Chapter 7: Direct Retainers 1) How is mechanical retention in a RPD accomplished? -- Direct retainers engage abutment tooth.

2) What factor other than retention contributes to resistance of the denture to dislodging forces? -- Stability and support provided by major/minor connectors, rests, and tissue bases. 3) What is the function of a direct retainer (clasp)? -- Prevent movement away from teeth/tissue. 4) What are the two types of direct retainers -- Intracoronal (fits inside the abutment tooth) and extracoronal (clasp). 5) Describe how intracoronal and extracoronal retainers work? -- Intracoronal: Internal or precision attachment that consists of machined key and keyway that sits inside the crown of the tooth. -- Extracoronal: Involves components placed on the external surfaces of the abutment tooth. Clasp type engages undercut. Dalbo type has interlocking or spring loaded component. Manufactured attachment uses clips or rings that engage component attached to the abutment tooth. 6) What is the “Height of Contour?” -- The line around an abutment tooth circumscribing the greatest circumference of the tooth. 7) What is the Angle of cervical convergence? -- Depth of the Undercut. The angle formed between a vertical rod placed against the surface of the tooth and the axial surface below the height of the contour. 8) Do the components of a direct retainer that perform the functions of 1. Support by a rest, 2. Stabilization-reciprocation, and 3. Retention, all have to come from a common source? -- No 9) Flexibility is permitted for which component of the clasp assembly? -- The clasp arm. (The arm that engages an undercut). 10) The amount of retention a direct retainer can generate depends on what 3 factors? -- Flexibility of the clasp arm, angle of cervical convergence and, how far the clasp terminal is placed into the undercut. 11) Flexibility of the retentive arm depends on 4 physical and compositional factors. Name them. -- Length of clasp arm, Diameter of clasp arm, cross-sectional form of clasp arm, and material used for clasp arm. 12) Which is more important for retention, the relation of the tip of the retentive arm to the height of contour or its depth in the angle of cervical convergence? -- Depth in angle of cervical convergence. 13) Describe the proportional tapers of a cast, half-round retentive arm. -- Uniform taper (lengthwise and widthwise) from attachment to tip. Diameter at the tip is half as much as the diameter at attachment point. 14) Describe the taper of a cast half-round reciprocating-stabilizing arm. -- Tapered only in 1 dimension (lengthwise) Overall diameter is larger than retentive arm since it is not designed to flex.

16) Where does a bar clasp approaches an undercut from the ____? Circumferential ______? -.All directions equally.? 27) What factors are important to determine clasp retention and design? -. -.Bar clasp approaches undercut from the gingival. -. 19) Which is more flexible Gold or CrCo retentive arms? -. -. -.Clasp must encircle 181° of the tooth. -.Circumferential.TRUE 26) T/F: The location of a usable undercut is perhaps the most important single factor in selecting a clasp for a distal extension RPD. Reciprocal arm must be in contact with the tooth while retainer arm is being deformed. unless guiding planes will control the path of insertion/removal and stabilize abutments against rotational movements.The path of escapement for each retentive clasp terminal must be other than parallel to the path of removal for the RPD to require clasp engagement with the . -. 23) What happens if the clasp assembly encompasses less than 180° of a tooth? -.Away from the tooth (duh!) 21) A wrought-wire (round) clasp arm will flex in which directions? -.15) Name the two types of retentive clasp arms. circumferential approaches undercut from occlusal. 17) T/F: A clasp assembly may be a combination of cast circumferential and bar clasp arms and/or wrought-wire retention in one of several combinations? -.The occlusal rest must prevent movement of clasp arms toward the gingival. May cause a temporary tipping force during placement.Clasp retainers should avoid transmitting tipping forces to abutments.Designed to resist tooth movements when retainer arm is deformed around tooth during engagement of undercut. a bar clasp arm or a half-round circumferential clasp arm? -. -. -. 22) Explain reciprocation. 24) skip (see pg. -. 95 for picture) 25) T/F: Clasp retainers on abutment teeth adjacent to distal extension bases should be designed so that they will minimize direct transmission of tipping and rotational forces to the abutment.Each retentive terminal should be opposed by a reciprocal component capable of resisting any transient pressures exerted by the retentive arm during placement and dislodgment of the RPD.Gold 20) Cast clasp arms are a half-round shaped.TRUE 18) Which arm is more flexible.Retentive clasps should be bilaterally opposed (buccal retention on one side of arch should have buccal retention on other side of arch). In which direction do they flex? -.Tooth can move independently of retainer or vice versa.Cirumferential (encircles tooth) and Bar clasps (discontinuous contact).

