This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
B.TECH ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION BATCH 2006-2010
TATA TELESERVICES LTD
VAISHALI NAGAR JAIPUR
Mr. RAHUL SHARMA
(Dy. MANAGER TECHNOLOGY
TATA TELESERVICES LTD.)
TATA TELESERVICES LTD.
Communications is the Tata Group`s largest investment. The Group`s objective is to
provide end-to-end telecommunications solutions for business and residential
customers across the nation as well as across international arena. The Group`s
communications activities are currently spread over four companies primarily i.e. Tata
Teleservices Limited (TTSL) and its associate Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra)
Limited (TTML), Tata Communication (erstwhile VSNL) and Tata Sky. Together,
these companies cover the full range of communications services, including:
Telephony Services: Fixed and Mobile
Media and Entertainment Services: Satellite TV
Data Services: Leased Lines, Managed Data Networks, IP/MPLS VPN, Dial-
up Internet, Wi-Fi and Broadband
Value-Added Services: Mobile and Broadband Content/Applications, Calling
Cards, Net Telephony and Managed Services
Infrastructure Services: Submarine Cable Bandwidth, Terrestrial Fibre
Network and Satellite Earth Stations and VSAT Connectivity
Baard af Ð/rectars. The ///astr/aas Baard af Ð/rectars af TTSL /s:-
1. Mr. Ratan N. Tata (Chairman)
2. Mr. Arunkumar R. Gandhi
3. Mr. Nadir Godrej
4. Prof. Ashok Jhunjhunwala
5. Mr. N. S. Ramachandran
6. Mr. S. Ramadorai
7. Mr. Anil Sardana
8. Dr. Mukund Rajan (Managing Director)
The Company`s Board comprises a total of 8 Directors, seven (87.5%) of them are
Non-Executive, and three (37.5%) of them are Independent Directors. The Chairman
is a Non-Executive Director. The Company is managed by the Managing Director
under the supervision and control of the Board. The Managing Director is assisted by
a team of highly qualified and experienced professionals.
Tata Teleservices is part of the INR Rs. 2, 51,543 Crore Tata Group that has over 80
companies, over 3, 30,000 employees and more than 3.2 million shareholders. With a
committed investment of INR 36,000 Crore (US$ 7.5 billion) in Telecom (FY 2006),
the Group has a formidable presence across the telecom value chain.
Tata Teleservices spearheads the Group`s presence in the telecom sector. Incorporated
in 1996, Tata Teleservices was the first to launch CDMA mobile services in India
with the Andhra Pradesh circle.
Beginning with its acquisition of Hughes Telecom (India) Limited in December 2002
[now renamed Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra) Limited], which provides services in
the Mumbai and Rest of Maharashtra telecom circles, the company has swung into
expansion mode and currently has a pan-India state-of-the-art network.
Having pioneered the CDMA 2000 technology platform in India, Tata Teleservices
has established a 3G-ready robust and reliable telecom infrastructure in partnership
with Motorola, Ericsson and Lucent. The company has also received the license from
the Department of Telecommunications to launch GSM services as well. With this
launch set for early 2009, TTSL is on the threshold of emerging as a true-play dual
technology telecom operator.
In November 2008, Tata Teleservices entered into an agreement with Japanese
telecom major NTT DOCOMO, as part of which the Japanese company acquired a
26% stake in TTSL for USD 2.7 billion. The transaction marks a key step in the
strategic evolution of Tata Teleservices, as it moves towards a pan-India dual network
presence. On a broader level, the transaction is also expected to mark the beginning of
a relationship of broader co-operation between Tata companies and the Nippon
Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT).
The potential benefits and synergies from the alliance with DOCOMO cut across
marketing, handset development and technical support, all of which are expected to
create new opportunities for both companies. The alliance will also accelerate Tata
Teleservices` GSM plans and help the company penetrate the market with advanced
technology and new VAS offerings.
Tata Teleservices` bouquet of telephony services includes mobile services, wireless
desktop phones, and public booth telephony and wireline services. Other services
include value-added services such as voice portal, roaming, post-paid Internet
services, 3-way conferencing, group calling, Wi-Fi Internet, USB Modem, data cards,
calling card services and enterprise services.
Some of the other products launched by the company include prepaid wireless
desktop phones, public phone booths, new mobile handsets and new voice and data
services such as BREW games, voice portal, picture messaging, facebook, M
commerce applications, polyphonic ring tones, interactive applications like news,
cricket, astrology, etc.
With the entry of new service providers, competition in the market is substantially
increasing. The increased choice available to customers leads to additional time and
effort on the part of service providers to acquire and retain the customers, thereby
creating increasing pressures on the service providers to retain valuable, trained
human resources; the offer of higher monetary compensation by other operators and
other service sectors like retail and media have also increased the challenge of
retaining the employees. In this environment, the Company has been working towards
institutionalizing a performance oriented culture. The HR systems e.g. recruitment,
performance management system, and rewards and recognition, have been aligned
with the business objectives of the Company. The Company attaches considerable
importance to training and employee development with a focus on customer
sensitivity, processes and ISO training. A regular communication channel is
maintained with the employees through Town halls, Departmental meets and other
Statement af Campany's Ph//asaphy an Carparate Garernance
The Company believes in setting the highest standards in good and ethical corporate
governance practices. As a part of the Tata Group, the Company has a strong legacy
of fair, transparent and ethical governance practices. The Company`s Board of
Directors (herein referred to as 'the Board`) has deployed a Code of Conduct for its
senior management including the Managing Director. The Company has also adopted
a Code of Conduct for its Non-Executive Directors. These Codes are available on the
website of the Company i.e. www.tataindicom.com. The Company`s corporate
governance philosophy has been further strengthened through the Tata Code of
Conduct for Prevention of Insider Trading and Code of Corporate Disclosure
TATA Cade af Candact
The major salutary principles of the Tata Code of Conduct are:
Conduct of business in consonance with national interest;
Fair and accurate presentation of financial statements;
Being an Equal Opportunities employer;
Prohibition on taking of gifts and donations, which can be perceived to obtain
business or uncompetitive favours;
Practicing political non-alignment;
Maintaining quality of products and services;
Being a good Corporate Citizen;
Ethical conduct; and
Commitment to enhancement of shareholder value.
The Company has devised a formal Risk Management Framework for risk assessment
and minimisation. Further, the Company assesses the risk management framework
every year. The scope of the Audit Committee includes review of the Company`s
financial and risk management policies.
THE INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE
EVOLUTION OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGY
Mobile telephony dates back to 1920s, when several police departments in the United
States began to use radiotelephony, albeit on an experimental basis. Although the
technology at the time had had some success with maritime vessels, it was not
particularly suited to on-land communication. The equipment was extremely bulky
and the radio technology did not deal very well with buildings and other obstacles
found in cities. Therefore, the experiment remained just an experiment.
