CECW-EH-D Engineer Manual 1110-2-1602

Department of the Army

EM 1110-2-1602 15 October 1980

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, DC 20314-1000


Distribution Restriction Statement
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The text of this manual and all illustrative materials therein, which were prepared by government personnel, are public property and therefore not subject to copyr$ght.

All uses in this manual of information from non-governmental sources are in the form of findings or opinions and credit has been given in the text at the point of use through superscript numbers corresponding to the list of references and/or bibliography. Anyone wishing to-make further use of any of-the non-governmental .info~tion referenced, by itself and apart from the context in which herein presented, should seek any necessary permissions direct from such sources.

Since all use in this manual of materials from non-governmental sources has been permissible in nature, and is fully credited, reprint or republication in whole or in part would appear properly subject only to the crediting of this manual, as follows: *** Engineer Manual No. 1110-2-1602, Engineering and Design, Hydraulic Design of Reservoir Outlet Works, 15 October 1980, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, U.S.A. *H*.

DAEN-CWE-HD Engineer Manual No. 1110-2-1602

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Office of the Chief of Engineers Washington, D.C. 20314

EM 1110-2-1602

15 October 1980

Engineering and Design HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS 1. -“ This manual presents guidance for the hydraulic design analysis of reservoir outlet works facilities. The theory, procedures, and data presented are generally applicable to the design of similar facilities used for other purposes. 2. Applicability. This manual applies to all field operating activities having responsibility for the design of Civil Works projects. 3. General. Studies pertinent to the project functions and their effects on the hydraulic design of outlet works are briefly discussed in this manual. Also where appropriate, special design guidance is given for culverts, storm drains, and other miscellaneous small structures. In this manual, theory is presented only where required to clarify presentation or where the state of the art is limited in textbooks. FOR THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS:

‘~RREST T. GAY 111/ Colonel, Corps of Engineers Executive Director, Engineer Staff

This Manual Supersedes EM 1110-2-1602, 1 August 1963.

DAEN-CWE-HD Engineer Manual No. I11o-2-I6o2

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Office of the Chief of Engineers Washington, D. C. 20314

EM 1110-2-1602

15 October 1980

Engineering and Design HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF RESERVOIR O~EI’ WORKS Table of Contents Subject CUTER 1. INTRODUCTION General Purpose-------------------------------Applicability -------------------------References----------------------------Bibliography --------------------------Symbols-------------------------------Other Guidmce and Design Aids--------WES Capabilities and Senices ---------Design Memorandum Presentations-------Classification of Conduits------------Project Functions and Related Studies General-------------------------------HYDRAULIC THEORY Introduction General-------------------------------Basic Considerations ------------------Conduits Flowing Partially N1 General-------------------------------Discharge Controls for Partially Full Flow------—----— -------------Flow Profiles-------------------------Conduits Flowing Full General-------------------------------Exit Portal fiessure Grade-Line Location----------------------------Gradients General-------------------------------Hy&aulic Grade Line and ~erg Grade Line--------------------------Mean Pressure Computation-------------– i 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-1o 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-4 2-5 2-6 Parawaph


Section I.

1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 ~-8 1-9 1-1o

1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-4

Section II.

cHAPTm 2. Section I.

Section II.

Section III.

Section IV.

EM 1110-2-1602 1.98( Para~aph Section V. Ener~ Losses General----------— -------------------Suface Resistance (Friction)---------Form Resistance---------— ------------Cavitation General -------------------------------Theory--------------------------------Design Practice-----------------------Preventive Measures-------------------Boundary Layer------------------------Air Demand----------------------------Air Flow------------------------------SLUICES FOR CONCRETE GRAVITY DAMS Basic Considerations Location------------------------------Size, Shape , ad Number---------------Elevation and Alignment---------------Sluice Intakes General---------------------------—--Trash Protection----------— ----------Entrance Curves----——--— -----------Intake Energy Losses---------------—-Gate Passage, Gates, and Valves General-------------------------------Gate Types----------------------------Control Valves--—----— --------------Metering Devices----------------------Gate Passageway Requirements ----------Gate Slots----------------------------Gate Recess---------------------------Gate Seats----------------------------Steel Liners--------------------------Air Vents-----------------------------Sluice Outlet Design General Considerations ----------------Exit Portal Constructions -------------Sluice “Eyebrow” Deflectors ------------

2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20

2-7 2-7 2-15 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-24

Section VI.



Section I.

3-1 3-2 3-3 3-b 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-1o 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-19 3-20

3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-9 3-1o 3-1o 3-1o 3-1o 3-11 3-12 3-12

Section II.

Section III.

Section IV.


EM 1110-2-1602 1980 Paragraph s CHAPT~ 4. OUTLET FACILITIES FOR EMB~KMENT DAMS Basic Considerations Approach Channel----------------—---Conduits and Tunnels for Emb@ent Dams---------------------Intake and Gate Facilities Int&e Structures ---------------------Intake Tower Versus CentraJ. Control Shaft-—----------------------------Submerged Intakes ---------------------Combined Intake and Gate Structure ----Underground Control Structures --------Downstream Control Structures ---------Gate Passageway Requirements-------—-LOW-F1OW Releases------------------—-Entrance Shapes General-------------------------------Selection of Entrance Shape for Design------------------------------Line= Sidewall or Pier Flare-—--—--Control Gates General----------------------—-------Gate Lip Geometry ---------------------Vertical-Lift Gate Discharge Computations---------—-------------Commercial Gates----------------------Hydraulic Load for Vertical-Lift Gates-------------------------------Vibration of Cable-Suspended Gates----Transitions General-------------------------------Entrance =d Int*e Transitions -------In-Line Transitions -------------------Exit ~snsition -----------------------ENERGY DISSIPATION AND IX)WNSTREAM CHANNEL PROTECTION Energ Dissipators General-------------------------------Hydraulic-Jump Type Stilling Basins---Low-Head Structures -------------------iii

Section I.

4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-1o 4-11 b-12 4-13 L-14 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-18 4-19 4-20 4-21 4-22 4-23

4-1 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-7 4-7 4-7

Section II.

Section III.

Section IV.

::: 4-8 4-9 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-14

Section V.


Section I.

5-1 5-2 5-3

5-1 5-1 5-8

EM II1o-2-I6o2 1980 Subject Section II. Para~aph Page

Outlet Channel General--------------------------------Ripra~-------------------------------Side-Slope Erosion --------------------SELECTIVE WITHDRAWAL STRUCTURES ~es---------------------------------Design--------------------------------F1OW Regulation-----------------------Model Investigations -------------------

5-4 5-7 5-6

5-9 5-1o 5-1o



6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4

6-1 ::; 6-4







EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Section I. General This manual presents guidance for the hydraulic design analyses of reservoir outlet works facilities. Although primarily prepared for the design of reservoir outlet works, the theory, procedures, and data presented are generally applicable to the design of similar facilities used for other purposes. Studies pertinent to the project functions and their effects on the hydraulic design of outlet works are briefly discussed. Where appropriate, special design guidance is given for culverts, storm drains, and other miscellaneous small structures. Procedures are generally presented without details of theory since these details can be found in many hydraulic textbooks. However, some basic theory is presented as required to clarify presentation and where the state of the art is limited in textbooks. Both laboratory and prototype experimental test results have been correlated with current theory in the design guidance where possible.


1-2. Applicability. This manual applies to all OCE elements and all field operating activities having responsibilities for the design of civil works projects. 1-3. References. a. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), PL 9-190, Section 6 102(2)(c), 1 Jan 1970, 83 Stat 853. b. c. TM 5-820-4, Drainage for Areas Other than Airfields. ER 1110-1-8100, Laboratory Investigations and Materials Testing.

d. ER 1110-2-50, Low Level Discharge Facilities for Drawdown of Impoundments. e. ER 1110-2-1402, Hydrologic Investigation Requirements for Water Quality Control. f. ER 1110-2-2901, Construction Cofferdams.

ER 111o-2-815o, Investigations to Develop Design Criteria for g. Civil Works Construction Activities.


Other Guidance and Design Aids. Where the above-listed references and this manual do not agree. 1-5. EM 1110-2-2400. 1-4. Bibliographic items are indicated throughout the manual by numbers (item 1.EM 1110-2-1602 1980 EM 1110-2-1601.j computer programs. Extensive use has been made of Hydraulic Design Criteria (HDC). O. data md information from Engineer Regulations md special reports have been freely used. and from several CE computer systems. S. i. Conduits. 2. O. U. They are available for loan by request to the Technical Information Center Library. m.. Box 63I.n prepared by WES and OCE. U. EM 111o-2-16o3. Box 631. the provisions of this manual shall govern. and as fa as practical.. MS 39180: Conversationally Oriented Real-Time ~ogram Generating System (CORP. n. Available from: Technical Information Center. EM 1110-2-2902. References to Hydraulic Design Criteria are by HDC chart number. Tunnels. Structural Design of Spillways and Outlet EM 1110-2-2901. P. Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Available from: WESLIB. P. the user 1-2 . Hydraulic Design Criteria (HDC) sheets and charts. EM 111o-2-36oo.s 1-2). Similarly. agrees with the American Standard Letter Symbols for Hydraulics (item 3). MS 3918o. Reservoir Regulation (Changes 1-3). S. Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels (Chan:. Design of Miscellaneous Structures. Box 631. Vicksburg. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (wES). Since HDC charts are continuously being revised. k. Symbols. 1.Vicksburg. Hydraulic Design of Spillways (Change 1).) that correspond to similarly num. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. A list of symbols is included as Appendix B.etc.~ered items in Appendix A. Works . S. MS 3918o. l-3h j. Culverts & Pipes (Changes 1-2). Bibliography. Vicksburg. U. 1-6. O. P.

analysis. elevation. General and feature design memoranda shodd contain sufficient information to assure that the reviewer is able to reach an independent conclusion as to the design adequacy. Updated lists of programs can be obtained through the CORPS system. 1-7.) References to available programs that are applicable to the design of reservoir outlet works are noted in this manual by the CORPS program numbers. WES has capabilities and furnishes services in the fields of hydratiic modeling. and the dimensions are not necessarily the recommended dimensions for every new project. 1-9. ~S Capabilities and Services.summarized at the beginning of the hydraulic design section. alignment. consequences of flow exceeding the design flow. g) 1-8. coefficients. Outlet works through concrete 1-3 . equations.on use of the system and a partial list of available programs. which he can access on several different computer systems with little or no training. References to specific project designs md model studies are gener~ly used to illustrate the structme type. and discharge should be. alternative designs..C WES also has the responsibility for coordinating the Corps of Wgineers hydraulic protot~e test program. should be complete and given in appropriate places in the hydraulic presentation. Applicable HDC charts and other illustrations are included in Appendix C to aid the designer. Procedures necessary to arrange for WES participationin hydraulic studies of dl types are covered in ER 1110-1-8100. size. Two broad classifications of reservoir outlet works facilities are discussed in this manual: concrete gravity dam and embankment dam facilities. expertise has been developed in the areas of water quality studies. Operating characteristics and restrictions over the full range of potential discharge should be presented for all release facilities provided. For convenience. and prototype testing. mathematical modeling. ad computer programming. Classification of Conduits. (See item 54 for instructions. (See ~ 111o-2-815o. factors. location. studies and logic used to establish such basic outlet works features as type.1-6 m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 should verify that the information used is the most up-to-date guidance. Assistance during planning and making the tests is included in this progra. One such service is the Conversationally Qriented ~eal-Time ~ogram-Generating ~stem (CORPS) that especially provides the noncomputer-oriented or noncomputer-expert engineer a set of proven engineering applications programs. Design Memorandum Presentations. The WES Automatic Data Processing Center (ADPC) Computer Program Library (WESLIB) provides time-sharing computer services to CE Divisions and Districts. etc. Recently. the hy~aulic information. design. Basic assumptions.

