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Computer in Management Online

Computer in Management Online

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02/02/2012

[ABF 105

]

[Computer in Management]

[ACeL]
[Amity University]

[ The word “computer” comes from word “compute” which means “to

calculate.” By definition, a computer is a programmable machine (or more precisely, a programmable sequential state machine) that operates on data and is used for wide range of activities.
]

Table of Contents
Syllabus ......................................................................................................................................................... 8 Lesson-1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 Introduction to Computers ......................................................................................................................... 10 Characteristics of Computers ...................................................................................................................... 11 Classification ............................................................................................................................................... 12 Lesson-2 ...................................................................................................................................................... 16 Components of a Computer System ........................................................................................................... 16 Lesson-3 ...................................................................................................................................................... 27 Computer Memory ..................................................................................................................................... 27 Chapter 4..................................................................................................................................................... 35 The Spreadsheet Concept ........................................................................................................................... 35 Adding and Renaming Worksheets ............................................................................................................. 37 Moving Quickly Around the Worksheet...................................................................................... 41 Selecting Cells .................................................................................................................................. 43 Entering Data ................................................................................................................................... 44 Editing a Cell..................................................................................................................................... 44 Changing a Cell Entry ...................................................................................................................... 46 Wrapping Text ................................................................................................................................. 46 Deleting a Cell Entry ....................................................................................................................... 47 Entering Numbers as Labels or Values ....................................................................................... 47 Smart Tags ........................................................................................................................................ 47 Formatting Text and Performing Mathematical Calculations..................................................................... 49 Choosing a Default Font ................................................................................................................. 49 Adjusting the Standard Column Width ....................................................................................... 50 Cell Alignment.................................................................................................................................. 50 Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic ............................................................................................... 52

Changing the Font, Font Size, and Font Color ............................................................................ 55 Working with Long Text ................................................................................................................ 57 Changing a Single Column Width ................................................................................................. 57 Moving to a New Worksheet ......................................................................................................... 58 Setting the Enter Key Direction .................................................................................................... 59 Making Numeric Entries ................................................................................................................ 59 Performing Mathematical Calculations ...................................................................................... 59 The AutoSum Icon ........................................................................................................................... 62 Automatic Calculation .................................................................................................................... 62 Formatting Numbers ...................................................................................................................... 63 More Advanced Mathematical Calculations ............................................................................... 64 Cell Addressing ................................................................................................................................ 65 Deleting Columns ............................................................................................................................ 67 Deleting Rows .................................................................................................................................. 68 Inserting Columns ........................................................................................................................... 69 Inserting Rows ................................................................................................................................. 69 Creating Borders ............................................................................................................................. 69 Merge and Center ............................................................................................................................ 71 Adding Background Color ............................................................................................................. 71 Using Auto Format .......................................................................................................................... 72 Numbers and Mathematical Calculations................................................................................................... 72 Reference Operators ...................................................................................................................... 72 Functions .......................................................................................................................................... 73 Typing a Function............................................................................................................................ 73 Calculating an Average ................................................................................................................... 74 Calculating an Average by Using the Sum Icon .......................................................................... 74

Calculating Min ................................................................................................................................ 75 Calculating Max................................................................................................................................ 75 Calculating Count ............................................................................................................................ 75 Filling Cells Automatically ............................................................................................................. 75 Printing ............................................................................................................................................. 77 Print Preview ................................................................................................................................... 77 Creating Charts ........................................................................................................................................... 79 Creating a Column Chart ................................................................................................................ 79 Changing the Size and Position of a Chart .................................................................................. 80 Modify Your Chart ........................................................................................................................... 81 Chapter 5..................................................................................................................................................... 88 What is an Operating System .......................................................................................................... 88 What does a driver do?..................................................................................................................... 88 Other Operating System Functions ................................................................................................. 89 Operating System Concerns ............................................................................................................. 89 Operating System Types................................................................................................................... 89 What is an application ...................................................................................................................... 91 How Application Programs Work ................................................................................................... 91 Application Problems ....................................................................................................................... 91 Application Acquisition and Installation ........................................................................................ 91 Bad Applications ............................................................................................................................... 92 Application Files................................................................................................................................ 93 File Management ........................................................................................................................................ 94 File Organization .............................................................................................................................. 94 Browsing Your files using Windows................................................................................................ 94 Copying Files ..................................................................................................................................... 95

Copying Multiple Files...................................................................................................................... 96 View Settings............................................................................................................................................... 96 The Default Windows Setting is Dangerous........................................................................................ 96 Changing the View Settings ................................................................................................................ 96 File Backups ........................................................................................................................................... 100 Using the Network for Backups ..................................................................................................... 100 How to Backup Data if You do not have a network..................................................................... 101 Setting up a Backup Job ................................................................................................................. 102 Viruses and Worms ............................................................................................................................... 108 Virus Damage .................................................................................................................................. 108 How Viruses or Worms Spread ..................................................................................................... 108 Removing Viruses ................................................................................................................................. 109 Virus Removal Procedure .............................................................................................................. 109 Chapter 6................................................................................................................................................... 111 Microsoft Word 2003/2002 for Windows ................................................................................................ 111 The Title Bar ................................................................................................................................... 112 The Menu Bar ................................................................................................................................. 112 Toolbars ........................................................................................................................................... 114 The Ruler ......................................................................................................................................... 115 Document View ............................................................................................................................... 115 Word 2002........................................................................................................................................ 115 Text Area ......................................................................................................................................... 116 Highlighting Text ............................................................................................................................ 120 Highlighting Menu Items................................................................................................................ 121 Placing the Cursor .......................................................................................................................... 121 Choosing Menu Commands by Using the Alt Key ....................................................................... 121 Shortcut Notations .......................................................................................................................... 122

Starting a New Paragraph .............................................................................................................. 122 Microsoft Word Basic Features ......................................................................................................... 126 Typing and Using the Backspace Key ........................................................................................... 126 The Delete Key ................................................................................................................................ 126 Inserting Text .................................................................................................................................. 127 Overtype........................................................................................................................................... 128 Bold, Underline, and Italicize......................................................................................................... 128 AutoText .......................................................................................................................................... 132 Spell Check ...................................................................................................................................... 133 Find and Replace............................................................................................................................. 133 Font Size........................................................................................................................................... 135 Fonts ................................................................................................................................................. 136 Tables ........................................................................................................................................................ 153 Creating a Table .............................................................................................................................. 153 Moving Around a Table ................................................................................................................. 155 Entering Text into a Table ............................................................................................................. 155 Selecting a Row and Bolding the Text ........................................................................................... 155 Right-Aligning Text ........................................................................................................................ 156 Adding a New Row to the End of the Table.................................................................................. 156 Adding a Row Within the Table .................................................................................................... 157 Resizing the Columns ..................................................................................................................... 157 Adding a New Column to a Table.................................................................................................. 159 Sorting a Table ................................................................................................................................ 159 The Sum Function ........................................................................................................................... 160 Deleting a Column........................................................................................................................... 161 Deleting a Row................................................................................................................................. 161

Recalculate ....................................................................................................................................... 161 Merge Cell........................................................................................................................................ 161 Table Headings ................................................................................................................................ 162 Converting Text to a Table ............................................................................................................ 162 Splitting a Table .............................................................................................................................. 163 Table AutoFormat .......................................................................................................................... 163 Chapter 7:- Powerpoint ............................................................................................................................ 165 Views ......................................................................................................................................................... 169 Slide Master .............................................................................................................................................. 201 Page Setup ................................................................................................................................................ 204

Syllabus
COMPUTERS IN MANAGEMENT
Course Code: BFIIT 10101 Course Objective:
The basic objective of the course is to introduce the student to the world of computers and computer technology and to build skills in using IT and understanding the basic concepts of operating system, Internet & networking technologies.

Course Contents:
Module I: Functional components of a computer and their inter relationship: Input unit, Output unit, Control unit, ALU and Memory. Module II; Spreadsheets - Excel Introduction to spreadsheets: Concept of worksheet & workbooks, creating, opening, closing & saving workbooks. Working inside worksheets: Entering numbers, text, date/time, series using AutoFill, editing & formatting worksheets including changing colour , font, alignment etc, selecting, inserting, deleting, copying, moving cells, controlling row height & column width, naming cells, referencing named cells. Using formulas & functions: Performing calculations using formulas, using autosum tools, using operators, understanding cell referencing-absolute relative, mixed, using essential worksheet functions – statistical, mathematical, text, lookup, date and time. Printing & Protecting worksheets: Adjusting margins, creating headers & footers, previewing, setting page breaks, changing orientation, printing data & formulas, implementing file level security, protecting data within the workbook. Charts: Creating charts with chart wizard, choosing a chart type, understanding data series & data points, formatting chart elements, adding, deleting & changing chart data, charting discontinuous ranges, printing charts. Internal databases, pivot tables & data consolidation: Creating, sorting & filtering databases, using built in data forms, creating, deleting, copying & refreshing pivot tables, formatting & sorting pivot tables, consolidating data, refreshing linked consolidation, using category labels in consolidation range. Excel & word outside: Exchanging data using clipboard, using object linking & embedding. Module III: Operating Systems: Functions of an Operating System. Introduction to windows: parts of a window screen, types of windows, anatomy of a window, all about menus. Running your application & switching between applications. Organising your programs & documents Sharing data between applications : Concept of clipboard, clipboard & OLE. Basic customising with control panel : Opening the control panel, accessibility options, adding new hardware, adding & removing programs, setting date & time & customising screen display. Printing with windows : Adding and deleting printers, printing documents from programs, working with print queue. Working with file system & explorer : Exploring windows explorer, working with folders, files & disks. Using wordpad for simple word processing, painting pictures with windows paint, using other windows accessories like Note pad & Calculator. Using system tools like scandisk, backup, DriveSpace & disk defragmenter. Setting up a simple peer to peer windows network. Module IV: Word Processing

Creating & saving your first document, parts of a word window, typing, selecting, deleting, inserting, replacing, copying & moving text. Previewing & printing your document: Setting margins & page breaks, headers, footers, page numbers, endnotes & footnotes. Formatting your document: Character formatting tools, copying & repeating character formats, bulleted list. Formatting paragraphs – Indenting paragraphs automatically, aligning & justifying list, line spacing, adding borders and shading, formatting your work with section breaks. Different views of a document  Tabs, tables, sorting, & math  Templates, wizards & sample document.  Importing graphics & drawing objects.  AutoText, AutoCorrect, insert, spike & document scraps  Spellcheck, custom & user dictionaries, checking grammar & style, using thesaurus to find the right word, finding & replacing text.  Creating multiple column documents.  Creating table of content & Indexes.  Bookmarks, captions & cross referencing.  Mail Merge : Creating & editing the main document & data source, sorting, filtering & printing merged documents, using basic word’s merge instructions-ask, set bookmark, if then –else & fill in.  Linking & embedding to keep things together. Module V: PowerPoint Starting a powerpoint presentation: Parts of a powerpoint window, creating a new presentation, changing presentation look, using placeholders, exploring master views. Using text in presentation: Adding, editing, formatting & checking text, setting tabs & margins, working with outline view, notes, pages & handouts. Adding visual elements to a presentation: Creating & modifying drawing objects, adding readymade art to your presentation, adding animation & sound. Creating charts & tables: Creating & formatting charts, creating, importing & formatting tables, creating an organisation chart. Preparing your presentation: Organising your presentation on slide sorter view previewing your presentation, liausitious & lining. Running your presentation, selecting & generally output.

Text & References:
Mastering Excel, Thomas Cheeter & Richard H. Alden Mastering Windows 95, Robert Cowart Mastering Word, Ron Mansfield Using Microsoft PowerPoint: The Most Complete Reference, Nancy Stevenson

Lesson-1- Introduction to Computers
“Man is still the most extraordinary computer of all.”-- John F. Kennedy Introduction Computer has been the premier invention of this century. It plays an important role in almost every part of our lives. It has become so important that without it we would not be able to live the way we do. Look around you and you would find computers scattered all over the places, starting with the machine of computer to washing machine, refrigerator, car, mobile and to life saving devices with the doctors. Everywhere a small computer is working for your convenience and they seem to perform almost any task in the world. Computers have had a tremendous impact on the way information is processed within an organization. Although information has been processed manually throughout the history yet in modern management where decision-making is very fast and in the era of corporate governance, it is not possible without the help of information system managed by computers. Computer The word “computer” comes from word “compute” which means “to calculate.” By definition, a computer is a programmable machine (or more precisely, a programmable sequential state machine) that operates on data and is used for wide range of activities. Computer is an electronic device or a combination of electronic devices which solves problems after accepting data and supplies results to the user. It is a tool which can be used to read and write stories, draw and look at images, and send and receive e-mail. It can store a large amount of information and perform various scientific and mathematical tasks. Basically, a computer system comprises the following five elements: • Hardware • Software • People • Procedure • Data/information A computer organization is often compared with a human brain. Just think of a human brain, how it works? It can store data with its five senses (like input devices in a computer), process the gathered information and reach to some conclusion drawn from the raw data (like the processing of a computer system). Then, it can deliver an output or result with speech or with expression (like an output device).

Characteristics of Computers
The ever-increasing use of computers is due to their special characteristics. A computer is not just a calculating machine. It is also capable of doing complex activities and operations. The main characteristics of a computer are given below: 1. Speed A computer is a very fast and accurate device. Since electronic pulses travel at incredible speed and are electronic devices, their internal speed is virtually instantaneous. A microcomputer can process millions of instruction per second over and over again without any mistake. 2. Accuracy Computer’s physical circuits rarely make errors, if the data and instruction are correctly fed. Most of the errors occurring in computers are either hardware errors or human errors. 3. Storage They have a large amount of memory to hold a very large amount of data. A large amount of data/information can be stored in secondary storage devices. 4. Programmability A computer is programmable device, i.e. what it does depend on the lines of instruction (program) it is using. 5. Diligence It is free from problems like lack of concentration, confusions etc. It is never confused like humans and can consecutively take instructions without failing or getting bored. 6. Versatility Many different types of tasks can be performed on computer. At one point of time, it might be busy in calculating statistical data for annual performance evaluation of a business organization and at the other point of time, it might be working on inventory control. 7. Power of Remembrance Unlike humans, computers can store things for unlimited period of time. They have a great remembering power.

Classification
Computers can be classified on the basis of different factors. At present, there are two categories of computers. These are as follows: 1. Analog Computers Analog computers are analog devices (refer to figure 1.1). It means that they have continuous states rather than discrete numbered states. An analog computer can represent fractional or irrational values exactly, i.e. with no round off. Analog computers are almost never used outside of experimental settings. They handle or process information which is of physical nature. Figure 1.1-- Analog computers

Figure 1.2-- Digital computers

2. Digital Computers A digital computer is a programmable-clocked sequential state machine (refer to figure 1.2). It uses discrete states. A binary digital computer uses two discrete states, such as positive/negative, high/low, on/off, to represent the binary digits “zero” and “one.” They process information which is essentially in a binary state. Another Classification Computers can also be classified on the basis of size and speed. Based on this classification, five types of computers are as follows: 1. Micro Computers A microcomputer’s CPU is a microprocessor. The microcomputer originated in late

1970s. The first microcomputer was built around 8-bit microprocessor chips. An 8-bit chip is the chip that can retrieve instructions/data from storage, manipulate and process an 8-bit data at a time. One can also say that the chip has a built-in 8-bit data transfer path. 8088 is an 8/16-bit chip, i.e. an 8-bit path is used to move data between chip and primary storage (external path) but processing is done within the chip using a 16-bit path (internal path) at a time. 8086 is a 16/16-bit chip, i.e. both the internal and external paths are 16-bit wide. Both these chips can support a primary storage capacity of upto 1 Mega Byte (MB). Most of the popular microcomputers are developed around Intel’s chips while most of the minis and super minis are built around Motorola’s 68000 series chips. There are, however, new trends developing. With the advancement of display and VLSI technology, a microcomputer is now available in a very small size. Some of these are laptops/notebook computers etc. Most of these are of the size of a small notebook but with an equivalent capacity of an older mainframe. 2. Minicomputers The term “minicomputer” was originated in 1960s when it was realized that many computing tasks do not require an expensive contemporary mainframe computers but can be solved by a small, inexpensive computer also. Initial minicomputers were 8-bit and 12-bit machines but by 1970s, almost all minicomputers were 16-bit machines. The 16-bit minicomputers have the advantages of large instruction set and address field, efficient storage and handling of text. Thus, a 16-bit minicomputer was a more powerful machine and could be used in variety of applications. It could support business applications along with the scientific ones. With the advancement in technology, the speed, memory size and other characteristics developed and the minicomputer was then used for various stand-alone or dedicated applications. The minicomputer was then used as a multi-user system which can be used by various users at the same time. Gradually, the architectural requirement of minicomputers grew and a 32-bit minicomputer, called “super mini,” was introduced. The super mini had more peripheral devices, larger memory and could support more users working simultaneously on a computer in comparison to previous minicomputers. 3. Workstation It is a powerful stand-alone computer of the sort used in computer-aided design and other applications requiring a high-end, expensive machine with considerable calculating or graphics capability. Machines using Intel Processor P2 at 400 MHz is an example of a workstation. 4. Mainframe Computers They are very powerful, large-scale general-purpose computers. Their word length may be 48, 60 or 64 bits, memory capacity 256 to 512 MB, hard disk capacity 1 to 100 GB or more and processing speed 100 to 200 MIPS. They are used where large amounts of data are to be processed or very complex calculations are to be made. It should be noted that these tasks are beyond the capacities of mini computers. They are used in research organizations, large industries, airlines reservation etc. where a large database has to be maintained. Its examples include IBM 4300 series and IBM

Enterprise system/9000 series. 5. Super Computers Its processing capabilities lie in the range of 400-10,000 MIPS, word length 64-96 bits, memory capacity 1024 MB and more, and hard disk capacity 1000 GB and more. It contains a number of CPUs that operate in parallel to make it faster, i.e. CPUs give them their speed through parallel processing. They are used for weather forecasting, weapons research and development, rocketing, aerodynamics, atomic, nuclear and plasma physics. Supercomputers have limited use and limited market because of their very high price. They are being used at some research centers and government agencies involving sophisticated scientific and engineering tasks. Figure 1.3-- Super Computer Param

Need for Computer Literacy Computers are found nearly everywhere in our personal lives. Unless you intend to be a hermit, computers will affect you. Computer literacy means having a general knowledge about computers. For example, to know who uses them, what kind of functions they perform, how others use them, where they are, how they are affecting society and how they can be beneficial to your own life or work. Some experts think that the person who does not know how to use a computer will be just as handicapped in performing his or her job as the person today who cannot read. This introduction to computers will lead to further exploration in your quest for computer literacy. In subsequent lessons, you will learn more about the operation of a computer and its specific parts, find out what devices are used in conjunction with the computer and discover how those devices are related. Later lessons are devoted to both large and small systems where you will study the differences between each system and the types of jobs that each performs. You will learn how computers communicate with each other and the rules that govern that communication. You will see how managers at various levels use computers in different ways and also understand why those managers wisely end up with a powerful business partner. Several microcomputer application packages, such as word processor, data manager, spreadsheet and graphics and communication wi1l be introduced. These programs give people, who are not mathematical wizards or computer programmers, an opportunity to use computers and take their advantages. Although the courses you chose in school might not have demanded a technical knowledge of computers and programming yet you are likely to be directly or indirectly involved with them in your work. Many jobs and careers depend on some familiarly with the use of computers. For those who are interested in careers or jobs directly involved with information or computer technology, all kinds of possibilities exist. These include keying in data, defining the way data are processed, managing the computer system, or

managing the information system. Computer Limitations You have studied that computer is one of the most powerful tools ever developed. But we all have read articles similar to the one about the man who was treated for pneumonia and then charged by the hospital’s computer for the use of the delivery room and nursery. Such “computer failures” may be amusing but most of the foul-ups happen because people fail to consider some basic computer limitations. Without reliable programs and sound logic, no computer system can perform sufficiently. Computer cannot think of its own. Also, it cannot be moved.

Lesson-2- Components of a Computer System
Introduction We have seen that computer affects our life in a big way by increasing the efficiency and enhanced ability. Now we will have to look for the anatomy of computer. What is it made up of? The parts of computer did not appear all at once in one machine by one person. It is a continuously evolving process starting as early as 17th century when people began to work on machines that would automate task. The first such machine was developed in the 17th century by mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal but it was not an electronic device. It was purely a mechanical machine which used meshed gears to add and multiply the numbers. But after him, there was a long gap before an idea emerged from Charles Babbage to process information. Although he could never successfully develop such mechanical machine yet his idea was of million-dollar worth. That is why he is known as the “father of computer.” Modern electronic computer started taking shape in 1940s with the invention of Mark-I Computer. Since then, there have been a lot of research and new inventions in the technology of computers. Components of a Computer Components of a computer can be broadly divided into the following two categories: 1. Software Software refers to the programs required to operate a computer. For example, DOS (Disk Operating System), BASIC, COBOL, dBase, Accounting Software etc. are all software. An analogy of hardware can be the book which you are reading and, in this case, software would be the text written on it. Another analogy could be that “brain” is hardware but “memory stored in brain” is software. Both hardware and software are dependent on each other. CPU, memory unit, hard disk etc. are useless unless they are provided with instructions and data for storage and processing. Similarly, BASIC or COBOL has no importance unless they are used along with various hardware components of computer. 2. Hardware Hardware refers to any physical component of computer. For example, CPU, monitor (VDU), keyboard, hard disk, floppy disk, printer etc. are physical components and, thus, are all hardware. Hardware can be compared to a human body capable of doing any activity. But without the presence of blood and oxygen, it will not be able to do anything. The same is the case with computer and hardware. It is capable of doing many things but without software it just cannot work. Thus, for computer both software and hardware components are essential.

Organization of Computer We will discuss the basic structure of a computer system. The diagram of a generalized architecture of a computer system is shown below. A computer system has the following main components (refer to figure 2.1): • Input/output unit • Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Memory unit

In order to solve a computational problem, a computer has to perform the following four major tasks: • Input • Process • Output • Storage Input/Output Unit The computer is a machine which processes input data according to a given set of instructions and gives output. Before a computer does processing, it should be given data and instructions. After processing, output should be displayed or printed by computer. The unit used for getting the data and instructions into computer and displaying or printing output is known as an Input/Output Unit (I/O Unit). There are many peripheral devices which are used as input/output units for a computer. The most common form of an input device is known as “terminal.” A terminal has an electronic typewriter-like device called keyboard and has a display screen called “Visual Display Unit” (VDU) or “monitor.” Keyboard is the main input device while the monitor

can be considered both as an input as well as an output device. There are some other common input devices like mouse, punch card, tape, joystick, scanner, modem etc. Monitor, printer and plotter are the main peripheral devices used as output units for a computer. Central Processing Unit Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the main component or “brain” of a computer. It performs all the processing of input data. Its function is to fetch, examine and execute the instructions stored in the main memory of a computer. In microcomputers, CPU is built on a single chip or Integrated Circuit (IC) and is called a microprocessor. A CPU consists of the following distinct parts: • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) • Control Unit (CU) • Registers • Buses • Clock Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) The arithmetic and logic unit of CPU is responsible for all arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division as well as logical operations, such as less than, equal to and greater than. All calculations and comparisons are performed in arithmetic logic unit. Control Unit The control unit is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer. It is considered as the “central nervous system” of a computer as it manages and coordinates all the units of computer. It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them and directs the operation of computer. It also performs the physical data transfer between memory and peripheral devices. Registers Registers are small high-speed circuits (memory locations). These are used to store data, instructions and memory addresses (memory location numbers) when ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations. Registers can store one word of data (1 word = 2 bytes and 1 byte = 8 bits) until it is overwritten by another word. Depending on the processor’s capability, the number and type of registers vary from one CPU to another. Depending upon their functions, these can be divided into the following six categories: • General purpose registers • Pointer registers • Segment registers • Index registers • Flags registers • Instruction pointer registers Buses Data is stored as a unit of eight bits (bit stands for binary digit, i.e. 0 or 1) in a register.