Further progress was made in the 1930s with the development of frequency
modulation (FM), which helped in battlefield communications during the Second
World War. These developments were carried over to peacetime, and limited mobile
telephony service became available in the 1940s in some large cities. Such systems
were of limited capacity, however, and it took many years for mobile telephone to
become a viable commercial product.
H/stary af F/rst-Generat/an Systems
Mobile communications as we know it today really started in the late 1970s, with the
implementation of a trial system in Chicago in 1978. The system used a technology
known as Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), operating in the 800-MHz band.
For numerous reasons, however, including the break-up of AT&T, it took a few years
before a commercial system was launched in the United States. That launch occurred
in Chicago in 1983, with other cities following rapidly.
Meanwhile, however, other countries were making progress, and a commercial AMPS
system was launched in Japan in 1979. The Europeans also were active in mobile
communications technology, and the first European system was launched in 1981 in
Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland. The European system used a technology
known as Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), operating in the 450-MHz band. Later, a
version of NMT was developed to operate in the 900-MHz band and was known (not
surprisingly) as NMT900. Not to be left out, the British introduced yet another
technology in 1985. This technology is known as the Total Access Communications
System (TACS) and operates in the 900-MHz band. TACS is basically a modified
version of AMPS.
Many other countries followed along, and soon mobile communications services
spread across the globe. Although several other technologies were developed,
particularly in Europe, AMPS, NMT (both variants), and TACS were certainly the
most successful technologies. These are the main first-generation systems and they
are still in service today. First-generation systems experienced success far greater than
anyone had expected.
In fact, this success exposed one of the weaknesses in the technologies-limited
capacity. Of course, the systems were able to handle large numbers of subscribers, but
when the subscribers started to number in the millions, cracks started to appear,
particularly since subscribers tend to be densely clustered in metropolitan areas.
Limited capacity was not the only problem, however, and other problems such as
fraud became a major concern. Consequently, significant effort was dedicated to the
development of second-generation systems.
H/stary af Secand-Generat/an Systems
Unlike first-generation systems, which are analog, second-generation systems are
digital. The use of digital technology has a number of advantages, including increased
capacity, greater security against fraud, and more advanced services.
Like first-generation systems, various types of second-generation technology have
been developed. The three most successful variants of second-generation technology
are Interim Standard 136 (IS-136) TDMA, IS-95 CDMA, and the Global System for
Mobile communications (GSM). Each of these came about in very different ways.
IS-54B and IS-136 IS-136 came about through a two-stage evolution from analog
AMPS. As described in more detail later, AMPS is a frequency division multiple
access (FDMA) system, with each channel occupying 30 KHz. Some of the channels,
known as control channels, are dedicated to control signalling and some, known as
voice channels, are dedicated to carrying the actual voice conversation.
The first step in digitizing this system was the introduction of digital voice channels.
This step involved the application of time division multiplexing (TDM) to the voice
channels such that each voice channel was divided into time slots, enabling up to
three simultaneous conversations on the same RF channel. This stage in the evolution
was known as IS-54 B (also known as Digital AMPS or D-AMPS) and it obviously
gives a significant capacity boost compared to analog AMPS. IS-54 B was introduced
Note that IS-54 B involves digital voice channels only, and still uses analog control
channels. Thus, although it may offer increased capacity and some other advantages,
the fact that the control channel is analog does limit the number of services that can be
offered. For that reason, among others, the next obvious step was to make the control
channels also digital. That step took place in 1994 with the development of IS-136, a
system that includes digital control channels and digital voice channels.
Today AMPS, IS-54B, and IS-136 are all in service. AMPS and IS-54 operate only in
the 800-MHz band, whereas IS-136 can be found both in the 800-MHz band and in
the 1900-MHz band, at least in North America. The 1900-MHz band in North
America is allocated to Personal Communications Service (PCS), which can be
described as a family of second-generation mobile communications services.
GSM Although NMT had been introduced in Europe as recently as 1981, the
Europeans soon recognized the need for a pan-European digital system. There were
many reasons for this, but a major reason was the fact that multiple incompatible
analog systems were being deployed across Europe. It was understood that a single
Europe-wide digital system could enable seamless roaming between countries as well
as features and capabilities not possible with analog systems. Consequently, in 1982,
the Conference on European Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT) embarked on
developing such a system. The organization established a group called (in French)
Group Spéciale Mobile (GSM). This group was assigned the necessary technical work
involved in developing this new digital standard. Much work was done over several
years before the newly created European Telecommunications Standards Institute
(ETSI) took over the effort in 1989. Under ETSI, the first set of technical
specifications was finalized, and the technology was given the same name as the
group that had originally begun the work on its development-GSM.
The first GSM network was launched in 1991, with several more launched in 1992.
International roaming between the various networks quickly followed. GSM was
hugely successful and soon, most countries in Europe had launched GSM service.
Furthermore, GSM began to spread outside Europe to countries as far away as
Australia. It was clear that GSM was going to be more than just a European system; it
was going to be global.
Consequently, the letters GSM have taken on a new meaning-Global System for
Mobile communications. Initially, GSM was specified to operate only in the 900-
MHz band, and OST of the GSM networks in service use this band. There are,
however, other frequency bands used by GSM technology. The first implementation
of GSM at a different frequency happened in the United Kingdom in 1993. That
service was initially known as DCS1800 since it operates in the 1800-MHz band.
These days, however, it is known as GSM1800. After all, it really is just GSM
operating at 1800 MHz. Subsequently, GSM was introduced to North America as one
of the technologies to be used for PCS-that is, at 1900 MHz. In fact, the very first
PCS network to be launched in North America used GSM technology.
IS-95 CDMA Although they have significant differences, both IS-136 and GSM use
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). This means that individual radio channels
are divided into timeslots, enabling a number of users to share a single RF channel on
a time-sharing basis. For several reasons, this technique offers an increase in capacity
compared to an analog system where each radio channel is dedicated to a single
conversation. TDMA is not the only system that enables multiple users to share a
given radio frequency, however. A number of other options exist-most notably Code
Division Multiple Access (CDMA).
F/gare: IS-A/B s/mp//f/ed system arch/tectare
CDMA is a technique whereby all users share the same frequency at the same time.
Obviously, since all users share the same frequency simultaneously, they all interfere
with each other. The challenge is to pick out the signal of one user from all of the
other signals on the same frequency. This can be done if the signal from each user is
modulated with a unique code sequence, where the code bit rate is far higher than the
bit rate of the information being sent. At the receiving end, knowledge of the code
sequence being used for a given signal allows the signal to be extracted.