and hollow concrete d= are less common. sluices that traverse through the masonry of concrete gravity dams have rectangular cross sections ad are short in comparison with conduits through embankment dams of comparable height. especially on large stresms. Optimization of the outlet works hydraulic design and operation requires an awareness by the designer of the reliability. tibankment D-. sensitivity. Due to the greater length. and economic effects greatly influence the hydraulic desi~ of outlet works. may govern the size and elevation of the conduit(s). or placed in an open cut through rock in the hbutment or on the valley floor. General. or oblong cross sections md their length is primarily determined by the base width of the embarkment. ad possible variances of the data used. b. Diversion during construction or reservoir evacuation requirements. placement of the control device at the outlet portal should be avoided when the conduit passes through the embankment due to the inherent dangers of a possible rupture of a conduit subject to<ull reservoir head. Sluices are controlled by gates at the upstream face and/or by gates or valves operated from a gallery in the interior of the dam. Sluices are usually designed so that the outflow disch=ges onto the spillway face and/or directly into the stilling basin. a. Foundation conditions at the site may also govern the design. Use of a number of small sluices. multiple arch dams. accwacy. When sluices traverse through nonoverflow sections. Project functions and their overall social. rectangular. or at the outlet portal are used to control the flow. Conduits and/or tunnels for embankment dams may have circular. and although the outlet works design may require special features.1) Section II. (See EM lllo-2-2901k and EM 1110-2-2902. environmental . Project ~ctions and Related Studies 1-10. Generally. Arch dams. Concrete Gravity Dams. Generally. in a central control shaft in the abutment or embankment. Conduits should be tunneled through the abutment as far from the embankment as practicable. at one or more elevations> provides flexibility in flow re~ation and in qu~ity of water released downstream. the same hydraulic principles are applicable.m 1110-2-1602 1980 1-9 gravity d= will be called sluices while those through embankment dams will be called conduits and/or tunnels. it is usually more economical to construct a single large conduit than a number of small conduits. a separate energy dissipator must be provided. Gates and/or valves in an intake tower in the reservoir. The ever-increasing importmce of environmental considerations requires that the designer maintain close liaison with many disciplines to be sure 1-4 . horseshoe.

6o2 15 Ott. These c=als or conduits are usually at a higher level than the bed of the stream. water passages. The irrigation outlet sometimes discharges into a canal or conduit rather than to the original riverbed. Flood control outlets are designed for relatively large capacities where close regulation of flow is less important than are other requirements. and close regulation aids in the conservation of water.1-1o EM 1I1o-2-I. to enable the water to be drawn from any selected reservoir level to obtain water of a desired temperature. The gates or valves for controlling irrigation flows are often basic~ly different from those used for flood control due to the necessity for close regulation and conservation of water in arid regions. the design of gates. The designer should consider the greater operation and maintenance problems involved in continuous operation. in which case the reservoir is low or empty except in time of flood. (3) Irrigation. Multiple intakes and control mechaisms me often installed to assure reliability. Reservoirs that store water for subsequent release to downstream navigation usually discharge at lower capacity than flood control reservoirs. Reliability of service and quality of water are of prime importance in water supply problems. The navigation season often coincides with the season of low rainfall. Outlet works that control discharges for navigation purposes are required to operate continuously over long periods of time. Ease of maintenance md 1-5 .------ environmental and other objectives =e satisfied in the design. Functions. General project functions and related design considerations are briefly discussed in the following paragraphs. the conduits may be ungated. a. Although control of the outflow by gates is usually provided. Multilevel release provisions are often necessary for water quality purposes. When large discharges must he released under high heads. Irrigation discharge facilities are normally much smaller in size than flood regulation outlets. but the need for close regulation of the flow is more important. Such problems as future water supply requirements and peak demands for a municipality or industry should be determined in cooperation with engineers representing local interests. and/or to draw from a stratum relatively free from silt or algae or other undesirable contents. Municipal water supply intakes are sometimes provided in dams built primarily for other purposes. (1) Flood Control. (2) Navigation. (4) Water Supply. and energ dissipator should be carefully developed.80 .

Requirements for low-level discharge facilities for drawdown of impoundments are given in ~ 1110-2-50. mitigation. environmental controls. However. and/or enhancement of the have been set forth (item 96). and guidance for natural environment engineering discihydraulic structures. or changes in reservoir regulation. Embankment dams with midtunnel control shafts also require special considerations for low-flow releases. The designer should study carefully the possible economics of combining outlets into a single structure for multiple use. The general philosophy (1) ~vironmental.m 1I1o-2-I6o2 l-10a(4) 15 oct 80 repair without interruption of service is of primary importance. etc.-6 . Flood control outlets may be used for total or partial diversion of the stream from its natural channel during construction of the dam. Power penstocks are not within the scope of this manual. (8) Drawdown. (5) Power. Continuous low-flow releases are required at some dams to satisfy environmental objectives. downstream water rights. spray. Such use is especially adaptable for earth dams (see EM lllo-2-2golk and ER 1110-2-2901f). Power tunnels or penstocks may be used for flood control and/or diversion of the stream during construction of the dam and in such cases the discharge capacity may be determined by the principles outlined in this teti. (9) Multiple Furpose. or wave action that might jeopardize turbine operation. Related Studies. or other provisions must be incorporated separately or in combination with other functions of the outlet works facility. water supply. such as major repairs of the structure. An emergency closure gate for priority use by the resident engineer is required for water supply conduits through the dm. if reservoir outlets =e to be located in the vicinity of the power plants and switchyards .d Such facilities may also provide flexibility in future project operation for unanticipated needs. conduit outlets and stilling basins should be designed so as not to cause any undesirable eddies. Special provisions for these purposes have been incorporated in concrete gravity dm nonoverflow sections. (7) Diversion. To meet these requirements multilevel intakes. (6) Low-Flow Requirements. b. preservation. Any number of purposes may be combined in one project. Many scientific and plines are involved in the environmental aspects of I. skimmer weirs.

the study of reservoir hydrodynamics has been limited to a few prototpye vertical temperature gradients md recognition of the seasonal inversions accompanying the fall surface water cooling. However. etc. (a) Fish and Wildlife. Information from fish ad wildlife specialists on the desired stream regimen should be obtained and considered in the design.).l-lob(l) m II1o-2-16o2 15 Ott 80 Some studies influencing the outlet works design are briefly discussed below. (2) periodic lowering of reservoir levels and flushing of stagnant pools downstream for vector control (mosquitoes. etc. To accomplish the desired objectives. scenic outlooks. enhance. The designer should have a working knowledge of these data and their limitations. ~ese requirements are usually formulated by the planning discipline in cooperation with local interests.. camping. (c) Water Quality. and swimming facilities. or nitrogen supersaturation (item 86). An awareness of maintaining red/or enhancing the environment within the past decade has brought into existence a relatively new and expanded art of reservoir hydrodynamics. Pertinent data from these studies should be presented in the design memorandum. Until recently. blasting. Recreation needs including fishing. such as wheelchair ramps to fishing sites below stilling basins. flies. These changes may be beneficial or may be damaging. Safety fences for the protection of facilities and the public are important. etc. Downstream wildlife requirements may fix minimum low-flow discharges. (b) Recreation. (3) elimination Of construction sc~s resulting from borrow pits. close cooperation between the hydraulic and planning engineers is required. environmental considerations of today have necessitated the development of preproject capability for prediction of the expected seasonal reservoir stratification and circulation to permit construction and 1-7 . or damage domstream fish and wildlife. such as adverse temperatures or chemical composition. lad clearing. The water quality presentation should include summary data on requirements and reference to source studies. Flow releases not compatible with naturally seasonable stream quantity and quality can drastically change aquatic life. and (4) maintenance of relatively constant pool levels for reservoir recreation activities. should be considered in the design of energy dissipators and exit channels. Outlet works design and operation can maintain. The hydraulic engineer should recognize the need for such things as: (1) nonskid walks ad steps with handrails designed to protect the elderly and young children. Special consideration should be given to facilities for the handicapped. Appreciable damage to stilling basins has resulted from rocks thrown in by the public.

(2) Foundations. This report ca be used as a guide as to the t~e of material needed and format to be used in developing the statements. In concrete dams. Section 102(2)(c) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)a requires detail documentation in the project design memoranda on the impact of the planned project on the environment. The hydradic engineer may be required to cooperate in the preparation of impact statements. (3) mvironmental Impact Statements. The hydraulic engineer then designs the outlet works to meet these requirements. (b) quality of underlying rock. However. elevation. Foundation information of interest to the hydraulic designer includes: (a) composition and depth of overburden. An analysis of 234 Corps of Engineers environmental impact statements on various projects is given in IWR Report No. Sufficient foundation data red/or reference to its source should be included or referred to in the hydraulic presentation to substantiate the energy dissipator and exit channel design. Presentation of the hydraulic design in design memoranda must identify environmental requirements and demonstrate how these are satisfied by the hydraulic facility. A recent publication by Ortoano (item 87) summarizes the concepts involved and presents examples relative to water resources impact assessments. Energy dissipator and outlet channel designs for either sluices or embmkment dam outlets =e sometimes influenced by local foundation conditions. the hydraulic designer furnishes some of the information for the hydrologic studies. The conduit shape and control tower location are usually fixed primarily by foundation. side-slope stability is of considerable importance in the design of riprap protection. In addition. (4) Project Life. Reservoir hydrodynamic studies may be done by other than the hydraulic designer (such as the hydrologic engineers) and they would specify the withdrawal requirements (quantity. the hydraulic design of outlet works for embankment dams can be appreciably affected by foundation conditions. Two factors in the life of a project of concern to the hydraulic engineer in the design of outlet works are 1-8 . Outflow stage chage rates are required for bank stability design. structural. and (c) qu~ity of exposed rock. foundation conditions have little if any effect upon the hydraulic design of sluices. In most cases the effect of each project function must be set forth in detail.m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 l-lob(l)(c) operation of outlet works designed to meet storage and outflow regimes needed for the reservoir and downstream environment.). 72-3 (item 122). and construction considerations in addition to hydraulic requirements. etc. Basic to the environment~ statements are studies made to define the preproject and project functions and their effects on the environment. However.

and construction debris have passed through conduits used for diversion during extended periods of low reservoir stages. (a) Channel Aggravation and Degradation. although the total annual sediment transport capacity of the river will drop significantly. Changes in the hydrographic characteristics caused by a dam can result in undesirable changes in the elevation of the riverbed. In many rivers determination of the dominant factors causing bed shaping action like degradation and aggravation is difficult. 1-9 . gravel. Removal of all or part of the sediment by the reservoir may induce active erosional attack downstream. (b) Concrete Deterioration.l-10b(4) m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott go (a) do-strem channel aggravation and degradation. or lowering of the riverbed. Special materials or liners may be helpful in preventing invert erosion in etiremely cold climates where deterioration of the conduit interior from freezing-and-thawing cycles is possible. and (b) structural deterioration. This channel aggravation can increase the flood hazards from downstream tributaries md may cause reduction in outlet works allowable releases. Excessive invert erosion of outlet structures has occurred where sands. Resulting tailwater level changes can also adversely affect the stilling basin performance. immediately downstream of a da may threaten the integrity of the structure. Degradation. Construction of a submerged sill upstream of the intake to trap the debris should be considered where this condition is likely to occur. the sediment supply by downstream tributaries will be unaltered and there may be a tendency for the riverbed to rise. Similarly.