Each bit is transferred from one register to another by means of a separate wire. This group of eight wires that is used as a common way to transfer data between registers is known as a bus. It is actually a connection between two components to transmit signal between them. A bus can be of three major types. These types are as follows: 1. Data bus-- It is used to move data. 2. Control bus-- It is used to move address or memory location. 3. Address bus-- It is used to send control signals between various components of a computer. Clock A clock is another important component of CPU. It measures and allocates a fixed time slot for processing each and every micro-operation (smallest functional operation). In simple terms, CPU is allocated one or more clock cycles to complete a micro-operation. CPU executes the instructions in synchronization with the clock pulse. The clock speed of CPU is measured in terms of Mega Hertz (MHz) or Millions of Cycles per second. The clock speed of CPU varies from one model to another in the range 4.77 MHz (in 8088 processor) to 266 MHz (in Pentium II). The speed of CPU is also specified in terms of Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) or Million of Floating Point Operations Per Second (MFLOPS). Memory Unit Memory unit is that component of a computer system which is used to store data, instructions and information before, during and after the processing by ALU. It is actually a work area (physically a collection of integrated circuits) within a computer where CPU stores data and instructions. It is also known as a main/primary/internal memory. Input Devices Input devices are used to input data, information and instructions into RAM. These devices can be classified into the following two broad categories: • Basic input devices • Special input devices The structure and function of common input devices of these two categories are discussed below in detail. Basic Input Devices The input devices which have now-a-days become essential to operate a PC (personal computer) may be called as “basic input devices.” These devices are always required for basic input operations. These devices include keyboard and mouse. Keyboard Keyboard (similar to a typewriter) is the main input device of a computer (refer to figure 2.2). It contains three types of keys-- alphanumeric keys, special keys and function keys. Alphanumeric keys are used to type all alphabets, numbers and special symbols like $, %, @, A etc. Special keys such as <Shift>, <Ctrl>, <Alt>, <Home>, <Scroll Lock> etc. are used for special functions. Function keys such as <Fl>, <F2>, <F3> etc. are used to give

special commands depending upon the software used. The function of each and every key can be well understood only after working on a PC. When any key is pressed, an electronic signal is produced. This signal is detected by a keyboard encoder that sends a binary code corresponding to the key pressed to the CPU. There are many types of keyboards but 101 keys keyboard is the most popular one.

Mouse Mouse (similar to a mouse) is another important input device (refer to figure 2.3). It is a pointing device used to move cursor, draw sketches/diagrams, select text/object/menu item etc. on monitor screen while working on Windows (graphics-based environment of a computer). Mouse is a small, palm size box containing three buttons and a ball underneath which senses the movement of the mouse and sends the corresponding signals to CPU on pressing the buttons. Special Input Devices The input devices which are not essential to operate a PC are called as “special input devices.” These devices are used for various special purposes, and are generally not required for basic input operations. These devices include trackball, light pen, touch screen, joystick, digitizer, scanner, OMR, OCR, bar code reader, MICR and voice input devices. Trackball

A trackball looks like a mouse (refer to figure 2.4). It has a roller on the top with selection buttons on the side. It is also a pointing device used to move the cursor and works like a mouse. For moving cursor in a particular direction, the user spins the ball in that direction. It is sometimes considered better than a mouse because it requires little arm movement and less desktop space. It is generally used with portable computers. Light Pen

Light pen (similar to a pen) is a pointing device which is used to select a displayed menu item or draw pictures on the monitor screen (refer to figure 2.5). It consists of a photocell and an optical system placed in a small tube. When its tip is moved over monitor and pen button is pressed, its photocell-sensing element detects the screen location and sends corresponding signal to CPU Touch Screen

Some special VDU devices have touch sensitive screens (refer to figure 2.6). These screens are sensitive to human fingers and act as tactile input devices. Using touch screen, the user can point to a selection on the screen instead of pressing keys. Touch screen helps users to get an information quickly. It is mainly used in hotels or airports to convey information to visitors. Joystick

Joystick is also a pointing device used to move cursor position on a monitor screen. It is a stick having a spherical ball at its both lower and upper ends. The lower spherical ball moves in a socket. It can be moved in all the four directions. The function of a joystick is similar to that of a mouse. It is mainly used in Computer-Aided Designing (CAD) and playing computer games. Scanner

A scanner is widely used in Desktop Publishing (DTP) applications (refer to figure 2.9). It is used for digitizing images such as photographs, forms, documents etc. in computer memory. There are many types of scanners which can also read text by converting them to digital code. The scanners are very useful for converting the typed pages into word processing files. Graphic scanners convert a printed image into video image without converting it to digital code. Bar Code Reader

Figure 2.11-- Bar code reader Bar code reader is an optical scanner used for reading bar coded data (data in the form of light and dark lines). The bar coded data consists of a number of bars of varying thickness and spacing between them. The bar code reader reads the bar coded data and converts it into electrical pulses which are then processed by computer. Bar coded data is generally used in labeling goods, numbering the books, or encoding ID or A/c numbers. Voice-Input Devices Voice-input devices are the latest input devices that can recognize human voice. They seem to be very useful but are not popular due to storage of limited vocabularies and variations in the way of pronouncing words by different persons. Output Devices Output devices are hardware components which are used to display or print the processed information. The structure, working and uses of common output devices is discussed below. Monitor

Visual Display Unit (VDU), commonly known as monitor, is the main output device of a computer (refer to figure 2.14). It consists of a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) which displays characters as an output. It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels. Pixels are arranged in a rectangular form. The sharpness of image (screen resolution) depends upon the number of pixels. Types of Monitors Depending upon the resolution, monitors can be classified as follows: (a) CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) (Figure 2.15)

(b) MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter) (Figure 2.16)

(c) HGA (Hercules Graphics Adapter) (Figure 2.17)

(d) EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) (Figure 2.18)

The differences between these monitors are summarized below. Depending upon the color of display, monitors can be classified as monochrome (with single color/ black and white display) and color (with all colors display) monitors.

Printer Printer is the most important output device. It is used to print information on paper. It is essential for getting output of any computer-based application. Types of Printers Printers can be broadly categorized into the following two types: 1. Impact Printers The printers that print the characters by striking against the ribbon and onto the paper are called “impact printers.” These are of two types: (a) Character Printers These printers print one character at a time. These printers are further of two types: (i) Daisy Wheel Printers These printers print the characters by a mechanism that uses a plastic or metal hub with spokes, called daisy wheel (refer to figure 2.20). The characters are embossed on the radiating spokes and printed by striking these spokes against the ribbon and paper. These printers give a good quality but are more expensive than dot matrix printers. (ii) Dot Matrix Printers These printers print the characters by putting dots onto paper. They do not give better printing quality than daisy wheel printers but are faster in speed.

The printing speed of a dot matrix printer can be upto 360 cps (characters per second). They are widely used with microcomputers. (b) Line Printers These printers print one line at a time. Their printing speed is much more than character printers. They are also of two types: (i) Drum Printers These printers print line by a rotating drum having a ring of characters for each print position (refer to figure 2.22). The hammers strike each character of the drum simultaneously so that entire line is printed in one full rotation of the drum. These printers are also called as “barrel printers.” The printouts obtained from these printers have even character spacing but uneven line height. (ii) Chain Printers These printers print the line by a rotating chain having ring characters for each print position. Their printing mechanism is similar to drum printers. The printouts, thus, obtained from these printers have uneven character spacing but even line height. 2. Non-Impact Printers The printers that print the characters without striking against the ribbon and onto the paper are called “non-impact printers.” These printers print a complete page at a time and, therefore, are also called as “page printers.” Page printers are of three types: (a) Laser Printers These printers look and work like photocopiers. They are based on laser technology which is the latest development in high speed and high quality printing. In these printers, a laser beam is used to write an image on a paper. First, the image is formed by electrically charged thousands of dots on a paper by laser beam. Then, the paper is sprayed with a toner having the opposite charge and is passed over a heated roller to make the image permanent. Laser printers are very popular and have become an essential part of DTP. Although laser printers are costlier than dot matrix yet they are generally preferred in all offices due to their high quality of printing. There are many models of laser printers depending upon the speed and number of dots printed. The latest model of laser printer is 1200 DPI (dots per inch) which can print 10 pages per minute. Some high-speed laser printers give a speed of upto 100 pages per minute. (b) Inkjet Printers These printers print characters by spraying electrically charged ink on paper. These printers give better quality than character printers but not better than laser printers. They are cheaper than laser printers and hence used widely in many offices. They also offer an option of using color cartridges for multi-color printing. (c) Thermal Printers

These printers print characters by melting a wax-based ink off a ribbon onto a special heat sensitive paper. They give letter-quality printing but are relatively expensive in maintenance than other printers.

Lesson-3- Computer Memory
Introduction Memory is required in a computer to store programs and the data processed by programs. Since we are comparing computer systems to humans from the beginning, memory is also no exception. As human memory is made up of cells (neurons), computer memory is also made up of large number of cells. Here, each cell is capable of storing one bit of information in the form of binary numbers. Memory System Memory in a computer system is required for the storage and subsequent retrieval of instruction and data. A computer system uses variety of devices for storing instructions and data required for its operations. Normally, the information to be stored on computer is classified in two basic categories-- data and instructions. The storage device along with the algorithm or information on how to control and manage these storage devices constitutes the memory system of computer. Although a memory system is a very simple system yet it exhibits a wide range of technology and types. But unfortunately, faster memory technology is more costly. In addition, fast memories require power supply till information is stored. These things are not very convenient. But, on the other hand, memories with smaller cost have very high access time. This is the time taken by CPU to access a location in memory. This results in slower operation of CPU. Thus, the cost versus access time has led to a hierarchy of memory where we supplement fast memories with larger, cheaper and slower memories. This memory unit may have different physical and operational characteristics. Therefore, memory system may have different types, costs, organizations, technologies and performances. This memory hierarchy will be fruitful if the frequency of access to slower memories is significantly less than the faster memories. (.1)

Thus, a memory system can be considered to consist of three groups of memories. These are as follows: 1. Internal processor memories-- These consist of the small set of high-speed registers which are internal to a processor and are used as temporary locations where actual processing is done. 2. Primary memory or main memory-- It is a large memory which is fast but not as fast as internal processor register. Processor directly accesses this memory. It is mainly based on integrated circuit. 3. Secondary or auxiliary memory-- Auxiliary memory is much larger in size than main memory but is slower than the latter. It normally stores system programs and data files. These cannot be accessed directly by processor. Memory It is also known as the primary storage or main/internal memory. It is a part of microcomputer that holds data for processing, instruction for processing the data (the program) and information (processed data). It is of the following three types: • Read Only Memory (ROM) • Random Access Memory (RAM) • Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-conductor Memory (CMOS) Read Only Memory Read Only Memory (ROM) is an essential component of memory unit. We know that the computer, being a machine, itself has no intelligence or memory, and requires instructions which are given by a person. Whenever a computer is switched on, it searches for the required instructions. The memory which has these essential instructions is known as Read Only Memory (ROM). This memory is permanent and is not erased when the system is switched off. As appears with its name, it is read only memory, i.e. it can be read only and not be written by user/programmer. The memory capacity of ROM varies from 64 KB to 256 KB depending on the model of computer. Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Main Memory (RAM) Cache Fast, Small, Experience Slow, Large, Cheap ROM contains a number of programs (set of instructions). The most important program is the Basic Input Output System (BIOS). It activates the hardware, such as keyboard, monitor, floppy disk etc. to communicate with the system and application software. Types of ROM There are many types of ROM available for microcomputers, such as Mask ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and EAPROM.

1. Mask ROM It is the basic ROM chip. In this type, the information is stored at the time of its manufacturing. So, it cannot be altered or erased later on. 2. PROM PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory. In this type, the information is stored by programmers after its manufacturing. This one also cannot be altered or erased later on. 3. EPROM EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. It is similar to PROM but its information can be erased later on by ultraviolet light and it can be reprogrammed. 4. EEPROM EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. It is similar to EPROM but its information can be erased by using a high voltage current. 5. EAPROM EAPROM stands for Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory. As compared to EPROM and EEPROM, the information stored in EAPROM can be altered later. Random Access Memory Random Access Memory (RAM) is another important component of the memory unit. It is used to store data and instructions during the execution of programs. Contrary to ROM, RAM is temporary and is erased when the computer is switched off. It is a read/write type of memory and, thus, can be read and written by the user/programmer. As it is possible to randomly use any location of this memory, this memory is known as Random Access Memory. The memory capacity of RAM varies from 640 KB to several MB with different models of PC. Types of RAM Following are the two types of RAM used in PCs: 1. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) The information stored in Dynamic RAM has to be refreshed after every few milliseconds. Otherwise, it will be erased. DRAM has higher storage capacity and is cheaper than static RAM. 2. Static RAM (SRAM) The information stored in static RAM need not be refreshed but it remains stable as long as the power supply is provided. SRAM is costlier but has higher speed than DRAM. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Memory

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) memory is used to store the system configuration, date, time and other important data. When a computer is switched on, BIOS matches the information of CMOS with the peripheral devices and displays error in case of mismatching. Storage Devices Auxiliary storage, also known as auxiliary memory or secondary storage, is the memory that supplements the main storage. This is a long-term, non-volatile memory. The term non-volatile means it stores and retains the programs and data even after the computer is switched off. Unlike RAM which looses the contents when the computer is turned off and ROM to which it is not possible to add anything new, auxiliary storage device allows a computer to record information semi-permanently. This is to ensure that this information can be read later by the same computer or by another computer. Auxiliary storage devices are also useful in transferring data or programs from one computer to another. They also function as backup devices which allows backup of the valuable information that you are working on. So, even if by some accident your computer crashes and the data in it is unrecoverable mode, you can restore it from your backups. The most common types of auxiliary storage devices are magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, floppy disks and hard disks. There are two types of auxiliary storage devices. This classification is based on the type of data access-- sequential and random. Based on the type of access, they are called sequential access media and random media. In case of sequential access media, data stored in media can only be read in sequence. To get to a particular point on media, you have to go through all the preceding points. Magnetic tapes are examples of sequential access media. In contrast, disks are random access media, also called direct access media, because a disk drive can access any point at random without passing through intervening points. Other examples of direct access media are magnetic disks, optical disks, zip disks etc. Magnetic Tape Magnetic tape is a magnetically coated strip of plastic on which data can be encoded. Tapes for computers are similar to the tapes used to store music. Some personal computers, infact, enable one to use normal cassette tapes. .2-- Magnetic tape Storing data on tapes is considerably cheaper than storing data on disks. Tapes also have large storage capacities, ranging from a few hundred KB to several GB. Accessing data on tapes, however, is much slower than accessing data on disks. Because tapes are so slow, they are generally used only for long-term storage and backup. Data to be used regularly is almost always kept on a disk. Tapes are also used for transporting large amounts of data. Helical Cartridge It is a type of magnetic tape that uses the same technology as VCR tapes. The term helical scan usually refers to 8 mm tapes, although 4 mm tapes (called DAT tapes) use the same technology. The 8 mm helical scan tapes have data capacities from 2.5 GB to 5 GB. Data Cartridge

DAT (Digital Audio Tape) is a type of magnetic tape that uses an ingenious scheme called helical scans to record data ( figure 3.3). A DAT cartridge is slightly larger than a credit card and contains a magnetic tape that can hold from 2 to 24 GB of data. It can support data transfer rates of about 2 Mbps (Million bytes per second). Like other types of tapes, DATs are sequential access media. The most common format for DAT cartridges is DDS (Digital Data Storage) which is the industry standard for DAT formats. The latest format, DDS 3, specifies tapes that can hold 24 GB (the equivalent of over 40 CD) .3 and support data transfer rates of 2 Mbps. Winchester Disk The term Winchester comes from an early type of disk drive developed by IBM that stored 30 MB and had a 30 millisecond access time. So, its inventors named it Winchester in honor of the .30 caliber rifle of the same name. Although modern disk drives are faster and hold more data yet the basic technology is same. So, Winchester has become synonymous with hard disk. .4 (.4) Hard Disk Hard disk is a magnetic disk on which computer data can be stored. The term hard is used to distinguish it from a soft, or floppy, disk. Hard disks hold more data and are faster than floppy disks. A hard disk, for example, can store anywhere from 10 MB to several GB whereas most of the floppies have a maximum store capacity of 1.4 MB. ( .5) A single hard disk usually consists of several platters. Each platter requires two read/write heads, one for each side. All the read/write heads are attached to a single access arm so that they cannot move independently. .5 Each platter has the same number of tracks. A track location that cuts across all platters is called a cylinder. For example, a typical 84 MB hard disk for a PC might have two platters (four sides) and 1,053 cylinders. In general, hard disks are less portable than floppies, although it is possible to buy removable hard disks. There are two types of removable hard disks-- disk packs and removable cartridges. Floppy Disk Floppy disk is a soft magnetic disk (.6). It is called floppy because it flops if you wave it (atleast the 5¼ inch variety does). Unlike most of the hard disks, floppy disks (often called floppies or diskettes) are portable because these can be removed from a disk drive. Disk drives for floppy disks are called floppy drives. Floppy disks are slower to access than hard disks and have less storage capacity but are less expensive and are portable. Following are the two basic sizes of a floppy:

1. 5¼ inch-- This is the common size floppy for PCs made before 1987. This type of floppy is generally capable of storing between l00K and 1.2MB of data. The most common sizes are 360K and 1.2MB. 2. 3¼ inch-- Floppy is something of a misnomer for these disks as they are encased in a rigid envelope. Despite their small size, microfloppies have a large storage capacity than their cousins-from 400K to 1.4MB of data. The common sizes for PCs are 720K (double density) and 1.44MB (high density). Macintoshes support disks of 400K, 800K and 1.2MB. .6 Zip Disk These are high capacity floppy disk drives developed by Iomega Corporation. Zip disks are slightly larger than the conventional floppy disks and are about twice as thick (.7). They can hold 100MB of data. Because they are relatively inexpensive and durable, they have become a popular media for backing up hard disks and for transporting large files. .7 Jaz Disk These are removable disk drives developed by the Iomega Corporation. The Jaz drive has a 12-ms average seek time and a transfer rate of 5.5 Mbps. The removable cartridges hold 1 GB of data. The fast data rates and large storage capacity make it a viable alternative for backup storage as well as for everyday use. (Refer to .6) .8 Super Disk These new disk storage technology developed by the Corporation supports very high density diskettes. Super disk diskettes are etched with a servo pattern at the factory. This pattern is then read by the super disk drive to precisely align the read/write head. The result is that a super disk diskette can have 2,490 tracks as opposed to the 135 tracks that conventional 3.5-inch 1.44MB diskettes use. This higher density translates into 120MB capacity per diskette. Unlike other removable disk storage solutions, such as the zip drive, super disk is backward compatible with older diskettes. This means .9 that you can use the same super disk drive to read and write to 1.44 MB diskettes, as well as the new 120 MB super disk diskettes. Imation’s current super disk drive is called the LS-120. (.9) Optical Disk Optical disk are a storage medium from which data is read and to which it is written by lasers. Optical disk can store much

more data, i.e. upto 6 GB (6 billion bytes) than magnetic media, such as floppy and hard disks. There are three basic types of optical disks: .10 1. CD-ROM Like audio CDs, CD-ROMs come with data already encoded onto them. The data is permanent and can be read any number of times but CD-ROMs cannot be modified. 2. WORM This term stands for “Write Once, Read Many” with a WORM disk drive. One can write data only once onto a WORM disk. After that, the disk behaves just like a CD-ROM. 3. Erasable Optical disks that can be erased and loaded with new data are just like magnetic disks. These are often referred to as EO (Erasable Optical) disks. Magneto-Optical (MO) Drives This is a type of disk drive that combines magnetic disk technologies with CD-ROM technologies. Like magnetic disks, MO disks can be read and written to. And like floppy disks, they are also removable. However, their storage capacity can be more than 200 MB, much greater than magnetic floppies. In terms of data access speed, they are faster than floppies and CD-ROMs but not as fast as hard disk drives. (.11) .11 Processor The processor is that part of computer which actually does the computations. This is sometimes called an MPU (for Main Processor Unit) or CPU (for Central Processing Unit or Central Processor Unit). (.12) A processor typically contains arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), control unit (including processor flags, flag register, or status register), internal buses and sometimes special function units (the most common special function unit being a floating point unit for floating point arithmetic). .12 Some computers have more than one processor. This is called multi-processing. The major kinds of digital processors are CISC, RISC, DSP and hybrid. CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. Mainframe computers and minicomputers were CISC processors. Many manufacturers are competing to offer the most useful instruction sets. Many of the first two generations of microprocessors were also CISC.

RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. RISC came about as a result of academic research which showed that a small well designed instruction set running compiled programs at high speed could perform more computing work than a CISC running the same programs (although very expensive yet hand optimized assembly language favored CISC). DSP stands for Digital Signal Processing. It is used primarily in dedicated devices, such as modems, digital cameras, graphics cards and other specialty devices. Hybrid processors combine elements of two or three of the major classes of processors.

Chapter 4- Excel
What is Excel?
Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet program. You might of heard the terms "spreadsheet" and "worksheet". People generally use them interchangebly. To remain consistent with Microsoft and other publishers the term worksheet refers to the row-and-column matrix sheet on which you work upon and the term spreadsheet refers to this type of computer application. In addition, the term workbook will refer to the book of pages that is the standard Excel document.The workbook can contain worksheets,chart sheets, or macro modules.

The Spreadsheet Concept
The Workbook Most of the Excel screen is devoted to the display of the workbook. The workbook consists of grids and columns. The intersection of a row and column is a rectangular area called a cell. Cells The workbook is made up of cells.There is a cell at the intersection of each row and column.A cell can contain a value, a formula, or a text entry. A text entry is used to label or explain the contents of the workbook. A value entry can either be a constant or the value of a formula. The value of a formula will change when the components (arguments) of the formula change. The appeal of spreadsheet programs is the ability to change one value and watch all other values that depend on that first value automatically change when the spreadsheet is recalculated. Rows, Columns, and Sheets The Excel worksheet contains 16,384 rows that extend down the worksheet, numbered 1 through 16384. The Excel worksheet contains 256 columns that extend across the worksheet, lettered A through Z, AA through AZ, BA through BZ, and continuing to IA through IZ. The Excel worksheet can contain as many as 256 sheets, labeled Sheet1 through Sheet256. The initial number of sheets in a workbook,which can be changed by the user is 16.