Although CDMA had been considered for commercial mobile communications
services by several bodies, it was never considered a viable technology until 1989
when a CDMA system was demonstrated by Qualcomm in San Diego, California. At
the time, great claims were made about the potential capacity improvement compared
to AMPS, as well as the potential improved voice quality and simplified system
planning. Many people were impressed with these claims and the Qualcomm CDMA
system was standardized as IS-95 in 1993 by the U.S. Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA). Since then, many IS-95 CDMA systems have been deployed,
particularly in North America and Korea. Although some of the initial claims
regarding capacity improvements were perhaps a little overstated, IS-95 CDMA is
certainly a significant improvement over AMPS and has had significant success. In
North America, IS-95 CDMA has been deployed in the 800-MHz band and a
variation known as J-STD-008 has been deployed in the 1900-MHz band.
CDMA is unique to wireless mobility in that it spreads the energy of the RF carrier as
a direct function of the chip rate that the system operates at. The CDMA system
utilizing the Qualcomm technology utilizes a chip rate of 1.228 MHz. The chip rate is
the rate, at which the initial data stream, the original information, is encoded and then
modulated. The chip rate is the data rate output of the PN generator of the CDMA
system. A chip is simply a portion of the initial data or message that is encoded
through use of a XOR process.
The receiving system also must despread the signal utilizing the exact same PN code
sent through an XOR gate that the transmitter utilized in order to properly decode the
initial signal. If the PN generator utilized by the receiver is different or is not in
synchronization with the transmitter`s PN generator, then the information being
transmitted will never be properly received and will be unintelligible. Figure 1-1
represents a series of data that is encoded, transmitted, and then decoded back to the
original data stream for the receiver to utilize.
Figure: CDMA PN Coding
The Path ta Th/rd-Generat/an Techna/agy
In many ways, second-generation systems have come about because of fundamental
weaknesses in first-generation technologies. First-generation technologies have
limited system capacity, they have very little protection against fraud, they are subject
to easy eavesdropping, and they have little to offer in terms of advanced features.
Second-generation systems are designed to address all of these issues, and they have
done a very successful job.
Systems like IS-95, GSM, and IS-136 are much more secure; they also offer higher
capacity and more calling features. They are, however, still optimized for voice
service and they are not well suited to data communications.
In the current environment of the Internet, electronic commerce, and multimedia
communications, limited support for data communications is a serious drawback.
Although subscribers want to talk as much as ever, they now want to communicate in
a myriad of new ways, such as e-mail, instant messaging, the World Wide Web, and
so on. Not only do subscribers want these services, they want mobility too. To
provide all of these capabilities means that new advanced technology is required-
The need for third-generation mobile communications technology was recognized on
many different fronts, and various organizations began to the address the issue as far
back as the 1980s. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) was heavily
involved and the work within the ITU was originally known as Future Public Land
Mobile Telecommunications Systems (FPLMTS). Given the fact, however, that this
acronym is difficult to pronounce, it was subsequently renamed International Mobile
The IMT-2000 effort within the ITU has led to a number of recommendations. These
recommendations address areas such as user bandwidth (144 Kbps for mobile service,
and up to 2 Mbps for fixed service), richness of service offerings (multimedia
services), and flexibility (networks that can support small or large numbers of
subscribers). The recommendations also specify that IMT-2000 should operate in the
2-GHz band. In general, however, the ITU recommendations are mainly a set of
requirements and do not specify the detailed technical solutions to meet the
requirements. To address the technical solutions, the ITU has solicited technical
proposals from interested organizations, and then selected/approved some of those
proposals. In 1998, numerous air interface technical proposals were submitted. These
were reviewed by the ITU, which in 1999 selected five technologies for terrestrial
service (non-satellite based). The five technologies are:
Wideband CDMA (WCDMA)
CDMA 2000 (an evolution of IS-95 CDMA)
TD-SCDMA (time division-synchronous CDMA)
UWC-136 (an evolution of IS-136)
These technologies represent the foundation for a suite of advanced mobile
multimedia communications services and are starting to be deployed across the globe.
Of these technologies, this book deals with four-WCDMA, CDMA2000, TD-
SCDMA, and UWC-136.
Mobile communications are rapidly becoming more and more necessary for everyday
activities. With so many more users to accommodate, more efficient use of bandwidth
is a priority among cellular phone system operators. Equally important is the security
and reliability of these calls. One solution that has been offered is a Code Division
Multiple Access System.
CDMA is one method for implementing a multiple access communication system.
Multiple Access is a technique where many subscribers or local stations can share the
use of the use of a communication channel at the same time or nearly so despite the
fact originate from widely different locations. A channel can be thought of as merely
a portion of the limited radio resource, which is temporarily allocated for a specific
purpose, such as someone`s phone call. A multiple access method is a definition of
how the radio spectrum is divided into channels and how the channels are allocated to
the many users of the system.
Since there are multiple users transmitting over the same channel, a method must be
established so that individual users will not disrupt one another. There are essentially
three ways to do this
1. Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
In this technique, the available bandwidth is split up into non-overlapping
frequency bands and these disjoint sub bands of frequency are allocated to the
different users on a continuous time basis. In order to reduce interference
between users allocated adjacent channel bands, channel bands are used to act
as buffer zones, as illustrated in figure(1). These guard bands are necessary
because of the impossibility of achieving ideal filtering for separating the
different users. It could be compared to AM or FM broadcasting radio where
each station has a frequency assigned.
2. Time Division Multiple AccessTime Division Multipl
e Access (TDMA)
In this technique, each user is allocated the full spectral occupancy of In this technique
, each user is allocated the full spectral occupancy of
The channel, but only for a short duration of time called time slot. Buffers
zones are in the form of guard times are inserted between the assigned time
slots. This is done to reduce interference between users by allowing for time slots. This is done
to reduce interference between users by allowing for time
uncertainty that arises due to system imperfections, especially in imperfections,
synchronization scheme. synchroniz
In both FDMA and TDMA, only one subscriber at a time is assig ned to a channel. No MA and TDMA,
only one subscriber at a time is assigned to a channel.
other conversion can access this channel until the subscriber`s call is finished or until other conversion c
an access this channel until the subscriber`s call is finished or until
the original call is handed off to a different channel by the system. Voice data tends to handed off to a di
fferent channel by the system. Voice data tends to
be burst in nature. So much of the time, no data is being sent over the channel. This be burst in nature. S
o much of the time, no data is being sent over the channel. This
inefficiency tends to limit the capacity of the system. inefficiency t
ends to limit the capacity of the sys
3. Code Division Multiple AccessCode Division Multipl
e Access (CDMA)
The above drawbacks are overcome in this third technique in which the users The above drawb
acks are overcome in this third tech que in which the users
are spread across both frequency and time in the sasame channel. This is a hannel.