If it is planned to use the conduits for diversion. the designer should use maximum loss factors in computing discharge capacity. etc. and minimum loss factors in computing velocities for the design of ener~ dissipators. and other aspects such as energy losses. energy and momentum principles. open-channel flow may occur in the conduit. steady and unsteady flows. the presentations assume that the design engineer is fully acquainted with the hydradic theories involved in uniform md gradually varied flow. related to hydraulic design as normally covered in hydratiic handbooks and tetis such as those by King and Brater (item 56) ad Rouse (items 99 and 101). The conduits are usually designed to provide the required discharge capacity at a specified reservoir operating level. This section presents hydraulic design theory. although adequate capacity during diversion may govern in some cases. General.2-1 EM 1110-2-1602 1980 CHAFTER 2 HYDRAULIC THEORY Section I. Basic Considerations. An illustrative example. As more model and prototype data become available. This manual is presented as guidance in the application of tetibook material and as additional information not readily available in general reference material. Generally. The elevation of good foundation materials may govern the invert elevation of conduits for an embankment dam. for example during diversion. the range between maximm and minimum coefficients used in design may be narrowed. depending upon the design objectives. Introduction 2-1. is shown in Appendix D. The theory of flow in conduits from a reservoir is essentially the same for concrete ~d embankment d-. In the design of outlet works.. available experimental data and coefficients. The hydraulic analysis of the flow through a flood control conduit or sluice usually involves consideration of two conditions of flow. cavitation. The application of the theory of flow through conduits is based largely upon empirical coefficients so that the designer must deal with maximum and minimum values as well as averages. and discussions of certain special problems related to reservoir outlet works design. As the reservoir level is raised. the nwber and size of the conduits and the elevations of their grade line are determined with consideration of overall costs. Conduits should normally slope downstream to ensure drainage. When the upper pool is at low stages. 2-2. a study of the discharge to be 2-1 . To be conservative. the depth of flow in the conduit increases until the conduit flows fall. in which the hydraulic design procedures and guidance discussed in this manual are applied to the computation of a discharge rating for a typical reservoir outlet works.

Critical Depth Control. Inlet Control. and slope of the channel. headwater depth. Critical flow applies only to free surface flow and occurs when the total ener~ head (sum of velocity head and flow depth) for a given discharge is at a minimum. geometry. Conversely. Conduits operating under inlet control will always flow partially full for some distance downstream from the inlet. The control section is located near the conduit entrance and the discharge is dependent only on the inlet geometry and headwater depth. number. A study of the various profiles will indicate. a more exact analysis may be made of the flow through the conduits. length. The control section is located at or near the conduit outlet. Reference is made to plate C-1 for illustration of the principal ty-pesof openchannel water-surface profiles. After limiting conditions are determined and preliminary dimensions and grades established by approximate computations. and elevation of the conduits and then check the estimated dimensions by an exact analysis rather than to compute the dimensions directly. it may be feasible and convenient to place all conduits on the same level. consequently. 2-4. Conduits operating under outlet control can flow either full or p~tially full. such as shape. the level of which is governed by the turbine setting. the discharge is dependent on all the hydraulic p~ameters upstream from the outlet. If the conduits are adjacent to the power penstocks. ad inlet geometry. c. It is often more expedient to estimate the size. Inlet control will exist as long as water cm flow through the conduit at a greater rate than water can enter the conduit. for any particular conduit. Section II. Tailwater elevation exceeding critical depth elevation at the outlet exit may influence the discharge. The longitudinal profile of the free-water smface is determined by discharge. General. Analysis of partially full conduit flow is governed by the same principles that apply to flow in open channels. boundary roughness. size. Outlet Control. the 2-2 . or boundary roughness. Discharge Controls for Partially N1 Flow. The conduit capacity is not affected by hydraulic parameters beyond the entrance. slope. Conduits Flowing Psrtially N1 2-3. smface resistance.10-2-1602 1980 2-2 diverted at the time of closure of the river channel may limit the maximum elevation of the conduit. such as slope.Ott 80 ‘1. where the discharge control is likely to be located and the type of water-surface profile that will be associated with the control. b. a. length.

Its application to the problem with a sample computation is given in Appendix D. The energy head at the inlet control section is approximately equal to the head at the inlet minus entrance losses. and the Moody diagram to determine the unknown 2-3 . A larger conduit or steepened invert slope may be required to avoid this condition. L/D ~ 75). The objective of the analysis of conduits flowing full is to establish the relation between discharge and total head and to determine pressures in critical locations. It is generally necessary to compute surface profiles downstream from the gate for different combinations of gate openings and reservoir heads to determine the minimum gate openings at which the conduit tends to flow full. this instability occurs near fully open gate openings and the outlet works are not operated in this discharge r=ge for any extended period of time.e. Capacity of a conduit with an unsubmerged outlet will be established at the point where critical flow occurs. The conduit must be examined for slug flow where the ratio of downstream conduit length to conduit dismeter or height exceeds T5 (i. Gate Control. Flow Profiles. Conduits Flowing N1 2-6.depth occurring near the entrance (inlet control) will have maximum possible free-surface discharge. General. and the conduit friction causes the instability to occw at smaller gate openings that are in the planned operating range of the outlet works. Generally. EM IIIO-2-1601h presents the theory involved in computing flow profiles for prismatic channels. friction and other losses must be added to the critical energy head to establish the headwater-discharge relation.. The transition from partly full to full flow in the conduit may create an instability that results in slug flow pulsations (“burping”) at the outlet exit portal which can create daaging wave action in the downstream channel (item 2). Section III. d. The depth of flow at this condition is defined as critical depth and the slope required to produce the flow is defined as critical slope. the continuity equation. Critical depth for circular and rectangular cross sections can be computed with CORPSO H6141 or H6140 or from charts given in HDC 224-9n and 610-8. However. When critical flow occurs downstream from the conduit entrance. Reference is made to TM 5-820-4b and to King’s Handbook (item 56) for similar charts for other shapes. it is particularly critical in projects that have a long length of conduit below the gate. Additional details ad an example analysis are given in Appendix D. The solution is implicit and involves the simultaneous solution of the Darcy-Weisbach equation.2-4c EM 1110-2-1602 15 oct 80 discharge through a conduit with a given total ener~ head will be maximum at critical flow.n respectively. 2-5. A conduit operating with critical.

2-7. Plate C-3 indicates that a good approximation for the initial location is two-thirds the vertical dimension above the exit portal invert. The total head H . Model and prototype tests have indicated the hydraulic (pressure) grade line at the exit portal can be depressed to near the conduit invert for certain geometries and flow conditions (see Chapter 5. at lower degrees of submergence the outflow will tend to depress the local. The “Suggested Design Curve” on this plate is based upon an~yses of model ad prototype data.— . submerged conduit outflow into a wider channel is not subject to simple analysis. the hydraulic grade line at the outlet will be at the local tailwater elevation. If the exit portal is deeply submerged.m 1110-2-1602 1. which is defined as the difference in elevation of the upstream pool and the elevation of the hydradic (pressure) grade line at the exit portal. Gradients General. p=a 5-2d(2)). The values of yp/D are ~so dependent upon the condition of support of the issuing jet. These component heads may be equated to the total head as follows: H =hf+hl+hv (2-1) Plate C-2 is a definition sketch showing the relation between these various components in an outlet works system. The elevation of the hydraulic (pressure) grade line at the exit portal for unsubmerged flow (into the atmosphere) is not as obvious as it may appear. This depression and the accompanying hydraulic jump action for two-dimensional flow can be analyzed as described by Rouse or Chow (items 101 or 17. However. If submerged flow conditions are critical relative to conduit capacity. However. a hydraulic model investigation will be needed. local pressures at the outlet. Laboratory tests made at the State University of Iowa (item 103) have indicated that the elevation of the intersection of the pressure grade line with the plane of the exit portal is a function of the Froude number of the conduit flow. respectively). Plate C-3 shows the results of these ud other tests for circular and other conduit shapes. Section IV. Exit Portal Pressure Grade-Line Location. is consumed in overcoming frictional (hf) and form (hg) losses and in producing the exit portal discharge velocity head (hv).. A detailed explanation of the computational procedure is presented in Appendix D. water surface below the surrounding tailwater elevation.5Ott gQ 2-6 quantities. The basic principle used to analyze steady incompressible 2-4 . or stilling basin performance. 2-8.

The location of the hydraulic grade line at any station along the conduit is lower than the ener~ grade line by the mean velocity head at that station as reflected by equation 2-2. is p/y above the center line of the conduit. lb/ft3 flow velocity. fps 2 acceleration due to gravity. Hydraulic Grade Line and tier= Grade Line. v= g= a= For mmy error. The hydraulic grade line is useful in determining internal conduit pressures and in determining cavitation potentialities. gate slots. and bends is given in the appropriate pwagraphs of this manual. The locus of values of Z + p/y along the conduit defines the hydraulic grade line or mean pressure gradient. etc. ft/sec dimensionless kinetic-ener~ correction factor practical problems a may be taken as unity without series . pressure gradient determinations are usually required for severti limiting conditions. then Z + p/y is the elevation of a point on the . . Generalized so that it applies to the entire flow cross section.2-8 EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 flow in a conduit is the law of conservation of energ as expressed by the Bernodli equation. The hydraulic grade line. For purposes of structural design. 2-5 . the expression for the ener~ at any point in the cross section in foot-pounds per pound of water is given by: (2-2) where H= z= total head in feet of water above the datum plane difference in elevation of the point and the elevation of a datum plane pressure at the point. 2-9. P= y. and if Z is the elevation of the center of the conduit. See plate C-2 for a definition sketch of the energy grade line.hydratiicgrade line. also referred to as the mean pressure gradient. Information on local pressure conditons at intakes. lb/ft2 specific weight of water. hydraulic grade line.

Mea Pressure Computation. The principle states that the energy at one station of the conduit (point 1) is equal to the energy at any downstream location (point A) plus any intervening losses. The mean pressure at any station along a conduit is determined using the conservation of ener~ principle as expressed by the Bernoulli equation. P -zA= 2-6 / . 2 +PA A ~+aA2g 2 &+H TT Pl zl + lr ‘l_z ‘+a12g Y “ bl-A (2-3) If the upstream station is taken in the reservoir near the conduit entrance where the velocity head is negligible. . the pressure at any station (point A) upstream of the exit portal (point 2) can be determined by the following equation: ‘A —=Z2+y Y where -ZA-+HL P 2-A (2-5) pA/y = pressure head in feet of water at any station *L2 A ‘ z2+y total hydratiic loss in feet between the exit portal and the station difference in feet between the mem pressure gradeline elevation at the exit portal and the point elevation at the station in question.~ 1110-2-1602 2-1o 15 Ott 80 2-10. and Z1 + (pI/Y) is ttien as the pool elevation. For a uniform section.7 2 (2-4) ‘= Y pool elevation ‘A ‘~-HLIA-zA Equation 2-4 is applicable to the general case of determining the mean pressure of any station along the conduit. with proper consideration being given to head losses due to friction and form changes between the entrance md station in question. Expressed in equation form and in the units of equation 2-2. equation 2-3 reduces to — .