Cell References Cell references are the combination of column letter and row number. For example, the upperleft cell of a worksheet is A1.

Microsoft Excel 2000 Screen Elements

Adding and Renaming Worksheets
The worksheets in a workbook are accessible by clicking the worksheet tabs just above the status bar. By default, three worksheets are included in each workbook. To add a sheet, select Insert|Worksheet from the menu bar. To rename the worksheet tab, right-click on the tab with the mouse and select Rename from the shortcut menu. Type the new name and press the ENTER key. The Standard Toolbar This toolbar is located just below the menu bar at the top of the screen and allows you to quickly access basic Excel commands.

New - Select File|New from the menu bar, press CTRL+N, or click the New button to create a new workbook. Open - Click File|Open from the menu bar, press CTRL+O, or click the Open folder button to open an existing workbook. Save - The first time you save a workbook, select File|Save As and name the file. After the file is named click File|Save, CTRL+S, or the Save button on the standard toolbar. Print - Click the Print button to print the worksheet. Print Preview - This feature will allow you to preview the worksheet before it prints. Spell Check - Use the spell checker to correct spelling errors on the worksheet. Cut, Copy, Paste, and Format Painter - These actions are explained in the Modifying A Worksheet section.

Undo and Redo - Click the backward Undo arrow to cancel the last action you performed, whether it be entering data into a cell, formatting a cell, entering a function, etc. Click the forward Redo arrow to cancel the undo action. Insert Hyperlink - To insert a hyperlink to a web site on the Internet, type the text into a cell you want to be the link that can be clicked with the mouse. Then, click the Insert Hyperlink button and enter the web address you want the text to link to and click OK. Autosum, Function Wizard, and Sorting - These features are discussed in detail in the Functions tutorial. Zoom - To change the size that the worksheet appears on the screen, choose a different percentage from the Zoom menu.
The Formula Bar

Formula Bar If the Formula bar is turned on, the cell address displays in the Name box on the left side of the Formula bar. Cell entries display on the right side of the Formula bar. Before proceeding, make sure the Formula bar is turned on.
1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar. 2. Click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu opens. On the drop-down menu, if Formula Bar has a check mark next to it, the Formula bar is turned on. Press the Esc key to close the dropdown menu. 3. If Formula Bar does not have a check mark next to it, press the down arrow key until Formula Bar is highlighted; then press Enter. The Formula bar should now appear below the toolbars. 4. Note that the current cell address displays on the left side of the Formula bar. The Status Bar

Status Bar If the Status bar is turned on, it appears at the very bottom of the screen. Before proceeding, make sure the Status bar is turned on.
1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar. 2. Click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu opens. 3. On the drop-down menu, if Status Bar has a check mark next to it, it is turned on. Press the Esc key to close the drop-down menu.

4. If Status Bar does not have a check mark next to it, press the down arrow key until Status Bar is highlighted; then press Enter. The Status bar should now appear at the bottom of the screen.

Notice the word "Ready" on the Status bar at the lower left side of the screen. The word "Ready" tells you that Excel is in the Ready mode and awaiting your next command. Other indicators appear on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen. Here are some examples: The Num Lock key is a toggle key. Pressing it turns the numeric keypad on and off. You can use the numeric keypad to enter numbers as if you were using a calculator. The letters "NUM" on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen indicate that the numeric keypad is on.
Press the Num Lock key several times and note how the indicator located on the Status bar changes.

The Caps Lock key is also a toggle key. Pressing it turns the caps function on and off. When the caps function is on, your entry appears in capital letters.
Press the Cap Lock key several times and note how the indicator located on the Status bar changes.

Other functions that appear on the Status bar are Scroll Lock and End. Scroll Lock and End are also toggle keys. Pressing the key toggles the function between on and off. Scroll Lock causes the movement keys to move the window without moving the cell pointer. End lets you jump around the screen. We will discuss both of these later in more detail. Make sure the Scroll Lock and End indicators are off and complete the following exercises.
The Down Arrow Key

You can use the down arrow key to move downward one cell at a time.
1. Press the down arrow key several times. 2. Note that the cursor moves downward one cell at a time. The Up Arrow Key

You can use the Up Arrow key to move upward one cell at a time.
1. Press the up arrow key several times. 2. Note that the cursor moves upward one cell at a time.

The Tab Key

You can use the Tab key to move across the page to the right, one cell at a time.
1. Move to cell A1. 2. Press the Tab key several times. 3. Note that the cursor moves to the right one cell at a time. The Shift+Tab Keys

You can hold down the Shift key and then press the Tab key to move to the left, one cell at a time.
1. Hold down the Shift-key and then press Tab. 2. Note that the cursor moves to the left one cell at a time. The Right and Left Arrow Keys

You can use the right and left arrow keys to move right or left one cell at a time.
1. 2. 3. 4. Press the right arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves to the right. Press the left arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves to the left.

Page Up and Page Down

The Page Up and Page Down keys move the cursor up and down one page at a time.
1. 2. 3. 4. Press the Page Down key. Note that the cursor moves down one page. Press the Page Up key. Note that the cursor moves up one page.

The End Key

The Status Bar The End key, used in conjunction with the arrow keys, causes the cursor to move to the far end of the spreadsheet in the direction of the arrow.
1. Press the End key.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Note that "END" appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen. Press the right arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the farthest right area of the screen. Press the END key again. Press the down arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the bottom of the screen. Press the End key again. Press the left arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the farthest left area of the screen. Press the End key again. Press the up arrow key. Note that the cursor moves to the top of the screen.

Note: If you have entered data into the worksheet, the End key moves you to the end of the data area.
The Home Key

The Home key, used in conjunction with the End key, moves you to cell A1 - or to the beginning of the data area if you have entered data.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Move the cursor to column J. Stay in column J and move the cursor to row 20. Press the End key. Press Home. You should now be in cell A1.

Moving Quickly Around the Worksheet
The following are shortcuts for moving quickly from one cell to a cell in a different part of the worksheet.
Go to -- F5

The F5 function key is the "Go To" key. If you press the F5 key while in the Ready mode, you are prompted for the cell to which you wish to go. Enter the cell address, and the cursor jumps to that cell.
1. Press F5. The Go To dialog box opens. 2. Type J3. 3. Press Enter. The cursor should move to cell J3. Go to -- Ctrl-G

You can also use Ctrl-G to go to a specific cell.
1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl-g). The Go To dialog box opens. 2. Type C4. 3. Press Enter. You should now be in cell C4.

Name Box

You can also use the Name box to go to a specific cell.

1. Type B10 in the Name box 2. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell D10.

Selecting Cells

If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells, you must first select those cells by highlighting them. To highlight cells A1 to E1:
1. Place the cursor in cell A1. 2. Press the F8 key. This anchors the cursor. 3. Note that "EXT" appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen. You are in the Extend mode. 4. Click in cell E7. Cells A1 to E7 should now be highlighted. 5. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting. Alternative Method: Selecting Cells by Dragging

You can also highlight an area by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over the area. In addition, you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the following:
1. Place the cursor in cell A1. 2. Hold down the Ctrl key. Do not release it until you are told. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet. 3. Press the left mouse button. 4. While holding down the left mouse button, use the mouse to move from cell A1 to E7. 5. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key, but release the left mouse button. 6. Using the mouse, place the cursor in cell G8. 7. Press the left mouse button. 8. While holding down the left mouse button, move to cell I17. Release the left mouse button. 9. Release the Ctrl key. Cells A1 to E7 and cells G8 to I17 are highlighted. 10. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

Entering Data

In this lesson, you are going to learn how to enter data into your worksheet. First, you place the cursor in the cell in which you would like to enter data. Then you type the data and press Enter.
1. Place the cursor in cell A1. 2. Type John Jordan. 3. The Backspace key erases one character at a time. Erase "Jordan" by pressing the backspace key until Jordan is erased. 4. Press Enter. The name "John" should appear in cell A1.

Editing a Cell

After you enter data into a cell, you can edit it by pressing F2 while you are in the cell you wish to edit.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Move the cursor to cell A1. Press F2. Change "John" to "Jones." Use the backspace key to delete the "n" and the "h." Type nes. Press Enter.

Alternate Method: Editing a Cell by Using the Formula Bar

You can also edit the cell by using the Formula bar. You can change "Jones" to "Joker" as follows:
1. Move the cursor to cell A1. 2. Click in the formula area of the Formula bar.

3. Use the backspace key to erase the "s," "e," and "n." 4. Type ker. 5. Press Enter.

Alternate Method: Editing a Cell by Double-Clicking in the Cell

You can change "Joker" to "Johnson" as follows:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Move the cursor to cell A1. Double-click in cell A1. Press the End key. Your cursor is now at the end of your text. Use the backspace to erase "r," "e," and "k." Type hnson. Press Enter.

Changing a Cell Entry

Typing in a cell while you are in the Ready mode replaces the old cell entry with the new information you type.
1. Move the cursor to cell A1. 2. Type Cathy. 3. Press Enter. The name "Cathy" should replace "Johnson."

Wrapping Text

When you enter text that is too long to fit in a cell into a cell, it overlaps the next cell. If you do not want it to overlap the next cell you can wrap the text.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Move to cell A2. Type Text too long to fit. Press Enter. Return to cell A2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. Choose the Alignment tab. Click Wrap Text. Click OK. The text wraps.

Deleting a Cell Entry

To delete an entry in a cell or a group of cells, you place the cursor in the cell or highlight the group of cells and press Delete.
1. Place the cursor in cell A2. 2. Press the Delete key. Entering Numbers as Labels or Values

In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers as labels or as values. Labels are alphabetic, alphanumeric, or numeric text on which you do not perform mathematical calculations. Values are numeric text on which you perform mathematical calculations. If you have a numeric entry, such as an employee number, on which you do not perform mathematical calculations, enter it as a label by typing a single quotation mark first. Enter a number:
1. Move the cursor to cell B1. 2. Type 100. 3. Press Enter.

The number 100 appears in cell B1 as a numeric value. You can perform mathematical calculations using this cell entry. Note that by default the number is right-aligned. Enter a value:
1. Move the cursor to cell C1. 2. Type '100. 3. Press Enter.

The number 100 appears in cell C1 as a label. Note that by default the cell entry is left-aligned and a green triangle appears in the upper left corner of the cell.
Smart Tags

When you make an entry that Microsoft Excel believes you may want to change, a smart tag appears. Smart tags give you the opportunity to make changes easily. Cells with smart tag in them appear with a green triangle in the upper left corner. When you place your cursor in the cell, the Trace Error icon appears. Click the Trace Error icon and options appear. When you made

your entry in cell C1 in the previous section, a smart tag should have appeared.
1. Move to cell C1. 2. Click the Trace Error icon. An options list appears. You can convert the label to a number, obtain help, ignore the error etc.

Moving and Copying Cells Moving Cells To cut cell contents that will be moved to another cell select Edit|Cut from the menu bar or click the Cut button on the standard toolbar. Copying Cells To copy the cell contents, select Edit|Copy from the menu bar or click the Copy button on the standard toolbar. Pasting Cut and Copied Cells Highlight the cell you want to paste the cut or copied content into and select Edit|Paste from the menu bar or click the Paste button on the standard toolbar. Drag and Drop If you are moving the cell contents only a short distance, the drag-and-drop method may be easier. Simply drag the highlighted border of the selected cell to the destination cell with the mouse. Freeze Panes If you have a large worksheet with column and row headings, those headings will disappear as the worksheet is scrolled. By using the Freeze Panes feature, the headings can be visible at all times.
1. Click the label of the row below the row that should remain frozen at the top of the worksheet. 2. Select Window|Freeze Panes from the menu bar.

3. To remove the frozen panes, select Window|Unfreeze Panes.

Freeze panes has been added to row 1 in the image above. Notice that the row numbers skip from 1 to 6. As the worksheet is scrolled, row 1 will remain stationary while the remaining rows will move.

Formatting Text and Performing Mathematical Calculations
In this lesson, you are going to learn how to format text and perform basic mathematical calculations. To start, open a blank Microsoft Excel workbook.
Choosing a Default Font

Microsoft Excel enables you to choose a default font. The default font is the style of typeface that Excel will use unless you specify a different style. For the exercises in this lesson, you want your font to be set to Arial, Regular, and Size 10. To set your font to Arial, Regular, and Size 10:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. Choose the Font tab. In the Font box, choose Arial. In the Font Style box, choose Regular. In the Size box, choose 10. If there is no check mark in the Normal Font box, click to place a check mark there. Your selections are now the default. 7. Click OK.

Adjusting the Standard Column Width

When you open Microsoft Excel, the width of each cell is set to a default width. This width is called the standard column width. You need to change the standard column width to complete your exercises. To make the change, follow these steps:
1. Choose Format > Column > Standard Width from the menu. The Standard Width dialog box opens. 2. Type 25 in the Standard Column Width field. Click OK. The width of every cell on the worksheet should now be set to 25. 3. Move to cell A1. 4. Type Cathy. 5. Press Enter. Cell Alignment

The name "Cathy" is aligned with the left side of the cell. You can change the cell alignment. The name "Cathy" is aligned with the left side of the cell. You can change the cell alignment.

Centering by Using the Menu

To center the name Cathy, follow these steps:
1. 2. 3. 4. Move the cursor to cell A1. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. Choose the Alignment tab. Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After the drop-down box is opened, click Center. 5. Click OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" is centered.

Right-Aligning by Using the Menu

To right-align the name "Cathy," follow these steps:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Move the cursor to cell A1. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. Choose the Alignment tab. Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After the drop-down box opens, click Right (Indent). 5. Click OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" is right-aligned.

Left-Aligning by Using the Menu

To left-align the name "Cathy," follow these steps:
1. 2. 3. 4. Move the cursor to cell A1. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. Choose the Alignment tab. Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After the drop-down box opens, click Left (Indent). 5. Click OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" is left-aligned.

Alternate Method: Alignment by Using the Formatting Toolbar

Using the Formatting toolbar, you can quickly perform tasks. You can use the Formatting toolbar to change alignment.
Centering by Using the Toolbar

To center the name "Cathy," follow these steps:
1. Move the cursor to cell A1. 2. Click the Center icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

The red circle designates the Align Center icon.
Right-Aligning by Using the Toolbar

You can right-align the name "Cathy" by following these steps:
1. Move the cursor to cell A1. 2. Click the Align Right icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

The red circle designates the Align Right icon.
Left-Aligning by Using the Toolbar

You can left-align the name "Cathy" by following these steps:
1. Move the cursor to cell A1. 2. Click the Align Left icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.

The red circle designates the Align Left icon.
Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic

You can bold, underline, or italicize text in Microsoft Excel. You can also combine these features -- in other words, you can bold, underline, and italicize a single piece of text. In the exercises that follow, you will learn three different methods for bolding, italicizing, or underlining text in Microsoft Excel. You will learn to bold, italicize, and underline by using the menu, the icons, and the shortcut keys.
Adding Bold by Using the Menu 1. Type Bold in cell A2. 2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the check mark is similar to pressing Enter.

3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. 4. Choose the Font tab. 5. Click Bold in the Font Style box. 6. Click OK. The word "Bold" should now be bolded. Adding Italic by Using the Menu 1. Type Italic in cell B2. 2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the check mark is similar to pressing Enter. 3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. 4. Click Italic in the Font style box. 5. Click OK. The word "Italic" is italicized.

Adding Underline by Using the Menu

Microsoft Excel provides several types on underlines. The exercise that follows illustrates some of them.
Single Underline 1. Type Underline in cell C2. 2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the check mark is similar to pressing Enter. 3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. 4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline box. 5. Click Single. 6. Click OK. The cell entry now has a single underline. Double Underline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Type Underline in cell D2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field. Click Double. Click OK. The cell entry now has a double underline.

Single Accounting 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Type Underline in cell E2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box will open. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field. Click Single Accounting. Click OK. The cell entry now has a single accounting underline.

Double Accounting 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Type Underline in cell F2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box will open. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field. Click Double Accounting. Click OK. The cell entry now has a double accounting underline.

Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic by Using the Menu 1. Move the cursor to cell G3. 2. Type All three.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. Choose the Font tab. Click Bold Italic in the Font Style box. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field. Then click Single. Click OK. The words "All three" are now bolded, italicized, and underlined.

Removing Bolding and Italics by Using the Menu 1. Highlight cells A2 to B2. Place your cursor in cell B2. Press the F8 key. Press the right arrow key once. 2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. 3. Click Regular in the Font style box. 4. Click OK. Cell A2 is no longer be bolded. Cell B2 is no longer italized. Removing an Underline by Using the Menu 1. 2. 3. 4. Move to cell C2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field. Then click None. Click OK. The underdelined is removed.

Alternate Method: Adding Bold by Using the Icon 1. Type Bold in cell A3. 2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.

3. Click the Bold icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar. 4. Click again on the Bold icon if you wish to remove the bolding. Alternate Method: Adding Italic by Using the Icon 1. Type Italic in cell B3. 2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.

3. Click the Italic icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar. 4. Click again on the Italic icon if you wish to remove the italics. Alternate Method: Adding Underline by Using the Icon 1. Type Underline in cell C3. 2. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar.

3. Click the Underline icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar. 4. Click again on the Underline icon if you wish to remove the underline. Alternate Method: Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic by Using Icons 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Type All Three in cell D3. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Click the Bold icon. Click the Italic icon. Click the Underline icon.

Alternate Method: Adding Bold by Using Shortcut Keys 1. 2. 3. 4. Type Bold in cell A4. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl-b). Press Ctrl-b again if you wish to remove the bolding.

Alternate Method: Adding Italic by Using Shortcut Keys 1. 2. 3. 4. Type Italic in cell B4. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl-i). Press Ctrl-i again if you wish to remove the italic formatting.

Alternate Method: Adding Underline by Using Shortcut Keys 1. 2. 3. 4. Type Underline in cell C4. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl-u). Press Ctrl-u again, if you wish to remove the underline.

Alternate Method: Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic by Using Shortcut Keys 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Type All three in cell D4. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl-b). Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl-i). Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl-u).

Changing the Font, Font Size, and Font Color

You can change the Font, Font Size, and Font Color of the data you enter.

Changing the Font 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Type Times New Roman in cell A5. Click the check mark located on the Formula bar. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. Choose the Font tab. All of the Fonts listed in the Font box are available to you. Find and click Times New Roman in the Font box. Click OK. The font changes from Arial to Times New Roman.

Changing the Font Size 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Place the cursor in cell A5. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. Choose the Font tab. Click 16 in the Size box. Click OK. The font size changes to 16.

Changing the Font Color 1. Place the cursor in cell A5. 2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. 3. Choose the Font tab.

4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the color field. 5. Click Blue. 6. Click OK. The font color changes to blue.

Alternate Method: Changing the Font Color by Using the Icon 1. Place the cursor in cell A5. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Font Color icon.

3. Click on Red. Your font clolor changes to red. Working with Long Text

Whenever you type text that is too long to fit into a cell, Microsoft Excel attempts to display all the text. It left-aligns the text regardless of the alignment that has been assigned to it, and it borrows space from the blank cells to the right. However, a long text entry will never write over cells that already contain entries -- instead, the cells that contain entries cuts off the long text. Do the following exercise to see how this works.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Move the cursor to cell A6. Type Now is the time for all good men to go to the aid of their army. Press Enter. Everything that does not fit into cell A6 spills over into the adjacent cell. Move the cursor to cell B6. Type TEST. Press Enter. The entry in cell A6 is cut off. Move the cursor to cell A6. Look at the Formula bar. The text is still in the cell.

Changing a Single Column Width

Earlier you increased the column width of every column on the worksheet. You can also increase individual column widths. If you increase the column width, you will be able to see the long text.
1. Make sure the cursor is anywhere under column A. 2. Choose Format > Column > Width from the menu. The column width dialog box opens. 3. Type 55 in the Column Width field.

4. Click OK.

Column A is set to a width of 55. You should now be able to see all of the text.
Alternate Method: Changing a Single Column Width by Dragging

You can also change the column width with the cursor.
1. Place the cursor on the line between the B and C column headings. The cursor should look like the one displayed here, with two arrows.

2. Move your mouse to the right while holding down the left mouse button. The width indicator appears on the screen.

3. Release the left mouse button when the width indicator shows approximately 40. Moving to a New Worksheet

In Microsoft Excel, each workbook is made up of several worksheets. Before moving to the next topic, move to a new worksheet.
1. Click Sheet2 in the lower left corner of the screen.

Setting the Enter Key Direction

In Microsoft Excel, you can specify which direction the cursor moves when you press the Enter key. You can have the cursor move up, down, left, right, or not at all. You will now make sure the cursor is set to move down when you press the Enter key.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose Tools > Options from the menu. The Options dialog box opens. Choose the Edit tab. Make sure there is a check mark in the "Move Selection after Enter" box. If Down is not selected, click to open the Direction drop-down box. Click Down. Click OK.

Making Numeric Entries

In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers and mathematical formulas into cells. When a number is entered into a cell, you can perform mathematical calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. When entering a mathematical formula, precede the formula with an equal sign. Use the following to indicate the type of calculation you wish to perform: + Addition - Subtraction * Multiplication / Division ^ Exponential
Performing Mathematical Calculations

The following exercises demonstrate how to perform mathematical calculations.
Addition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Move your cursor to cell A1. Type 1. Press Enter. Type 1 in cell A2. Press Enter. Type =A1+A2 in cell A3. Press Enter. Cell A1 has been added to cell A2, and the result is shown in cell A3.

Place the cursor in cell A3 and look at the Formula bar.
Subtraction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Press F5. The Go To dialog box opens. Type B1 in the Reference field. Press Enter. The cursor should move to cell B1. Type 5 in cell B1. Press Enter. Type 3 in cell B2. Press Enter. Type =+B1- B2 in cell B3. Press Enter. Cell B1 has been subtracted from B2, and the result is shown in cell B3.

Place the cursor in cell B3 and look at the Formula bar.
Multiplication 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl-g). The Go To dialog box opens. Type C1 in the Reference field. Press Enter. You should now be in cell C1. Type 2 in cell C1. Press Enter.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Type 3 in cell C2. Press Enter. Type =C1*C2 in cell C3. Press Enter. Cell C1 is multiplied by cell C2 and the result is displayed in cell C3.

Place the cursor in cell C3 and look at the Formula bar.
Division 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Press F5. Type D1 in the Reference field. Press Enter. You should now be in cell D1. Type 6 in cell D1. Press Enter. Type 3 in cell D2. Press Enter. Type =D1/D2 in cell D3. Press Enter. Cell D1 is divided by cell D2 and the result is displayed in cell D3.

Place the cursor in cell D3 and look at the Formula bar.

The AutoSum Icon

The AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar automatically adds a column of numbers. The following illustrates the SUM function:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Go to cell F1. Type 3. Press Enter. Type 3. Press Enter. Type 3. Press Enter. Click the AutoSum button, which is located on the Standard toolbar.

6. F1 to F3 should now be highlighted. 7. Press Enter. Cells F1 through F3 are added. Automatic Calculation

If you have automatic calculation turned on, Microsoft Excel recalculates the worksheet as you change cell entries. You can check to make sure automatic calculation is turned on.
Setting Automatic Calculation 1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Tools > Options from the menu. Choose the Calculation tab. Select Automatic if it is not already selected. Click OK.

