FAILURES OF RIGID PAVEMENTS FACULTY INCHARGE: MISS AANAL SHETH

INFRASTRUCTURE I

SUBMITTED BY: RAHUL N.SOMPURA (2905) SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
4.1 CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION..............................................................................4 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 NEED FOR HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE..................................... 4 GENERAL CAUSES OF PAVEMENT FAILURES .......................... 4 CLASSIFICATION OF MAINTENANCE WORK ........................... 4 6 5 4.2 TREATMENT OF CRACKS ........................................................ 9 MAINTENANCE OF JOINTS ................................................... 10

SPECIAL REPAIRS OF CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS ............... 11 5.1 MUD JACKING OR LIFTING OF SLABS ................................... 11

STRENGTHENING OF EXISTING PAVEMENTS ............................... 11 6.1 6.2 RIGID OVERLAY OVER RIGID PAVEMENT.............................. 11 FLEXIBLE OVERLAY OVER RIGID PAVEMENT......................... 12

FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS.....................................................5 2.1 2.2 DEFICIENCY OF PAVEMENT MATERIALS................................. 5 STRUCTURAL INADEQUACY OF PAVEMENT SYSTEM .............. 6 7

VARIOUS RIGID PAVEMENT FAILURES CASES .............................. 13 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 BLOWUP (BUCKLING)........................................................... 13 CORNER BREAK .................................................................... 14 DURABILITY CRACKING ("D" CRACKING) .............................. 14 FAULTING ............................................................................ 15 JOINT LOAD TRANSFER SYSTEM DETERIORATION ................ 15 LINEAR (PANEL) CRACKING .................................................. 16 PATCHING............................................................................ 17 POLISHED AGGREGATE ........................................................ 17 2 Page |

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TYPICAL RIGID PAVEMENT FAILURES .............................................6 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 SCALING OF CEMENT CONCRETE ........................................... 7 SHRINKAGE CRACKS............................................................... 7 SPALLING OF JOINT ............................................................... 7 WARPING CRACKS ................................................................. 7 MUD PUMPING ..................................................................... 7

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MAINTENANCE OF CEMENT CONCRETE ROADS .............................9

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 8 9 POPOUTS ............................................................................. 18 PUNCHOUT .......................................................................... 18 REACTIVE AGGREGATE DISTRESSES ..................................... 19 SHRINKAGE CRACKING ........................................................ 19 SPALLING ............................................................................. 20

CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………………….21 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………….21

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
 Inadequate surface or subsurface drainage in the locality resulting in the stagnation of water in the subgrade or in any of the pavement layers. Increase in the magnitude of wheel loads and the number of load repetitions due to increase in traffic volume. Settlement of foundation of embankment of the fill material itself. Environmental factors including heavy- rainfall, soil erosion, high water table, snow fall, frost action, etc

1 1.1

INTRODUCTION NEED FOR HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE

Road maintenance is one of the important components of the entire road system. The maintenance operations involve the assessment of road condition, diagnosis of problem and adopting the most appropriate maintenance steps. Even if the highways are well designed and constructed, they may require maintenance; the extent of which will depend on several factors including the pavement type. Various types of failures in pavements ranging from minor and localized failure to major and general failures do take place on roads. The failures may be due to one or a combination of several causes. 1.3 1.2 GENERAL CAUSES OF PAVEMENT FAILURES

CLASSIFICATION OF MAINTENANCE WORK

The various items of highway maintenance works may he broadly classified under three heads:  Routine maintenance-repairs :These include tilling up of pot holes and patch repairs, maintenance of shoulders and the cross slope, upkeep of the road side drains and clearing choked culverts, maintenance of miscellaneous items like road signs, arboriculture, inspection bungalows, etc.

Some of the general causes of pavement failures needing maintenance measures may be classified as given below;   Defects in the quality of materials used. Defects In construction method and quality control during construction.

