﻌﺮوف‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮوﻓﺎت‬ .‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫وﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﻋﺮف ا ﺮأة ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ أﺑﻨﺎؤﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ا ﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫أﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ أﺑﻮه ‪.-‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ وﻟﺪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ أﻣﻪ ‪. The Connected adjective .‫‪52‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻌﺖ اﻟﺴﺒﺒﻲ ‪45.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ا ﺘﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺆﻻء ﻛﺘﺎب ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ أﺳﻤﺆﻫﻢ ‪.

‬‬ ‫اﻟﺬﻫﺎبُ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔَ رﺳﺎﻟﺔً‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔً اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔَ‬ ‫ﻗﺮأ‬ ‫ذﻫﺎﺑﺎً‬ ‫ذﻫﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﺬﻫﺎبَ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﺮ اﻷم ا ﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﺑﻨﻬﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔَ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔٍ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔِ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔً‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔً رﺳﺎﻟﺔً‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔَ رﺳﺎﻟﺔٍ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻵن ‪. The Use of ‘Masdar’ -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫أﺣﺐ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻛﺜﻴﺮا ‪.‫‪53‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ا ﺼﺪر ‪46.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮاءة‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺮاءةَ‬ ‫ﻗﺮاء ًة‬ ‫أرﻳﺪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ إﻟﻰ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻲ ‪.

‫‪54‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻛﻞ ‪47. The Use of ‘kullu’ -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﻛﻞﱡ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ درﺳﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎبِ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻃﻼبٍ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻼبِ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎبُ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎبَ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎبُ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ا ﻮﻇﻔﻮن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﺪ واﺣﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﻼب‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻼبُ‬ ‫ﻗﺮأت ﻛﻞﱠ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻟﺪِ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻟﺪُ‬ ‫وﻟﺪٍ‬ ‫وﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺐ ﻛﻞ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺪرﺳﻮﻧﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﱡﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻞﱡ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .

‫‪55‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻛﻼ و ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ‪48.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺘﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺘﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺪرس ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬه ا ﺪرﺳﺔ ‪. Use of ‘kila’ & ‘kilta’ -‬‬ ‫وﺻﻞ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻲ اﻟﺮﺟﻠ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻛﻼ اﻟﺮﺟﻠ‬ ‫أﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻣﻊ ا ﺮأﺗ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺘﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻲ اﻟﻘﻄﺎران‬ ‫ﻛﻼ اﻟﺮﺟﻼن‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻲ اﻟﻘﻄﺎرﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻲ اﻟﺮﺟﻼن‬ ‫ــــــــــ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻼ اﻟﻘﻄﺎران‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻛﻼ اﻟﻘﻄﺎرﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﻋﺮف ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺘﺎ اﻟﺒﺘ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺘﺎ اﻟﺒﺘﺎن‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺘﻲ اﻟﺒﺘﺎن‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺘﻲ اﻟﺒﺘ‬ .

‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻨﺎس ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬ ا ﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪.‫‪56‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ‪49.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾَ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾَ‬ ‫ﲢﺒﻮن‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ . Use of ‘ba’dhu’ -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮف ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻨﺎس ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬ ا ﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺐ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾُ‬ ‫ﲢﺐ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺑﻌﻀﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾٍ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺑﻌﺼﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ‪.

‬‬ ‫إﺣﺪى زﻣﻴﻼت‬ ‫إﺣﺪى اﻟﺰﻣﻴﻼت‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪة ﻣﻦ زﻣﻴﻼت‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪة ﻣﻦ اﻟﺰﻣﻴﻼت‬ .‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻼبٍ‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫واﺣﺪُ‬ ‫أﺣﺪُ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﺮف ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻫﻨﺎ ?‬ ‫أﺣﺪاً‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫واﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﻼبِ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎك ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ا ﻨﺰل ?‬ ‫أﺣﺪ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫أﺣﺪُ ﻃﻼبٍ‬ ‫أﺣﺪُ اﻟﻄﻼبِ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫واﺣﺪُ‬ ‫أﺣﺪَ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮ ا ﻮﻇﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ا ﻜﺘﺐ ‪. The Use of ‘ahadu’ & ‘ihda’ -‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻊ ا ﻌﻠﻢ ‪.‫‪57‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ أﺣﺪ وإﺣﺪى ‪50.

‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ا ﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺄل داﺋﻤﺎ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‫‪58‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻔﺲ ‪51.‬‬ ‫أﻧﻔﺴَﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴَﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴَﻪ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ ا ﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲِ ﺳﻮالٍ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴُﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻮﺳَﻬﺎ‬ .‬‬ ‫أﻧﻔﺴَﻬﻢ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻮﺳَﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲُ ﺳﺆاﻻً‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴِﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺮت اﻟﻜﺘﺐ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪. The Use of ‘nafsu’ -‬‬ ‫ﻧﺪرس أﻧﺎ وﺻﺪﻳﻘﻲ ﻓﻲ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺲَ اﻟﺴﺆالَ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲَ اﻟﺴﺆالِ‬ ‫أﻋﺮف ا ﻤﺜﻠ‬ ‫ــــــــــ ‪.

The Use of ‘kathirun’ & ‘qalilun -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮأت ﻛﺜﻴﺮا ﻣﻦ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻫﺬه اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎب‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫دﻋﻮت أﺻﺪﻗﺎء ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻨﺎول ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟﻌﺸﺎء ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻼً‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺬه اﻷﻳﺎم ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮون‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮاً‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻮن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬه ا ﻜﺘﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﻮا‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻼً‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .‫‪59‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ وﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪52.

‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺄة‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺄال‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺌﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺲءال‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻣﻊ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ا ﻜﺘﺐ ‪.‫‪60‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻬﻤﺰة ‪53.‬‬ ‫زﻣﻶؤه‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ أﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ أن أﺟﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬا ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺆال‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺆة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻲءة‬ ‫زﻣﻼﺋﻪ‬ ‫زﻣﻼإه‬ ‫زﻣﻼءه‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﻬﺬه ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪. The Writing of hamza -‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ اﻷﻧﺴﺎن ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ا ﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ا ﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ا ﺴﺆﻟﺔ‬ ‫ا ﺲءﻟﺔ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .

Time -‬‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ اﻵن ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ ?‬ ‫ﻣﺎ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔً‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺗﺒﺪﺋ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ?‬ ‫ﻛﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔً‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻛﻢ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أي ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻴﻮم ?‬ ‫ﻛﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔً‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أي ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أي ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﳋﻤﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﳋَﻤْﺴَﺔ‬ ‫اﳋَﻤِﺴَﺔ‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ .‫‪61‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪54.

‬‬ ‫‪(2‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬ ‫رأﻳﺘﻜﻢ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﺎرع ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ أن آﻛﻞ‬ ‫‪(4‬‬ ‫ﺗَﻤْﺸُﻮنَ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺒﻖ أن أﻛﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ أن أﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺒﻖ أن آﻛﻞ‬ ‫إذا ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ إﻟﻴﻚ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣَﺸَﻴْﺘُﻢْ‬ ‫‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻣَﺸِﻴﺘُﻢْ‬ ‫ﺗَﻤْﺸَﻮْنَ‬ ‫ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬا ا ﻄﻌﻢ اﳉﺪﻳﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻓﺮت أرﺳﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻓﺮت أرﺳﻞ‬ ‫أﺳﺎﻓﺮ أرﺳﻞ‬ ‫٭‬ ‫‪Contents‬‬ ‫‪Grammar‬‬ ‫أﺳﺎﻓﺮ أرﺳﻠﺖ‬ . Id>| and Miscellaneous -‬‬ ‫‪(1‬‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻌﺘﻬﻦ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺘﻬﻦ ‪.‫‪62‬‬ ‫إذا وﻣﻮاﺿﻴﻊ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪55.

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