Trying Automatic Calculation

Make the changes outlined below and note how Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates.
1. Move to cell A1. 2. Type 2. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell A3 have changed. The number in cell A1 has been added to the number in cell A2 and the results display in cell A3. 3. Move to cell B1. 4. Type 6. 5. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell B3 have changed. The number in cell B1 has been subtracted from the number in cell B2 and the results display in cell B3. 6. Move to cell C1. 7. Type 4. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell C3 have changed. The number in cell C1 has been multiplied by the number in cell C2 and the results display in cell C3.

8. Move to cell D1. 9. Type 12. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell D3 have changed. The number in cell D1 has been divided by the number in cell D2 and the results display in cell D3. Formatting Numbers

You can format the numbers you enter into Microsoft Excel. You can add commas to separate thousands, specify the number of decimal places, place a dollar sign in front of the number, or display the number as a percent in addition to several other options.

Before formatting

After formatting
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Move the cursor to cell A5. Type 1234567. Press Enter. Move the cursor back to cell A5. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box will open. Choose the Number tab. Click Number in the Category box. Type 2 in the Decimal Places box. Place a check mark in the Use 1000 Separator box. Click OK. The number should now display with two decimal places. The thousands should now be separated by commas.

Adding a Dollar Sign to a Numeric Entry 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Move the cursor to cell A5. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens. Choose the Number tab. Click Currency in the Category box. Make sure there is a "$" in the Symbol box. Click OK. The number displays with a dollar sign.

Alternate Method: Formatting Numbers by Using the Toolbar

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Move the cursor to cell A6. Type 1234567. Press Enter. Move the cursor back to cell A6. Click twice on the Increase Decimal icon to change the number format to two decimal places. Clicking on the Decrease Decimal icon decreases the decimal places. Click once on the Comma Style icon to add commas to the number. To change the number to a currency format, click Currency Style format. Move the cursor to cell A7. Type .35 (note the decimal point).

10. Press Enter. 11. Move the cursor back to cell A7. 12. Click the Percent Style icon to turn .35 to a percent.

More Advanced Mathematical Calculations

When you perform mathematical calculations in Microsoft Excel, be careful of precedence. Calculations are performed from left to right, with multiplication and division performed before addition and subtraction.
1. 2. 3. 4. Move to a new worksheet by clicking on Sheet3 in the lower left corner of the screen. Go to cell A1. Type =3+3+12/2*4. Press Enter.

Note: Microsoft Excel divided 12 by 2, multiplied the answer by 4, added 3, and then added another 3. The answer, 30, displays in cell A1. To change the order of calculation, use parentheses. Microsoft Excel calculates the information in parentheses first.

1. Double-click in cell A1. 2. Edit the cell to read =(3+3+12)/2*4. 3. Press Enter.

Note: Microsoft Excel added 3 plus 3 plus 12, divided the answer by 2, and multiplied the result by 4. The answer, 36, displays in cell A1.
Cell Addressing

Microsoft Excel records cell addresses in formulas in three different ways, called absolute, relative, and mixed. The way a formula is recorded is important when you copy it. With relative cell addressing, when you copy a formula from one area of the worksheet to another, Microsoft Excel records the position of the cell relative to the cell that originally contained the formula. The following exercises demonstrate:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Go to cell A7. Type 1. Press Enter. Type 1. Press Enter. Type 1. Press Enter. Go to cell B7. Type 2. Press Enter. Type 2. Press Enter. Type 2. Press Enter. Go to cell A10.

In addition to typing a formula, as you did in Lesson 1, you can also enter formulas by using Point mode. When you are in Point mode, you can enter a formula either by clicking on a cell with your mouse or by using the arrow keys.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. You should be in cell A10. Type =. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A7. Type +. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A8. Type +. Use the up arrow key to move to cell A9. Press Enter. Look at the Formula bar while in cell A10. Note that the formula you entered is recorded in cell A10.

Copying by Using the Menu

You can copy entries from one cell to another cell. To copy the formula you just entered, follow these steps:
1. You should be in cell A10. 2. Choose Edit > Copy from the menu. Moving dotted lines appear around cell A10, indicating the cells to be copied. 3. Press the Right Arrow key once to move to cell B10. 4. Choose Edit > Paste from the menu. The formula in cell A10 is copied to cell B10. 5. Press Esc to exit the Copy mode.

Compare the formula in cell A10 with the formula in cell B10 (while in the respective cell, look at the Formula bar). The formulas are the same except that the formula in cell A10 sums the entries in column A and the formula in cell B10 sums the entries in column B. The formula was copied in a relative fashion. Before proceeding with the next exercise, you must copy the information in cells A7 to B9 to cells C7 to D9. This time you will copy by using the Formatting toolbar.
Copying by Using the Formatting Toolbar 1. Highlight cells A7 to B9. Place the cursor in cell A7. Press F8. Press the down arrow key twice. Press the right arrow key once. A7 to B9 should be highlighted. 2. Click the Copy icon , which is located on the Formatting toolbar. 3. Use the arrow key to move the cursor to cell C7. 4. Click the Paste icon , which is located on the Formatting toolbar. 5. Press Esc to exit Copy mode. Absolute Cell Addressing

An absolute cell address refers to the same cell, no matter where you copy the formula. You make a cell address an absolute cell address by placing a dollar sign in front of both the row and column identifiers. You can do this automatically by using the F4 key. To illustrate:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Move the cursor to cell C10. Type =. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C7. Press F4. Dollar signs should appear before the C and before the 7. Type +. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C8.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Press F4. Type +. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C9. Press F4. Press Enter. The formula is recorded in cell C10.

Copying by Using the Keyboard Shortcut

Now copy the formula from C10 to D10. This time, you will copy by using the keyboard shortcut.
1. 2. 3. 4. Your cursor should be in cell C10. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "c" (Ctrl-c). This copies the contents of cell C10. Press the right arrow once. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "v" (Ctrl-v). This pastes the contents of cell C10 in cell D10. 5. Press Esc to exit the Copy mode.

Compare the formula in cell C10 with the formula in cell D10. They are the same. The formula was copied in an absolute fashion. Both formulas sum column C.
Mixed Cell Addressing

You use mixed cell addressing to reference a cell that is part absolute and part relative. You can use the F4 key.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Move the cursor to cell E1. Type =. Press the up arrow key once. Press F4. Press F4 again. Note that the column is relative and the row is absolute. Press F4 again. Note that the column is absolute and the row is relative. Press Esc.

Deleting Columns

You can delete columns from your spreadsheet. To delete columns C and D:
1. Click on column C and drag to column D.

2. Choose Edit > Delete from the menu. Column D is deleted. 3. Click anywhere on the spreadsheet to remove your selection. Deleting Rows

You can delete rows from your spreadsheet. To delete rows 1 through 4:
1. Click the row 1 and drag to row 4.

1. Choose Edit > Delete from the menu. Rows 1 through 4 are deleted. 2. Click anywhere on the spreadsheet to remove your selection. Inserting Columns

There will be times when you will need to insert a column or columns into your spreadsheet. To insert a column:
1. Click on A to select column A. 2. Choose Insert > Columns from the menu. A column is inserted to the right of column A. 3. Click anywhere on the spreadsheet to remove your selection. Inserting Rows

You can also insert rows into your spreadsheet:
1. Click on 2 to select row 2. 2. Choose Insert > Rows from the menu. A row is inserted above row 2. 3. Click anywhere on the spreadsheet to remove your selection. Creating Borders

You can use borders to make entries on your spreadsheet stand out. Accountants usually place a single underline above a final number and a double underline below. The following illustrates:

1. Go to cell B7. 2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. 3. Choose the Border tab.

4. In the Style box, click on the single underline.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Click the top of the Border box. In the Style box, click on the double underline. Click the bottom of the Border box. Click OK. Cell B7 now has a border.

Alternate Method: Creating Borders by Using the Icon 1. Go to cell C7. Click the down arrow beside the Borders icon.

2. Select the Top and Double Bottom Border. Cell C7 now has borders.

Merge and Center

You will sometimes want to center a piece of text over several columns. The following example shows you how.
1. 2. 3. 4. Go to cell B1. Type Sample Spreadsheet. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Select columns B1 to D1. on the formatting toolbar. Cells B1, C1, and D1 are merged

5. Click the Merge and Center icon and centered. Adding Background Color

You can add background color to a cell or group of cells:
1. Go to cell B1. 2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. 3. Choose the Patterns tab.

4. Choose Sky Blue. 5. Click OK. The background of cell B1 is now Sky Blue. Alternate Method: Adding Background Color by Using the Icon 1. Select cells B7 to D7.

2. Click the down-arrow next to the Fill Color icon

.

3. Select Pale Blue. The background of cells B7 to D7 is now Pale Blue. Using Auto Format

You can format your data manually or you can use one of Microsoft Excel's many AutoFormats.
1. Select cells B1 to D7. 2. Choose Format > Auto Format from the menu. Several formats are listed from which you can choose. 3. Choose the Accounting 2 format. 4. Click OK. Your data is formatted in the Accounting 2 style.

Numbers and Mathematical Calculations
Microsoft Excel has many functions that you can use. Functions allow you to quickly and easily find an average, the highest number, the lowest number, a count of the number of items in a list, and make many other useful calculations.
Reference Operators

Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells. There are two types of reference operators, range and union. A range reference refers to all the cells between and including the reference. A range reference consists of two cell addresses separated by a colon. The

reference A1:A3 includes cells A1, A2, and A3. The reference A1:C3 includes A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, and C3. A union reference includes two or more references. A union reference consists of two or more cell addresses separated by a comma. The reference A7,B8,C9 refers to cells A7, B8, and C9.
Functions

Microsoft Excel has a set of prewritten formulas called functions. Functions differ from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the operators, such as +, -, *, or /. For example, you can use the SUM function to add. When using a function, remember the following: Use an equal sign to begin a formula. Specify the function name. Enclose arguments within parentheses. Use a comma to separate arguments. Here is an example of a function: =SUM(2,13,A1,B27) In this function: The equal sign begins the function. SUM is the name of the function. 2, 13, A1, and B27 are the arguments. Parentheses enclose the arguments. A comma separates the arguments. The SUM function adds the arguments together. In the exercises that follow, we will look at various functions.
Typing a Function 1. Open Microsoft Excel. 2. Type 12 in cell B1.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Press Enter. Type 27 in cell B2. Press Enter. Type 24 in cell B3. Press Enter. Type =SUM(B1:B3) in cell A4. Press Enter. Microsoft Excel sums cells B1 to B3.

Alternate Method: Entering a Function by Using the Menu 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Type 150 in cell C1. Press Enter. Type 85 in cell C2. Press Enter. Type 65 in cell C3. Press Enter. Your cursor should be in cell C4. Choose Insert > Function from the menu. Choose Math & Trig in the Or Select A Category box. Click Sum in the Select A Function box. Click OK. The Functions Arguments dialog box opens. Type C1:C3 in the Number1 field, if it does not automatically appear. Click OK. Microsoft Excel sums cells C1 to C3. Move to cell A4. Type the word Sum. Press Enter.

As you learned in Lesson 2, you can also calculate a sum by using the Sum icon.
Calculating an Average

You can use the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of a series of numbers.
1. 2. 3. 4. Move your cursor to cell A6. Type Average.Press the right arrow key to move to cell B6. Type =AVERAGE(B1:B3). Press Enter. The average of cells B1 to B3, which is 21, will appear.

Calculating an Average by Using the Sum Icon

In Microsoft Excel XP, you can use the Sum icon to calculate an average.
1. 2. 3. 4. Move your cursor to cell C6. Click the drop-down arrow next to the Sum icon. Click Average. Highlight C1 to C3.

5. Press Enter. The average of cells C1 to C3, which is 100, appears. Calculating Min

You can use the MIN function to find the lowest number in a series of numbers.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Move your cursor to cell A7. Type Min. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B7. Type = MIN(B1:B3). Press Enter. The lowest number in the series, which is 12 appears.

Calculating Max

You can use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Move your cursor to cell A8. Type Max. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B8. Type = MAX(B1:B3). Press Enter. The highest number in the series, which is 27, appears.

Note: You can also use the drop-down menu next to the Sum icon to calculate minimums and maximums.
Calculating Count

You can use the count function to count the number of items in a series.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Move your cursor to cell A9. Type Count Press the right arrow key to move to cell B9. Click the down arrow next to the Sum icon. Click Count. Highlight B1 to B3. Press Enter. The number of items in the series, which is 3 appears.

Filling Cells Automatically

You can use Microsoft Excel to fill cells automatically with a series. For example, you can have Excel automatically fill in times, the days of the week or months of the year, years, and other types of series. Days of the week and months of the year fill in a similar fashion. The following demonstrates filling the days of the week:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Move to Sheet2. Move to cell A1. Type Sun. Move to cell B1. Type Sunday. Highlight cells A1 to B1. Bold cells A1 to B1. Find the small black square in the lower right corner of the highlighted area. This is called the Fill Handle. 9. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to fill cell A1 to B24. Note how the days of the week fill the cells in a series. Also, note that the Auto Fill Options icon appears.

10. Click the Auto Fill Options icon. 11. Choose the Copy Cells radio button. The entry in cells A1 and B1 are copied to all the cells highlighted. 12. Click the Auto Fill Options icon again. 13. Choose the Fill Series radio button. The cells fill as a series from Sunday to Saturday again. 14. Click the Auto Fill Options icon again. 15. Choose the Fill Without Formatting radio button. The cells fill as a series from Sunday to Saturday, but the entries are not bolded. 16. Click the Auto Fill Options icon again. 17. Choose the Fill Weekdays radio button. The cells fill as a series from Monday to Friday.

Some of the entries in column B are too long to fit in the column. You can quickly adjust the column width to fit the longest entry.
1. Move your cursor over the line that separates column B and C. The Width Indicator appears.

2. Double-click. The Column adjusts to fit the longest entry.

The following demonstrates filling time:
1. Type 1:00 into cell C1. 2. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells A1 to A24. Note that each cell fills using military time. 3. Press Esc and then click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

To change the format of the time:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select cells C1 to C24. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. Choose the Number tab. In the Category box, choose Time. In the Type box, choose 1:30 PM. Click OK. The time is no longer in military time.

You can also fill numbers. Type a 1 in cell D1.
1. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells D1 to D24. The number 1 fills each cell. 2. Click the Auto Fill Options icon. 3. Choose the Fill Series radio button. The cells fill as a series starting with 1, 2, 3.

Here is another interesting fill feature.
1. 2. 3. 4. Go to cell E1. Type Lesson 1. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells E1 to E24. The cells fill in as a series: Lesson 1, Lesson 2, Lesson 3, and so on.

Printing

The simplest way to print is to click the Print icon located on the Standard toolbar. Dotted lines will appear on your screen after you click the print icon. The dotted lines indicate the right, left, top, and bottom edges of your printed pages.
Print Preview

There are many print options. You can select print options options in Page Setup or in Print Preview. In Print Preview, you can see the results of your selections onscreen. You can use print options to:
Determine whether to print landscape or portrait. If you print portrait on an 8 1/2 by 11 sheet of paper, the length across the top of your page will be 8 1/2 inches. If you print landscape on an 8 1/2 by 11 sheet of paper, the length across the top of your page will be 11 inches. Scale your document. If your data is small in comparison to the page, you may want to scale upward so the data fills the entire page. If your data is too large to fit on the page, you may want to scale downward. Specify how many pages wide and how many pages long you want your printed document to be. Select the paper size and print quality.

Set the first page number.

If you choose the Margins tab, you can:
Set the size of your margins including your header and footer margins. Center your spreadsheet horizontally and/or vertically on the page.

If you choose the Header/Footer tab, you can select headers and footers. A header is text that appears at the top of every page. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page. You can use headers and footers to insert page numbers, dates, and other information. To choose a header:
1. Choose the Header/Footer tab. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Header field to open the drop-down box for the header field. 3. Choose a Header from the list.

To choose a footer:
1. Choose the Header/Footer tab. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Footer field to open the drop-down box for the Footer field. 3. Choose a Footer from the list.

Click the Custom Header or Custom Footer button to customize your headers and footers.

Use the Left Section to place your options on the left side of the page, the Center Section to place your options in the center of the page, and the Right Section to place your optionds 9on the right side of the page. The Sheet tab has options that allow you to choose which rows and columns will repeat at the left and the top of the page. It also has options that allows you to determine whether gridlines and/or row column headings print To preview and print your spreadsheet:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Choose File > Preview from the menu. Click Setup. Choose the Page tab. Choose Portrait. In the Adjust To field, type 110% to set the size to 110%,. Choose the Margin tab. Check the Horizontally box in the Center On Page frame to center your spreadsheet horizontally. Click OK. Click Print. The Print dialog box opens. Click OK to print the file.

Creating Charts
Using Microsoft Excel, you can represent numbers in a chart. You can choose from a variety of chart types. And, as you change your data, your chart will automatically update. You can use Microsoft Excel's Chart Wizard to take you through the process step-by-step.
Creating a Column Chart

To create the column chart shown above, start by creating the spreadsheet below exactly as shown.

After you have created the spreadsheet, you are ready to create your chart.
1. Highlight cells A3 to D6. You must highlight all the cells containing the data you want in your chart. You should also include the data labels. 2. Choose Insert > Chart from the menu. 3. Click Column to select the type of chart you want to create. 4. In the Chart Sub-type box, choose the Clustered Column icon to select the chart sub-type.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Click Next. To place the product names on the x-axis, select the Columns radio button. Click Next. Type Toy Sales in the Chart Title field. Toy Sales will appear as the title of your chart. Type Products in the Category (X) Axis field. Products will appear as your x-axis title. Type Units Sold in the Value (Y) Axis field. Units Sold will appear as your y-axis title. Choose the Data Labels tab. Select Value in the Labels Contain Frame to display the data labels as values. Choose the Data Table tab. Select Show Data Table. The data table will appear below your chart. Click Next. Choose As Object In Sheet1 to make your chart an embedded object and part of the worksheet. Click Finish Your chart will appear on the spreadsheet.

Changing the Size and Position of a Chart

When you select a chart, handles appear on the right and left sides, the top and bottom, and the corners of the chart. You can drag the handles on the

top and bottom of the chart to increase or decrease the height of the chart. You can drag the handles on the left and right sides of the chart to increase or decrease the width of the chart. You can drag the handles on the corners of the chart to increase or decrease the size of the chart proportionally.

You can change the position of a chart by clicking on the chart and dragging
1. Use the handles to adjust the size of your chart. 2. Click the chart and drag to position the chart under the data.

Modify Your Chart

You can modify your chart by using the Chart toolbar. If the Chart toolbar is not already available, choose View > Toolbars > Chart from the menu.

Chart Toolbar To change the data area font size:
1. Click the down arrow on the Chart toolbar. A drop-down menu opens. 2. Choose Data Table from the drop-down menu.

3. Click the Options icon . Choose the Font tab. 4. In the Size box, type 8. 5. Click OK. Your font size is now 8.

To change the angle of the data labels:
1. Click the down arrow on the Chart toolbar. A drop-down menu opens. 2. Choose "Region 1" Data Labels from the drop-down menu. 3. Click the Angle Counter Clockwise icon clockwise. 4. Repeat this process for Regions 2 and 3. . The Region 1 Data Labels are angled counter-

To change the font size of the Region data labels:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the down arrow on the Chart toolbar. A drop-down menu opens. Choose "Region 1" Data Labels from the drop-down menu. Click the Options icon. Choose the Font tab. In the Size box, type 6. Click OK. Your font size is now 6. Repeat this process for Region 2 and 3.

You can also make changes by double-clicking on the item you want to change. To change the chart scale:
1. Double-click on the scale. The Format Axis dialog box opens.

2. Choose the Scale tab. 3. Type 400 in the Major Unit field. 4. Click OK. Your chart is now scaled in units of 400.

Page Breaks To set page breaks within the worksheet, select the row you want to appear just below the page break by clicking the row's label. Then choose Insert|Page Break from the menu bar. You may need to click the double down arrow at the bottom of the menu list to view this option. Page Setup Select File|Page Setup from the menu bar to format the page, set margins, and add headers and footers.

Page Select the Orientation under the Page tab in the Page Setup window to make the page Landscape or Portrait. The size of the worksheet on the page can also be formatting under Scaling. To force a worksheet to print only one page wide so all the columns appear on the same

page, select Fit to 1 page(s) wide.

Margins Change the top, bottom, left, and right margins under the Margins tab. Enter values in the header and footer fields to indicate how far from the edge of the page this text should appear. Check the boxes for centering horizontally or vertically on the page.

Header/Footer Add preset headers and footers to the page by clicking the drop-down menus under the Header/Footer tab.

To modify a preset header or footer, or to make your own, click the Custom Header and Custom Footer buttons. A new window will open allowing you to enter text in the left, center, or right on the page.

Format Text - Click this button after highlighting the text to change the font, size, and style. Page Number - Insert the page number of each page. Total Number of Pages - Use this feature along with the page number to create strings such as "page 1 of 15". Date - Add the current date. Time - Add the current time. File Name - Add the name of the workbook file. Tab Name - Add the name of the worksheet's tab.

Sheet Check Gridlines if you want the gridlines dividing the cells to be

printed on the page. If the worksheet is several pages long and only the first page includes titles for the columns, select Rows to repeat at top to choose a title row that will be printed at the top of each page.

Print Preview Select File|Print Preview from the menu bar to view how the worksheet will print. Click the Next and Previous buttons at the top of the window to display the pages and click the Zoom button to view the pages closer. Make page layout modifications needed by clicking the Page Setup button. Click Close to return to the worksheet or Print to continue printing. Print To print the worksheet, select File|Print from the menu bar.

  

Print Range - Select either all pages or a range of pages to print. Print What - Select selection of cells highlighted on the worksheet, the active worksheet, or all the worksheets in the entire workbook. Copies - Choose the number of copies that should be printed. Check the Collate box if the pages should remain in order.

Click OK to print.

Chapter 5- Operating Systems: Functions of an Operating System
What is an Operating System
The operating system is the core software component of your computer. It performs many functions and is, in very basic terms, an interface between your computer and the outside world. In the section about hardware, a computer is described as consisting of several component parts including your monitor, keyboard, mouse, and other parts. The operating system provides an interface to these parts using what is referred to as "drivers". This is why sometimes when you install a new printer or other piece of hardware, your system will ask you to install more software called a driver.

What does a driver do?
A driver is a specially written program which understands the operation of the device it interfaces to, such as a printer, video card, sound card or CD ROM drive. It translates commands from the operating system or user into commands understood by the component computer part it interfaces with. It also translates responses from the component computer part back to responses that can be understood by the operating system, application program, or user. The below diagram gives a graphical depiction of the interfaces between the operating system and the computer component.

Other Operating System Functions
The operating system provides for several other functions including: System tools (programs) used to monitor computer performance, debug problems, or maintain parts of the system. A set of libraries or functions which programs may use to perform specific tasks especially relating to interfacing with computer system components. The operating system makes these interfacing functions along with its other functions operate smoothly and these functions are mostly transparent to the user.