Moody (item 73) has constructed one of the most convenient charts for determining resistance coefficients in commercial pipes and it is the basis for pipe-flow computations in this manual. and an average flow velocity V . (Reynolds number is defined in plate C-4. in the conduit length L . Ener~ losses within conduits fall into two general classifications: (a) surface resistance (friction) causedby shear between the confining boundaries and the fluid and (b) form resistance resulting from boundary alignment changes. a. The Hazen-Williams formula has been used for flow of water at constant temperature in cast iron pipes. 2-12. The resistance coefficient f is a dimensionless parameter.8 (2-7) 2-7 .fLv2 D 2g (2-6) where hf is the head loss. Surface Resistance (Friction). me head 10SS (hf) has the dimension length and iS expressed in terms of foot-pounds per pound of water. The Dacy-Weisbach formula is expressed ‘f . Energy Losses 2-11. respectively) developed a smooth pipe equation based on the Nikuradse tests as follows: z= 1 2 loglo 0. as Darcy-Weisbach Formula. c.2-11 EM 1110-2-3602 15 oct 80 Section V. General.) Von Karman and ~andtl (items 142 and 94. the Reynolds number and the effective roughness properly account for the differing friction losses in both the transitional and fully turbtient flow zones. Three basic equations have generally been used in the United States for computing ener~ losses in pressurized systems. or feet of water. Computational procedures for both types are given in the following paragraphs. The Manning equation has been used extensively for both free surface and pressure flow. Effects of Viscosity. General. The Darcy-Weisbach formtia is adopted in this manual and is preferred because through use of the Moody diagram (plate C-4). b. or drop in hydraulic grade line. having an inside diameter D . Nikuradse (item 82) demonstrated by experiments that the resistance coefficient f varies with Reynolds number JR.

representation of the equation appears as a series of horizontal lines on the upper right-hand portion of plate C-4. These values of k were obtained mathematically from hydraulic measurements and are essentially effective roughness values rather than physical values. The rough pipe tests of Nikuradse have served as a valuable basis for determining the effect of relative roughness (D/k). for this type of flow. The area on the Moody diagram between the smooth pipe curve and the rough flow limit may be considered as a transition region. Protot~e tests have shown that a hydraulically smooth condition can exist in both concrete and steel conduits over a wide rmge of Reynolds numbers. Therefore.74 (2-8) Thus. the resistance coefficient is a function only of relative roughness and is independent of Reynolds number. d. Reference is made to plate C-4 for data from tests of concrete conduits and to HDC 224-1/in for steel conduits. The Von Karman-Frandtl (item 142) equation for a rough pipe and fully established turbulent flow is: 1 —= G D 2 loglo ~ + 1. Very few published roughness coefficients (items 16 and 30) are physical values and all should be considered as effective or hydraulic rather than absolute roughness values. The equation is: 2-8 . e. which for random roughness is taken as 2a where u is considered to be the root-mean-square of the height of the roughness elements. Transition Region. The s~bol k represents the absolute roughness of the pipe wall. Colebrook and White (item 18) published an equation based on their experiments to span the transition region. Rouse (item 101) has proposed an equation that defines the lower limit of the rough flow zone as follows: (2-9) The equation is shown as a dotted line in plate C-4. Values of f based on protot~e concrete conduit measurements are plotted in this plate.w 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 2-12C This equation is shown as the “smooth pipe” on curve in plate C-4. D represents the pipe diameter. Effect of Relative Roughness.

The Darcy f is expressed in f. This concept assumes that the resistance losses in a noncircular conduit are the same as those in a circular conduit having an equivalent hydraulic radius and boundary roughness. P .7D (2-lo) The relation is shown as dashed lines in plate C-4. terms of the conduit diameter and therefore is theoretically only applicable to conduits having circular cross sections. H2042. or rough flow 2-9 -. . (2-11) D= 4R=~ where R= D= A= P= hydraulic radius of the noncircular conduit dimeter of a circular conduit having the sae hydraulic radius conduit area wetted perimeter A WS study (item 19) has shown that the equivalent diameter concept is applicable to all conduit shapes normally used in the Corps’ outlet works structures. respectively. and vertical-side horseshoe-shaped conduits showing full or partly full can be computed with.. transition. The concept of equitialent hydraulic diameter has been devised to make it applicable or to noncircular sections. m Guidance for Roughness. See paragraph 4-2c for a discussion of when conduit shapes other than a circular section should be considered. Noncircular Cross Sections. circular.CORPSO H2041. curved-side. and H2040. horseshoe-shaped conduit are presented in plate c-6. oblong. and R for various common conduit shapes. H6002.2-12e EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 1 _= G -2 loglo (L+%) 3. Flow characteristic curves computed by the USBR (item 50) for their standard. The Colebrook-White equation (eq 2~~O)D~~1recommended for computing the resistance coefficient f since it is applicable to either smooth. Plate C-5 gives the relation between A . . Geometric elements of rectangular. This shape is the same as that presented at the bottom of plate C-5. .

and H2043. and without the aid of a computer. Recommended k-values for various conduit materials are shown below: (1) Concrete. Computations of discharge and head loss at given total heads for rectangular. 2-1o . The type of construction and the resulting effective roughness can be used as guides in specific design problems. Available test data on concrete pipes and conduits have been analyzed to correlate the effective roughness k with construction practices in forming concrete conduits md in treatment of interior surfaces (HDC 224-in). tunnels. H20~5.0010 0. Conduit Size ft Under 2. (a) Capacity. It should also be used for all estimates for critically low pressures in transitions. However. etc. The following values of k are recommended for use in the design of concrete sluices.0003 0. (c) Miscellaneous. it is more convenient to graphically obtain values of f from a Moody-type diagram as illustrated in plate C-4. respectively. as well as for the effects of boundary offsets projecting into or away from the flow. or oblong. to use the Moody diagram requires knowledge of the effective roughness parameter.~ 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 2-12g conditions.0 Under 5. precast conduits (circular) conduits (rectangular) k ft 0. The following tabulation gives information pertinent to the data plotted in plate C-4. and conduits.0 me Asbestos Concrete Concrete Concrete cement pipe pipe. bends. The k values listed below are based on the data presented in paragraph (c) below and are recommended for capacity design computations. and vertical-side horseshoeshaped conduits flowing full can be computed with CORPSO H20~h. the k values listed are not necessarily applicable to other conduits of different sizes. . circular. However.0020 0. The solution is implicit. The smooth pipe curve in plate C-4 should be used for computing conduit flow velocity for the design of outlet works energy dissipators. Conservatively higher values of roughness should be used in designing for conduit capacity.0030 (b) Velocity.

00009 Wood Form Conduits e -1- Oahe Enid c c 18.00013 12-ft steel form A A v Denver #3 Denver #13 Spavinaw Steel Form Conduits o A v ‘8 Denisen Ontario Chelan Adam Beck Fort Peck Melvern Beltzville c 0 c c c H c 20 18 14 45 24.5 3.00004 Joints ground 0.83 2. 2-11 .00152 Oiled steel form 0.5 7 0.00016 Steel mandrel 0.00030 19.0 3.00016 12-N steel form 0.3 11 0.2 1.00024 4-ft sheet steel on on wood forms 0.00012 0.00089 0. and H = horseshoe.0 5.00061 0.i’ 11.00031 8-ft steel form 0.00056 4-ft oiled steel forms 0.5 3.82 4.00043 6-ft steel form 0. O = oblong.7-ft steel form 0.00001 Hand-rubbed 0.5 5.00018 12-ft steel form 0.2-12g(l)(c) EM II1o-2-I6o2 15 Ott 80 Size Project -ft Precast Pipe k ft Plate C-4 Symbol Construction q T c Asbestos cement Asbestos cement Neyrpic Denver #10 hat ills River Presser hatilla Dam Deer Flat Victoria c c c c c c c c c c c c 1.00018 Invert screeded and troweled 0.00160 (Continued) * C = circular.7 2.54 2.00008 Steel mandrel 0. R = rectangular.0 0.00014 0.00011 12-ft steel form 0.5 2.

The recommended desi~ values sre approximately twice the average experimental values for the interior treatment indicated. O = oblong.0001 0.()()015 lJnkno~ * C = circular. and H = horseshoe..EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 Plate C-4 Symbol Size ft k ft 2-12g(l)(c) Project Shape* Construction Wood Form Conduits (Continued) o @ Pine Flat 52 Pine Flat 56 R R 5x9 5x9 0.0 lto5 Over 5 Under 6 over 6 All All k ft 0.and asphalt-treated conduits results from heavy. The large increase in k values for large size tar. brushed-on coatings. (2) Steel./ .0003 0. R = rectangular.0100 0. The values for large steel conduits with treated interior surfaces should also be useful in the design of surge tanks under load acceptance..00103 O 00397 Longitudinal planking Miscellaneous o Quabbin H 11 x 13 (). The k values listed in the tabulation below are recommended for use in sizing cast iron and steel pipes and conduits to assure discharge capacity.0010 0. Diameter e Under 1. zinccoated or uncoated 2-12 . The recommended values result from analysis of 500 resistance computations based on the data presented in HDC 224-1/in and in Table H of item 13. (a) Capacity. The data are limited to continuous interior iron and steel pipe.0006 Treatment Tar-dipped Ta-coated T=-brushed Asphalt Asphalt-brushed Vinyl or enmel paint Galvanized.0001 0.0020 0.

03 and 0.000039 0. The smooth pipe curve in plate C-4 is recommended for all design problems concerned with momentum and dynamic forces (stilling basins.82 10. Data by Moore (item 7b) indicate that over a 30-yr period.00 22.000008 0. offsets.02 ft. incrustation of bacteria up to 1 in.61 0.000026 0. trashracks.25 4.33 0. However. Data compiled by Frarike(item 38) indicate that organic and inorganic incrustations and deposits in steel conduits up to 6 ft in dimeter increased resistance losses by as much as 100 to 300 percent with effective k values increasing twenty to one-hundred fold. The data indicate that the interiors of some of the conduits were originally treated with a coat of bitumen. critic~ low pressures at bends. thick formed in uncoated 8-in.00 22. Interior treatment of pipes and conduits is of importance to their service life. The changes occurred in periods of 5 to 17 yr. The mechanics of flow in corrugated metal 2-13 . pipe where the bond between the pipe and the interior coal tar enamel was poor (item 38).). Chemical.000133 0. etc. Computed effective k values for these pipes were 0.000004 0.000936 0. branches. water hammer.000071 0.000152 0. the k values listed do not necessarily apply to conduits having different diameters. The following tabulation summarizes the data plotted in HDC 224-1/in and can be used as a guide in selecting k values for specific design problems. Diameter ft 2. organic.25 0. (3) Corrugated Metal. surge tanks for load rejection. respectively.60 2. water pipe.oo k ft 0.2-12g(2)(b) ~ 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 (b) Velocity.000382 0. (c) Miscellmeous. and inorganic deposits in steel pipes and conduits can greatly affect resistance losses and conduit capacity over a period of time.83 22.49 0. Similar conditions prevailed in 10-in.000135 0.000010 0.00 24.000005 Reject Neyrpic Neyrpic Milan Milm Milan San Gabriel San Gabriel Hoover Fort Randall Fort Randall Fort Radall Garrison Remarks Spun bitumastic coating Uncoated Zinc-coated Zinc-coated Zinc-coated Enameled Enaeled Galvanized pipe Tar-coated Tar-coated Vinyl-painted Vinyl-painted (d) Aging Effects.

EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 2-12g(3) and structural plate pipe are appreciably different from those occurring in steel and concrete pipe (items bh and 117). Economical blasting and rock removal operations usually require a flat or nearly flat invert. considerable rock remedial treatment is required. Corrugated metal is not recommended for high pressure-high velocity systems (heads >30 ft. Field measurements of friction losses in the Corps’ Snettisham diversion tunnel have been reported by WES (item 75). Existing resistance coefficient data have beennstudied by Huval (item 52) and summ~ized in HDC 224-1/5 and 224-1/6. Unlined rock tunnels are usually horseshoe-shaped. velocities in unlined tunnels should not exceed 10 fps except during diversion flow when velocities up to about 15 fps may be acceptable. and resistance coefficient and published a design chart based on these parameters. HDC 224-1/2 and 224-1/3n show the effects of pipe diameter. Generally. helix angle. (b) Shape. Accurate k values cannot be determined prior to initial tunnel blasting. Adjustment to the tunnel size could be made after tunneling begins. Consequently. Generally. Invert paving reduces resistance coefficients for corrugated metal pipe about 25 percent for 25 percent paved and about 45 percent for 50 percent paved. This chart is included as Plate C-7. Structural stability normally requires a rounded roof. and flow Reynolds number for pipes with corrugations 90 deg to the flow. or lining in fractured rock may be required. The correlation shown indicates that pipe size ad helix mgle are of primary importance in resistance losses. and velocities >10 fps). a rmge of probable k values based upon blasting technique and local rock characteristics must be investigated to determine tunnel size. (a) General. For this reason the published f values can be used for both capacity and dynamic design. More recently Sil’berman and Dahlin (item 112) have analyzed available data in terms of pipe diameter. Information of this type can sometimes be obtained by studying blasting techniques used and results obtained in the construction of tunnels in rock having similar characteristics. (4) Unlined Rock Tunnels. Both the height of the corrugations (k) and their angle to the flow are important factors controlling the resistance coefficients (f) values. Unlined rock tunnels have been used for flood flow diversion and hydropower tunnels where the rock is of sound quality. The use of plate C-7 for the hydratiic design of corrugated pipe systems is recommended. (c) Limiting Velocities. For a tunnel with downstream 2-14 - . it is more economical to leave these tunnels unlined unless high-velocity flows are involved. corrugation height and spacing.