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
 Periodic maintenance: These include renewals of wearing course of pavement surface and preventive maintenance of various items. Special repairs : These include strengthening of pavement structure or overlay construction, reconstruction of pavement, widening of roads, repairs of damages caused by floods, providing additional safety measures like islands, signs etc. 2.1 2 FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS Failures of cement concrete pavements are recognized mainly by the formation of structural cracking. The failures are mainly due to two factors:   Deficiency of pavement materials Structural inadequacy of the pavement system.

DEFICIENCY OF PAVEMENT MATERIALS

 

Disintegration of cement concrete Formation of cracking

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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The cement concrete pavements may develop cracks and deteriorate due to repeated loads and fatigue effects. A rigid pavement failure is observed by the development of structural crack of break resulting in progressive subsidence of some portions of pavement. Moderate irregularities in the supporting layers beneath the cement concrete pavements are sustained due to inherent bending strength of these pavements. Rigid pavements are therefore capable of withstanding slight variations in the underlying support and they bridge the localized gaps moderately. It is the combination of many factors that induce the failure conditions in the rigid pavement. Due to the temperature effects, the newly constructed cement concrete pavements may also crack even if no vehicle moves on them. Often failure of rigid pavements starts from joints, corners and edges of slabs.

Following are the chief causes which would give rise to the different defects or failures of cement concrete pavement:      Soft aggregates Poor workmanship in joint construction Poor joint filler and sealer material Poor Surface finish Improper and insufficient curing 5

The various defects that creep in due to the above are:

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
     Spalling of joints Poor riding surface Slippery surface Formation of shrinkage cracks Ingress of surface water and further progressive failures 3 TYPICAL RIGID PAVEMENT FAILURES    Settlement of slabs Widening of joints Mud pumping

2.2

STRUCTURAL INADEQUACY OF PAVEMENT SYSTEM

Following are some typical and basic types of failures in rigid pavements which are dealt here in detail:       Scaling of cement concrete Shrinkage cracks Spalling of joints Warping cracks Mud pumping Structural cracks 6 Page |

Inadequate subgrade support pavement thickness would be a major cause of developing structural cracking in pavements. Following are the causes and types of failure which develop:    Inadequate pavement thickness Inadequate subgrade support and poor subgrade soil Incorrect spacing of joints

Above would give rise to the failures of the following types:   Cracking of slab comers Cracking of pavements longitudinally.

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS

3.1

SCALING OF CEMENT CONCRETE

3.4

WARPING CRACKS

Scaling is observed in cement concrete pavement showing overall deterioration of the concrete. The scaling is mainly attributed due to the deficiency in the mix or presence of some chemical impurities which damage the mix. Further due to excessive vibration given to mix, the cement mortar comes to the top during construction and thus with use, the cement mortar gets abraded exposing the aggregate of the mix. This makes the pavement surface rough and shabby in appearance. 3.2 SHRINKAGE CRACKS

If the joints are not well designed to accommodate the warping of slabs at edges, this result in development of excessive stresses due to warping and the slab develops cracking at the edges in an irregular pattern. Hinge Joints are generally provided for relieving the slabs of warping stresses. There is no structural defect due to the warping cracks if proper reinforcement is provided at the longitudinal and transverse joints as it takes care of the structural adequacy. 3.5 MUD PUMPING

During the curing, operation of cement concrete pavements immediately after the construction, the shrinkage cracks normally develops. The placement of cracks arc in longitudinal as well as in transverse direction. 3.3 SPALLING OF JOINT

Mud pumping is recognized when the soil slurry ejects out through the joints and cracks of cement concrete pavement caused during the downward movement of slab under the heavy wheel loads. Following are the factors which cause the mud pumping:    Extent of slab deflection Type of sub grade soil Amount of free water 7 Page |

Sometimes when pre-formed filler materials are placed during casting of pavement slabs, the placement is somehow dislocated and filler is thus placed at an angle. The concreting is completed without noticing this faulty alignment or the filler material. Thus this forms an overhang of a concrete layer on the top side and the joint later on shows excessive cracking and subsidence

Pumping is noticed just after the rains in cement concrete pavements that are placed on clayey soil sub grade. Due to the applications of repealed loads, initial spaces are developed underneath the pavement slabs and water infiltrates into these spaces through joints, cracks and edges of the pavements as shown in Fig. 1.a. Since the soil is also of