hybrid combination of FDMA and TDMA. For example, frequency hopping frequency
may be employed to ensure during each successive time slot, the frequency time
bands assigned to the users are recorded in random manner. During timthe users are recorded i
n random manner. During time slot
1, user 1 occupies frequency band 1, user 2 occupies frequency band 2, user 3 1, user 1 occupie
s frequency band 1, user 2 occupie s frequency band 2, user 3
occupies band 3 and so on. During time slot 2, user 1 hops to frequency band occupies band 3 a
nd so on. During time slot 2, user 1 hops to frequency band
3, user 2 hops to band 1, user 3 hops to band 2, and so on. An important band
advantage of CDMA over FDMA and TDMA is that it can provide for secure advantage of CD
MA over FDMA and TDMA is that it can provide for secure
F/gare: Campar/san af FÐMA TÐMA and CÐMA F/gare:
Mean/ng af CÐMA
Here, the users are spread across both frequency and time in the same channel. Here, Here, the users are
spread across both frequency and time in the same channel. Here,
unique digital codes, rather than separate RF frequencies or channels are used to frequencies
differentiate subscribers. The codes are shared by both the mobile stations (cellular
phone) and the base station, and are called pseudo ra ndom code sequences¨ or ne) random
pseudo-noise code sequences¨. noise code s
PN - SEQUENCE
A PN - sequence is a periodic binary sequence with a noise like waveform that is noise
usually generated by means of a feedback shift register. ¨pseudo¨ word is used, as register.
these are not real noise. These are noise like. these are not
real noise. These are noise like.
Bas/s af CÐMA
Basis of CDMA is the spread spectrum technology.
SPREAD SPECTRUM is a means of transmission in which the data sequence
occupies a bandwidth in excess of the minimum bandwidth necessary to send it.
Spread spectrum is accomplished before transmission through the use of a code that is
independent of the data sequence (PN).
It can provide secure communication in hostile environment such that the transmitted
signal is not easily detected or recognized by unwanted listeners. It can reject
interference whether it is the unintentional interference by another user
simultaneously attempting to transmit through the channel, or the intentional
interference by a hostile transmitter attempting to jam the transmission. Another
application is in multiple access communication in which a number of independent
users can share a common channel without an external synchronizing mechanism.
How Multiple Users Are Served
F/gare: Bas/c Techn/qae af CÐMA S/gna/ Generat/an and Recarery
CDMA combines different spreading sequences to create unique and robust user
channels. The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of
each link. Two such sequences are - the Walsh Code and the PN Sequence.
For a forward channel the following functions are applicable:
a) PILOT. The Pilot is a structural beacon which does not contain a character
stream. It is a timing source used in system acquisition and as a measurement
device during handoffs
b) SYNC. This carries a data stream of system identification and parameter
information used by mobiles during system acquisition
c) PAGING. There can be from one to seven paging channels as determined by
capacity needs. They carry pages, system parameters information, and call
d) TRAFFIC. The traffic channels are assigned to individual users to carry call
traffic. All remaining Walsh codes are available, subject to overall capacity
limited by noise
For Walsh code (which is 64-bit long), the arrangement of these functions is as under:
Pilot. Walsh Code 0
Sync. Walsh Code 32
Paging. Walsh Codes 1 Up To 7
Traffic. Any Remaining Codes
The only function of the reverse channels is that of vocoders. There are two types of
CDMA reverse channels - Traffic Channels and Access Channels.
Traffic Channels are used by individual users during their actual calls to
transmit traffic to the BTS.
Access Channels, on the other hand, are used by mobiles not yet in a call to
transmit registration requests, call setup requests, page responses, order
responses, and other signalling information.
F/gare: CÐMA Farward and Rererse Channe/s
CÐMA Techna/agy /n Mab//e Camman/cat/an
Through CDMA`s application in cellular telephony is relatively new, but it is not a
new technology. CDMA has been used in much military application, such as anti
jamming, ranging and secure communication.
The use of CDMA for civilian radio application is novel. Commercial application
became possible because of following evolutionary developments.
Availability of very low cost, highly dense digital integrated circuits, which
reduce the size, weight and cost of the subscriber station to an acceptably low
Realization that optimal multiple access communication requires that all user
station regulate their transmission power to the lowest that will achieve
adequate signal quality.
CÐMA Ce//a/ar Rad/a Stat/an
Cellular services are now being used every day by millions of people worldwide. The
number of customers requiring such services is increasing exponentially, and there is
a demand for integration of a variety of multimedia services. The range of services
includes short messaging, voice, data and video. Consequently, the bit rate required
for the services varies widely from just 1.2 kbps for paging up to several Mbps for
video transmission. Furthermore, supporting such a wide range of data rates with
flexible mobility management increase network complexity dramatically.
In a cellular network, each base station assigns separate directional sector antennas
or separate outputs of a phased array to cover disjoint cell sector in both the
transmitting and receiving modes. Typically there are three sectors, and 2 /3 radians
span each sector.
In cellular network, the frequency- hopping pattern can be chosen so that at any given
instant of time, the frequency of the users within a cell sector are all different, and
hence, the received signals are all orthogonal if the mobile transmission are properly
synchronized. Exact synchronization on the forward link is possible because a
common timing is available. The switching time or guard time between frequency-
hopping pulses must be large enough to ensure that neither a small synchronization
error nor multi-path signals can subvert the orthogonality.
Ma/t/-User Interference /n CÐMA System
In contrast to FDMA and TDMA techniques which are frequency bandwidth limited.
In CDMA system, each user data is spread by a pseudorandom code. All users then
transmit in the same frequency band and are distinguished at the receiver by the user
specific spreading code. All other signals are not de-spread because they use different
codes. These signals appear as interference to the desired user because of non zero
cross co-relation values between the spreading codes. As the number of user
increases, the signal to interference ratio (SIR) decrease until the resulting
performance is no longer acceptable. Thus, this multi -user interference must be
reduced to achieve higher capacities. These are the following method to reduce the
multiple -access interference.
1. By reducing cross-correlation in spread spectrum system
Spreading the signal by orthogonal codes which have zero cross co-relation.
This technique is very efficient in downlink transmission, because a base
station can transmit to all user simultaneously and the spread synchronously at
the chip level. Transmitting asynchronously in the uplink, to restore the
orthogonality of the codes, the mobile user can be time-aligned by a
Cancellation schemes that usually work subtracting the interference caused by
other user and require a significant processing power; they are very useful
specially to solve near- for problems.