In almost all cases the loss coefficient section and b. etc. . General. A rock trap designed to trap debris without interrupting the tunnel flow is described in item 47. gates. or valves. general reference section for combining into a single total loss coefficient. are conventionally called “minor losses” although in many situations they are more important than the losses due to conduit friction discussed in the preceding section (item 118). ft/sec $ 2g (2-12) The reference velocity in the following ener~ loss equations corresponds to a local reference section of the conduit at or near the point where the loss occurs. ft dimensionless coefficient usually determined experimentally designated reference velocity. penstocks. bends. piers. The development of satisfactory rock trap design and size is presented in items 23 and 66. it has been recommended that velocities be limited to 5 fps or less to prevent damage from migration of tunnel muck fines and rock falls. . a. valves. etc.2-12g(4)(c) EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 turbines. where ~ AG is the cross-sectional area at the general reference is the mea at the local reference section. can result from rock fall material moving with the flow. A convenient way of expressing the minor losses in flow is hk=K— where ‘1 = K= v= g= head loss. fps 2 acceleration due to gravity. each local coefficient (K) should be multiplied by a factor A~/< . 2-13. the individual local loss coefficients (K’s) cm be adjusted to a single. Energ losses caused by entrances. Rock traps must be provided where damage to downstream turbines. (d) Rock Traps. stilling basins. To do this. 2-15 . Access to these traps is required for inspection ad occasional cleaning out. Sudden Expansion. Form Resistance. In a conduit with varying cross-sectional area (and inversely varying average velocity) along its length.

c. provided the amount of contraction of the jet is known (items 101 and 118). This is essentially true for all minor losses in turbulent flow. The head loss h~ due to a sudden contraction is subject to the same analysis as the sudden expmsion. Using the as the reference velocity. Al/A2 = O and the loss coefficient K becomes unity and the head loss hl is equal to the velocity head. Furthermore. 2 (2-16) . one exception is the head loss for a sudden expansion (items 101 and 118). and the reference velocity is the upstream velocity V~ . equadownstream conduit velocity ‘2 tion 2-14 may be written as (2-15) in which K=:-l () c 2-16 . if the sudden expansion is from a submerged exit portal into a reservoir. However.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 2-13b K is determined by experiment. Sudden Contraction. equation 2-12 may be written as 2 ~2 1 z=K~ 2 ‘1 hl=l-~ () ‘1 2 (2-13) in which 2 K= l-~ () ‘1 2 (2-14) where ~ and A2 are the respective upstresm ad downstream conduit cross-sectional areas. Desi@ating the smaller upstream section as section one and the larger downstream conduit as section two. Plate c-8 also illustrates the loss coefficient K as a function of a ratio of the downstream to upstream crosssectional areas. A plot showing K as a function of the area ratios is shown in plate c-8. Note that the head loss varies as the square of the velocity..

for a conduit is a function of the bend radius. where V is the throat velocity. and Peters (item 92). Schoder md Dawson (item 10~) give the head loss in the upstream contracting section of a venturi meter as 0. and Zmker and Brock (item 147). but it may be of import=ce in small-scale models of bends. as illustrated by plate c-8. trance to a conduit from a reservoir is usually taken as 0. Hoffman (item 49). The Reynolds number need not be considered for computing bend losses for the design of flood control conduits. More recent data by Levin (item 59) gives loss coefficient values for flare angles up to 90 deg.06 (V2/2g). 144. Huang (item 51). It has been found that the smoothness of the boundary surface affects the bend loss. The bend loss. Dimensionless loss coefficients based on equation 2-12 have been (items 49. More up-to-date but less detailed summaries are presented by Zanker and Brock. (1) General. In the case of the gradual contraction. if the entrance is square-edged.e. Gradud expansions.03 to 0. Levin’s data appear on the bottom of plate C-9. Bends. d. 2-17 . Approximate loss coefficients for rectangular-to-rectangular and rectangular-to-circulartransitions have been published by Miller (item 72). Transitions.000. and 146) determined e~erimentally for bends in circda and rectan~ar (items 64 and 116) conduits.. Anderson (item 4). the head loss at the encontract). Anderson includes detail summaries of the literatme with may design graphs.2-13c EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 where Cc is the contraction coefficient (i. Plate C-9 smarizes the available data for gradual expansions and gradual contractions in circular sections (conical transitions). but the usual surface of a flood control conduit permits it to be classed as smooth pipe for the determination of bend losses. 6 (2) Losses.5 V2/2g . which are referred to as conical diffusers (items 101 and 118) have been tested by Gibson (item 41) . conduit size ad ‘Shape. e. the area of the jet at the vena contracta section divided by the conduit area at the vena Thus. These tests show the loss coefficient to be a function of the flare angle of the truncated cone. The mechanics of flow in bends is discussed by Yarnell (item 146). Hoffman (item 49) and Wasielewski (item 144) have established that bend losses ae independent of the Reynolds number for values in excess of 200. excluding friction loss. The loss coefficients shown in plate C-9 are applicable in equation 2-13 for both expansions and contractions where the reference velocity is in the sm~ler conduit.and deflection angle of the bend.

Plate C-14 shows the effects of Reynolds nmber (D) on 10SS coefficients for various triple bend combinations with ~ in the vicinity of 105 (item 116). Since structures of this type are not frequently used in reservoir outlet works. Branches (wyes. ad Williamson and Rhone (item 145) indicate the reviv~ of interest in branches and junctions of large conduits.) are not normally found in outlet works but are encountered in the design of penstocks and water supply systems. (2) Experimental Data. 1929)).~ 1110-2-1602 2-13e(2)(a) 15 Ott 80 (a) Circtiar Conduits. 1928). Petermann (item 91. f. Bend miter bends in circular conduits with are given in plate C-n (item 4). Loss duits having circular or single miter 90 deg are given in plate C-10.0. Syamala Rao (item 119). In 1938 the USBR (item 135) published the results of expertients on junction losses. etc. Plate C-12 shows the effects of Reynolds nmber and bend radii on rectangular conduits having 90 deg bends and height-width ratios of 0. Loss coefficients for rectangular conduits having circular and single miter bends have been published by Sprenger (item 116) and Madison and Parker (item 6h). Early interest in dividing and combining flow was generally limited to commercial pipe fittings (Vogel (item 141. 2-18 . Correlation of dimensionless loss coefficients from the literature is difficult because of the wide variations in geometry tested. HDC 228-5n presents design information on pressure change coefficients for junction boxes with in-line circular conduits and illustrates a procedme to compute the head loss for these structures. Junctions (manholes) are frequently encountered in sewer (storm and domestic) design and junction boxes are occasionally used with gates as control structures for low-head outlet works. This was probably the first effort to minimize head losses and optimize presswe conditions in large diameter branching conduits through experimental design. The bend loss coefficient from plate C-12 shodd be multiplied by the appropriate relative loss coefficient given in plate C-13. Ruus (item 105). Miller (item 72) presents a summary of experimental data on dividing and combining flows in branches through 1970. tees . coefficients for circular conbends with deflection angles up to loss coefficients for multiple deflection angles from 5 to 90 deg (b) Rectangul~ Conduits.5 and 2. only the literature is cited to assist the designer. The more recent works of Marchetti and Nosed: (item 65). (1) General. Branches ad Junctions. Plate C-13 gives relative loss coefficients for rectangular conduits having circular bends Varying from10 to 18o deg (item 64).

etc.. then to the actual length of conduit may be added 20 x 4/o. . downstream from gate slots. the equivalent length of pipe L that has the sme head loss for the same discharge.602 15 Ott 80 Equivalent Length. Similar flow conditions but with very high head losses can exist with lock culvert valves and 2-19 > . Cavitation frequently causes severe d-ge to concrete or steel surfaces and it may occur at sluice entrances. While cavitation is normally associated with highvelocity systems. at sharp bends in pipes. 57. on tips of needle v~ves. within a moderate range of Reynolds numbers. Equating the he~d loss due to form losses and the Darcy-Weisbach equation. Section VI.” Surface erosion resulting from debris (rocks.. 97md 127. General. assume the tota3 form loss coefficient in a 4-ft-diam conduit equals 20 (i. and cavitation damage may be difficult to determine from examination of the surface within the daaged axea. etc. (2-17) in which K Solving for may refer to one form loss or the sum of several losses. it ca occur in low-velocity systems with certain local boundary geometry and flow conditions. The roughening or formation of pockets in surfaces resulting from cavitation is commonly called “pitting. K = 20) and f = 0. .02 = 4000 ft .02 for the main line. Pressures in the cavitation range have been measured on a model of a navigation dam with a submergible tainter gate where the flow passages under the submerged gate had venturi-like characteristics. md this additional or equivalent len@h causes the same resistance as the form losses .) Cavitation is the successive formation and collapse of vapor pockets in low-pressure areas associated with high-velocity flow. Cavitation is usually associated with closed systems such as in-line gates and valves. (Items 8. Form losses may be expressed in terms of g. Cavitation 2-14.10-2-I. gravel. The classical case is that of the venturi meter (item 99) in a low-head system (plate C-15).) is sometimes mist~en for cavitation. on edges of baf’fleblocks.e..2-13g EM 11. Le (2-18) For example. but it can occur locally in free-surface systems. Debris erosion may sometimes be identified by grooves in the direction of flow.

The collapse (“implosion”) is very rapid and sets up high-pressureshock waves or possibly small. Cavitation results from the sudden reduction of local pressure at any point to the vapor pressure of water. 2-15. Computation of these fluctuations is essentially impossible md cavitation potential can only be investigated under carefully controlled tests. is determined for incipient cavitation by visual or specially in~trumented observations. Vapor cavities form as bubbles in the low-pressure areas and collapse when a higher pressure area is reached a short distance downstream. As 2-20 lb/ft2 . lb/ft’ V. The value of oi applies only for the partictiar geometry tested. . Y = unit weight of the fluid Abrupt boundary changes also cause large local fluctuations in pressures and velocities. by constrictions which produce high velocities and low pressures. In effect. = absolute pressure. In such tests a value of u. high-velocity local “jets” in the water that cause damage to the nearby boundary. a. cavitation can occur following any constriction when the back pressure in the system allows the jet flow piezometric head to approach the vapor pressure of water.EM 1110-2-1602 2-14 15 Ott 80 with conduit gates operating under submerged conditions (plate C-15). The basic equation associated with cavitation studies is (P. Such reductions in pressure ~e caused in water passages by abrupt changes in the boundary which causes a tendency of separation of the flow from the boundary. and by siphons in which pressures are reduced by reason of elevation. Theory.Pv) u = - (2-19) —o 2g ~ where 0= general dimensionless cavitation parameter 9 P. General. = average velocity of the flow Pv = vapor pressure of the fluid at a particular temperate.

