Distillation and Alcohol Production Application

Distillation and Alcohol Production Applicaiton

Distillation and Alcohol Production Application 
  

 

Distillation process Types of distillation Distillation equipments and properties of them Alcohol production Distillation of alcohol Types of alcohol distillation

Distillation    

Distillation is a kind of seperation technique of two or more volatile liquid compunds by using the difference in boiling points and relative volatility. The process takes place in a column, and two heat exchangers. In the column two phases, liquid and gas, are distributed to enrich the vapor in more volatile compounds and enrich the liquid phase on less volatile compounds. Mass transfer is the key to a successful distillation.

If components to be separated have a high relative volatility difference and are thermally stable. such as water. present in small concentrations. and low risk. low capital investment.Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages  Disadvantages  It has simple flowsheet. from large volumes of a carrier. distillation is hard to beat. . It may not be attractive when azeotropes are involved or when it is necessary to separate high boiling components. Distillation has a low energy efficiency and requires thermal stability of compounds at their boiling points.

Types of Distillation Continous Distillation  Batch Distillation  Semi-Batch Distillation  .

(reflux) . Liquid mixture runs down the column while vapor goes up. Then vapor is partially condensed to earn back the less volatile compounds to the column to seperate as bottom product.Continous Distillation     The mixture which is to be seperated is fed to column at one or more points. Vapor is produced by partial vaporisation of the mixture which is heated in reboiler.

Batch Distillation    The oldest operation used for seperation of liquid mixtures. to be processed.where includes reboiler. . Feed is fed from bottom. Numbers of accumulator tanks are connected to collect the main and the intermediate distillate fractions.

Semi-batch Distillation    Semi-batch distillation is very similar to batch distillation. . Feed is introduced to column in a continous or semi-continous mode. It is suitable for extractive and reactive distillations.

One sequence of operation is enough to seperate all the components in a mixture. .Comparsion of Distillation Types   For batch distillation. it is enough to use only one column to seperate multicomponent liquid mixture.   For continous distillation. more than one columns are necessary to be used. to seperate multicomponent liquid mixtures. One column is dedicated to seperate a specific mixture and specific operation.

Equipment Designs   Plate Columns (Tray Columns) Packed Beds .

.Plate Columns (Tray Columns)    It is the most widely used kind of distillation column. Trays are shaped to maximize the liquid-vapor contact and increase the mass transfer area. valve and bubble cap. Tray types include sieve.

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. Higher pressure drops than packed columns Foaming can occur because the liquid is agitated by the vapor flowing up through it.6m The liquid-vapor contact in the cross-flow of plate columns is more effective than countercurrent-flow in packed columns. Cooling coils can be easily added to the plate column Can handle high liquid flow rates.Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages   Disadvantages     Least expensive colum for diameters greater than 0.

Packed Beds     Packings can be provided either as dumped or stacked. resistance of packing against corrosion. Stacked packing is includes meshwork which has the same diameter with the column. resistence to flow. Dumped packing consistutes of bulk inert materials. . Important criterias for packings are efficent contact (liquid-vapor). flow capacity.

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Advantages & Disadvantages     When the diameter is less than 0. Good for thermally sensitive liquids. Packing is able to handle corrosive materials. .6m it is less expensive than the plate column. Not cost efficient for high liquid flow rates. Lower pressure drop than in plate columns. Contact efficiencies are decreased when the liquid flow rate is too low.    Can break during installation or due to thermal expansion.

generally can be created by reduction of aldehydes or twice reduction of ketones. .Making of Alcohol    Alcohols. Ethanol (C2H5OH) can produced by fermantation of molases. Fermantation is done in a tank and it is cleaned and sterilized before the fermantation begins.

Consequently it must be dilluted to concentration of %17 sugar.   Molases have strong concentration of sugar which doesn't provide the adequate conditions for fermantation.0. Fermantated molases is called beer and it contains %6.0 and 5. and optimum temperature is 76°F(25°C). .5 to %11 alcohol by volume. Optimum enviromental pH range is between 4.

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Distillation of Alcohol    Under 1 athmosphere pressure boiling points of water and alcohol are 100°C and 78. bubble cap trays and tray columns are mostly used in alcohol distillation. As distillation equipments.3°C.(Figure on left) . Water and ethyl alcohol mixture forms an azeotrope in athmospheric pressure at a mole fraction of %89.6 w. it cannot be purified more than %95.4 of ethyl alcohol which means that by simple distillation of ethyl alcohol.

when almost all alcohol is boiled.Pot Distillation Process (Batch Distillation)  Entire batch of beer is heated in a large container and alcohol/water vapors are chanelled into a distillation column.  . After all the boiling and reflux operations. process is stopped and stillage is removed.

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Fermantation and boiling for distillation can take place at the same pot. It has simple equipment system. which makes it more practical The disadvantage of the pot distillation is low distillation efficiency. . It requires about three times more energy comparing to continous distillation.  The basic advantage of pot distillation is its simplicity.

. Flow rate is decreased by trays. The vapor with high alcohol percent leaves the condenser to be collected in accumulator. Alcohol/liquid mixture is fed to column and it flows.Continous-Feed Distillation Process      Typically it is also known as continous distillation. Mixture boils up in the reboiler and goes up of the column to condenser as it contacts with the condensed liquid.

On the other hand it can operate for long hours (almost 8000 hours per annum) The disadvantage of continous feed distillation is it needs a little more complicated equipment system comparing to the batch distillation. Eventually amount of energy required for per liter of alcohol is less than in pot distillation. .  The advantage of the continous feed distillation process is it's high energy efficiency comparing to the pot distillation process.

.  At a pressure below 0.1 athmosphere azeotrope disappears and enables to distillate to almost 100 percent alcohol.Vacuum Distillation  Low temperature allows us to achieve higher alcohol concentrations.

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. low energy efficiency. vacuum distillation appears to be uneconomical in the commercial applications. Because of the high operation and installation costs.

Mixture is fed to another distillation column which seperates it into a top product and a bottom product. A solvent (pentane. System is hard to design and it is more complicated comparing to ordinary distillation system. gasoline etc.) is added to distillation product comming out of the usual distillation column. . Distillate of this column is fed to a third column which distills out the solvent leaving the mixture of alcoholwater.Azeotropic Distillation       This type of distillation is used for processes that produce almost 100 percent alcohol with help of an organic solvent and two additional distillations. Solvent is recycled and never gets out.

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