Operating System Concerns
As mentioned previously, an operating system is a computer program. Operating systems are written by human programmers who make mistakes. Therefore there can be errors in the code even though there may be some testing before the product is released. Some companies have better software quality control and testing than others so you may notice varying levels of quality from operating system to operating system. Errors in operating systems cause three main types of problems: System crashes and instabilities - These can happen due to a software bug typically in the operating system, although computer programs being run on the operating system can make the system more unstable or may even crash the system by themselves. This varies depending on the type of operating system. A system crash is the act of a system freezing and becoming unresponsive which would cause the user to need to reboot. Security flaws - Some software errors leave a door open for the system to be broken into by unauthorized intruders. As these flaws are discovered, unauthorized intruders may try to use these to gain illegal access to your system. Patching these flaws often will help keep your computer system secure. How this is done will be explained later. Sometimes errors in the operating system will cause the computer not to work correctly with some peripheral devices such as printers.

Operating System Types
There are many types of operating systems. The most common is the Microsoft suite of operating systems. They include from most recent to the oldest: Windows XP Professional Edition - A version used by many businesses on workstations. It has the ability to become a member of a corporate domain. Windows XP Home Edition - A lower cost version of Windows XP which is for home use only and should not be used at a business. Windows 2000 - A better version of the Windows NT operating system which works well both at home and as a workstation at a business. It includes technologies which allow hardware to be automatically detected and other enhancements over Windows NT.

Windows ME - A upgraded version from windows 98 but it has been historically plagued with programming errors which may be frustrating for home users. Windows 98 - This was produced in two main versions. The first Windows 98 version was plagued with programming errors but the Windows 98 Second Edition which came out later was much better with many errors resolved. Windows NT - A version of Windows made specifically for businesses offering better control over workstation capabilities to help network administrators. Windows 95 - The first version of Windows after the older Windows 3.x versions offering a better interface and better library functions for programs. There are other worthwhile types of operating systems not made by Microsoft. The greatest problem with these operating systems lies in the fact that not as many application programs are written for them. However if you can get the type of application programs you are looking for, one of the systems listed below may be a good choice. Unix - A system that has been around for many years and it is very stable. It is primary used to be a server rather than a workstation and should not be used by anyone who does not understand the system. It can be difficult to learn. Unix must normally run an a computer made by the same company that produces the software. Linux - Linux is similar to Unix in operation but it is free. It also should not be used by anyone who does not understand the system and can be difficult to learn. Apple MacIntosh - Most recent versions are based on Unix but it has a good graphical interface so it is both stable (does not crash often or have as many software problems as other systems may have) and easy to learn. One drawback to this system is that it can only be run on Apple produced hardware.

What is an application
Applications are programs that are installed. on computers to give users the ability to do specific tasks. For example, Microsoft Word® is a program that gives the user the ability to write documents. Some program packages come in a set with multiple programs included to provide multiple capabilities such as the Microsoft Office® suite of programs. This suite of programs also includes Microsoft Outlook® which is used to send and receive e-mail. It also includes other programs with more capabilities.

How Application Programs Work
Application programs are written in a text based computer language as mentioned in the section about hardware and software. Once written, they are compiled into a binary language the computer understands. The application programs use function calls (as described in the section about operating systems) to interface to the various computer peripherals such as your keyboard, mouse, screen, printers, and other devices. Most of these function calls are provided by the operating system so the application programs are usually compiled for a specific operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000®, Microsoft Windows XP®, or Microsoft Windows 98®.

Application Problems
An application program is a computer program. It is written by human programmers who make mistakes. Therefore there can be errors in the code even though there may be some testing before the product is released. Application programs vary widely in the quality of the code. Errors in code are referred to as "bugs". Bugs can cause unpredictable results including system crashes, inability to perform expected functions, or providing an exploit for an attacker who wants to gain control of your system.

Application Acquisition and Installation
You get applications several ways. The most common way is to purchase it in a store and you will brind a CD home and install it on your computer system. The ways you may get applications include: Purchase of a program from a store. Download a purchased program on the internet. Download a shareware program on the internet. Download a free program on the internet.

Whether purchasing a program or downloading one for free on tHe internet, you should be aware of the quality of the product you are placing on your computer system. Ask yourself the following: Do I know who made this product and are they a trustworthy source? If the product is free, do I know why it is free? Is there some hidden purpose for the product? What is the reputation of the maker of the product? What problems do users of the product have? Before downloading a product or purchasing a product you should always spend at least a few minutes researching it. You should at least do a quick search on the Gigablast search engine using the product name and the name of the product producer. You should perform a Gigablast internet search and possibly Google groups search to find out where discussions about the product have taken place. There are also many product evaluation sites that can be used to obtain reviewers and users ratings of the product before you buy or install it. Downloading and install the wrong products can not only seriously impede the performance of your computer system, it can also cause your privacy to be invaded.

Bad Applications
There are many types of applications that can cause problems on your computer system. Applications with serious bugs. Applications that come with unwanted programs. Some applications come with additional software that you may not really want but is installed by default. Normally this is only annoying and may slightly slow your system down when it boots because some ot these items will load every time you start your computer. Adware - Most adware comes with programs that may be purchased or downloaded for free on the internet. Adware will cause advertising popups to appear nn your computer. Besides being annoying, they will slow your ability to access the internet. Many times these programs will download other ad programs. These programs are very difficult to remove from your system because they are usually hidden on your system very well. Many times it requires an expert to remove these programs but later I will give you some tips on how you can either remove them or render them ineffective, but to be able to do this you must have reasonable knowledge aboutyour system. There are some programs written to remove adware programs which I will discuss later. Spyware - This usually comes with some free programs and it will monitor your internet activity and send information to some corporation. This type of program is not normally seriously harmful but most people do not want to have their activities monitored. There are also programs to remove spyware but it is best to not install it in the first place. If you do your research before installing applications you will avoid most problem applications. It is best to ask your IT support personnel about an application before you install it. In fact many corporate IT policies are set so users cannot install programs on their systems. This is because

installation of the wrong programs on corporate systems can jeopardize computer security for the entire organization.

Application Files
Applications have a variety of files they use for three basic purposes. Executable files Configuration files Data files used by the user such as Microsoft Word® document files.

File Management
File Organization
Files can be placed in folders similar to the way single sheets of paper can be placed into folders in a file cabinet. Folders can be created on the hard drive or nested inside each other any way the computer user desires.

Browsing Your files using Windows
If using a Windows operating system double click on the "My Computer" icon on your desktop. A window like the one shown below will open.

The first drive in the window shown is a floppy drive. It is labeled as drive A. The second disk is the system hard drive labeled as drive C. The third disk shown is a data disk shown as drive D. This is not a normal setup on most systems but I like to use a hard drive to hold my data that is different than the hard drive that holds the operating system. Drives E and F are compact disks (CD ROM drives) of which one is a read/write drive. The drive letters will vary depending on how your system is configured and depending on whether you have any network drives. If you do have network drives, you should use them for the mail place you store your files. This is because files on network drives are usually backed up

nightly in most organizations. If your files are not backed up and your hard drive fails, you will lose your data.

Copying Files
There are several ways Windows operating systems allow files to be copied or moved. They include: Drag and drop - In the window above it is easy to drag one of the files into one of the folders. This will move the file into the folder. This can also be done by opening two windows using the "My Computer" icon and dragging the file from one window to another. Copy and paste - You can open a "My Computer" window, and do the following: o On the "My Computer" menu select "Edit", then "Copy". o Navigate to the location where you want to put the file. You can navigate by using the "Up" folder to go up one level into the folder structure or by double clicking on folders to enter them. If the "Up" folder does not exist in your "My Computer" window, on your menu, select "View", then "toolbars", then select "Standard Buttons".

o

On the "My Computer" menu select "Edit", then "Paste". The file will be copied to the location you have navigated to.

Copying Multiple Files
There are several tricks that can be used to make copying or moving multiple files easier. They involve the selection of the files to be copied or moved. You can hold down the Shift key and select one file by clicking on it with the left mouse button (called left clicking). While still holding the Shift key down left click on another file several files down on the list. This will cause all files from the first one through the last one selected to be highlighted and selected. Release the Shift key. After this, you can hold down the Ctrl key and by left clicking on any other files, they can be either selected or de-selected. Release the Ctrl key. Once you have selected the files you can move them by dragging and dropping them (after releasing both the shift and control keys) into another folder. This is done as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Put the mouse cursor over one of the selected files. Left clicking the mouse and hold it down Drag the file to the desired location such as a folder icon. Release the left mouse button.

If you want to copy the files: 1. On the "My Computer" menu select "Edit", then "Copy". 2. Navigate to the location where you want to put the file. 3. On the "My Computer" menu select "Edit", then "Paste". The file will be copied to the location you have navigated to.

View Settings
The Default Windows Setting is Dangerous

Windows systems come with default file view settings. The default is to "Hide file extensions for known file types". This setting can be used to decieve a computer user into believing that a file is safe to open when it is not. Files containing viruses can be sent to a computer with the name "document.txt.exe" which is a file that the computer will run. The file will appear to the computer user as "document.txt" making the user believe that it is safe to open, but if the user clicks on it the file will be run and be able to infect the computer.
Changing the View Settings

This section will tell you hw to change your settings so you will always see file extensions. It will also tell you how to beable to see file details.

Open "My Computer" by clicking on the "My Computer" icon on your desktop. Click on the menu item "View" and select "Details" from the drop down menu. This will change the current settings for the folder or location you are in, but the change is not permanent yet. To change the file view settings, if you are using Windows 2000 or XP click on the menu item "Tools" and "Folder options" selection. If you are using Windows 98, click on "View", and "Folder options". A dialog box similar to the one below should appear.

Click on the view tab and the dialog box will change as shown below:

Click on the button in the Folder Views area that says "Like current folder" and answer yes when asked if you want to change all folders to match the current folder. Change the rest of the settings to match the dialog box as shown below:

The first three selections are display settings which make it more convenient to navigate through files and folders. Be sure and uncheck the checkbox next to "Hide file extensions for known file types". If you are using Windows 2000 or Windows XP, this should be done for every user that logs in since each unique user that uses the machine will get their own desktop and user profile.

File Backups
File backups are very important to protect your data. Is your hard drive fails or your operating system malfunctions, you could loose all your data. If you do regular backups, you will drastically reduce the data loss that could occur.

Using the Network for Backups
Backing up your data is very important. If you are operating on a corporate or organizational network and have disk drives shared from a file server it is likely that files stored there are backed up every night. If possible you should store your files on this server. Since Windows operating systems use the "My Documents" folder as the location to store your files by default it will be helpful to set up your system so the "My Documents" folder points to one of your network drives. If running a Windows 2000 or Windows XP system, you can right click on the "My Documents" folder ether on your desktop or displayed from the Start menu and select properties. A dialog box similar to the one shown below will appear.

Click on the "Move" button. A dialog box similar to the one below will appear.

Expand the "My Computer" object by clicking on the + next to it. Then select the appropriate network drive that is best to put your documents in.

How to Backup Data if You do not have a network
If you do not have a network and only have a single computer you should periodically back up your data. You should purchase or own one of the following: A read/write CD ROM or DVD drive A Zip drive A tape drive - Usually these are more expensive.

You should be aware of where you store your files and you should also know where your mail files are stored by your mail program such as Outlook or Outlook Express. If you right click on your inbox folder in Outlook Express you can find the location where your mail is stored. On my system it is stored in the folder at: C:\Documents and Settings\Username\Local Settings\Application Data\Identities\{B718C535-6548-4E1D-A5D27D1B41CFEB2E}\Microsoft\Outlook Express\ where username is the name I login with. If you are using Outlook, it is normally stored in a file of type .pst and on my system it is in the folder C:\Documents and Settings\Username\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\ where Username is the name I login with.

Setting up a Backup Job
To open the Windows backup program on Windows 2000, select Start, then Programs, then Accessories, then System Tools, then Backup. You must be a backup operator or administrator on your system to create a backup job. The backup utility will start as shown below.

Immediate Backup If you want to do an immediate backup, click on the Backup tab and select the files that you want to backup. On my system I selected the folders C:\Documents and Settings\Username\Local

Settings\Application Data\Identities\, C:\Documents and Settings\Username\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\, and other areas where I store my data such as "My Computer". Also be sure to check the box next to "System State" which may save you a lot of grief if you have trouble with your system.

Click on the "Start backup" button and on the dialog box that appears select either "Append..." or "Replace..." data on the media, then select "Start Backup". Schedule a Backup To schedule a backup, click on the "Schedule Backups" tab. The Backup program will show a calendar as shown below.

Click the "Add Job" button. A backup wizard will start. Click "Next". A "What to backup" dialog box as shown below will appear.

Select "Backup selected files, drives, or network data" and click "Next". On the next box select the items you want to backup by first clicking the + next to "My Computer" to expand it as shown below.

Select the items in the same way as discussed under the header called "Immediate Backup" above and click Next. The dialog box will change and allow you to select the name and location of the file the backup will be stored in. Click "Next" and a dialog box will ask the type of backup you want to perform. A normal backup will be sufficient so select it unless you have another preference and click "Next". You can read more about the backup types at the Windows NT File Backup Page. After clicking next, select "Verify data after backup" and click "Next". Select whether to Append or replace data if the file already exixst at the specified location and click "Next". Accept or specify the backup label and click "Next". The below dialog box will appear.

Click on the "Set Schedule button and the dialog box below will appear.

Select your preferred backup times and how often you want to do this backup such as weekly. Click OK and the backup schedule dialog box will disappear. Enter the name of your backup job and click next on the "When to back up" dialog box. Click "Finish" to complete the process. Backups should run when you have scheduled them. If you want to delete a backup job that you have scheduled, click on the "Schedule Jobs" tab and click on the job shown on the calendar. A dialog box with the job name will pop up. You can click on the "Delete" button next to the Job name to delete the Job.

Viruses and Worms
In general terms a virus is a program that runs on a system against the owner's or user's wishes and knowledge. Viruses have one or more methods they use to spread. Most commonly they will attach a file to an e-mail message and attempt to trick victims into running the attachment.

Virus Damage
In most cases, viruses can do any amount of damage the creator intends them to do. They can send your data to a third party and then delete your data from your computer. They can also ruin your system and render it unusable without a re-installation of the operating system. Most have not done this much damage in the past, but could easily do this in the future. Usually the virus will install files on your system then will change your system so the virus is run every time you start your system. It will then attempt to replicate itself by sending itself to other potential victims. The normal effect a virus will have on your system is that over time your system will run slower. Also when you are using the internet your connection may seem to run slower. Eventually you may have trouble running programs on your system, your system may freeze, and in the worst case you may not be able to get it to boot up when you turn your computer on.

How Viruses or Worms Spread
Most commonly viruses today use e-mail to spread however they have used one or more of the following methods to spread in the past.

Some viruses will load themselves onto any part of a writable removable drive as possible and spread from computer to computer as people use the removable drive. A worm is a program similar to a virus that will exploit a vulnerability in an operating system or application that a computer user is running. The best defense against a worm is to have either a personal firewall on your system or be behind a corporate firewall. Another good defense is to update your system regularly. All you need to do to get a worm is to connect an unpatched computer to the internet or infected network when your computer does not have firewall protection. Most viruses will spread themselves using e-mail attachments. They may tell the user that they neet to open the attachment to get the rest of the information that is being sent to them. Many times the virus may claim it is an administrator and the user needs to either read the data or install a program on their system. Viruses have even claimed to be

Microsoft sending a system patch as an attachment to the e-mail. Microsoft would never send a system patch through e-mail.

Removing Viruses
Removing viruses can be risky to your operating system and may cause you to need to re-install your operating system. If you do not feel comfortable with the instructions in this section, you should get a computer professional to do the job. For more information read Applying the latest patches to your Windows 2000 Operating system to prevent viruses and worms. It contains information about how to remove viruses along with other useful information.

Virus Removal Procedure
1. Be sure you have good backups of your data along with an emergency boot disk for your system. 2. Determine what viruses you have on your system. 1. Install a virus scanning program if you do not have one already installed. Use the product of your choice. It is wise to read product reviews. 2. Be sure your virus definitions are up to date. Connect to the internet and download the latest virus definitions from the company that created your antivirus software. 3. Configure your virus scanner not to remove any viruses but only detect them. You do not want to remove the virus(es) immediately since some viruses may infect files that your system requires to run. If these files cannot be cleaned by the antivirus program, they may be deleted or quaranteened. If this happens you may not be able to run your system again. 4. Scan for viruses but do not remove them. Note: Some viruses will stop your virus scanner from operating. If this is the case you will probably need the help of a computer professional. If you have a virus that stops your virus scanner then you will need to either share the drive across a network and scan it from another computer or remove your hard drive and place it into another computer as a second hard drive, then scan your hard drive. 3. Learn about the viruses you have and how to remove them. - Go to the web site of the organization that created your anti-virus software. The Symantec security response site is a good site to find information about specific viruses and they provide virus removal tools. 4. Remove the viruses. 1. Many viruses have a removal tool which can be used to remove the virus. If there is a removal tool, download it and use it to remove the virus. 2. If there is no removal tool, you will need to follow the manual removal instructions. You may need to manually delete virus files and edit your system registry. The removal instructions will tell you how to do this, but some people may not feel comfortable doing this without the help of a computer professional.

3. If the manual instructions indicate that you should let your virus scanner remove the virus, then remove all viruses that you can with virus removal tools then run the virus scanner with it configured to remove all viruses.

Lesson 6- Word Processing
Microsoft Word 2003/2002 for Windows
This tutorial teaches Microsoft Word basics. Although knowledge of how to navigate in a Windows environment is helpful, this tutorial was created for the computer novice. To begin, open Microsoft Word. Your screen will look like the one shown here.

Click the X in the upper right corner of the New Document pane to close the New Document pane. Your screen will then look like the one shown here.

The Title Bar

This lesson will familiarize you with the Microsoft Word screen. We will start with the Title bar, which is located at the very top of the screen. On the Title bar, Microsoft Word displays the name of the document on which you are currently working. At the top of your screen, you should see "Microsoft Word - Document1" or a similar name.

The Menu Bar

The Menu bar is generally found directly below the Title bar. The Menu bar displays the menu. The Menu bar begins with the word File and continues with Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Table, Window, and Help. You use the menus to give instructions to the software. Point with your mouse to a menu option and click the left mouse button to open a drop-down menu. You can now use the left and right arrow keys on your keyboard to move left and right across the Menu bar options. You can use the up and down arrow keys to move up and down the dropdown menu.

The most frequently used menu options appear on the menu list. A chevron appears at the bottom of the list. Click the chevron to display additional menu options.

To select an option, click the option or use the arrow keys to move to the option on the dropdown menu and press Enter. An ellipse or a right arrow after a menu item signifies additional options; if you select that menu item, a dialog box appears. Items in gray are not available. You can customize your screen so that all of the menu options display when you click a menu item. This tutorial assumes that your menu is set to display all menu options. To customize your menu to display all of the menu options: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools on the Menu bar. Click Customize on the drop down menu. The Customize dialog box opens. Click the Options tab. Click in the check box to select Always Show Full Menus.

5. Click Close.

Exercise 1
Do the following exercise. It demonstrates using the Microsoft Word menu. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Click File on the Menu bar. Press the right arrow key until Help is highlighted. Press the left arrow key until Format is highlighted. Press the down arrow key until Styles and Formatting are highlighted. Press the up arrow key until Paragraph is highlighted. Press Enter to select the Paragraph menu option. Click Cancel to close the dialog box.

Toolbars
The Standard Toolbar

The Formatting Toolbar Toolbars provide shortcuts to menu commands. Toolbars are generally located just below the Menu bar. Before proceeding with this lesson, make sure the toolbars you will use -- Standard and Formatting -- are available. Follow these steps:

1. Click View on the Menu bar. 2. Highlight Toolbars. 3. Standard and Formatting should have check marks next to them. If both Standard and Formatting have heck marks next to them, press Esc three times to close the menu. 4. If they do not both have check marks, click Customize. 5. Click the Toolbars tab. 6. Point to the box next to the unchecked option and click the left mouse button to make a check mark appear. Note: You turn the check mark on and off by clicking the left mouse button. 7. Click Close to close the dialog box.

The Ruler

The ruler is generally found below the main toolbars. The ruler is used to change the format of your document quickly. To display the ruler: 1. Click View on the Menu bar. 2. The option Ruler should have a check mark next to it. If it has a check mark next to it, press Esc to close the menu. If it does not have a check mark next to it, continue to the next step. 3. Click Ruler. The ruler now appears below the toolbars.

Document View
In Word, you can display your document in one of five views: Normal, Web Layout, Print Layout, Reading Layout, or Online Layout. Normal View Normal view is the most often used and shows formatting such as line spacing, font, point size, and italics. Word displays multiple-column text in one continuous column. Web Layout Web layout view enables you to view your document as it would appear in a browser such as Internet Explorer. Print Layout The Print Layout view shows the document as it will look when it is printed. Reading Layout Reading Layout view formats your screen to make reading your document more comfortable. Outline view Outline view displays the document in outline form. Headings can be displayed without the text. If you move a heading, the accompanying text moves with it.

Word 2002

In Word 2002, you can display your document in one of four views: Normal, Outline, Page Layout, or Online Layout. Normal view Normal view is the most often used and shows formatting such as line spacing, font, point size, and italics. Word displays multiple-column text in one continuous column. Outline view Outline view displays the document in outline form. Headings can be displayed without the text. If you move a heading, the accompanying text moves with it. Print Layout view The Print Layout view shows the document as it will look when it is printed. Online Layout view The Online Layout view optimizes the document for online viewing (viewing the document in a browser such as Internet Explorer). Before moving ahead, check to make sure you are in Normal view: 1. Click View on the Menu bar. 2. The icon next to Normal should have a box around it. If the icon next to normal has a box around it, press Esc to close the menu. If the icon next to Normal does not have a box around it, continue on to the next step. 3. Click Normal. You are now in Normal view.

Text Area

Just below the ruler is a large area called the "text area." You type your document in the text area. The blinking vertical line in the upper left corner of the text area is the cursor. It marks the insertion point. As you type, your work shows at the cursor location. The horizontal line next to the cursor marks the end of the document. Creating and Opening Documents There are several ways to create new documents, open existing documents, and save documents in Word: Create a New Document
  

Click the New Document button on the menu bar. Choose File|New from the menu bar. Press CTRL+N (depress the CTRL key while pressing "N") on the keyboard.

Open an Existing Document
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Click the Open File button on the menu bar. Choose File|Open from the menu bar. Press CTRL+O on the keyboard. Each method will show the Open dialog box. Choose the file and click the Open button.

Save a Document
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Click the Save button on the menu bar. Select File|Save from the menu bar. Press CTRL+S on the keyboard.

Renaming Documents To rename a Word document while using the program, select File|Open and find the file you want to rename. Right-click on the document name with the mouse and select Rename from the shortcut menu. Type the new name for the file and press the ENTER key.

Working on Multiple Documents Several documents can be opened simultaneously if you are typing or editing multiple documents at once. All open documents are listed under the Window menu as shown below. The current document has a checkmark beside the file name. Select another name to view another open document or click the button on the Windows taskbar at the bottom of the screen.

Close a Document Close the current document by selecting File|Close or click the Close icon if it's visible on the Standard Toolbar.