For higher heads. In these highly turbulent cases.83 ft of water. The vapor pressure of fresh water at 40°F is about 0. In general. Daily and Hammitt (item 57) for additional discussion on the theory of cavitation. Design Practice. atmospheric pressure at sea level is 34 ft of water. early repair of pitted surfaces is important and should be done preferably with a more resist~t material. such fluctuations increase in magnitude with increasing total head. such as at gate slots. The preventive measures to be taken in . Colorado (elevation 5332). The reader is referred to the book by Knapp. For example. minimum average pressures should not be lower than -10 ft of water for safe design. offsets. Thus. Successful repairs have been The cause of made to concrete surfaces with epoxy concrete or mort=. local instantaneous pressure fluctuations of ~10 ft of water or more can be expected. 2-16. Where boundary changes are gentle and streamlined.4 m of water at sea level and Denver. and baffle piers of stand=d design. an average pressure exceeding O ft of water is often necessary as instantaneous pressure fluctuations can materially exceed atmospheric pressure.29 ft of water and at 70°F is 0. respectively. b.2-15a EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 long as O’S for other flow conditions exceed ‘i Y cavitation is not expected to occur. Stainless steel welding has been used to repair cavitation damage to steel surfaces such as gate frsmes and turbine blades. whereas at Denver. minimum average local pressures as low as -20 ft of water can be expected to be cavitation-free. Effects of Temperature. For this reason two minimum average pressure values are recommended for general design where the total head is less than 100 ft. such as in entrances and transitions. Preventive Measures. the effect of cavitation may be accelerated by the existence of a depression or hole in the surface which intensifies the local turbulence and the negative presswes in the area just downstream from the depression. These values are based on experience md should be conservative. Where boundary changes are abrupt or the local flow is highly turbulent. The vapor pressure of water (PV or Pv/Y) v~ies somewhat with the temperature of the water. practical design problems is difficult.L and 27. The variation in vapor pressure is not large compared with the variation in atmospheric pressure due to elevation above sea level. Available desi~ information on the magnitude of instantaneous pressure fluctuations is meager. Thus. cavitation occurs at negative pressures of 33. cavitation should be determined md corrected or avoided if due to a particular operating condition. if the water temperature is 600F. 2-21 . Once pitting has started in an outlet conduit. atmospheric Pressure is 28 ft of water (see HDC 000-2n). Application of the theory of cavitation to. 2-17.

2-18. that conduit len@hs of about 40 diameters are required for the boundary layer to become fully developed. in fact. Improvement of the shape of water passages to minimize the possibility of cavitation. In the design of high-head outlet conduits. the pressure gradient will ordinarily produce the required back pressure.air bubbles in the flow that will reduce the formation of cavitation pockets and cushion the effects of their collapse. The floor and walls of a conduit just downstream from a high-head gate are particularly tinerable when operated at small openings for m extended period of time (items 93 and 136).~ 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 the design of outlet works conduits depend on puticular as follows: conditions 2-17 a.7 x 10% . A recent study reported by Wang (item 143) showed that for rough pipes. special care should be taken to provide streamlined shapes at the aforementioned locations and downstream therefrom because back pressure will not be provided when the conduits flow partly full. In 2-22 . c. For long conduits. restricting the exit’end of the conduit. it is often desirable to combine any two or all three of the above preventive measues. (Items 101 and 106. Examples are the streamlining of conduit entrances. etc.) Conduit systems are generally designed on the assumption that the boundary layer generated in the flow by the she= between the fluid and the boundary is fully developed and exists the entire length of the uniform conduit section. . roof openings. and gate slots whenever the velocity is sufficiently high to produce cavitation. and using larger bend radii. small protrusions resulting from incorrect monolith alignment. When conduits are to be operated at p=t-gate opening. increasing the amount of offset and decreasing the rate of taper downstream of gate slots. b. Introducing air at low-pressure areas to partly alleviate negative pressure conditions and to provide. Tests at WES (item 129) and other places show. or increasing the cross-sectional area in such localities as gate passages to decrease the velocity and increase the pressure. gate passages frequently must be enlarged or exit constrictions provided to produce the back pressure. not be permitted. the wall shear stress becme fully developed in about 15 diameters and the velocity profile was almost fully develop d in 50 diameters for a Reynolds number range of 1.2 x 106 to 3. It is especially desirable to maintain a substantial back pressure in the vicinity of entraces. Boundary Layer. Increasing the pressure by raising the hydraulic grade line at disturbance areas. which may be accomplished by flattening any downward curve. but for short conduits. unground welded joints.. concrete spills. It is especially important that during construction. bulkhead slots.

Subatmospheric pressures. It is particularly important that the air vent opening extend across the full width of the conduit. and that the water flow does not impinge into theopening. M. Air demand. but the air inflow from the vent at the top of the conduit will be entrained by the turbulence of the jump and drawn by the jump action into the conduit flow downstream. (See para 3-17 for details. Under certain conditions of operation. plate c-16 indicates the types of flow that cause air demand and the relative amounts. The air discharge which must be supplied by air vents is dependent upon the rate of air entrained by high-velocity flow and upon the rate of air discharged above the airwater mixture at the conduit exit. Kdinske and J. Both conditions of water flow in the conduit result in reduced pressures at the back of the service gate and at the vent exit. 2-19. The vents usually open through the conduit roof immediately downstream from the service gate./ /. A. in most instances. the exit portal flow can contain a central core having a velocity head approximating the full reservoir head. that the high-velocity air actually spreads across the full width.2-18 EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 sluices and conduits of very small length-diameter ratios. Both factors are variable and are influenced by the hydraulic and structural features of the conduit and the method of conduit operation. Large reductions in these pressure fluctuations ca be effected by providing air vents through which air will flow into the conduit where less than atmospheric pressure exists. may be accompanied by large fluctuations that can cause dangerous vibration or destructive cavitation> particularly in the gate section. An illustrative example showing the methods used for determining the size of air vent required and for compu~ing the pressure drop in such ~ air vent is presented in HDC 050-2. Quantitative estimates of air requirements for design purposes have been based principally on empirical application of appropriate experimental and prototype data. Air Demand. finally producing a blast of air ~d spray from the exit portal. a partial hydradic jwp is formed in the conduit and the jet will entrain air as previously cited.) Air requirements are most critical in this area and reach a maximum value when the service gate is operated at about three-q-u~ters open under the highest head. and are therefore undesirable from the operating standpoint as well as for structural reasons. approaching the vapor pressure of water. Ener~ dissipators for very short conduits should be designed using the total reservoir head. is not subject to a rigid analysis.— . Robertson 2-23 “‘\ . the pressure in a conduit may fall considerably below atmospheric pressure. the jet issuing from a small gate opening forms a fine spray or mist that fills the conduit and is dragged along the conduit by the underlying high-velocity flow. At large gate openings. When conduit discharge is not influenced by tailwater conditions and a hydraulic jdoes not form in the conduit. thus causing air inflow through the vent. A paper by A.

2-19 (item 55) correlated experimental data obtained on the rate of air entrainment by the hydraulic jump as a function of Froude number. Air vent flow encountered in the hydraulic design of outlet works is generally treated as an incompressible fluid and consequently conveyance systems are designed using conventional hydraulic theory and procedures.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 . Air Flow. respectively. Data on the prototype has also been obtained. 2-20. Data presented by Sharma (item 111) indicate that the air demand for free flow and spray conditions may be about 3 ad 6 times . Scott (item 109) has prepared many flow charts for desi~ing air conveyance systems. that for the hydraulic jump condition. In extremely high-velocity systems (>200 fps) the air should be treated as a compressible fluid and the system designed accordingly. A summary of existing data is presented in plate C-17. 2-24 .

A sluice should never be located close to or straddling a monolith joint. All sluices should be large enough for inspection. Size. Elevation and Alignment. 3-3. The sluices for concrete gravity dams usually have a relatively small cross-sectional area. to 5 ft 8 in. each controlled by individual gates. Since it is also general practice to place crest piers on the center line of spillway monoliths. 3-2. In a dam for flood control only. the sluice air vent intakes can be placed in the crest pier. by 10 ft O in. effects of large openings in a concrete gravity section. Air vents should not be crossconnected below the highest possible pressure grade line. One of the principal reasons for making the sluices small in cross section is adverse structural. and repair purposes. by 6 ft O in. Location.3-1 EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 CHAPTER 3 SLUICES FOR CONCRETE GRAVITY DAMS Section I.. depending on discharge requirements. Such a location requires either (a) a sepwate energ dissipator or (b) a careful design for discharging into the spillway ener~ dissipator. The reservoir operational requirements normally play an important part in determining the elevation of the flood control sluices. The size of sluices usually varies from 4 ft O in. Shape. and Number. When more than one sluice per monolith is required they are spaced appropriately in each monolith (plate C-19). the streambed with due consideration of the sluice outlet elevation relative to stilling basin design. In some cases it may be desirable to locate the sluices in the nonoverflow section of the dm. . maintenance. a. eliminating any danger of submergence during spillway flow.. the reservoir is normally dry and the sluice inlet elevations are set at. Sluices for concrete dams are generally located along the center line of spillway monoliths (plate c-18). Basic Considerations 3-1. The flood control sluices installed in Corps of Engineers’ dams are predominantly rectangular in cross section. the use of a large number of small sluices. or slightly above. provides a finer degree of regulation than could be obtained from a smaller number of sluices of larger cross-sectional area. The inlets of the sluices must be set low enoughdto drain the reservoir to the required limits of drawdown (ER 1110-2-50 ). General. In a multipurpose dam with fixed reservoir storage allocations ad in which high reservoir stages may be maintained for long periods of 3-1 . Larger sizes may be indicated in certain cases. In addition.

5:1 to 2:1. normally having a height-width ratio of about 1. Section II.and bends. Low-level sluices are sometimes desirable for the passage of sediment through a reservoir and for aiding in water quality control if a special intake tower is not provided. Flow around conduit bends results in acceleration of flow along the inside of the bend accompanied by a local pressure reduction and the potential for cavitation (partictiarly for short-radius bends ). Plate C-21 shows t~ical designs for flush ad protruding sluice int-es. or curve downward at some point downstream from the inttie. The minimum pressure occurs at 22. Bends. Cavitation is not likely to occur in bends where long-radius curves are used. General. the guidance given in paragraph 2-16 should be adhered to. Area reductions may be used to spread the emerging jet. Open roof slots for closure bulkheads at Kinzua Dam permitted flow through the slot and resulted in extensive cavitation damage downstream (item 20). -b.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 - 3-3a time. If the sluice intake is permanently or frequently submerged. gate slots’. Bulkhead slots must extend vertically above the maximum reservoir pool or be provided with slot covers.5 deg and h5 deg from the beginning of curvature for circular and rectangular conduits. and are usually rectan@ar in shape and flared in four directions. Since the computed minimum pressure is an average pressure. The invert may slope on a straight line from the int~e to the outlet portal. it may be desirable to have both high.and low-level sluices (plate c-18). This permits a reduction in the required size of the stop log or bulkhead gate. Sluice intakes are integral parts of concrete spillways. Trash Protection. Pressue drop coefficients to evaluate cavitation potential for 90-deg bends are given in plate C-20. The curved entrance is followed by the sluice passage. A high-level sluice usually requires that the outlet portal be sloped to direct the flow along the face of an ogee spillway section or into a stilling basin. An area reduction is usually provided in the vicinity of the outlet portal of sluices to assure positive pressures in these sluices when operated under full gate openings. Setting the outlet portal at a lower elevation than the int~e reduces the pressure at critical locations such as the intake. In some cases considerable economy in stop log costs can be effected by projecting the intake curves upstream beyond the face of the dam. 3-5. the servicing and inspection necessary for maintenance are more costly than for a high-level sluice. respectively. or the sluice is enlarged downstream of the gate to ensure open-channel flow at full gate openings”. The intake may be equipped with struts or 3-2 . Sluice Int*es 3-4.

elongated sections with rounded noses and tails can be used. 101.3-5 ~ 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 trashracks. me design of vibration-free trashracks is necessary to prevent failure from material fatigue. which begins at the upstrea face of the dam or intake structure =d terminates in tangency to parallel walls. The purpose of such struts is to catch trees and other large debris which may reach the entrance but would ‘notpass through the gate passage. Trashracks shotid not be located in velocities exceeding 3 to 4 fps. V in this equation is the flow velocity in the uniform conduit section just inside the intake. Trashracks..02. should be adequate for highly submerged flood control outlet conduits. is commonly referred to as the entrance section. Trash Struts. Trashracks are provided where debris protection for dowstream devices such as valves or turbines is required (item 22). 3-6. and 110). A simple trash strut usually of reinforced concrete with clear horizont~ and vertical openings not more than twothirds the gate or other constricted section width and height. Such devices can be fabricated from circular bars and pipe. Teardrop designs are not required if the local velocity guidance is maintained. 100. thereby possibly preventing closure of the gates. and 135). A flow net or model test should be used to determine local velocities through this area (items 99. Where additional strength is required. Trashrack head losses depend on the flow velocity and area construction (items 22.- .J b. 37. The c~ved converging section. General.. respectively. They should be designed for safe operation with 50 percent clogging. depending upon the need for protection against clogging and debris damage to gates and turbines. trashracks should be located in lower velocity seas than trash struts and must be provided with raking or cleaning facilities. and 135). a. 3-3 . Additional information on the design of trash struts is given in EM 111o-2-24oo. 39. It is especially important where reverse flow ca occur (items 21. 108. Trash strut losses are usually included in the over~l intake loss. Trash struts should be located to effect local net-area velocities not greater than 15 fps. Entrance Curves. Trash struts should be provided with a working platform located above conservation pool elevation to facilitate removal of debris. 53. depending upon the structural design requirements ad economy. Because of danger of overstressing from clogging. Such racks are designed to retain debris of such size and type of material that could result in damage to these devices. use of equation 2-12 is recommended with a loss coefficient K value of 0. 63. The struts should be circular cylinders or have rounded noses and square tails. a. If necessary to consider separately.