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
fine grained type, it holds water and forms the soil slurry or soil suspension in water or the mud. Subsequent application of heavy wheel loads causes the pavement wheel slab to deflect at critical locations and also forces out part of the mud each time, through the spaces in pavement joints, cracks or edge. See cracks Fig. 1.b. When mo re and more mud is ejected out, there is a 1.b more substantial loss in fine grained soil from sub grade, resulting in resu considerable loss of sub grade support at these locations With continued traffic movements, there is progressive increase in the wheel load stress in the pavement slab due to reduction m sub grade support, consequently cracks are developed and the pavement ultimately fails as illustrated in Fig.1.c. The pavement cracking due to fails Fig.1.c. crack ing mud pumping is generally a progressive type of failure in rigid pavements. pavements Inadequate pavement thickness tor the amount and type of vehicles is the prime reason for the structural cracking. Largely, the pavements pavements are found to crack at t comers and edges as shown in Fig.2 the Fig.2. Longitudinal and transverse cracks are also found to exist. It becomes quite difficult to differentiate the type of cracks. Generally, if it could be decided that the crack in the vicinity of joints or comers are not due to spalling or mud pumping, then the cracks are attributed to the sp g structural inadequacy. The cracking in the interior regions are mainly The due to the temperature stresses.

Figure 1: MUD PUMPING :
RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS

4

MAINTENANCE OF CEMEN T CONCRETE ROADS

It may be staled here that very little maintenance su ch as maintenance such of joints only is needed fo r cement concrete roads, if they are well for designed desig ned and constructed. Main defect in this type of road is ype formation of cra cks. It is therefore necessary to examine the cracks cracks. and causes are ascertained before any remedial measure is adopted. 4.1 TREATMENT OF CRACKS

The cracks developed in cement concrete (CC) may be classified into two groups:  Temperature cracks, which are initially fine cracks or hair-cracks formed across the slab, in between a pair of cracks slab, transverse or longitudinal joints, dividing the slab length into two or more approximately equal parts due to the temperature stresses like the shrinkage stress, warping stress, etc. in the slab. Structural cracks formed near the edge and comer regions of the slabs, due to combined wheel load and warping stresses in wheel the slab.

Figure 2: FORMATION OF REFLECTION CRACKS

The presence of fine cracks only as such are not harmfu and do not harmful call for immediate maintenance. As the cracks due to the shrinkage in the CC pavement start from the bottom of the slab, by the time f fine cracks are visible on the top of the slab, the cracks at the bottom

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
portion would have got widened. Due to repeated application of heavy wheel loads and the variations in temperature and moisture conditions, the cracks get widened and further deterioration becomes rapid. Once the surface water starts getting into the pavement and the subgrade through the widened cracks, progressive failure or the pavement is imminent. Therefore before these cracks get wide enough to permit infiltration of water, they should be scaled off to prevent rapid deteriorations. The dirt, sand and other loose panicles at the cracks are thoroughly cleaned using a sharp tool, stiff brush and pressure blower. Kerosene oil is applied on the cleaned cracks to facilitate proper bonding of the sealing material. The cracks are then filled by suitable grade bituminous sealing compound, heated to liquid consistency. The sealer is placed upto about 3 mm above the level of the slab along the cracks and a layer of sand is spread over it to protect the sealer temporarily. The formation of structural cracks in CC slabs should be viewed seriously and needs immediate attention, as these indicate possible beginning of pavement failure. First the cause of the failure should be investigated. If the failure is confined to one or a few slab only at a particular location, and in general there are no structural cracks in other slabs, the failure may be localized one due to some weak spot in the subgrade or due to localized settlement of embankment or underground drainage problem. The maintenance work in such a case involves first remedy of the basic cause of the failure and then re-casting the failed slabs. In the case of general pavement distress indicating the start of structural failure of the pavement, immediate steps are to be taken to strengthen the CC pavement by a flexible or rigid overlay expeditiously before the structural cracks develop in other slabs also. It is not worthwhile to provide an overlay over a badly cracked or failed CC pavement as the riding surface becomes very unsatisfactory due to uneven settlement of the cracked and broken slabs. In such a case the only permanent solution is removal of the broken-up CC pavement slabs and re-construction of new flexible or rigid pavement 4.2 MAINTENANCE OF JOINTS