Setting Options
Before proceeding, turn on the Status bar, Horizontal scroll bar, Vertical scroll bar, nonprinting characters, and the recently used file list. Follow the procedure outlined here: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools on the Menu bar. Click Options. Click View to choose the View tab. In the Show frame, check to see if there are checks next to Status Bar, Horizontal Scroll Bar, and Vertical Scroll Bar. 5. If all these items do not have check marks, go to the box next to the unchecked item(s) and click the left mouse button. Note: You toggle the check mark on and off by clicking the left mouse button. 6. In the Formatting Marks frame, check to see if there is a check mark next to All. 7. If there is no check mark next to All, go to the box next to All and click the left mouse button. A check mark will now appear. 8. Click General to choose the General tab. 9. Check to see if there is a check mark next to the Recently Used File List. If there is no check mark, go to the box next to Recently Used File List and click the left mouse button. Check to see if the number in the Entries box is at least four. If it is not, type 4 in the box. 10. Check to see if Inches is selected in the Measurement Units box (this sets the unit of measurement for the ruler). If it is not, click the pull-down menu and then click Inches. 11. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Highlighting Text
Throughout these lessons, you will be asked to highlight text. You can use either of the following methods:

Highlighting by Using the F8 and Arrow Keys
1. Place the cursor before or after the text you wish to highlight and click the left mouse button. 2. Press the F8 key, which will serve as an "anchor" showing where text you wish to highlight begins or ends. 3. Press the appropriate arrow key (left arrow to move to the left or right arrow to move to the right) until the text is highlighted. You can use the up or down arrow key to highlight one line at a time. Press Esc to remove the anchor.

Highlighting by Using the Mouse
1. Place the cursor before or after the text you wish to highlight. 2. Hold down the left mouse button. 3. Move the mouse left, right, up, or down until the text is highlighted.

Highlighting Menu Items

Menu Bar
To select a Menu bar item: 1. Click the Menu bar item. A drop-down menu will appear. 2. To change the Menu bar option selected, move the mouse pointer across the Menu bar. Note: After you highlight an item on the Menu bar, you can also use the left and right arrow keys to move across the Menu bar.

Drop-Down Menu Items
When you click any option on the Menu bar, a drop-down menu appears. To choose a drop-down menu item: Click the drop-down menu item. Or 1. Use the arrow keys to move up or down the drop-down menu. 2. Press Enter to select a drop-down menu item.

Placing the Cursor
During the lessons, you will often be asked to place the cursor at a specific location on the screen. You place the cursor by moving the cursor to the specified location and pressing the left mouse button or by using the arrow keys to move to the specified location.

Choosing Menu Commands by Using the Alt Key
There are many methods to accomplish tasks when you are using Microsoft Word. Generally, when selecting items from the menu, we will ask you to click or highlight the menu item. However, you can also select a menu option by: 1. Pressing the Alt key while typing the underlined letter on the Menu bar. 2. Typing the letter underlined on a drop-down menu. If a dialog box appears, you can move around the dialog box by pressing the Alt key and any underlined option.

Shortcut Key Demonstration
1. 2. 3. 4. Hold down the Alt key and press "o" to select Format from the menu. Press "p" to select Paragraph from the drop-down menu. Hold down the Alt key and press "i" to select the Indents and Spacing tab. Hold down the Alt key and press "b" to select Before from the Spacing frame.

5. Press Enter to close the dialog box.

Shortcut Notations
A key name followed by a dash and a letter means to hold down the key while pressing the letter. For example, Alt-o means you should hold down the Alt key while pressing "o." A shorthand notation of the above demonstration would read as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Press Alt-o, p. Press Alt-i. Press Alt-b. Press Enter.

Typists who are slowed down by using a mouse usually prefer using keys.

Starting a New Paragraph
When you type in Microsoft Word, you do not need to press a key to move to a new line as you do when typing with a typewriter. To start a new paragraph, press the Enter key. Typing and Inserting Text To enter text, just start typing! The text will appear where the blinking cursor is located. Move the cursor by using the arrow buttons on the keyboard or positioning the mouse and clicking the left button. The keyboard shortcuts listed below are also helpful when moving through the text of a document: Move Action Beginning of the line End of the line Top of the document End of the document Selecting Text To change any attributes of text it must be highlighted first. Select the text by dragging the mouse over the desired text while keeping the left mouse button depressed, or hold down the SHIFT key on the keyboard while using the arrow buttons to highlight the text. The following table contains shortcuts for selecting a portion of the text: Selection Technique Keystroke HOME END CTRL+HOME CTRL+END

Whole word

double-click within the word

Whole paragraph triple-click within the paragraph Several words or drag the mouse over the words, or hold down lines SHIFT while using the arrow keys Entire document choose Edit|Select All from the menu bar, or press CTRL+A Deselect the text by clicking anywhere outside of the selection on the page or press an arrow key on the keyboard. Deleting Text Use the BACKSPACE and DELETE keys on the keyboard to delete text. Backspace will delete text to the left of the cursor and Delete will erase text to the right. To delete a large selection of text, highlight it using any of the methods outlined above and press the DELETE key. Formatting Text The formatting toolbar is the easiest way to change many attributes of text. If the toolbar as shown below isn't displayed on the screen, select View|Toolbars and choose Formatting.

 

Style Menu - Styles are explained in detail later in this tutorial. Font Face - Click the arrowhead to the right of the font name box to view the list of fonts available. Scroll down to the font you want and select it by clicking on the name once with the mouse. A serif font (one with "feet" circled in the illustration below) is recommended for paragraphs of text that will be printed on paper as they are most readable. The following graphic demonstrates the difference between serif (Times New Roman on the left) and sans-serif ("no feet", Arial

on the right) fonts.

     

Font Size - Click on the white part of the font size box to enter a value for the font size or click the arrowhead to the right of the box to view a list of font sizes available. Select a size by clicking on it once. A font size of 10 or 12 is best for paragraphs of text. Font Style - Use these buttons to bold, italicize, and underline text. Alignment - Text can be aligned to the left, center, or right side of the page or it can be justified across the page. Numbered and Bulleted Lists - Lists are explained in detail later in this tutorial. Increase/Decrease Indent - Change the indentation of a paragraph in relation to the side of the page. Outside Border - Add a border around a text selection. Highlight Color - Use this option to change the color behind a text selection. The color shown on the button is the last color used. To select a different color, click the arrowhead next to the image on the button. Text Color - This option changes the color of the text. The color shown on the button is the last color chosen. Click the arrowhead next to the button image to select another color. The Font dialog box allows you to choose from a larger selection of formatting options. Select Format|Font from the menu bar to access the box.

Format Painter A handy feature for formatting text is the Format Painter located on the standard toolbar. For example, if you have formatting a paragraph heading with a certain font face, size, and style and you want to format another heading the same way, you do not need to manually add each attribute to the new headline. Instead, use the Format Painter by following these steps:
  

Place the cursor within the text that contains the formatting you want to copy. Click the Format Painter button in the standard toolbar. Notice that your pointer now has a paintbrush beside it. Highlight the text you want to add the same format to with the mouse and release the mouse button.

To add the formatting to multiple selections of text, double-click the Format Painter button instead of clicking once. The format painter then stays active until you press the ESC key to turn it off.

Undo Feel free to experiment with various text styles. You can always undo your last action by clicking the Undo button on the standard toolbar or selecting Edit|Undo... from the menu bar. Click the Redo button on the standard toolbar or select Edit|Redo... to erase the undo action.

Microsoft Word Basic Features
This lesson covers typing, the Backspace key, the Delete key, inserting text, bolding, underlining, and italicizing. To begin this lesson, open Microsoft Word.

Typing and Using the Backspace Key
The exercises that follow will teach you how to enter and delete text. To enter text, simply type just as you would if you were using a typewriter. To capitalize, hold down the Shift key while typing the letter. Use the Backspace key to delete text. You do not need to press Enter to start a new line -- Microsoft Word automatically wraps at the end of the line. Press Enter to start a new paragraph.

Exercise 1
1. Type the following sentence: Joe has a very large house. 2. Now delete the word "house." Using either the arrow keys or the mouse, place the cursor between the period and the "e" in "house." 3. Press the Backspace key until the word "house" is deleted. 4. Type boat. The sentence should now read: "Joe has a very large boat."

The Delete Key
You can also delete text by using the Delete key. First, highlight the text you wish to delete; then press the Delete key.

Exercise 2
Delete the word "very" from the sentence you just typed. 1. Highlight the word "very." Place the cursor before the "v" in the word "very" and press the F8 key. Then press the right arrow key until the word "very" is highlighted. 2. Press the Delete key. The sentence should now read: "Joe has a large boat."

Inserting Text
You can insert text. To insert text, you must be in the Insert mode. To check to see whether you are in the Insert mode, look at the Status bar, located at the very bottom of the screen. Look at the right side of the Status bar. If the letters "OVR" are gray, you are in the Insert mode. If the letters "OVR" are black, you are in the Overtype mode.

Insert Mode

Overtype Mode To change to the Insert mode: 1. Double-click the letters "OVR." 2. The letters "OVR" are now gray.

Alternate Method -- Setting Options by Using the Menu
You can also use the menu to change to the Overtype mode. 1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Tools > Options from the menu. The Options dialog box opens. Click the Edit tab to choose the Edit tab. The Overtype Mode box should be blank. If the box is blank, click OK. If the Overtype Mode box is not blank, click the box to remove the check mark. Then click OK.

Alternate Method -- Setting Options by Using Key
You can use the keyboard to change to the Overtype mode. 1. 2. 3. 4. Press Alt-t, o. Click Edit. Press Alt-v (toggles between overtype and insert). Press Enter.

Exercise 3
Make sure the letters "OVR" are gray before proceeding. You are going to insert the word "blue" between the words "large" and "boat."

1. 2. 3. 4.

Place the cursor after the dot between the words "large" and "boat." Type the word blue. Press the spacebar to add a space. The sentence should now read: "Joe has a large blue boat."

Overtype
You can type over the current text (replace the current text with new text). However, you must be in the Overtype mode. Do the following to change to the Overtype mode. 1. Double-Click "OVR" on the Status bar. 2. The letters "OVR" should now be black. Make sure the letters "OVR" are black before proceeding to the following exercise.

Exercise 4
Change the word "blue" to "gray." 1. Place the cursor before the letter "b" in "blue." 2. Type the word gray. 3. The sentence should now read: "Joe has a large gray boat."

Bold, Underline, and Italicize
You can bold, underline, or italicize when using Word. You also can combine these features -- in other words, you can bold, underline, and italicize a single piece of text. In the exercise that follows, you will learn three different methods for bolding, italicizing, or underlining when using Word. You will learn to bold, italicize, or underline by using the menu, an icon, or the keys.

Exercise 5
Type the following exactly as shown. Remember, pressing the Enter key starts a new paragraph. Press the Enter key at the end of each of the following lines to start a new paragraph. Menu: Bold Italicize Underline these words All three Regular Icon: Bold Italicize Underline these words All three Regular Keys: Bold Italicize Underline these words All three Regular

Your screen should look similar to the one shown here.

Bold - Using the Menu
1. On the line that begins with Menu, highlight the word Bold. To do so, place the cursor before the letter "B" in "Bold." Press the F8 key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Choose Format > Font from the menu. The Font Dialog box opens. 3. Click Bold in the Font Style box. Note: You can see the effect of your selection in the Preview window. To turn off the bold, click Regular. 4. Click OK to close the dialog box. 5. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting. You have bolded the word bold.

Alternate Method -- Bold by Using an Icon
1. On the line that begins with "Icon," highlight the word "Bold." To do so, place the cursor before the letter "B" in "Bold." Press the F8 key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Click the Bold icon on the toolbar. Note: To turn off bold, highlight the text and press the Bold icon again. 3. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate Method -- Bold by Using the Keys
1. On the line that begins with "Keys," highlight the word "Bold." To do so, place the cursor before the letter "B" in "Bold." Press the F8 key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted.

2. Press Ctrl-b (hold down the Ctrl key while pressing b). Note: To turn off Bold, press Ctrl-b again. You can also remove formatting by pressing Ctrl-spacebar. 3. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

Italicize - Using the Menu
1. On the line that begins with "Menu," highlight the word "Italicize." To do so, place the cursor before the letter "I" in "Italicize." Press the F8 key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 3. Click Italic in the Font Style box. Note: You can see the effect of your selection in the Preview window. To turn off the italics, click Regular. 4. Click OK to close the dialog box. 5. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate Method -- Italicize by Using an Icon
1. On the line that begins with "Icon," highlight the word "Italicize." To do so, place the cursor before the letter "I" in "Italicize." Press the F8 key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Click the Italic icon on the toolbar. Note: To turn off italics, highlight the text and press the Italic icon again. 3. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate Method -- Italicize by Using Keys
1. On the line that begins with "Keys," highlight the word "Italicize." Place the cursor before the letter "I" in "Italicize." Press the F8 key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Press Ctrl-i (hold down the Ctrl key while pressing i). Note: To toggle Italic off, press Ctrl-i again. You can also remove formatting by pressing Ctrl-spacebar. 3. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

Underline - Using the Menu
You can underline when using Word. The following are some of the underlines that are available if you use the menu:

The following illustrates underlining by using the menu: 1. On the line that begins with "Menu," highlight the words "Underline these words." 2. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 3. In the Underline Style box, click to open the pull-down menu. Click the type of underline you wish to use. Note: To remove an underline, you select None from the pull-down menu. 4. Click OK to close the dialog box. 5. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate Method -- Underline by Using the Icon
1. On the line that begins with "Icon," highlight the words "Underline these words." 2. Click the Underline icon on the toolbar. You will get a single underline. Note: To turn off underlining, press the Underline icon again. 3. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate Method -- Underline by Using the Keys
1. On the line that begins with "Keys," highlight the words "Underline these words." 2. Press Ctrl-u (hold down the Ctrl key while pressing u). You will get a single underline. Note: To turn off underlining, press Ctrl-u again. 3. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

All Three - Using the Menu
1. On the line that begins with "Menu," highlight the words "All three." 2. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 3. In the Font Style box, click Bold Italic. Note: You can see the effect of your selection in the preview window. To turn off the Bold Italic, click Regular.

4. In the Underline box, click to open the pull-down menu. Click the type of underline you want to use. Note: To remove an underline, select None from the pull-down menu. 5. Click OK to close the dialog box. 6. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate Method -- All Three by Using Icons
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On the line that begins with "Icon," highlight the words "All three." Click the Bold icon on the toolbar. Click the Italic icon on the toolbar. Click the Underline icon on the toolbar. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate Method -- All Three by Using the Keys
1. 2. 3. 4. On the line that begins with "Keys," highlight the words "All three." Press Ctrl-b (bold). Press Ctrl-i (italicize). Press Ctrl-u (underline). Note: You can remove formatting by highlighting the text and pressing Ctrl-spacebar. 5. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting.

AutoText
Cut and Copy both store information on the Clipboard. Each time you store new information on the Clipboard, the old information is lost. If you wish to store text permanently so you can use it repeatedly, use AutoText.

Exercise 3
1. Type the following: AutoText information is stored permanently. 2. Highlight "AutoText information is stored permanently." 3. Choose Insert > AutoText > New from the menu. 4. Microsoft Word suggests a name. The suggestion displays in the dialog box. Change the name by typing AT in the Please Name Your AutoText Entry field. 5. Click OK. 6. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting. 7. Place the cursor between the period in the sentence you just typed and the paragraph marker (¶). 8. Press the spacebar twice to leave two blank spaces. 9. Type AT. 10. Press F3.

11. Your text should now read: "AutoText information is stored permanently. AutoText information is stored permanently." Note: Whenever you need the text, simply type the name and press F3.

Spell Check
Word checks your spelling and grammar as you type. Spelling errors display with a red wavy line under the word. Grammar errors display with a green wavy line under the error. If you want to spell check your entire document, press F7 and click the spelling icon , or choose Tools > Spelling and Grammar from the menu. If you want to spell check part of your document, highlight the area you want to spell check. Then press F7 and click the spelling icon choose Tools > Spelling and Grammar from the menu. Exercise 4 1. Type the following exactly as shown. Include all errors. Open thr door for Mayrala. She is a teacher from the town of Ridgemont. 2. Highlight: "Open thr door for Mayrala. She is a teacher from the town of Ridgemont." 3. Press F7 or click the Spelling icon on the Standard toolbar. 4. "The" is misspelled, so it is highlighted on the screen and noted in the Not in Dictionary box. 5. Word suggests correct spellings. These suggestions are found in the Suggestions box. 6. To change the word to the correct spelling, make sure "the" is highlighted in the Suggestions box. Click Change. Note: If the word is misspelled in several places in the document, click Change All to correct all misspellings. 7. The name "Mayrala" is not in the dictionary, but it is correct. Click Ignore Once to leave "Mayrala" in the document with its current spelling. Note: If a word appears in several places in the document, click Ignore All so you are not prompted to correct the spelling for each occurrence. 8. "Ridgemont" is not found in the dictionary. If you frequently use a word not found in the dictionary, you should add that word to the dictionary by pressing the Add to Dictionary button. Word will then recognize the word the next time it encounters it. Click Add to Dictionary. 9. The following should appear on your screen: "Word finished checking the selection. Do you want to continue checking the remainder of the document?" 10. Click No. If you wanted Word to spell-check the entire document, you would have clicked on Yes. , or

Find and Replace

If you need to find a particular word or piece of text, you can use the Find command. If you want to search the entire document, simply execute the Find command. If you want to limit your search to a selected area, highlight that area and then execute the Find command. After you have found the word or piece of text you are searching for, you can replace it with new text by executing the Replace command.

Exercise 5 Find - Using the Menu
1. Type the following: Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School. 2. Highlight: "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School." 3. Choose Edit > Find from the menu. 4. Type east in the Find What field. 5. Click Find Next. Note that the "East" in Easton is highlighted. 6. Click Find Next. Note that "east" is highlighted. 7. Click Find Next. Note that the "East" in Eastern is highlighted. 8. Click Find Next. The following message should appear: "Word has finished searching the selection. Do you want to search the remainder of the document?" 9. Click No. 10. Click Cancel.

Alternate Method -- Find by Using Keys
1. Highlight: "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School." 2. Press Ctrl-f. 3. Follow steps 5 through 10 in the preceding section.

Replace - Using the Menu
1. Highlight "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School." 2. Choose Edit > Replace from the menu. 3. Type "east" in the Find What box. 4. Click Find Next. Do not replace the "East" in "Easton." 5. Click Find Next. 6. In the Replace With box, type west.

7. Click Replace. Word replaces east with west. 8. The "East" in Eastern is highlighted. 9. Click Replace. Eastern becomes Western. 10. The following message will appear: "Word has finished searching the selection. Do you want to search the remainder of the document?" 11. Click No. 12. Click Close. 13. Your text should now read, "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the west side of town. Her daughter attends Western High School."

Alternate Method -- Replace by Using Keys
1. Highlight "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the west side of town. Her daughter attends Western High School." 2. Press Ctrl-h. 3. Follow steps 4 through 13 in the preceding section, but type East in the Replace With box.

Font Size
In Microsoft Word, you can change the size of your font (text). The following exercise illustrates changing the font size.

Change Font Size - Using the Menu
1. Type the following: I am the smallest. I am a little bigger. I am the biggest. 2. Highlight "I am the smallest." 3. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 4. Choose the Font tab. 5. Type 8 in the Size field, or click 8 in the box below the Size field. 6. Click OK. 7. Highlight "I am a little bigger." 8. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 9. Choose the Font tab. 10. Type 14 in the Size field, or click 14 in the box below the Size field. 11. Click OK. 12. Highlight "I am the biggest." 13. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 14. Choose the Font tab. 15. Type 24 in the Size field, or click 24 in the box below the Size field. 16. Click OK. 17. Your text should now look similar to the following: "I am the smallest. I am a little bigger. I am the biggest."

Alternate Method -- Change Font Size by Using the Toolbar

1. Highlight: "I am the smallest. I am a little bigger. I am the biggest." 2. Press Ctrl-spacebar to set the formatting back to the default. 3. Highlight "I am the smallest." 4. In the Font Size box on the toolbar, type 8. 5. Press Enter. 6. Highlight "I am a little bigger." 7. In the Font Size box 8. Press Enter. 9. Highlight "I am the biggest." 10. In the Font Size box 11. Press Enter. on the toolbar, type 14.

on the toolbar, type 24.

Fonts
In Microsoft Word, you can change the font (the "family" of type you use for your text). This feature is illustrated in the following exercise:

Change the Font - Using the Menu
1. Type the following: Arial Courier Times New Roman 2. Highlight "Arial." 3. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 4. Choose the Font tab. 5. In the box below the Font field, click "Arial." 6. Click OK. 7. Highlight "Courier." 8. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 9. Choose the Font tab. 10. In the box below the Font field, click "Courier New." 11. Click OK. 12. Highlight "Times New Roman." 13. Choose Format > Font from the menu. 14. Choose the Font tab. 15. In the box below the Font field, click "Times New Roman." 16. Click OK.

17. Your text should now look similar to the following: "Arial Courier Times New Roman"

Alternate Method -- Change the Font by Using the Formatting Toolbar

1. Highlight "Arial Courier Times New Roman." 2. Press Ctrl-spacebar. Ctrl-spacebar sets the formatting back to the default. 3. Highlight "Arial." 4. Click to open the Font pull-down menu toolbar. 5. Click "Arial." 6. Next, highlight "Courier." 7. Click to open the Font pull-down menu toolbar. 8. Click "Courier." 9. Next, highlight "Times New Roman." 10. Click to open the Font pull-down menu toolbar. 11. Click "Times New Roman." 12. Your text should now look similar to the following: "Arial Courier Times New Roman" on the Formatting

on the Formatting

on the Formatting

To create a bulleted or numbered list, use the list features provided by Word. Bulleted and Numbered Lists
 

Click the Bulleted List button or Numbered List button on the formatting toolbar. Type the first entry and press ENTER. This will create a new bullet or number on the next line. If you want to start a new line without adding another bullet or number, hold down the SHIFT key while pressing ENTER. Continue to typing entries and press ENTER twice when you are finished typing to end the list. buttons on the

Use the Increase Indent and Decrease Indent formatting toolbar to create lists of multiple levels.

NOTE: You can also type the text first, highlight the section, and press the Bulleted List or Numbered List buttons to add the bullets or numbers. Nested Lists To create a nested list, such as a numbered list inside of a bulleted list, follow these steps:

Type the list and increase the indentation of the items that will make up the nested list by clicking the Increase Indent button for each item.

Highlight the items and click the Numbered List button on the formatting toolbar.

Formatting Lists The bullet image and numbering format can be changed by using the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.

Highlight the entire list to change all the bullets or numbers, or Place the cursor on one line within the list to change a single bullet.

Access the dialog box by selecting Format|Bullets and Numbering from the menu bar or by right-clicking within the list and selecting

Bullets and Numbering from the shortcut menu.

Select the list style from one of the seven choices given, or click the Picture... button to choose a different icon. Click the Numbered tab to choose a numbered list style. Click OK when finished.

Tables are used to display data and there are several ways to build them in Word. Begin by placing the cursor where you want the table to appear in the document and choose one of the following methods. Insert a Table There are two ways to add a table to the document using the Insert feature:

Click the Insert Table button on the standard toolbar. Drag the mouse along the grid, highlighting the number of rows and columns

for the table.