A bell-mouthed entrance. An elliptical entrance curve for a circular conduit will satisfy the required streamlining and jet contact requirements if the curve is expressed by the following equation: X2 (0. bulkhead or stop log slots. the comp~und elliptical curve (fig.EM 1110-2-1602 ij Ott 80 - 3-6a The curves that determine the rate of convergence are designated as entrance curves. md D is the diameter in feet. respectively. a long and gradual entrance curve may require an unnecessary amount of expensive forming. A laboratory-tested elliptical curve is shown in figure a.5D)2 . plate C-22. The”sluices of a concrete dam are commonly rectantiar in cross section. -d the transition between the intake and the sluice proper. The objective is to design an entrance of minimum length in which positive pressures can be maintained at dl flows. Intake ~er~ clude all the enerw losses between the reservoir and the sluice proper. b. Y2 (0. They also include the friction losses occurring in the intake structure. gate passage and gate slot. b. Noncircular Inlets. Circular Inlets. Losses. Intake head losses are considered to in3-7. Intme losses are experimentally determined (model and prototype) by assuming 3-4 .15D)2 = . eliminates occurrence of negative pressure in localized areas at the entrance to a circular conduit (see p 414 of item 101). This simple ellipse is normally satisfactory. negative pressure areas may develop in the entrance section where the jet is inadequately supported or improperly guided. HDC 211-1/2 shows the effect of upstream face slope of the dam on the entrance curve pressures. It is the function of the entrance section to guide the flow with minimum disturbance until it is contracted to the dimensions of the gate passage or to the upstream transition of m ungated intake. For designs of high-head dams md when the conduit has insufficient length to produce substantial back pressure. which conforms to or encroaches very slightly into the free jet profile of a circular orifice. If the entrance curve is too sharp or too short. c. with the pressure drop coefficients. (3-1) where X and Y are coordinates measured parallel to and perpendicular to the conduit center line. air vents. plate C-22) should be used. WES (item 128) has tested entrance curves of various shapes. On the other hand. The head loss incl~des the form losses generated by the entrance curves.

placed at or near the downstream end of the outlet conduits. This location permits the valves to dischage freely into the atmosphere and eliminates most of the cavitation potential. gate frames. however. Section III. When valves =e used for regulation they =e commonly. Cablesuspended gates operate in open wet wells which fill to the reservoir pool elevation when the gate is closed. The hydraulic design problems of the gate passage are often closely associated with the structural and mechanical problems in the design of the gate. a. This type of 3-5 -- >. Gate Passage. Gates. Fixed-wheel gates have a series of wheels down each side of the ‘gatewhich be= on verticd guides in the gate slots. and gate hoist. slide gates are generally operated by hydraulic cylinders. Rectangular gate passages are used for ordinary slide. and tractor or wheel-type gates. an intake loss coefficient value of 0. fixed cone. In some cases. 6 3-9. When high-head gates are operated under partial opening. On the basis of limited model and prototype intake loss data for sluices. Vertical Lift.16 is recommended for capacity design and a value of 0. Due to the friction between the gate and the vertical guides. The gate passage may be defined as the passageway in which the gate leaves operate. such as knife or ringfollower gates or butterfly. they may be subject to severe cavitation and vibration and have a high air demand. and Valves 3-8. the hoist mechanism “ is located at an elevation above the maximum pool level. Gate ~es. Tractor and fixed-wheel gates are used where closure of large openings is required. If trashracks are provided this value shodd be increased in accordance with data referenced “inparagraph 3-5b. tainter. therefore.10 when high velocity is critical.01 for each gate may be considered. One of the most important problems in design of gates and appurtenant features is to eliminate cavitation. Vertical-lift gates are operated either by cables or a rigid stem connection to the hoist mechanism. Gate passages of circular cross section are designed when necessary to accommodate circular gates or valves.3-7 m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 that the fully developed turbtient friction gradient exists between the conduit exit portal and the intake as shown in plate C-2. a value of 0. A basic condition is whether the gate will be required to operate partially open or will only be operated fully open. Tractor gates move on an endless chain of rollers on each side of the gate. the spray so produced may be troublesome to power plmts ad switchymds . General. . Vertical-lift gates for outlet works are defined according to their method of movement. or needle valves. When gate slot losses are not included in the intake loss .

EM 1110-2-1602
15 Ott 80


operation is not usually used for gates which operate partly open for long periods of time because of possible vibration. See paragraphs 4-18 and 4-19 for design problems concerning cable-suspended gates. Hydratiicdly operated gates are preferred for high heads and for long periods of operation at parti~ openings. These gates have rigid riser stems that recess into bonnets or etiend to a higher floor level where the hydraulic hoist mechanism is located. The hydraulically operated slide gate is used preponderantly in designs for service gate installations in sluices of concrete dams. me rectangular slide gate generally has a height greater than the width to minimize both the flexure on the horizontal members and the unit loads on the vertical guides, and to reduce the possibility of binding in the slot. The cross-sectional shape of the gate passage in the sluice is usually the same as the shape of the gate. The upstream face of vertical-lift type gates must be flat rather than “bellied,” as some gates were in the past, and the 45-deg lip should terminate in a l-in. vertical etiension (see plate C-23). Rating curve computations =e discussed in paragraph 4-16 md in Appendix D. b. Tainter Gates. Tainter gates have been used in the Pacific Northwest as service gates in sluices operating under extremely high heads (>250 fi). The characteristics of the tainter gate are favorable to its use for accurate reservoir regulation in both concrete and embankment dams. Advantages of the tainter gate over the vertical-lift type gate include: gate slots are not required in the walls of the gate passage, which is favorable in partly open gate operation; a relatively small hoist capacity is required because the direction of the resultant water load is through the trunnions; and the friction between the gate seals and the gate passage walls is low. A disadvantage of the tainter gate is that the entire gate cannot be easily lifted out of the well for maintenance. Tainter gates are placed in an enlarged section of the sluice and some have eccentric trunnions to facilitate movement and sealing under a very high head. The enlarged gate section may include an invert step-down as well as side and roof offsets to provide for complete sealing and for aeration of the jet which most frequently discharges as openychannel flow downstream at full gate opening. Under this condition, back pressure in the intake section is essentially nonexistent and the boundary layer is not fully developed. A model study is usually required to resolve pressure and vibration problems in pressure flow conduit designs. Discharge coefficients of a partially opened tainter gate in a rectangular conduit ~e shown in plate c-24. In general, the discharge coefficient can be considered the same as the contraction coefficient based on a study of the jet profile (~C 320-3n).


3-1o 3-10. Centrol Valves.
a. Valve Hydraulics. ~ife gate, needle-type, fixed-cone, and vaious commercial valves have been used for flow control. Discharge rating curves for a valve discharging freely into air or into an enlarged, well-vented conduit can be developed from the equation

Q= CA=
where Q= discharge in cfs


c = discharge coefficient
A= H= 2 nominal conduit or valve flow area in ft energy head immediately upstresm and generally measured from the center line of the conduit in feet of water

2 g = acceleration due to gravity in ft/sec Disch~ge coefficients for freely discharging valves of many t~es have been determined empirically and will be presented in subsequent discussions on specific valve types. Head loss across in-line valves in pressure conduits can be computed by equation 2-12 using the dimensionless valve-loss coefficient K determined experimentally for the particul= valve and valve opening. b. Butterfly Valves. Butterfly valves have been used extensively for cutoff valves but are not recommended for flow regulation. There is evidence that the butterfly valves in the 11-ft-diam flood control conduits at Summersville Dam may have contributed to the failure of the 9-ft-diam fixed-cone valves immediately downstream (item 80). c. Needle-Type Valves. The needle valve opens and closes by the horizontal movement of a needle; the valve is closed when the needle is advanced to its efireme downstre~ position. The water flows in an annular passageway first diverging and then converging past the needle. Discharge from nee~e valves can be computed using equation 3-2, where A and H are the area md ener~ head, respectively, at the inlet end, and C is a discharge coefficient. Kohler and Bdl (in Davis and Sorensen, item 24) show the full open coefficient to be about 0.60 when





15 Ott 80 the ratio of outlet diameter to inlet diameter is 0.95. Thomas (item 120) gives discharge coefficients for partly open 86-in. needle valves. me hollow-jet valve is a modification of the needle and the needle moves upstream to close the outer casing of the valve. Model tests of the hollow-jet valve for Anderson Ranch Dam showed ftily open discharge coefficients of approximately 0.70. Thomas also presents discharge coefficients for partly open valves in item 120. Nag presents a good summary of the characteristics, the uses, and the limitations of free discharge regulating valves in item 78. d. Fixed-Cone V~ves. The fixed-cone valve is similar in principle to the hollow-jet valve except that the cone pointing upstream on the downstream end is stationary ad a sleeve of the outer casing moves downstream to close the valve. The shape of the issuing jet is a hollow cone. The discharge coefficient curves for fixed-cone valves are shown in plate C-25. The coefficients for the six-vine valve are based on tests by TVA (item 29). A comparable coefficient curve for a four-vane valve reproduced from HDC 332-in is also shown in this plate. Model-prototype confirmation of the hydraulic characteristics of these v~ves has been studied by Lancaster (item 58). The shell of a sixvane valve has been found to be less likely to vibrate than that of a four-vane valve. In a nmber of cases, flow-induced vibration of fixed-cone valves has resulted in serious and costly damage (items 71 and 80). Hoods cm be designed for these valves to control the spray of the jet (items 31 and 81). e. Comtnercid Valves. Many types of commercially available valves are available for small conduits and water-supply systems. Some of those most commonly used are the knife gate and other gate valves. Head loss coefficients for lenticular- ~d crescent-shaped opening, in-line Kntie gate valves are recommended gate valves are given in HDC 330-1. for free discharge installations. 3-11. Metering Devices. mere accurate monitoring of outflow is required the inclusion of a metering device in the system should be considered. Mmy schemes can be considered, varying from venturi ud elbow meters to acoustic and electronic systems. The installation of such devices eliminates the need for extensive calibration of gates and valves under varying operating conditions and generally results in flow measurements with errors from about ~5 percent to 21 percent. It is necessary that all flow measuring devices of these types be installed according to standard specifications for proper, cavitation-free oPeration. If the provision of metering equipment is contemplated, WES should be consulted relative to available t~es and to their installation and operation requirements and limitations. 3-8