2. Power control
Power control is essential on both uplink and downlink, to minimize multiple
access interference. A particular problem on the uplink is to prevent the case
where mobile transmitters far away from the cells base station are swamped by
the interference generated by the users closer to the receiver. provided that
rather than using constant power, the transmitter can be control in such a way
that that the received powers from all users are roughly equal, then the benefits
of spreading are realized. If the received power is controlled, then the
subscriber can occupy the same spectrum.
Maximum capacity can is achieved if we adjust the power control so that the
SNR is exactly what it needs to be for an acceptable error rate. The sustainable
capacity is proportional to the processing gain W=Ts/Tc reduced by the
3. Capacity improvement with CDMA antenna arrays
A simple equation for the uplink capacity U of a single CDMA cell is given
Where the value of Eb/N0 represents that required for adequate link
performance. The scalar 2 is the background noise power and S is the
received signal power for each user. Finally g is the ratio of the antenna gain
for the desired user to that of interfering user in that cell. The value of G
depends on the beam pattern for each user, but will roughly proportional to
The array size M.
As a result, antenna arrays can improve the capacity in two ways:
Increasing the antenna gain G and hence the array M. this reduce the
average level of interference from each user in the cell, permitting a
capacity increase. However this gain factor can be reduced by user
clustering in one part of the cell.
Reducing the required Eb/N0. Antenna array can provide increased
space diversity at the base station, which can permit the receiver to
operate at lower power signal. This increase the tolerance of the
receiver to multiple access interference.
Ma/t/-Path Fad/ng In CÐMA System
Fading is a fluctuation in the received signal strength at the receiver or a random
variation in the received signal is known as fading. Fading of radio waves is the
undesired variation in the intensity or loudness f the waves received at the receiver.
When the multi-path components are resolved¨ by the CDMA waveform, that is,
when their delays are separated by the at least the de-
Correlation time of the spreading, and then they can be separated by the dispreading
correlator in the receiver. They do not interfere because each components correlate at
a different delay. When the multipath components are separated by less than the
correlation time, then they cannot be separated in the receiver, and they do interfere
with one another, leading to what is sometimes called flat fading.
Fad/ng an CÐMA Channe/
Fading is different in the forward and reverse links. It also depends on the fading rate,
which in turn depends on the velocity of the mobile station.
Generally fading increases the average SNR needed for a particular rate. In the
reverse link the power control will mitigate the effects of fading at low speed; at high
speed it has little effect.
So we can say that in the demodulation of the CDMA signals, the different paths may
be independently received, which greatly reduces the severity of the multi-path
fading. However multipath fading cannot be eliminated because occasionally there
may be multipath that cannot be independently processed by the demodulator.
1. Capacity increase
2. No frequency management or assignment
3. Best for micro-cell and in building system
4. Reduce average transmitted power
5. Reduces number of sites needed to support any given amount of traffic
6. Reduce deployment and operating cost because fewer cell sites are needed
7. Improves the telephone traffic capacity
8. improves the voice quality and eliminate audible and effects of multipath
9. Provides reliable transport mechanism for data communication, such as
facsimile and internet traffic.
10. Simplifies site selection
1. Multi-user interference or multiple access interference(MAI)
2. Multi-path fading
3. Near- far problem
CDMA CALL FLOW
Ent/t/es af the CÐMA System
F/gare: Bas/c Netwark Arch/tectare
The Mab//e Stat/an
The Mobile Station (MS) is the user equipment in CDMA.
The MS is what the user can see of the CDMA system, the cellular phone
Production of Mobile Stations is done by many different manufacturers, and
there will almost always be a wide range of different Mobile Stations in a
Therefore the specifications specify the workings of the MS in great detail.
In order to verify the conformal of the specifications by Mobile Stations,
equipment must obtain type approval from the standardization body.
The Base Transce/rer Stat/an
The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) is the entity corresponding to one site
communicating with the Mobile Stations.
Usually, the BTS will have an antenna with several TRXs (radio transceivers)
that each communicate on one radio frequency.
The link-level signalling on the radio-channels is interpreted in the BTS,
whereas most of the higher-level signalling is forwarded to the BSC and MSC.
Speech and data-transmissions from the MS is recoded in the BTS from the
special encoding used on the radio interface to the standard 64 Kbit/s encoding
used in telecommunication networks.
Like the radio-interface, the Abis interface between the BTS and the BSC is
highly standardized, allowing BTSs and BSCs from different manufacturers in
P/ctare: Haawe/ BTS
The antenna is one of the most critical components that can either enhance or
constrain system performance.
Simple impedance matching device between a coaxial cable and the
Designed to provide RF gain across the desired frequency band.
Can be omnidirectional (360°) or designed with narrow apertures to produce
Aligned such that antenna elements are matched to desired polarization.
16 dBd Gain
Fagare: Typ/ca/ Rad/at/an Pattern
The Base Stat/an Cantra//er
Each Base Station Controller (BSC) controls the magnitude of several hundred
The BSC takes care of a number of different procedures regarding call setup,
location update and handover for each MS.
It is the BSC that decides when handover is necessary.
This is accomplished by analyzing the measurement results that are sent from
the MS during a call and ordering the MS to perform handover if this is
The continuous analyzing of measurements from many MSs requires
considerable computational power.
This puts strong constraints on the design of the BSC.
The Mab//e Sw/tch/ng Centre
The Mobile Switching Centre is a normal ISDN-switch with extended
functionality to handle mobile subscribers.
The basic function of the MSC is to switch speech and data connections
between BSCs, other MSCs, other CDMA-networks and external non-mobile-
The MSC also handles a number of functions associated with mobile
subscribers, among others registration, location updating and handover.
There are normally only a few BSCs per MSC, due to the large number of
BTSs connected to the BSC.
The MSC and BSCs are connected via the highly standardized A-interface.
However, due to the lack of standardization on Operation and Management
protocols, network providers usually choose BSCs, MSCs and Location
Registers from one manufacturer.
The Lacat/an Reg/sters
With each MSC, there is associated a Visitors Location Register (VLR).
The VLR can be associated with one or several MSCs.
The VLR stores data about all customers who are roaming within the location
area of that MSC.
This data is updated with the location update procedure initiated from the MS
through the MSC, or directly from the subscriber Home Location Register
The HLR is the home register of the subscriber.
Subscription information, allowed services, authentication information and
localization of the subscriber are at all times stored in the HLR.
This information may be obtained by the VLR/MSC when necessary.
When the subscriber roams into the location area of another VLR/MSC, the
HLR is updated.
At mobile terminated calls, the HLR is interrogated to find which MSC the
MS is registered with.
Because the HLR is a centralized database that need to be accessed during
every call setup and data transmission in the CDMA network, this entity need
to have a very large data transmission capacity.
The communication between MSC, VLR and HLR is done using the MAP
(Mobile Application Part) of the Signalling System 7.