Or, select Table|Insert|Table from the menu bar. Select the number of rows and columns for the table and click OK.

Draw the Table A table can also be drawn onto the document:

Draw the table by selecting Table|Draw Table from the menu bar. The cursor is now the image of a pencil and the Tables and Borders toolbar has appeared.

Draw the cells of the table with the mouse. If you make a mistake, click the Eraser button and drag the mouse over the area to be deleted.

To draw more cells, click on the Draw Table button

.

Inserting Rows and Columns Once the table is drawn, insert additional rows by placing the cursor in the row you want to be adjacent to. Select Table|Insert|Rows Above or Rows Below. Or, select an entire row and right-click with the mouse. Choose Insert Rows from the shortcut menu. Much like inserting a row, add a new column by placing the cursor in a cell adjacent to where the new column will be added. Select Table|Insert|Columns to the Left or Columns to the Right. Or, select the column, right-click with the mouse, and select Insert Columns. Moving and Resizing a Table A four-sided moving arrow and open box resizing handle will appear on the corners of the table if the mouse is placed over the table. Click and drag the four-ended arrow to move the table and release the mouse button when the table is positioned where you want it. Click and drag the open box handle to resize the table. Change the column widths and row heights by clicking the cell dividers and dragging them with the mouse.

Tables and Borders Toolbar The Tables and Borders toolbar allows you to add border styles, shading, text effects, alignment, and more options to your table. Access the toolbar by clicking Table|Draw Table or View|Toolbars|Tables and Borders.

You will need to highlight the cells of the table you want to format. Click and drag the mouse over the cells, or use the following shortcuts: Selection Menu Method Mouse Method

One cell One row

Table|Select|Cell Table|Select|Row

Click the bottom, left corner of the cell when a black arrow appears Click outside the table to the left of the row

Click outside the table above One column Table|Select|Column the column when a black arrow appears Several rows Several columns (none) (none) Click outside the table to the left of the row and drag the mouse down Click outside the table above the column Triple-click to the left of the table

Entire table Table|Select|Table Table Properties

Use the Table Properties dialog box to modify the alignment of the table with the body text and the text within the table. Access the box by selecting Tables|Table Properties.

Size - Check the Preferred width box and enter a value if the table should be an exact width.

 

Alignment - Highlight the illustration that represents the alignment of the table in relation to the text of the document. Text wrapping - Highlight "None" if the table should appear on a separate line from the text or choose "Around" if the text should wrap around the table. Borders and Shading - Select from a number of border styles, colors, and widths. Click the Shading tab to change the background color and pattern.

Options - Click the Options button on the Table Properties window. To change the spacing between the document text and the table borders under Default cell margins. Check the Allow spacing between cells box and enter a value to add space between the table

cells.

Adding Clip Art To add a clip art image from the Microsoft library to a document, follow these steps:

Select Insert|Picture|Clip Art from the menu bar.

To find an image, click in the white box following Search for clips. Delete the words "Type one or more words. . ." and enter keywords describing the image you want to use.

- OR Click one of the category icons. Click once on the image you want to add to the document and the following popup menu will appear:

 

Insert Clip to add the image to the document. Preview Clip to view the image full-size before adding it to the document. Drag the bottom, right corner of the preview window to resize the image and click the "x" close button to end the preview.

Add Clip to Favorites will add the selected image to your favorites directory that can be chosen from the Insert ClipArt dialog box.  Find Similar Clips will retrieve images similar to the one you have chosen. Continue selecting images to add to the document and click the Close button in the top, right corner of the Insert ClipArt window to stop adding clip art to the document.

Add An Image from a File Follow these steps to add a photo or graphic from an existing file:
 

Select Insert|Picture|From File on the menu bar. Click the down arrow button on the right of the Look in: window to find the image on your computer.

Highlight the file name from the list and click the Insert button.

Editing A Graphic Activate the image you wish to edit by clicking on it once with the mouse. Nine handles will appear around the graphic. Click and drag these handles to resize the image. The handles on the corners will resize proportionally while the handles on the straight lines will stretch the image. More picture effects can be changed using the Picture toolbar. The Picture toolbar should appear when you click on the image. Otherwise, select View|Toolbars|Picture from the menu bar to activate it.

Insert Picture will display the image selection window and allows you to change the image.

Image Control allows to to make the image grayscale, black and white, or a watermark. More/Less Contrast modifies the contrast between the colors of the image. More/Less Brightness will darken or brighten the image. Click Crop and drag the handles on the activated image to delete outer portions of the image. Line Style will add a variety of borders to the graphic. Text Wrapping will modify the way the document text wraps around the graphic. Format Picture displays all the image properties in a separate window. Reset Picture will delete all the modifications made to the image.

 

 

Auto Shapes The AutoShapes toolbar will allow you to draw many different geometrical shapes, arrows, flow chart symbols, stars, and banners on the document. Activate the AutoShapes toolbar by selecting Insert|Picture|AutoShapes or View|Toolbars|AutoShapes from the menu bar, or clicking the AutoShapes button on the Drawing toolbar. Click each button on the toolbar to view the options for drawing the shape.

Lines - After clicking the Lines button on the AutoShapes toolbar, draw a straight line, arrow, or double-ended arrow from the first row of options by clicking the respective button. Click in the document where you would like the line to begin and click again where it should end. To draw a curved line or freeform shape, select curved lines from the menu (first and second buttons of second row), click in the document where the line should appear, and click the mouse every

time a curve should begin. End creating the graphic by clicking on the starting end or pressing the ESC key. To scribble, click the last button in the second row, click the mouse in the document and hold down the left button while you draw the design. Let go of the mouse button to stop drawing.

Basic Shapes - Click the Basic Shapes button on the AutoShapes toolbar to select from many two- and three-dimensional shapes, icons, braces, and brackets. Use the drag-and-drop method to draw the shape in the document. When the shape has been made, it can be resized using the open box handles and other adjustments specific to each shape can be modified using the yellow diamond handles.

Block Arrows - Select Block Arrows to choose from many types of two- and three-dimensional arrows. Drag-and-drop the arrow in the document and use the open box and yellow diamond handles to adjust the arrowheads. Each AutoShape can also be rotated by first clicking the Free Rotate button on the drawing toolbar . Click and drag the green handles around the image to rotate it. The tree image below was created from an arrow rotated 90 degrees.

Flow Chart - Choose from the flow chart menu to add flow chart elements to the document and use the line menu to draw connections between the elements. Stars and Banners - Click the button to select stars, bursts, banners, and scrolls. Call Outs - Select from the speech and thought bubbles, and line call outs. Enter the call out text in the text box that is made. More AutoShapes - Click this button to choose from a list of clip art categories.

Each of the submenus on the AutoShapes toolbar can become a separate toolbar. Just click and drag the gray bar across the top of the submenus off of the toolbar and it will become a separate floating toolbar.

Page Margins The page margins of the document can be changed using the rulers on the page and the Page Setup window. The ruler method is discussed first:

Move the mouse over the area where the white ruler changes to gray.

 

When the cursor becomes a double-ended arrow, click with the mouse and drag the margin indicator to the desired location. Release the mouse when the margin is set.

The margins can also be changed using the Page Setup dialog box:

Select File|Page Setup and choose the Margins tab in the dialog box.

  

Enter margin values in the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes. The Preview window will reflect the changes. If the document has Headers and/or Footers, the distance this text appears from the edge of the page can be changed. Click OK when finished.

Page Size and Orientation Change the orientation page within the Page Setup dialog box.

Select File|Page Setup and choose the Paper Size tab.

 

Select the proper paper size from the drop-down menu. Change the orientation from Portrait or Landscape by checking the corresponding radio button.

Headers and Footers A header is text that is added to the top margin of every page such as a document title or page number and a footer is text added to the bottom margin. Follow these steps to add or edit headers and footers in the document:

Select View|Header and Footer from the menu bar. The Header and Footer toolbar will appear and the top of the page will be highlighted

as shown below.

   

Type the heading in the Header box. You may use many of the standard text formatting options such as font face, size, bold, italics, etc. Click the Insert AutoText button to view a list of quick options available. Use the other options on the toolbar to add page numbers, the current date and time. To edit the footer, click the Switch Between Header and Footer button on the toolbar. When you are finished adding headers and footers, click the Close button on the toolbar.

Page Numbers Follow these instructions for another way to add page numbers to a document.

Select Insert|Page Numbers from the menu bar and the following dialog box will appear.

  

Select the position of the page numbers by choosing "Top of page" or "Bottom of page" from the Position drop-down menu. Select the alignment of the page numbers in the Alignment dropdown menu. If you do not want the page number to show on the first page (if it is a title page, for example), uncheck the Show number of first page box. Click OK when finished.

Print Preview and Printing Preview your document by clicking the Print Preview button on the standard toolbar or by selecting File|Print Preview. When the document is ready to print, click the Print button from the Print Preview screen or select File|Print.

Tables
This lesson will teach you how to create tables. You use tables to format all or part of your document into columns and rows. Each exercise in this lesson is dependent on your having completed the exercise that preceded it. Complete the exercises in sequence. To begin this lesson, open Microsoft Word.

Creating a Table
To create a four-column, five-row table: 1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Table > Insert > Table from the menu. The Insert Table dialog box opens. Type 4 in the Number of Columns field. Type 5 in the Number of Rows field. Select Auto in the Column Width field. Selecting Auto allows Microsoft Word to determine the size of your column widths. Alternatively, you can enter the column width you desire.

5. Click OK. Your table should look like the one shown here, with four columns and five rows.

Alternate Method -- Creating a Table by Using the Insert Table Icon
You can also create a table by clicking on the Insert Table icon on the Standard toolbar. 1. Click the Insert Table icon.

2. Highlight the number of rows and columns you need. The maximum table size you can create by this method is a four-row by five-column table.

3. Press Enter (or click) to create the table. Note: Microsoft Word has a Tables and Borders toolbar. This lesson does not cover the Tables and Borders toolbar.

Moving Around a Table
Each block in a table is called a cell. Use the Tab key to move from cell to cell from left to right. Use Shift-Tab to move from cell to cell from right to left. The following exercise demonstrates. 1. Click in the first cell in the first column. 2. Press the Tab key nine times. The cursor moves forward nine cells. 3. Press Shift-Tab six times. The cursor moves backward six cells. Note: You can also move to a cell by clicking in the cell. In addition, you can move around the table by using the left, right, up, and down arrow keys.

Entering Text into a Table
To enter text into a table, simply type as you normally would. Press Tab to move to the next cell. Enter the text shown below into your table. 1. Type Salesperson in the first cell in the first column. Press the Tab key. 2. Type Dolls in the first cell in the second column. Press the Tab key. 3. Continue until you have entered all of the text. Salesperson Kennedy, Sally White, Pete York, George Banks, Jennifer Dolls 1327 1421 2190 1201 Trucks 1423 3863 1278 2528 Puzzles 1193 2934 1928 1203

Selecting a Row and Bolding the Text

You learned about bolding in Lesson Three. In this exercise, you will select the first row of the table and bold all of the text on the row. 1. Click anywhere on the first row of your table. 2. Choose Table > Select > Row from the menu. 3. Press Ctrl-b to bold the row.

Right-Aligning Text
You learned about alignment in Lesson Five. In this exercise, you will right-align the second (Dolls), third (Trucks), and fourth (Puzzles) columns of the table you created. 1. You need to highlight "Dolls," "Trucks," and "Puzzles." Place the cursor before the "D" in "Dolls." Press the F8 key to anchor the cursor. Then press the right arrow key until you have highlighted "Dolls," "Trucks," and "Puzzles." 2. Choose Table > Select > Column from the menu. 3. Press Ctrl-r to right-align the cells. Your table should look like the one shown here. Make any needed corrections before continuing.

Note: All of the formatting options you learned about in previous lessons can be applied to cells in a table.

Adding a New Row to the End of the Table

You can add additional rows to your table. The simplest way to add a new row is to move to the last column of the last row and press the Tab key. You can then type any additional text you need to add. 1. Move to the last column of the last row of your table. 2. Press the Tab key. 3. Type the text shown here. Atwater, Kelly 4098 3079 2067

Adding a Row Within the Table
You can add a new row anywhere in the table. The exercise that follows demonstrates. To add a row just above York, George: 1. Place the cursor anywhere in the fourth row (the row with York, George as the salesperson). 2. Choose Table > Insert > Rows Above from the menu. 3. Add the information shown here to the new row. Pillar, James 5214 3247 5467

Resizing the Columns
You can easily change the size of your column widths. In this exercise, you will select the entire table and adjust all the column widths. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click anywhere in your table. Choose Table > Select > Table from the menu. Your table is selected. Choose Table > Table Properties from the menu. Choose the Column tab. Type 1" in the Preferred Width field. This will cause Microsoft Word to set all the columns to a width of one inch. 6. Click OK. Depending on your font, the first column of your table might not be wide enough and the text might be wrapping.

To widen the first column: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Place the cursor anywhere in the first column. Choose Table > Select > Column from the menu. Choose Table > Table Properties from the menu. Choose the Column tab. Type 1.5 in the Preferred Width field. Click OK.

Alternate Method -- Resizing Your Column Widths by Using the Width Indicator
You can resize your column widths by placing the cursor on the line that separates two columns. This causes the width indicator to appear. After the width indicator appears, left-click and drag with the mouse to adjust the column width.

Adding a New Column to a Table
You can add new columns to your table. To add a new column between the Salesperson and Dolls columns: 1. Place the cursor anywhere in the Dolls column. 2. Choose Table > Insert > Columns to the Left from the menu. 3. Label the new column Region and add the text shown in the table below. Salesperson Kennedy, Sally White, Pete Pillar, James York, George Banks, Jennifer Atwater, Kelly Region S N N S S S Dolls 1327 1421 5214 2190 1201 4098 Trucks 1423 3863 3247 1278 2528 3079 Puzzles 1193 2934 5467 1928 1203 2067

Sorting a Table
With Microsoft Word, it is easy to sort the data in your table. To sort your table data by Region and within Region by Salesperson in ascending order: 1. Click anywhere on your table. 2. Choose Table > Sort from the menu. 3. Select Region in the Sort By field.

4. Select Text in the Type field (because you are sorting text). 5. Select Ascending. 6. Select Salesperson in the Then By field. 7. Select Text in the Type field (because you are sorting text). 8. Select Ascending. 9. Select Header Row (because your table has titles across the top of the table). 10. Click OK. Microsoft Word should have sorted your table like the one shown here:

Salesperson Pillar, James White, Pete Atwater, Kelly Banks, Jennifer Kennedy, Sally York, George

Region N N S S S S

Dolls 5214 1421 4098 1201 1327 2190

Trucks 3247 3863 3079 2528 1423 1278

Puzzles 5467 2934 2067 1203 1193 1928

The Sum Function
You can perform calculations on the numbers in your table. Several functions are available to you. A review of all of the functions is beyond the scope of this tutorial, but the exercise that follows demonstrates the Sum function. In this exercise, you will add a new row to your table, place the word "Total" at the bottom of the Salesperson column, and sum the Dolls, Trucks, and Puzzles columns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Place your cursor in the cell located on the last row in the last column. Press the Tab key to create a new row. Type Total in the cell on the bottom row in the Salesperson column. Move to the Dolls column. Choose Table > Formula from the menu. Type =SUM(ABOVE) in the formula field, if it does not automatically appear. Select #,##0 in the Number Format field. This selection causes Microsoft Word to separate thousands with a comma. 8. Click OK. 9. Move to the Trucks column. 10. Choose Table > Formula from the menu. 11. Type =SUM(ABOVE) in the formula field, if it does not automatically appear. 12. Select #,##0 in the Number Format field. This selection causes Microsoft Word to separate thousands with a comma. 13. Click OK. 14. Move to the Puzzles column. 15. Choose Table > Formula from the menu. 16. Type =SUM(ABOVE) in the formula field, if it does not automatically appear.

17. Select #,##0 in the Number Format field. This selection causes Microsoft Word to separate thousands with a comma. 18. Click OK.

Deleting a Column
You can delete columns from your table. To delete the Trucks column: 1. Place your cursor anywhere in the Trucks column. 2. Choose Table > Delete> Columns from the menu.

Deleting a Row
You can delete rows from your table. To delete the York, George row: 1. Place your cursor anywhere in the York, George row. 2. Choose Table > Delete > Rows from the menu.

Recalculate
Unlike a spreadsheet, Microsoft Word does not automatically recalculate every time you make a change to the table. To cause a function to recalculate, you must first move to the cell that contains the function and then press the F9 key. Alternatively, you can move to the cell that contains the function, right-click, and select Update Field from the context menu. Because you deleted a row in the previous exercise, your calculations are now incorrect. To recalculate: 1. 2. 3. 4. Move to the Dolls/Total cell. Press F9. Move to the Puzzles/Total cell and right-click. Click Update Field.

Note: The context menu is a useful tool. When you right-click, Microsoft Word supplies you with a list of menu choices. You can execute a command by selecting an option from the context menu.

Merge Cell
Using Microsoft Word, you can merge cells -- turn two or more cells into one cell. In this exercise, you are going to create a new row at the top of your table, merge the cells, and add a title to the table. 1. Move to the cell located on the first row of the first column of your table (the Salesperson cell). 2. Choose Table > Insert > Rows Above from the menu. 3. Choose Table > Merge Cells from the menu. 4. Type Toy Sales in the new cell.

5. Press Ctrl-e to center the title.

Table Headings
If Microsoft Word splits your table with a page break, the table heading will display on the first page but not on subsequent pages. To correct this problem, you can designate rows as headings. Heading rows are repeated on the top of your table at the top of each page. To designate a row as a heading: 1. Place your cursor on the row. 2. Choose Table > Heading Rows Repeat from the menu.

Converting Text to a Table
You can convert text to a table; however, a delimiter such as a comma, paragraph marker, or tab must separate columns of text. In the exercise that follows, you will convert comma-delimited text into a table. 1. Type the following as shown (do not bold). Color, Style, Item Blue, A980, Van Red, X023, Car Green, YL724, Truck Name, Age, Sex Bob, 23, M Linda, 46, F Tom, 29, M 2. Highlight the text. 3. Choose Table > Convert > Text to Table from the menu. 4. Type 3 in the Number of Columns field. 5. Select Auto in the Column Width field. 6. Select the Commas radio button in the Separate Text At frame. 7. Click OK. Microsoft Word should have converted your text to a table and your table should look like the one shown here.

Splitting a Table
With Microsoft Word, splitting a single table into two tables is easy. To separate the table you just created into two tables: 1. Place your cursor anywhere on the row that reads "Name, Age, Sex." 2. Choose Table > Split Table from the menu. You should now have two tables.

Table AutoFormat
You can use AutoFormats to apply borders, shading, special fonts, and color to your table. Microsoft Word lists all Formats in the Table AutoFormat dialog box. While in the Table AutoFormat dialog box, click a format to see that format displayed in the Preview box. You can customize how the format is applied. Check the features you want in the Formats to Apply and the Apply Special Formats To frames. Microsoft Word comes with a long list of AutoFormats. To apply an AutoFormat to your Name, Age, and Sex table: 1. Click anywhere in the table. 2. Choose Table > Table AutoFormat from the menu. 3. Click Table Colorful 1 in the Table Styles box.

4. Select Heading Rows and First Column in the Apply Special Formats To frame. Do not select Last Row and Last Column. 5. Click Apply. Your table should look like the one shown here.

Chapter 7:- Powerpoint
Open Power Point and you will be prompted by a dialog box with four choices. Each of these options are explained on this page. If Power Point is already open or this box does not appear, select File|New from the menu bar.

AutoContent Wizard The AutoContent Wizard provides templates and ideas for a variety of presentation types. Page through the wizard by clicking the Next button on the bottom of each page after making necessary choices.

Design Template Power Point provides many templates with different backgrounds and text formatting to begin your presentation. Preview each design by highlighting the template name on the list. Press OK after you have chosen the design.

Blank Presentation Select Blank Presentation to build the presentation from scratch with no preset graphics or formatting. Open an Existing Presentation Select this option to open a Power Point presentation that already exists. Select the folder the file is located in from the Look in: drop-down menu and highlight the file on the list. Click Open to open the presentation.

AutoLayout After selecting the presentation type, you will be prompted to choose the layout of the new slide. These layouts include bulleted lists, graphs, and/or images. Click on each thumbnail image and a description will be printed in the message box. Highlight the layout you want and click OK.

Screen Layout The Power Point screen layout in Normal View:

Views
Power Point gives you four screen layouts for constructing your presentation in addition to the Slide Show. You can select the page view by clicking the buttons just above the formatting toolbar and the bottom of the page.

Normal View This screen is split into three sections showing the presentation outline on the left, the slide in the main window, and notes at the bottom.

Slide View The slide view displays each slide on the screen and is helpful for adding images, formatting text, and adding background styles.

Outline View The presentation outline is displayed

Slide Sorter View A small image of each slide is

on the majority of the screen with small windows for the slide and notes. This view is recommended for editing text.

displayed in Slide Sorter view. Slides can easily be ordered and sorted from this screen.

Click the Slide Show button to view the full-screen slide show. Insert a New Slide Follow these steps to insert a new slide into the presentation:
  

In the Outline window, select the slide you want the new slide to appear after by clicking the slide's number. Select Insert|New Slide from the menu bar or click the new slide button on the standard toolbar. Choose the page layout from the window and press OK.

Applying a Design Template To add a design template or changing the existing one, selection Format|Design Template from the menu bar. Select the template and click Apply. Changing Slide Layouts To change the layout template of the slide select Format|Slide Layout from the menu bar. Select one of the layout thumbnail images and click Apply.

Reordering Slides To reorder a slide in Slide Sorter View, simply click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to the new location. In Normal or Outline View, click the slide icon beside the number of the slide you want to move and drag the icon to a new location. Hide Slides If you do not want a slide to appear during the slide show, but do not want to delete the slide as it may be used later, the slide can be hidden by selecting Slide Show|Hide Slide from the menu bar. To add the slide back to the slide show, select Slide Show|Hide Slide again. Create a Custom Slide Show The Custom Slide Show feature allows you to select the slides you want to display in the slide show if not all the slides should be used.

Select Slide Show|Custom Slide Show from the menu bar.

Click the New... button in the Custom Shows window.

In the Define Custom Show window, type a name for the slide in the Slide show name field.

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Add slides to the custom show by highlighting them in the Slides in presentation window and clicking the Add >> button. Those slides will then appear in the Slides in custom show window. To remove slides from the custom show, highlight their names in the Slides in custom show window and click the Remove button. To reorder slides in the custom show, highlight the slide that should be moved and click the up and down arrows to change its order in the show. Click OK when finished. Click the Show button on the Custom Shows window to preview the custom slide show and click Close to exit.

Edit a Custom Slide Show

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Select Slide Show|Custom Slide Show from the menu bar. Edit the show by highlighting the name in the Custom shows box and clicking the Edit... button. To delete a show, highlight the name and click Remove.

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Create a copy of a show by clicking the Copy button. The copy can then be renamed by clicking the Edit... button. Click the Show button to preview the custom slide show and click Close to exit.