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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Joints are the weakest parts in CC pavements .The efficiency of the pavement is determined by the proper functioning of the joints. Majority of the failure in the CC pavements arc observed at or near the joints. Therefore, utmost care is to be taken to see that the filler and sealer materials are intact at the joints. During summer the joint sealer material is squeezed out of the expansion joints due to the expansion of the slabs; subsequently as the slabs contract during winter, the joint gap opens out and cracks are formed in the old sealer material. Therefore, periodic maintenance of the joint sealer is essential both at expansion and contraction joints as a part of routine maintenance work of the CC pavement. The opened-up joints are cleaned with brush and refilled with suitable joint sealer material before the start of the rains.

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INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
The joint filler material at the expansion joints may get damaged or deteriorated after several years of pavement life The repair consist of removal of the sealer and deteriorated filler and sealer materials from the expansion joints cleaning up, replacement with new filler board (provided with suitable grooves cut on the bottom half at the positions of the dowel bars) and sealing the top of the joints with suitable sealer material. It will be convenient to insert the new- filler board at the expansion joints during winter season when the joint opening is widest. 5 5.1 SPECIAL REPAIRS OF CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS MUD JACKING OR LIFTING OF SLABS 

6 6.1

STRENGTHENING OF EXISTING PAVEMENTS RIGID OVERLAY OVER RIGID PAVEMENT

When a rigid or CC overlay is constructed over an existing rigid or CC pavement, the interface between the old and new concrete cannot have perfect bond such that the two slabs could act as a monolithic one. Two typical types of interface are possible:  Providing maximum possible interface bond by making the old surface rough Separating the two slabs at the interface by thin layer of bituminous material, or without interface bond

he =existing pavement thickness

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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Once pavement starts pumping, the remedy for correcting it lies in providing the effective drainage. If the subsidence is localized then the same is repaired by patching the portions of slabs with bituminous mixes. Advanced countries adopt the procedures of mud jacking. The process consists of drilling number of holes 4 cm to 5 cm diameter 1.5 metre to 3 metre apart in the cement concrete slab. Grouting in such slabs is done under pressure through these holes. The grout normally used is either 1:3.5 cement-sand mix or bitumen. For cement-sand mix, colloidal mix with sufficient water is prepared. The mix is thus injected through a pressure holes using the compressor. The slabs are thus raised from below by the pressure grout, upto the desired level.

To obtain the overlay thickness, the following relationship may he used: hO =( hd a -Xhe b ) Where hO =rigid overlay thickness hd =design thickness 11
n

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
Values of a, b. X and n depend upon the pavement and the method of overlay construction. Table 1 shows the recommended values of these factors. EXISTING PAVEMENT CONDITION Good condition Crops of Engineers & PCA Initial cracking Badly cracked AGENCY CONSTRUCTION METHOD a

6.2

FLEXIBLE OVERLAY OVER RIGID PAVEMENT

AGENCY

X

1.00 0.75 0.35 b n

A flexible or bituminous overlay when provided over a rigid pavement, the wheel load is distributed through a larger area by the overlay, thus slightly reducing the wheel load stress on the old rigid pavement. Further the maximum temperature differential in the rigid pavement is also decreased due to the bituminous overlay, thus causing a substantial reduction in the warping stress and also in the maximum combined stress. Thus a rigid or CC pavement may be strengthened by a bituminous overlay before the pavement develops structural crack and starts failing. The useful life of the rigid pavement may be increased considerably by a suitably designed and constructed bituminous overlay placed at the right time. For calculating the thickness of flexible overlay over rigid pavements the following relationship is employed. hf =2.5(F Where hf = flexible overlay thickness = existing rigid pavement thickness 12 Page | = design thickness of rigid pavement F = factor which depends upon modulus of existing