The Eqa/pment Ident/ty Reg/ster
The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is an optional register.
Its purpose is to register IMEIs of mobile stations in use.
By implementing the EIR the network provider can blacklist malfunctioning
MSs or even receive reports to the operations centre when stolen mobile
stations are used to make calls.
Ce//s and /acat/an areas
In CDMA it is distinguished between cells and location areas. A cell is defined as the
area in which one can communicate with a certain base station. In other words, the
cell is related to the BTS. When not communicating, the MS does not need to actively
announce a shift from one cell to another. If the MS is engaged in communication, a
handover must be performed in order to change from one cell to another.
A location area is the area associated with one VLR. On networks where there is a
one-one mapping between MSCs and VLRs, the location area corresponds to the area
controlled by one MSC. On a change of location area, the MS need to perform a
location update in order to register its presence in the new VLR and erase its presence
in the old VLR. In this case, the HLR also needs to be updated. If the MS is engaged
in communication, a handover must be performed between the different MSCs.
F/gare: Ce//a/ar canf/garat/an
Figure below shows a possible cell configuration within one location area. The use of
a number of small cells within one large operating on different frequencies is typical.
The small cells will take the majority of the traffic, while the large cell will cover all
the ``holes'' between the small cells. Different cell-types can be classified according to
their coverage dimension.
F/gare: Pass/b/e Ce// Canf/garat/ans
An important part of the location problem is the problem of finding where in the
network the MS resides. It is therefore necessary to have an overview of the different
types of identification and addressing that are specified in CDMA.
Identification of subscribers
F/gare: Stractare af the IMSI.
Each mobile subscriber is identified by an International Mobile Subscriber Identity.
As shown in the figure, the IMSI is composed by a 3-digit Mobile Country Code
(MCC) which identifies the country, a 2-digit Mobile Network Code (MNC) which
identifies the CDMA network within that country, and a MSIN of up to 10 digits. The
MSIN uniquely identifies the subscriber within one network, and the MNC+MSIN
(called National Mobile Subscriber Identity, NMSI) identifies the subscriber within a
country. The MCCs are given in; the MNCs are administered by the
telecommunications administration in each country. During registration, the network
can assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity, TMSI to the subscriber. The
TMSI consists of 4 octets.
F/gare: Stractare af the MSISÐN.
In addition to the IMSI, all mobile subscribers need an international isdn-number
(MSISDN) so it can be reached from the international phone network. This number
follows the ITU-T E.164 recommendation as seen in figure. It consists of the Country
Code (CC), the National Destination Code (NDC) and the subscriber number (SN).
When an external call is routed towards a Mobile Station, the VLR assigns a Mobile
Station Roaming Number (MSRN) to the MS. This number is an international
significant ISDN number similar to MSISDN. The NDC of this number points to the
area in which the relevant MSC is located. The CC, NDC and first parts of SN digits
of the MSRN uniquely identify the MSC the MS is registered with.
Identification of areas
F/gare: Stractare af the LAI and CGI.
Areas and cells are identified using Location Area Identifications (LAI) and Cell
Global Identifications (CGI). The composition of these is shown in figure. The MCC
and MNC are similar to the codes used in the IMSI. Within each network, there will
be a set of location areas identified with the Location Area Code (LAC) which is a
fixed two-octet number. The Cell Identity identifies the cell within a Location Area
and is also a fixed two-octet number. The full CGI globally identifies a cell.
F/gare: Stractare af the BSIC.
Each base-station also has its own BSIC; this code is at all times transmitted on the
broadcast channel, so the Mobile Stations can distinguish between base stations. The
BSIC is composed of a 3-bit Network Colour Code (NCC) and a 3-bit Base station
Colour Code. The NCC is assigned to each network provider so the MS can sort out
which base-stations it is allowed to camp on. The NCC of different providers must be
different, also in national border-areas. A scheme for this is given in the appendix of.
The BCCs of each base station are assigned by the network operator, and must be
assigned such that no neighbour stations have equal BCC and thus equal BSIC.
Identification of mobile equipment
F/gare: Stractare af the IMEI.
Each Mobile Station is identified by the International Mobile Equipment
Identification as shown in figure. The IMEI consists of a Type Approval Code (TAC)
which identifies the type of mobile equipment, and that is has been type approved
according to. The Final Assembly Code (FAC) identifies the place of the final
assembly of the unit. The SNR is the serial number of the unit in question, and the
spare digit is 0.
Identification of network equipment
Each equipment entity in the network is assigned its own identity according to.
Although mandatory, these identities will be implementation specific as will be
discussed in. It is worth mentioning at this point that the network equipment usually
can be identified uniquely by other identification codes. The HLR can be uniquely
identified by the first digits in the MSISDN or the IMSI. The MSRN uniquely
identifies the MSC and the VLR. The LAI is enough to identify the VLR, whereas the
CGI identifies MSC, BSC and BTS uniquely. It is also worth to note that the BSIC
not identifies a base station uniquely unless there is information about how the BSIC
The Rad/a Interface
In a cellular network, each base station assigns separate directional sector antennas or
separate outputs of a phased array to cover disjoint cell sector in both the transmitting
and receiving modes. Typically there are three sectors, and 2 /3 radians span each
In cellular network, the frequency- hopping pattern can be chosen so that at any given
instant of time, the frequency of the users within a cell sector are all different, and
hence, the received signals are all orthogonal if the mobile transmission are properly
synchronized. Exact synchronization on the forward link is possible because a
common timing is available. The switching time or guard time between frequency-
hopping pulses must be large enough to ensure that neither a small synchronization
error nor multi-path signals can subvert the orthogonality.
Each user data is spread by a pseudorandom code. All users then transmit in the same
frequency band and are distinguished at the receiver by the user specific spreading
code. All other signals are not de-spread because they use different codes. These
signals appear as interference to the desired user because of non zero cross co-relation
values between the spreading codes. As the number of user increases, the signal to
interference ratio (SIR) decrease until the resulting performance is no longer
acceptable. Thus, this multi -user interference must be reduced to achieve higher
In order to be able to implement Mobile Station Location (MSL) in a CDMA
network, it is very important to understand the signalling protocols and procedures
used in CDMA. In this section, an overview of the signalling protocols and some
important signalling sequences will be given.
F/gare: S/gna///ng prataca/s fram MS r/a BTS and BSC ta MSC
The figure shows an overview of the signalling protocols in the CDMA network
between the entities MS and MSC. Above the lower layers in the BSS, is the Radio
Resources Protocol (RR). This protocol deals with the allocation, deallocation and
parameters of the radio-channel and is crucial in the setup of all communication with
the MS. Above this layer is the Mobility Management (MM) and Circuit Mode
Connection Call Protocol (CM or CC). The MM deals with administration of
localization and handover. The CM administrates the setup and termination of calls.