Bulleted Lists on Design Templates Bulleted lists allow you to clearly display the main points of your presentation on slides. The text boxes on design templates already include bulleted lists. Click the place holder on the slide to begin adding text and press the ENTER key to return to the next line and add a new bulleted item. To go to the next line without adding another bullet, hold down the SHIFT key while pressing ENTER. Bulleted List from a Text Box If you are not creating a bulleted list from an existing placeholder on a design template, or if you would like to add an additional bulleted list, follow these steps to create a new list:
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In slide view, create a text box by selecting Insert|Text Box from the menu bar. "Draw" the text box on the slide by holding down the left mouse button while you move the mouse until the box is the size you want it. Choose Format|Bullets and Numbering from the menu bar.

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Change the Size of the bullet by changing the percentage in relation to the text. Choose a color for the bullet from the Color menu. Click More Colors for a larger selection. Select one of the seven bullet types shown and click OK. - OR -

Click the Picture button to view the Picture Bullet window. Select one of the bullets and click OK. - OR Click the Character button to select any character from the fonts on the computer. Select a symbol font such as Wingdings or Webdings from the Bullets from drop-down menu for the best selection of icons. Click on the characters in the grid to see them larger. Click OK when you have chosen the bullet you want to use.

Click OK on the Bullets and Numbering window and use the same methods described in the "Bulleted Lists on Design Templates" to enter text into the bulleted list.

Bulleted Lists and New Slides from an Outline In Normal or Outline view, text can easily be entered in the outline window and new slides are automatically added. Follow the steps below to become familiar with adding slide content in outline view:
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Next to the Slide 1 icon, type the title of the slide. The text you type beside the slide icons will be the large-type titles on each slide. Press ENTER to type the next line. This will automatically create a new slide. To create a bulleted list for the first slide, press the TAB key or click the demote button on the More Buttons menu accessible by clicking the "triple arrow" button at the end of the formatting toolbar . - OR Press ALT+SHIFT+Right Arrow to demote the selection to a bulleted list item. Continue entering text for the bulleted list, pressing ENTER at the end of each line to create a new bullet. Create a multilevel list by executing the demote action again to create a bulleted sublist. Press the promote button on the More Buttons menu or press ALT+SHIFT+Left Arrow to return to the original list. Create a new slide by executing the promote action until a new slide icon appears.

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Continue creating new slides and bulleted lists by using the demote and promote actions until the presentation is completed. Use the formatting instructions below to format the lists.

If there is more than one bulleted list on the slide, the lists will be designated by numbers enclosed in black boxes. The example below shows the slide created from the outline on the left. The bulleted list on the left side of the slide is labeled list "1" on the outline and the list on the right is labeled list "2". When typing the outline, begin typing in the new list by pressing CTRL+ENTER. In this example, CTRL+ENTER was pressed after typing "Access".

Numbered List Follow these steps to create a numbered list:
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Create a text box. With the text box selected, choose Format|Bullets and Numbering from the menu bar.

Click the Numbered tab at the top of the Bullets and Numbering window.

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Change the size of the numbers by changing the percentage in relation to the text. Choose a color for the numbers from the Color menu. Click More Colors for a larger selection. Change the Start at value if the numbers should not begin with 1. Select one of the the seven list types shown and click OK.

Resizing a Text Box Select a text box by clicking on it with the mouse. A border with nine handles will appear around the text box. The four handles on the corners will resize the length and the width of the box at once while the handles on the sides will resize only in one direction. Click one of the handles and drag it with the mouse. Release the mouse button when it is the size you want it to be. Move the text box by clicking and dragging the thick, dotted border with the mouse.

Text Box Properties

Change the colors, borders, and backgrounds of a text box from the Format AutoShape dialog box.

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Activate the textbox by clicking on it and select Format|Colors and Lines from the menu bar. Under the Colors and Lines tab, select a Fill color that will fill the background of the text box. Check the Semitransparent box if you want the slide background to show through the color. Select a Line color that will surround the box as well as a Style or Weight for the thickness of the line and a Dashed property if the line should not be solid.

Click the Text Box tab.

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Change the Text anchor point to reposition the text within the text box. Set Internal margins to the distance the text should be to the text box edges. Click OK to add the changes to the text box.

Delete a Text Box To delete a text box from a template, simply click the border of the text box and press the DELETE key on the keyboard. Adding Notes From Normal View, notes can be added to the slide. These notes will not be seen on your presentation, but they can be printed out on paper along with the slide the notes refer to by selecting Print What: Notes Pages on the Print menu.

Video To add a video to your presentation select Insert|Movies and Sounds|Movie from File or to insert an animation from Microsoft's gallery choose Insert|Movies and Sounds|Movie from Gallery. Select the video file and click OK.

Audio To add sound to your presentation select Insert|Movies and Sounds|Sound from Gallery or Sound from File. Select a sound file and click OK. Adding Text If the slide layout includes text boxes, simply click on the text box to add text. To add a text box to the slide, select Insert|Text Box from the menu bar and draw the text box with the mouse. Set text editing options by selecting Tools|Options from the menu bar and clicking the Edit tab.

Formatting Text Select the text that will be formatted by highlighting the text either on the outline or on the slide. Choose Format|Font from the menu bar or right-click on the highlighted selection and select Font from the popup shortcut menu or. Select a font face, size, style, effect, and color from the Font dialog box. Click the Preview button to see how the changes will appear on the slide before making a decision. Replace Fonts Design templates have a preset font that you may want to change or you may want to change the font used on for the entire presentation for a number of reasons. This can be accomplished quickly using the Replace Fonts feature. Select Format|Replace Font

from the menu bar. Choose the font you want to Replace from the first drop-down menu and the font it should be replaced With from the second menu, and click the Replace button.

Line Spacing Change the amount of space between lines in a text box by selecting Format|Line Spacing from the menu bar.

Line spacing - Select the amount of vertical space between lines. A value of "1" is equal to single spacing and "2" is double spacing. Values between and above these numbers are valid as well. Before paragraph and After paragraph - This value will determine the amount of vertical space before and after each paragraph in a text box.

Change Case Change the case of the characters in a paragraph by selecting Format|Change Case from the menu bar without having to retype the text.

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Sentence case - Capitalizes the first letter of the first word in each sentence. Lowercase and Uppercase - Changes the case of all the letters. Title case - Capitalizes the first letter of every word and reduces the rest to lowercase. Toggle case - The opposite of Title case, it makes the first letter of every word lowercase and capitalizes the remaining letters.

Spell Check Correct the spelling in the presentation by selecting Tools|Spelling from the menu bar or by pressing the F7 key on the keyboard.

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The spell checker will prompt you to make corrections of the first word that is spelled wrong. If the word is spelled correctly, click Ignore or Ignore All if the same word appears several times during the presentation. If this word will appear in many presentations (such as your name), click Add to add the word to the dictionary and you won't be prompted by a misspelling again. If the word is spelled wrong, highlight one of the the Suggestions or type your own revision in the Change to box. Click Change to correct this occurrence of the word or Change All to correct all occurrences of the word in the presentation. Click Close to abort the spelling check early.

When the spell checker has read through the entire presentation, you will be prompted by a window telling you that the spelling check is complete. Click OK.

Spelling Options Select Tools|Options from the menu bar and click the Spelling and Style tab.

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Check spelling as you type - If this box is checked, Power Point will check the spelling of every word as you type. Misspelled words will be underlined with wavy red lines. Hide spelling errors in this document - Check this box to remove the wavy red lines from words that are spelled wrong. Always suggest corrections - If this box is checked, suggestions for misspelled words will appear when you activate the spell checker. Ignore words in UPPERCASE - Power Point recommends that you don't type slide titles in all uppercase letters so it will treat words like this and other alluppercase acronyms as misspelled. Check this box to ignore this suggestion and acronyms that are typically typed in all caps.

Ignore words with numbers - Check to ignore words that are combinations of letters and numbers.

The colors of predesigned slide templates can be changed and a color scheme can be added to blank presentations. This page explains how to add color schemes and background images to slides. Color Schemes
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Select Format|Slide Color Scheme from the menu bar. Click one of the preset color scheme thumbnail images in the Color schemes box.

Click the Preview button to see how the scheme will appear on the slide.

To make changes to the color scheme, click the Custom tab on the dialog box.

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Change the colors of the slide elements by selecting the color swatch beside the name of the element and clicking the Change color button. Highlight one of the colors from the Text and Line Color window or select the Custom tab to view more color choices and click OK when finished.

When you have finished all color formatting, click Apply to All to apply the color scheme to all the slides in the presentation or Apply to add the scheme only to the current slide.

Backgrounds Follow these steps to add background colors and patterns to a slide:

Select Format|Background from the menu bar.

Select a color from the drop-down menu below the Background fill preview or choose More Colors... for a larger selection.

Select Fill Effects from the drop-down menu to add gradients, texture, patterns, or a picture to the background.

Gradient tab  Select One color if the color chosen will fade into the background and select the color from the Color 1 drop-down menu. Choose Two colors if the gradient will use two colors and select those colors from the Color 1 and Color 2 drop-down menus. Preset provides a selection of color combinations. Select one from the Preset colors drop-down menu.  Select the type of gradient from Shading styles.  Click one of the four Variants of the styles chosen.

Texture tab From the Texture window, select a repeating background by scrolling through the thumbnail images or click Other Texture... to select an image from a file.

Pattern tab Select a two-tone pattern by clicking one of the pattern swatches and selecting the Foreground and Background colors.

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Picture tab Click the Select Picture button to choose a picture from a file. After the picture is selected, a preview and description will be shown in this window. Click OK to apply the changes made from the Fill Effects windows. Click Apply to All to add the changes to every slide or Apply to make changes only to the current slide.

The Drawing Toolbar provides many commands for creating and editing graphics. The toolbar is located at the bottom of the Power Point screen or it can be activated by selecting View|Toolbars|Drawing from the menu bar.

Menu  Grouping - Images can be grouped together so they become one image and can be moved together or the same formatting changes can be applied to both at once. Select all the images that will be grouped by holding down the SHIFT key and clicking once on each image. Then select Group from the Draw menu. The images can be ungrouped by selecting Ungroup from the same menu. The rectangles in the image to the left are separate images with their own sets of handles and they are grouped together in the image to the right:

Order - The order of overlapping images can be changed using this feature. In the example of two rectangles below, the green rectangle is selected and the Send Backward command was used to move the image below the blue rectangle. Send Backward and Bring Forward will move elements by one layer. Send to Back and Bring to Front move the elements to the back or top of a series of several overlapping graphics.

Nudge - Use the nudge actions to move an object slightly in one direction.  Align or Distribute - Select a group of objects and choose one of the the commands from the Align or Distribute menu to change the position of the objects in relation to one another.  Rotate or Flip - Rotate an object 90 degrees or flip the object over its xor y-axis. Select objects - Deactivate all drawing functions.

Free rotate - This button will place green handles on certain objects so they can be arbitrarily rotated. Click and drag the handles to rotate the objects.

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AutoShapes menu - Click the small down arrow to the right of the "AutoShapes" text to select a shape. [more...] Line and Arrow - Click and drag the mouse on the slide to add lines. Hold down the SHIFT key to draw a straight line. Use the end points of the completed line to stretch and reposition the line. Rectangle and Oval - Click and drag the mouse on the slide to add rectangles and ovals. Hold down the SHIFT key to add squares and circles. Text box - Click to draw a text box on the slide. Word art - Click to add WordArt. [More] Picture - Click to add a clip art image to the slide. Fill color - Choose a fill color for rectangles, ovals, and clip art. Line color - Select a border color for shapes and pictures. Font color - Highlight text on the slide and click the small down arrow next to the Font color icon to select a color. Line style - Highlight a line or arrow that has been drawn and click this button to select a thickness or style for the line. Dash style - Highlight a line or arrow and select a dash style. Arrow style - Change the arrow head style for an existing arrow or change a line to an arrow. Shadow - Select a text box to add shadow to text or choose any other object on the slide to add a drop shadow. 3D - Add a three-dimensional effect to text and other objects.

Adding Clip Art To add a clip art image to a slide, follow these steps:

Select Insert|Picture|Clip Art from the menu bar or click the Picture button on the Drawing toolbar..

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To find an image, click in the white box following Search for clips and enter keywords describing the image you want to find. - OR Click one of the category icons. Click once on the image to want to add to the slide and a selection bar will appear. Click once on the image you want to add to the slide and the following popup menu will appear:

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Insert Clip to add the image to the slide. Preview Clip to view the image full-size before adding it to the slide. Drag the bottom, right corner of the preview window to resize the image

and click the "x" close button to end the preview.

Add Clip to Favorites will add the selected image to your favorites directory that can be chosen from the Insert ClipArt dialog box.  Find Similar Clips will retrieve images similar to the one you have chosen. Click the Close button in the top, right corner of the Insert Clip window to stop adding clip art to the slide.

Add An Image from a File To add a photo or graphic from a file:
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Select Insert|Picture|From File from the menu bar. Click the down arrow button on the right side of the Look in: window to find the image on your computer.

Highlight the file name from the list and click the Insert button.

Editing A Graphic Activate the image you wish to edit by clicking on it once with the mouse. Several handles will appear around the graphic. Click and drag these handles to resize the image. The handles on the corners will resize proportionally while the handles on the straight lines will stretch the image. More picture effects can be changed using the Picture toolbar. Auto Shapes The AutoShapes toolbar allows you to draw a number of geometrical shapes, arrows, flow chart elements, stars, and other graphics on a slide. Activate the AutoShapes toolbar by selecting Insert|Picture|AutoShapes or View|Toolbars|AutoShapes from the menu bar. Click the buttons on the toolbar to view the options for drawing each shape.

Lines - After clicking the Lines button on the AutoShapes toolbar, draw a straight line, arrow, or double-ended arrow from the first row of options by clicking the respective button. Click in the slide where you would like the line to begin and click again where it should end. To draw a curved line or freeform shape, select curved lines from the menu (first and second buttons of second row), click in the slide where the line should appear, and click the mouse every time a curve should begin. End creating the graphic by clicking on the starting end or pressing the ESC key. To scribble, click the last button in the second row, click the mouse in the slide and hold down the left button while you draw the design. Let go of the mouse button to stop drawing. Connectors - Draw these lines to connect flow chart elements. Basic Shapes - Click the Basic Shapes button on the AutoShapes toolbar to select from many two- and three-dimensional shapes, icons, braces, and brackets. Use the drag-and-drop method to draw the shape in the slide. When the shape has been made, it can be resized using the open box handles and other adjustments specific to each shape can be modified using the yellow diamond handles.

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Block Arrows - Select Block Arrows to choose from many types of two- and three-dimensional arrows. Drag-and-drop the arrow in the slide and use the open box and yellow diamond handles to adjust the arrowheads. Each AutoShape can also be rotated by first clicking the Free Rotate button on the drawing toolbar . Click and drag the green handles around the image to rotate it. The tree image below was created from an arrow rotated 90 degrees.

Flow Chart - Choose from the flow chart menu to add flow chart elements to the slide and use the line menu to draw connections between the elements. Stars and Banners - Click the button to select stars, bursts, banners, and scrolls. Call Outs - Select from the speech and thought bubbles, and line call outs. Enter the call out text in the text box that is made.

More AutoShapes - Click the More button to choose from a list of clip art categories.

Each of the submenus on the AutoShapes toolbar can become a separate toolbar. Just click and drag the gray bar across the top of the submenus off of the toolbar and it will become a separate floating toolbar.

WordArt Add headlines in striking colors and shapes to your presentation using Word Art.
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Select Insert|Picture|WordArt from the menu bar or click the Word Art button on the Drawing toolbar. Choose a Word Art style from the listing and click OK.

Enter the text in the Edit WordArt Text box and choose the font, size, and style for the text. Click OK.

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Use the white box handles around the word art to resize it on the slide. Drag the yellow diamond handle to change the shape of the text. To revert back to no shape, double-click the

Action Buttons Use the action button toolbar to add functioning buttons to slides in a presentation.

Select Slide Show|Action Buttons from the menu bar. Click the bar across the top of the button menu and drag it off the menu so it becomes a floating toolbar.

Click one of the button faces and draw the button on the slide using the mouse. The Action Settings menu will then appear.

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Set the actions under either the Mouse Click or Mouse Over tabs. Actions specified for Mouse Click will execute when the button is clicked on the slide while actions for Mouse Over will occur when the mouse pointer hovers over the button. Select an action for the button by choosing a Hyperlink to destination. If you want a sound to be played when the button is clicked, check the Play sound box and choose a sound from the drop-down menu.

Click OK when finished.

The button on the slide can be resized using the white box handles and the depth of the button can be changed by dragging the yellow diamond.

Slide Animation Several animations for slide objects are available through the drop-down menus on the menu bar. First, select the text box or graphic that will be animated. Select Slide Show|Preset Animation and choose from one of the options. To select a different animation or turn the animation off, select the appropriate choice from the same menu. For more options, follow the procedure below:

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Select Slide Show|Custom Animation from the menu bar. Select the object on the slide that will be animated from the Check to animate slide objects list. Under the Effects tab, select the animation type (or select "No Effect" to turn an animation off) and direction from the drop-down menus and select a sound if you wish. Select an After animation effect if the text should change colors after the animation executes.  Color palette - Select one of the color swatches or click More Colors for a larger selection. The text will change to the selected color when the mouse is clicked during the slide show.

Don't Dim - This option erases all After Animation effects. Hide After Animation - Text will be immediately erased after the animation is completed.  Hide on Next Mouse click - The text will be erased when the mouse is clicked. Choose the style of displaying the text under the Introduce text section. The drop-down menu provides options for displaying the characters for each bulleted item. Select "All at once" for the text to appear immediately, "by Word" for the text to appear one word at a time, or "by Letter" for a typewriter effect that displays one letter at a time. Click the Order & Timing tab to alter the order that the objects appear on the slide. Highlight the object in the Animation order box and click the Move arrows to move the object's position within the animation sequence. Under Start animation, choose "On mouse click" to activate the animation by clicking the mouse or "Automatically" for the animation to execute after a set number of seconds.
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Click the Preview button at any time to preview the animation on the slide and click OK when finished.

Animation Preview Select Slide Show|Animation Preview from the menu bar to view the Animation Preview window. Click anywhere within this window with the mouse to preview the animations that have been set. To hide the window, click the x close button in the top, right corner.

Slide Transitions Add transition effects when changing slides by following these steps:

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Select Slide Show|Slide Transition from the menu bar. From the Effect section, choose a transition from the drop-down menu and notice the preview after the transition is selected. Select a speed for the transition as well. Under Advance, check "On mouse click" for the slide transition to occur by clicking the mouse or using keystrokes or check "Automatically after" and a number of seconds if the transition should occur automatically. Select a Sound if necessary and check the Loop until next sound if it should keep repeating until the next sound is played. Click Apply to All if the transition effects should be added to every slide or Apply if the effects should be added only to the current slide.

Slide Show Options Select Tools|Options and click the View tab to choose from several more slide show options.

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Popup menu on right mouse click - Check this box if you want to be able to access the shortcut menu during a presentation. Show popup menu button - Check this box to activate the menu button that appears in the bottom, left corner of the screen during a presentation. End with black slide - Insert a blank, black slide to the end of the presentation.

Slide Master
Change the style of all slides in the presentation by changing the properties on the Slide Master. Each Design Template has its own Slide Master that can be altered. If you create slides from scratch, a consistent style can be added to the presentation by formatting the Slide Master.

Select View|Master|Slide Master from the menu bar.

Format the master slide just as you would format a regular slide by formatting text, formatting lists, adding background patterns and effects, and setting footers. Click the Close button on the Master toolbar to quit editing the master slide and return to the presentation.

Headers and Footers Add the date and time, slide numbers, and other footer text to the master slide from the Header and Footer window.

Select View|Header and Footer... from the menu bar.

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Check the Date and time box to add this feature to the slide. Select Update automatically to always display the current date and time or click Fixed and enter a date that will not change in the text field provided. Check the Slide number box to add this feature to the slides. Click the Footer box and add other text to the footer area of the slide. Check the Don't show on title slide box to hide these features on the title slide of the presentation. Click the Notes and Handouts tab to make the same changes to notes and handouts pages. Click Apply to All to add the changes to every slide or Apply to add only to the current slide.

Slide Numbers To add the slide numbers in a fixed position on the slide, use the Header and Footer window detailed above. The slide number can otherwise be added anywhere on the slide by placing the cursor where the slide number should appear and selecting Insert|Slide Number from the menu bar. The text of the slide number can the formatting just as regular text style is changed. Date and Time A date and/or time can also be added using the Header and Footer window or anywhere else on the slide. Place the cursor where the date and time should appear on the slide and select Insert|Date and Time from the menu bar. Select a format from the Available formats box and click Update automatically if this feature should always be updated to reflect the current date and time. Click OK to finish.

Save as Web Page Presentations can be saved by selecting File|Save from the menu bar. However, if you want to post Power Point presentations on the Internet, you may want to save them as web pages so students and other visitors to your web site can view the presentation even if they do not have Power Point installed on their computers. Select File|Save As Web Page from the menu bar. Choose your web page directory on the network from the Look in: drop-down menu and name the file in the File name: box. Click Save to save the presentation in web format.

Page Setup
Select File|Page Setup from the menu bar to access options for printing the presentation slides. Select the format the printed slides will be used for from the Slides sized for drop-down menu or enter a specific print size using the Width and Height boxes. Select the page orientation for the slides and for other print material from the presentation in the Orientation section.

Print Select File|Print from the menu bar to print the presentation.

Print range - Select All to print all the slides in the presentation, Current slide to print only the current slide, or enter slide numbers in the Slides field to print only certain slides. Copies - Enter the number of copies of each slide specified in Print range and check the Collate box if necessary. Print What    

Slides prints a full-page slide on each page. Handouts prints as many slides as you designate on each page. Notes Page prints one slide with that slide's notes on each page Outline view prints the outline of the presentation

Click OK to print.

Keyboard shortcuts can save time and the effort of switching from the keyboard to the mouse to execute simple commands. Print this list of Power Point keyboard shortcuts and keep it by your computer for a quick reference.

Note: A plus sign indicates that the keys need to be pressed at the same time. Action Keystroke Document actions Open a presentation New presentation Save As Save Print Help CTRL+O CTRL+N F12 CTRL+S CTRL+P F1 Presentation actions Begin slide show Next slide F5 ENTER or Down arrow key BACKSPACE or Up arrow key CTRL+P E CTRL+A W A ESC Find Replace Insert hyperlink New slide Spell checker Macros Select all Copy Cut Paste Undo Redo Bold Italics Underline Left justified Center justified Right justified Promote list item Demote list item Action Keystroke Formatting CTRL+A CTRL+C CTRL+X CTRL+V CTRL+Z CTRL+Y CTRL+B CTRL+I CTRL+U CTRL+L CTRL+E CTRL+R ALT+SHIFT+Left arrow ALT+SHIFT+Right arrow or TAB

Previous slide Activate pen tool Erase pen strokes Deactivate pen tool Show/Hide white screen Show/Hide pointer & button End slide show

Editing CTRL+F CTRL+H CTRL+K CTRL+M F7 ALT+F8

Show/Hide black screen B

Run the slide show and press the F1 key to view all keyboard shortcuts applicable when running a slide show.

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