Crops of Engineers

Poured directly on old pavement 1.40 1.40 1/1.40 Levelling course 2.20 2.00 1/3.00

Poured directly on old pavement 1.87 2.00 1/2.00 PCA Levelling course 2.00 2.00 1/2.00 pavement

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
For calculating the thickness of bituminous overlay, the following relationship is used. Problem: Roughness , moisture infiltration, in extreme cases (as in the Roughness, first photo) can pose a safety hazard Possible Causes: During cold periods (e.g., winter) PCC slabs contract leaving wider joint openings. If these openings become filled with openings incompressible material (such as rocks or soil), subsequent PCC slab expansion during hot periods (e.g., spring, summer) may cause high compressive stresses. If these stresses are great enough, the slabs may buckle and shatter to relieve the stresses. Blowup can be relieve accelerated by:  Joint spalling (reduces slab contact area and provides incompressible material to fi ll the joint/crack) fill

7 7.1

VARIOUS RIGID PAVEME NT FAILURES CASES BLOWUP (BUCKLING)

D cracking (weakens the slab near the joint/crack area)  Freeze-thaw damage (weakens the slab near the joint/crack thaw area)

Repair: Full-depth patch depth patch.

Figure 3: SEVERE BLOW UP :

Figure 4:SEVERE BLOW UP

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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Description: A localized upward slab movement and shattering at a joint or crack. Usually occurs in spring or summer and is the result of insufficient room for slab expansion during hot weather.

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INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS

7.2

CORNER BREAK

7 .3

DURABILITY CRACKING ("D" CRACKING)

Figure5:CORNER BREAK AT STREETS

Figure 6:CORNER BREAK AT HIGHWAY Figure 7: D CRACKING AT PANEL CORNERS :

Description: A crack that intersects the PCC slab joints near the Description : corner. "Near the corner" is typically defined as within about 2 m (6 is ft) or so. A corner break extends through the entire slab and is caused by high corner stresses. Problem: Roughne moisture infiltration, severe corner breaks will Roughness, fault, spall and disintegrate Possible Causes: Severe corner stresses caused by load repetitions combined with a loss of support, poor load transfer across the joint, curling stresses and warping stresse stresses. Repair: Full-depth patch Repair depth patch.

Description: Series of closely spaced, crescent shaped cracks near a crescent-shaped joint corner or crack. It is caused by freeze thaw expansion of the freeze-thaw large aggregate within the PCC slab. Durability cracking is a general PCC distress and is not unique to pavement PCC. distress Problem: Some roughness, leads to spalling and eventual slab roughness, disintegration
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Possible Causes: Freeze thaw susceptible aggregate Freeze-thaw aggregate. Repair: Repair: "D" cracking is indicative of a general aggregate freeze freeze-thaw problem. Although a full-depth patch or partial-depth patch can repair depth depth the affected area, it does not address the root problem and will not, or course, prevent "D" cracking elsewhere .

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
Repair: Repair: Faulting heights of less than 3 mm (0.125 inch) need not be repaired. Faulting in an undoweled JPCP between 3 mm (0.125 inch) and 12.5 mm (0.5 inch) is a candidate for a dowel bar retrofit. Faulting in excess of 12.5 mm (0.5 inches) generally warrants total reconstruction. 7.5 JOINT LOAD TRANSFER SYSTEM DETERIORATION

7.4

FAULTING

Description: A difference in elevation across a joint or crack usually associated with undoweled JPCP. Usually the approach slab is higher than the leave undowel slab due to pumping, the most common faulting mechanism. Faulting is noticeable when the a verage faulting in the pavement section average reaches about 2.5 mm (0.1 inch). When the average faulting reaches 4 mm (0.15 in), diamond grinding or other rehabilitation measures should be considered considered. Problem: Roughness Possible Causes: Most commonly, faulting is a result of slab pumping. Faulting can also be caused by slab settlement, curling and pumping caused warping.