There also exist protocols between the different entities in the network intended for
network internal messages. These are BTS Management protocol (BTSM) across the
Abis interface and the BSSAP (BSS Application Part) across the A interface. The
BSSAP is divided into BSSMAP (BSS Management Application Part) and DTAP
(Direct Transfer Application Part). The lower layers of the A interface are the
transport layers of the ITU-T signalling system 7, SCCP and MTP.
MAP and ISUP
All functional signalling between the MSCs, the VLRs, the HLR and the EIR uses the
Mobile Application Part protocol (MAP). The MAP is a beast of a protocol specified
in the 784 pages long CDMA 09.02. MAP includes all signalling procedures required
for location updates, localization of customers and many other functions that are
special for mobile networks. To be compatible with external networks, call setup is
normally performed by ISUP (ISDN User Part). The ISUP is defined in. Both MAP
and ISUP use the transport protocols in the SS7, the MTP and the SCCP, defined in
To get an idea of the complexity of the signalling procedures and show some of the
signals that later will be used; the complete signal-sequence for a mobile-terminated
call will be shown here. The diagram below shows the signalling sequence between
the ISDN network and the CDMA network.
F/gare: S/gna///ng between ISÐN and CÐMA at a mab//e term/n ated call setup. Signalling between
ISDN and CDMA at a mobile terminated call setup.
As we can see on diagram, the procedure starts when the Gateway MSC (CDMAC) As we can see on di
agram, the procedure starts when the Gateway MSC (CDMAC)
receives the ISUP IAM message from the remote network. The GMSC must then ask receives the ISUP
IAM message from the remote netwo rk. The GMSC must then ask
the HLR for a roaming number using MAP procedures. Further, the HLR sends this the HLR for a roam
ing number using MAP procedures. Further, the HLR sends this
request to the VLR, which assigns a roaming number to the IMSI in question and ch question,
returns it. The GMSC can now forward the call setup request (IAM) to the MSC the returns it. The GM
SC can now forward the call setup request (IAM) to the MSC the
MS in question is registered with. When the setup between the MSC and the MS is between the M
SC and the MS is
finished, the user is alerted (the cell phone is ringing) and a notification of this is sfinished, the user is al
erted (the cel l phone is ringing) and a notification of this is sent
to the caller via the ISUP ACM. When the receiver accepts the call, the ISUP ANU is to the caller via th
e ISUP ACM. When the receiver a ccepts the call, the ISUP ANU is
sent to the caller, and the connection is established. sent to the cal
ler, and the connection is establish
F/gare: S/gna///ng between the MSC and the MS. F/gare:
The figure above shows in detail what happens between the MSC and the MS. The happens betw
een the MSC the MS.
paging request is sent out on all the base stations in the location area. When the MS paging request is se
nt out on all the base stations in the location area. When the MS
discovers that it is being paged it requests a channel on the radio interface, and the channel the
BSC assigns one. When the channel is active, the MS sends the PAG RESP indicating ssigns one. When
the channel is active, the MS sends the PAG RESP indicating
that it has been paged, and is ready to answer the paging. When the MSC receives
this, it commences with authentication of the MS. The authentication parameters The
received from the MS must be checked with the HLR, thus the MSC reque these requests
from the HLR with the ``Send Parameters'' request. Meanwhile, encryption can be
initiated with the CIPH MODE signals. If the authentication was successful, the call initiated with the C
IPH MODE signals. If the authentication was successful, the call
setup is sent to the MS, which responds with the CALL CONF, where it`s indicated if
the MS can respond this call type. If this is successful, a traffic channel is allocated
with the ASS signals, and the call commences with alerting and connection.
Optionally, the MSC can request the MS for its IMEI, and check if it is blacklisted in
the EIR. This is shown in figure.
Handoff (also known as handover) is the ability of a subscriber to maintain a call
while moving within the network. The term handoff is typically used with AMPS, IS-
136, and IS-95, while handover is used in GSM. The two terms are synonymous.
Handoff usually means that a subscriber travels from one cell to another while
engaged in a call, and that call is maintained during the transition (ideally without the
subscriber noticing any change). In general, handoff means that the subscriber is
transitioned from one radio channel (and/or timeslot) to another. Depending on the
two cells in question, the handoff can be between two sectors on the same base
station, between two BSCs, between two MSCs belonging to the same operator, or
even between two networks. (Note that inter-network handoff is not supported in
some systems, often mainly for billing reasons.)
It is also possible to handoff a call between two channels in the same cell. This could
occur when a given channel in a cell is experiencing interference that is affecting the
communication quality. In such a case, the subscriber would be moved to another
frequency that is subject to less interference. A handoff scenario is depicted in the
F/gare: Pre-Handaff Past-Handaff
How does the system determine that a handoff needs to occur? Basically, two main
approaches are used. In first-generation technologies, a handoff is generally controlled
by the network. The network measures the signal strength from a mobile as received
at the serving cell. If it begins to fall below a certain threshold, then nearby cells are
requested to perform signal strength measurements. If a nearby cell records a better
signal strength, then it is highly likely that the subscriber has moved to the coverage
of that cell. The new cell is instructed by the BSC or MSC (typically just the MSC,
since first-generation systems do not have BSCs) to allocate a channel for the
subscriber. Once that allocation is performed, the network instructs the mobile to
swap to the new channel. This is known as a network-controlled handoff, because the
network determines when and how a handoff is to occur.
In more recent technologies, a technique known as mobile assisted handover (MAHO)
is the most common. In the approach, the network provides the mobile with a list of
base station frequencies (those of nearby base stations). The mobile makes periodic
measurements of the signals received from those base stations (as well as the serving
base station), including signal strength and signal quality (usually determined from bit
error rates), and it sends the corresponding measurement reports to the network. The
network analyzes the reports and makes a determination of if and how a handoff
should occur. Assuming that a handoff is required, then the network reserves a
channel on the new cell and sends an instruction to the mobile to move to that
channel, which it does.
The Operat/ans and Management system
The O&M trace function
Subscriber tracing is a compulsory O&M function described in CDMA specification
12.08. Several different trace types exist:
Tracing of a native subscriber in home network
Tracing of a native subscriber roaming in other networks
Tracing of a foreign subscriber in home network
Tracing of equipment based on IMEI.