Used in unmodified class II or III (no edentulous spaces on one side). 30) What observations would lead to the selection of a bar-type clasp? -.use on abutment teeth for tooth-supported RPDs -.Adjustable table 34) What are the six factors that determine the amount of retention a clasp can generate? -.Cross-sectional form of the clasp arm -. 36) What are the six basic principles of design for an extracoronal retainer. The terminal end of the retentive arm is optimally placed in the gingival third of the crown.Retention .Adjustability of the RPD.Vertical arm -. 31) What is a combination clasp and what are the indications for use? -.When esthetics are a concern and a cast clasp is indicated.Length of the clasp arm -. -. 28) When do you use circumferential embrasure clasps? What are the disadvantages? -. Especially if future adjustments are expected or precise retentive features are not available.01) in cervical third. Should use two occlusal rests to prevent the teeth from spreading apart.Consists of a wrought-wire retentive clasp arm and a cast reciprocal arm clasp arm. Have to find a balance.Stabilizing/reciprocating arm 35) How does tilting the cast affect the selected areas available for clasp retention. Combination clasps are used when flexibility is desired such as on weak abutment teeth adjacent to edentulous spaces and where an I bar is contraindicated.The amount of retention should always be the minimum necessary to retain the RPD. -. -. -. -.Small degree of undercut (.Diameter of the clasp arm -.Esthetics are higher than a cast clasp since the wire can be made smaller without the risk of fracture associated with a clasp.In distal extension bases -.Size of the angle of cervical convergence.Flexibility of wire retentive arm -. -.Tilting the cast increases the angle of cervical convergence at some points and decreases them at other.All tooth supported dentures. 29) What are the indications for use of a cast circumferential direct retainer? -. -. and How far the clasp sits into the angle of cervical convergence -. -. Retentive arm is usually a circumferential clasp but can be a bar. 33) Name the essential parts of a dental surveyor. Disadvantages : Must widen area in occlusal third contact area of two teeth for common body of clasp to pass through. 32) State three advantages of the combination clasp.Type of metal used. Common body area is prone to fracture. Approach from gingival.Reciprocal elements of the claps assembly should be located at the junction of the gingival and middle thirds of the crowns of abutment teeth. the pgp wire is more esthetic than a cast clasp. Also.resistance to deformation that is retention. -.

) -. (RPIs are designed to limit the rotational forces of distal extension bases on the abutment teeth by by being flexible or disengaging from the teeth. thus the teeth or tooth is loaded more than the edentulous ridge. 40) Why should retentive clasps in class I be bilaterally opposed? -.Stabilization -. (See fig. Amount of retention achieved is more important than location of the undercut.Location of the retentive arm ( should be located in the gingival third of the buccal surface of the abutment in a .Yes.Both clasp arms made retentive -.Support -. Name them.Terminal portion of clasp arm too close to gingival margin.? Vertical stop -.The location of the rest (mesially on the primary abutment teeth.01 undercut. 103) -. 7-23 and 7-24 on pg.Undesirable height of contour (occlusal 1/3) -.Either.Unsuitable location of retentive arm on unmodified abutment -.Helps control the path of insertion and removal and stabilize abutments against rotational movements when guiding planes are not used. should the retention be bilaterally or diametrically opposed? -. 43) How does the amount of contact of the minor connector proximal plate with the corresponding guiding plane in the RPI system influence the way stress is transferred to the abutment tooth and the residual ridge? -. 38) Would you agree that the most important factor in selecting a type of direct retainer for a distal extension base is the location of the undercut? -. If the proximal plate only extends from the marginal ridge to the junction of the middle and gingival thirds.By extending the proximal plate to contact greater surface area of guide planes directs functional forces in horizontal direction. the tooth and edentulous ridge will be loaded more equally. Guiding planes assist with the placement of the RPD but they also can limit rotation of abutment teeth.Reciprocation -. (see drawing pg. 41) In a class III partial. -.The design of the minor connector (extend the entire length of the proximal tooth surface or from the marginal ridge to the jxn of the middle and gingival thirds of the proximal tooth surface. 96) . 42) Differentiate between 3 basic approaches to the application of the RPI retainer system. Makes the lever less effective) -.? No.? Esthetics 37) Common errors of circumferential clasp design. This helps to balance forces.-. 39) Do guiding planes also contribute to retention? -.

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