Figure 8:SEVERE FAULTING

Figure 9:EXPOSED FAILURE WITH RUSTED DOWEL BARS

Figure 10:PATCHED FAILURE

Problem: Indicator of a failed load transfer system, roughness

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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Description: Transverse crack or corner break developed as a result of joint dowels.

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INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
Possible Causes: Load transfer dowel bars can fail for two principal reasons:  Corrosion. Corrosion If inadequately protected, dowel bars can corrode over time The corrosion products occupy volume, which time. creates tensile stresses around the dowel bars, and a severely corroded dowel bar is weaker and may fail after repeated loading. Misalignment. Misalignment Dowel bars inserted crooked or too close to the slab edge may create localized stresses high enough to create break the slab. Misalignment can occur during original construction or during dowel bar retrofits.
Figure11: PANEL CRACK

7.6

LINEAR (PANEL) CRACK ING

Repair: Removal and replacement of the affected joint load transfer Repair: system followed by a full-depth patch for affected area. depth

Description: Linear cracks not associated with corner breaks or blowups that extend across the entire slab. Typically, these cracks divide an individual slab into two to four pieces. Problem: Roughness , allows moisture infiltration leading to erosion of Roughness, base/subbase support, cracks will eventually spall and disintegrate if not sealed Possible Causes Usually a combination of traffic loading, thermal Causes: gradient curling, moisture stresses and loss of support. Repair: Repair: Slabs with a single, narrow linear crack may be repaired by crack sealing. More than one linear crack generally warrants a full-depth patch.
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RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS

7.7

PATCHING

7.8

POLISHED AGGREGAT E

Figure 12:PATCH ON A STREET

Figure13:POLISHED AGGREGATE AFTER 40 YEARS

Description: An area of pavement that has been replaced with new material to repair the exist ing pavement. A patch is considered a existing defect no matter how well it performs. Problem: Roughness Possible Causes: Previous localized pavement deterioration t hat has that been removed and patched &Utility cuts Repair: Patches are themselves a repair action. The only way they Repair can be removed is through an overlay or slab replacement.

Description: Areas of PCC pavement where the portion of aggregate on the surface contains few rough or angular aggregate particles. Problem: Decreased skid resistance Possible Causes: Repeated traffic applications. General as a Generally, pavement ages the protruding rough, angular particles become polished. This can occur quicker if the aggregate is suscepti susceptible to abrasion or subject to excessive studded tire wear wear.
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Repair: Repair Diamond grinding or overlay. .

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
Repair: Repa : Isolated low severity popouts may not warrant repair. Larger popouts or a group of popouts can generally be repaired with a partial-depth patch. parti depth patch

7.9

POPOUTS

7.10

PUNCHOUT

Figure 14:LARGE POPOUTS

Figure 15:POPOUT CLOSE UP

Description: Small pieces of PCC that break loose from the surface leaving small divots or pock marks. Popouts range from 25 - 100 mm leavi (1 - 4 inches) in diameter and from 25 - 50 mm (1 - 2 inches) deep. Problem: Roughness usually an indicator of poor material Roughness, indicator Possible Causes: Popouts usually occur as a result of poor aggregate durability. Poor durability can be a result of a number of items such as:    Poor aggregate freeze thaw resistance freeze-thaw Expansive aggregates Alkali-aggregate reactions aggregate
Figure 16:SEVERE PUNCHOUT

Description: Localized slab portion broken into several pieces. Typically a concern only with CRCP. Problem: Roughness allows moisture infiltration leading to erosion of Roughness, base/subbase support, cracks will spall and disintegrate. Possible Causes: Can indicate a localized construction defect such as inadequate consolidation. In CRCP, it can be caused by steel corrosion, inadequate amount of steel, exc essively wide shrinkage excessively
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RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
cracks or excessively close shrinkage cracks. Repair: Full-depth patch Repair depth patch. Possible Causes: This type of distress is in dicative of poor aggregate indicative qualities. Most commonly, it is a result of an alkali-aggregate aggregate reaction. reaction Repair: Repair Partial-depth patch for small areas of scaling or slab depth replacement for large areas of scaling. 7.12 SHRINKAGE CRACKING

7.11 REACTIVE AGGREGATE D ISTRESSES

Figure 17:SEVERE CRAZING

Description: Pattern or map cracking (crazing) on the PCC slab surface caused by reactive aggregates. Reactive aggregates are those that either expand or develop expansive by products when introduced to certain chemical com compounds. Problem: Roughness , an indication of poor aggregate - will eventually Roughness, lead to PCC slab disintegration.