A trace is activated by sending the TRACE_ACTIVATION message from the OMC
in question to the HLR or a VLR. In this message the subscriber to be traced is
identified by the IMSI, and a number of parameters to identify the trace type, the
OMC id and others are given. If the trace activation is sent to the HLR, the HLR will
send a MAP_ACTIVATE_TRACE_MODE to the VLR the subscriber is registered
with, if any. The VLR will in turn inform the MSC using
MAP_TRACE_SUBSCRIBER_ACTIVITY which in turn will inform the BSC using
the BSSMAP MSC_INVOKE_TRACE message. The complete trace activation
procedure is outlined in figure
F/gare: S/gna///ng an trace act/rat/an.
After the trace activation, the entities of the CDMA system will report all data
relevant to the traced subscriber to the OMC. The contents of the reports are defined
in, and can include:
IDs for MSC, BSC, BTS and TRX
Cell and location IDs.
All radio measurements received from the MS
Actual TA used on the link
All parameters leading to handover
It can be specified in the trace invocation, that the trace shall continue on handover. In
this case, the BSC will inform the new base station that trace is invoked when
handover is performed. The OMC will then receive trace reports from the new BSC
after the handover.
The trace procedures have a number of important applications relating to the
management of subscribers in a CDMA network. As it will be discovered, the trace
procedures are useful for implementing Mobile Station Location.
RF NETWORK PLANNING
RF Network planning is being done by TTSL, using MapInfo and Google Earth
Screenshat: MapInfa saftware shaw/ng Amer reg/an
I was tasked to cover the following towns and cities for placement of BTS sites: -
The data of the above mentioned locations, included boundaries of the Year 2000. I
was required to redraw the city/town boundaries in order to cover the expansion of
these cities/towns beyond the boundaries of 2000.
I used Google Earth to identify those places which did not have CDMA/GSM
coverage yet. Within the expanded limit of the cities/towns I had to recommend areas
with adequate population base. These areas were also required to have no
CDMA/GSM site coverage within 2 km of the population centres. After locating such
places I marked them on Google Earth and noted down their latitudes and longitudes.
This information was used to update the coverage boundaries and suggested sites in
This MapInfo data was later utilized by the planning team in a planning conference to
finalize the installation of new CDMA/GSM sites.
The screenshots of the Google Earth and corresponding MapInfo site of the
recommended locations are placed below: -
I am hopeful of my recommendations being accepted by TTSL in their planning I am hopeful of
NETWORK DRIVE TESTING
The network drive test of any location involved the physical move of analysis team
over a pre-defined route in that particular area. The test drive had to be carried out in
vehicle moving at 35-45 kmph. The vehicle in our was a TATA Sumo, modified to
accommodate a number of laptop charging points, GPS, communication antennae, a
compass and other equipments required for various drive tests.
This test was required to eliminate a problem of the EVDO internet access instrument.
The problem was that the connection would break each time a handoff took place
from a CDMA 1x transmitter to an HSIA transmitter which did not happen in the
reverse handoff case.
During the test drive, the GPS instrument was plugged into the laptop, and a software
called 'Agilent` was started to monitor the drive test parameters. With the help of this
software in three different sub-windows, the following information was displayed
a) The current position of the EVDO vis-a-vis the proximal BTS towers
b) The state of PN Sequence reception
c) DO DRC Rate
Another software called 'NetPerSec` on the same laptop displayed the current rate (in
kbps) of data being uploaded/downloaded to the company`s local server.
The team relayed the information, of all those points wherever the problem was
encountered, to the main switching centre. The team at the switching centre
accordingly corrected the concerned parameters, which were re-tested to confirm
Screenshat: Ag//ent Ma/n Screen
Screenshat: Ag//ent Sab-w/ndaw shaw/ng EÐO's carrent /acat/an w/th the he/p af GPS
Screenshat: Ag//ent Sab-w/ndaw shaw/ng the recept/an af PN Seqaence
Screenshat: Ag//ent Sab-w/ndaw shaw/ng the ÐO ÐRC Rate
Screenshat: Ag//ent w/ndaw test/ng a CÐMA handset
Screenshat: NetPerSec shaw dawn/aad red and ap/aad b/ae rates /n kbps
CALL DATA PROCESSING
FOR NEIGHBOUR LIST PLANNING
Call data processing is done on a continuous basis in order to improve the quality of
the services. Data for analyses is collected from calls originating in a 24 hour block
period. All aspects of calls e.g. call timing, duration, blocking, handoffs, call drops,
etc are collected in .DAT formats for generating analysis patterns on Excel sheets and
The .DAT data files get generated in gigabytes. These are then processed using call
data processing software, in case of TTSL, with 'Motorola CFAT` software.
Out of the plethora of call data processing analyses parameters, I was given the task of
analysing Neighbour Lists for planning. In this analysis the data of handoffs of all
calls is collected and incidents like call drops, call blocks, signal fading, etc are
analysed to arrive at root causes and their solutions. Accordingly, software and
hardware corrections are made to provide the best service quality on round the clock
I was given a set of 3GB data for analysis. I used the software to generate text files
first and then converted the same into Excel sheets, eliminating unnecessary clutter.
The Excel sheets provided by me were utilized by OMC engineers of TTSL for
i. Andersson, Christoffer GPRS and 3G Wireless Applications¨, John Wiley & Sons,
ii. AT&T. "Engineering and Operations in the Bell System," 2nd Ed., AT&T Bell
Laboratories, Murry Hill, N.J., 1983.
iii. Barron, Tim. "Wireless Links for PCS and Cellular Networks," Cellular Integration,
Sept. 1995, pgs. 20-23
iv. Brewster. "Telecommunications Technology," John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY,
Brodsky, Ira. "3G Business Model," Wireless Review, June 15, 1999, pg. 42
Daniels, Guy. "A Brief History of 3G," Mobile Communications International, Issue
65, Oct. 99, pg. 106
Gull, Dennis. "Spread-Spectrum Fool`s Gold?" Wireless Review, Jan. 1, 1999 pg. 37
Homa, Harri, and Antti Toskala. "WCDMA for UMTS," John Wiley & Sons, 2000
Qualcomm Fundamentals of Wireless Communications & CDMA Student Guide¨,
QUALCOMM Incorporated, 2000
Smith et al 3G Wireless Networks¨, McGraw-Hill, 2004
Smith, Clint. "Practical Cellular and PCS Design," McGraw-Hill, 1997
Smith, Gervelis. "Cellular System Design and Optimization," McGraw-Hill, 1996
Yang, Samuel C. 3G CDMA 2000¨, ARTECH HOUSE, INC., 2004
Papers and Documents
Baxter, Scott 4th generation wireless¨
Baxter, Scott UMTS WCDMA technology¨
Baxter, Scott EDGE technology¨
Baxter, Scott 1xEV-DO revision A¨
Baxter, Scott 1xEV DO CDMA technology¨
Baxter, Scott 1xEV DV CDMA technology¨
Baxter, Scott 1xRTT CDMA technology¨
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.