Figure 18:SHRINKAGE CRACKS ON NEWLY CASTED SLABS

Figure 19:SEVERE SHRINKAGE CRACKS

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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Description: Hairline cracks formed during PCC setting and curing that are not located at joints. Usually, they do not extend through the entire depth of the slab. Shrinkage cracks are considered a distress if they occur in an uncontrolled manner (e.g., at locations outside of contraction joints in JPCP or too close together in CRCP CRCP).

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INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
Problem: Aesthetics, indication of uncontrolled slab shrinkage. In JPCP they will eventually widen and allow moisture infiltration. In CRCP, if they are allowed to get much wider than about 0.5 mm (0.02 inches) they can allow moisture infiltration (CRSI, 1996). Possible Causes: All PCC will shrink as it sets and cures, therefore shrinkage cracks are expected in rigid pavement and provisions for their control are made. However, uncontrolled shrinkage cracking can indicate:  Contraction joints sawed too late In JPCP, if contraction late. joints are sawed too late the PCC may already have cracked in an undesirable location. Poor reinforcing steel design In CRCP, proper reinforcing design. steel design should result in shrinkage cracks every 1.2 - 3 m (4 - 10 ft.). Improper curing technique If the slab surface is allowed to technique. he dry too quickly, it will shrink too quickly and crack. High early strength PCC In an effort to quickly open a newly PCC. constructed or rehabilitated section to traffic, high early-strength PCC may be used. This type of PCC can have a strength high heat of hydration and shrinks more quickly and to a greater extent than typical PCC made from unmodified Type 1 Portland cement cement. 7.13 SPALLING Repair: Repair: In mild to moderate severity situations, the shrinkage cracks can be sealed and the slab should perform adequately. In severe situations, the entire s lab may need replacement slab replacement.

 

Figure 20:LINEAR CRACK SPALLING

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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Description: Cracking, breaking or chipping of joint/crack edges. Usually occurs within about 0.6 m (2 ft.) of joint/crack edge.

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Figure 21:SPALLING FROM A BAD CONSTRUCTION JOINT

INFRASTRUCTURE – FAILURES IN RIGID PAVEMENTS
Problem: Loose debris on the pavement, roughness, generally an indicator of advanced joint/crack deterioration Possible Causes: Possible causes are:  Excessive stresses at the joint/crack caused by infiltration of incompressible materials and subsequent expansion (can also cause blowups). Disintegration of the PCC from freeze-thaw action or "D" cracking. Weak PCC at a joint caused by inadequate consolidation during construction. This can sometimes occur at a construction joint if (1) low quality PCC is used to fill in the last bit of slab volume or (2) dowels are improperly inserted. Misalignment or corroded dowel. Heavy traffic loading.

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CONCLUSION

The various failures responsible for the degradation of the rigid pavements have been studied and the possible remedies and preventive measures are also thoroughly noted down. Thus proper and regular maintenance and good construction practices would help to prevent the pavement failures.

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REFERENCES   HIGHWAY ENGINEERING-8 TH EDITION BY S.K KHANNA & C.E.G JUSTO NATIONAL SEMINAR ON CONCRETE PAVEMENTS & PROBLEMS- 2003 BY SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,CEPT UNIVERSITY,AHMEDABAD TRAINING REPORT ON RIGID PAVEMENT DISTRESSES-2005 BY WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

Repair: Spalling less than 75 mm (3 inches) from the crack face can generally be repaired with a partial-depth patch. Spalling greater than about 75 mm (3 inches) from the crack face may indicated possible spalling at the joint bottom and should be repaired with a full-depth patch.

RAHUL N. SOMPURA (2905), SCHOOL OF BUILDING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, CEPT UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD

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