EM 1110-2-1602
15 Ott 80


Gate Passageway Requirements. Normally, when reservoir outlet flows require regulation the following are provided:

a. Two or more gate passages such that if one passage is inoperative, a reasonable flow re@ation as pertains to project purposes is obtained. b. Rnergency gate provision (tandem or transferable) for each service gate passage so that if a service gate is inoperative in any position, closure of the gate passage can be made with the emergency gate for any pool level. c. Bulkhead provisions for each gate passage for inspection and maintenance of the service and emergency gates. As a minimum, the bulkheads must be capable of being installed at the lowest pool elevation that has a reasonable frequency and length of occurrence sufficient for inspection ad repair purposes. All judgment factors involved in the above should be fully discussed in the design memorandum presentation. 3-13. Gate Slots. The guide slots of rectangular gates produce a discontinuity in sidewalls which may cause cavitation, unless specially designed. It has been common practice to use metal-liner plates downstream from the gate slots to protect the concrete from the erosive action of cavitation. The recommended guide lines for metal liners are given in paragraph 3-16. The gate slot in the roof of the gate chamber md air vent slots present similar design problems. Design details for slide gate roof, side, and air vent slot details are shown in plate C-23. Pressure coefficients (item 123) for detailed examination of this gate slot design for high heads (>250 ft) ae given in figure a, plate c-26. To obtain dimensional local gate slot pressure data, the pressure coefficients given in this plate are multiplied by the flow velocity head in the gate passage and algebraically added to the backpressure gradient elevation at the gate slot. Tests by Ball (item 6) show that doubling the downstream taper length from 12 to 24 units reduces the severest pressure drop coefficients (C) from -0.16 to -0.12 for comparable slot geometry. Therefore, it is recommended that for heads >250 ft the taper downstream of the gate slot be modified to 1:24. For conservative estimates of minimum pressures at gate slots where streamlining is not provided, the pressure coefficients in figure b, plate c-26, shouldbe used. In detailed design studi~s it may be desirable to check the gate slot design for potential incipient cavitation. This can be done by solving equation 2-19 for the absolute conduit pressure PO necessary for cavitation and comparing it with the computed minimum pressure at the slots. Plate C-27 gives incipient 3-9

Steel Liners. If a liner is necessary. In general. Hydraulically operated control gates recess into bonnets and cable-suspended gates into wet wells. The primary hydraulic consideration is the relative upstream and downstream clearace at the roof recess when the gate passage is operated at part gate opening. it should not terminate at a monolith joint or in a transition. The necess~ dimensional clearances for gate operation ~e usually based on mechanical and structural requirements rather than hydraulic. For conservative design. Air demand will create very low pressures in the service gate recess.01 is recommended for each pair of gate slots for use in equation 2-12.4 is recommended to check cavitation potential. For heads above 150 ft. When gate slot losses are not included in the int~e loss. design: The following guidance is recommended for air vent a. An air vent is required for each service gate. These values were obtained using relatively large scale (1:3) plastic models to reduce possible errors from scale effects. The upstream clearance at the roof should be appreciably larger tha the downstream clearance to assure maintenance of a hydrostatic head in the well or bomet for gate stability. a loss coefficient K value of 0. Gate Recess. Control valves and gates that are located a considerable distance upstream ffom the exit (i. 3-16.e. The head losses for gate slots are generally included in the composite intake loss discussed in paragraph 3-7. The 3-1o . 3-17. the computed minimum pressure should be appreciably higher (15 ft or more) than the incipient cavitation pressure. If the downstream clearance exceeds the upstream cle=ance the gate well can be sucked dry =d the gate may float or catapult or oscillate under certain operating conditions (see p=a 4-18b). a metal liner should etiend 5 ft downstream from the gate. Air Vents. For heads below 150 ft. 3-14. Steel liners in concrete conduits have been used where experience indicates cavitation is likely to occur such as downstream from control gates and valves where a high-velocity jet occurs. Gate Seats. Extreme caution must be observed if the emergency gate is used for regulation. do not dischmge into the atmosphere) require air vents. no liner should be required. Air vents are not required for emergency gates when those gates are located immediately upstream of air-vented service gates. 3-15..m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 3-13 cavitation coefficients ai for various slot geometries. the gate seat is flush with the floor of the gate passage. A Ui value of 0.

excessive noise. sluices should not be designed for combined spillway and sluice operation. The size of air vents can be determined as per HDC 050-2n which assumes that the maximw air demand occurs at a gate opening of 80 percent fully open and the maximum air velocity in the vent does not exceed 150 fps. e.5 to 1. . . air vent outlet pressure head of -0.O f. hydrologic. in cases where large sluice capacity is required for diversion flows or normal reservoir regulation. high-velocity local flow should be checked to determine if flow is incompressible (item 109). However. Plate C-23 illustrates a typical air vent exit into the gate chamber.0 ft of water (i. Generally.. the connections should be above the maximum possible elevation of the pressure grade line at the air vent exit opening to prevent crossflow of water.0 ft of water). Section IV. Air vent intakes should be so located that they are inaccessible to the public and they shodd be protected by grills. (b) reduction in maximum head on the spillway. Interconnected air vents (one main vertical stem manifolded to vent more than one gate) should be avoided. d. Potential benefits include (a) reduction in spillway length with savings in spillway and stilling basin construction costs. and hydratiic benefits to be obtained. Although air vents are usually designed assuming incompressible flow. The air vent should terminate into a plenum located in the conduit roof and immediately downstream of the gate. Sluice Outlet Design 3-18..3-17a EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 attendant conditions must be carefully analyzed to prevent damage and/or danger to personnel.e. The air vent exit portal should be designed to assure spread of air across the full width of the conduit.5 to -1.. and (c) more advantageous use of reservoir surcharge to reduce peak outflows. combined operation may be considered and evaluated in terms of economic.. Air vent passages should use generous bend radii and gradual transitions to avoid losses and. b. General Considerations. Simultaneous spillway and full sluice operation should be limited to conditions of thick (at least 10 ft) 3-11 . The intake entrance average velocity should not exceed 30 fps. c. The plenm should extend across the full width of the conduit and should be vaned so that the air flow is evenly distributed. It is further suggested that air vents be designed so that the head loss through the vent not exceed 0. but if they are necessary. particularly.

Experience with combined operation has been limited to structures not exceeding 150 ft high. A sluice in a concrete dam is seldom long enough to develop the desired back pressure from friction losses necessary to prevent cavitation damage and it may be desirable to use an exit constriction. the sluice flow should be limited to 40 to. The sluices should be opened and operated preferably only with a thick spillway nappe flowing over the sluice outlets. In projects not model-studied for combined flow operation. 3-20. In general. sluices should be closed when spillway operation begins. This damage usually originates at low 3-12 . gradual depression of the sluice exit portal roof and curving the sluice vertically downward to a smooth junction with the sloping spillway face (plate C-30) is preferable to deflector blocks and the jet plunging into the stilling basin. Roof constrictions should be used when the sluice is curved vertically downward to terminate the conduit invert tangent to the sloping spillway face or to the spillway toe curve (plate c-28). Extensive cavitation damage has occurred at exit portals during s~illway flows with and without simultaneous sluice operation. 3-19.m 1110-2-1602 35 oct 80 3-18 spillway nappe flow over the outlet to minimize the possibility of negative pressures at the sluice exit portal (item 15). or by use of sidewall flare with a tetrtiedral deflector (plate C-29). Sluice “Eyebrow” Deflectors. With thinner nappes. combined flow should only be permitted when the free flow capacity of the spillway is expected to be exceeded and the structure is endangered.’i’Oercent gate p openings to obtain maximum air intake to relieve low pressures at the exit portal and on the spillway face immediately below (item 140). A 10 to 15 percent area constriction at the exit portal can be provided by gradually depressing the conduit roof from some point upstream to the exit portal or by a deflector formed in the exit portal invert (plates c-28 and C-29). Tetrahedral deflectors are also used when the sluice forms an abrupt junction with the spillway face nd the sluice flow spreads in a free fdl into the tailwater (plate C-29). Operation @d reservoir regulation manuals must reflect these restrictions. Caution should be used in designing for greater heights where very high velocities and thinner spillway nappes would Occw . Both designs require efiension of the sidewall flares in the spillway face downstrem of the exit portal. but if jet spreading is required to improve stilling basin performance. it can be accomplished by flaing the sidewalls in combination-with” roof constriction ‘a (plate C-30). This t~e of design does not aid in horizontal spreading of the sluice jet. Exit Portal Constructions. One sluice inoperative should not jeop~dize the integrity of the dm. When the sluice is appreciably above the spillway toe curve and spreading of the sluice jet is not a problem.

.. undesirable low pressures at full sluice gate opening were still evident immediately downstream on the spillway face. ..3-20 EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 pressure areas where the outlet portal. . . the spillway jet can impinge upon the sluice invert with part of the flow entering and intermittently filling the sluice. and other projects.. Red Rock. USBR studies (item 140) of the Folsom Dam spillway showed that when the junction between the sluice invert and the spillway face is abrupt.roof intersects the spillway face and progresses downward along the intersection of the sluice ‘sidewalls and the spillway face. . However. This restricts effective venting by the sluice gate air vent with subsequent subatmospheric pressure at the sluice outlet roof.. 3-13 . The USBR tests also showed that impinging of the spillway flow on the sluice exit portal invert res~ted in flow separation from and undesirable low pressure on the spillway face downstrem. The use of “eyebrow” deflectors on the spillway face (plate C-31) effectively lified the spillway jet away from the sluice invert and permitted adequate venting of the exit portal by the sluice gate air vent. Deflectors of this type have been model-tested by the Corps of Engineers for Detroit.

4-2. is -usually dictated by the outlet works size and alignment. Excessive curvature in the outlet channel near multiple gate intake structures should be avoided to help prevent unequal distribution of flow through the gate passages. me inlets must be set low enough to drain the reservoir as required (ER 1110-2-50d) with due consideration of the conduit elevation relative to stilling basin design. As with sluices for concrete gravity dams (see ~~a 3-3a). the channel may function for diversion of the river during construction. ~. topography.4-1 EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 CHAPTER 4 OUTLET FACILITIES FOR EMBANKMENT DAMS Section I. Aliment. In some cases. tailwater elevation. The purpose of the approach channel is to convey the water from the reservoir to the conduit intake structure. and operating requirements. a. Approach Chmnel. A conduit at a low level may have better foundation conditions and higher discharge capacity for diversion and other low pool level operation. the change should be accomplished with a long. and location of the dam and spillway. since a bend increases the hydraulic losses and creates unbalanced flow downstream from the bend. foundation conditions. A model study should be made for questionable cases. easy. The alignment of the approach charnel should take advatage of the area topography to decrease the channel excavation.e curved section should be located as far upstream from the exit portal as feasible in order to improve the flow conditions in the stilling basin. The outlet. Flow around bends causes dynamic and static reactions against the conduit or tunnel wall which should be considered in design. Conduits and tunnels should have adequate slope for drainage. the vertical alignment should contain sufficient camber to compensate for the settlement. evacuation.channel design. and when appreciable foundation settlement caused by embankment loading is anticipated. Basic Considerations 4-1. Conduits and Tunnels for fibankment Dams. If it is necessary to change the direction of flow. bless extremely long. The alignment and grade of conduits and tunnels are governed by diversion. Conduit Elevation. It is desirable to design conduits or tunnels that are as straight in alignment as practical. circular curve. however. the reservoir appurtenance requirements pl~ an important part in determining the elevation of the flood control conduit. a longer conduit may be required ud poor stilling basin action may result from high tailwater 4-1 . particularly for free-standing steel conduits within tunnels.

EM 1110-2-2901 discusses the spacing of multiple tunnels from the standpoint of geological and structural requirements. which m~e them desirable for diversion purposes. The oblong shape has depressed pressure gradients at the exit portal compared with other shapes. and a larger conduit may be needed for diversion or design capacity. Available data from various geometries ad gate 4-2 .y5 . A circular cross section is the most efficient section for a tunnel flowing full. Multiple cut-and-cover conduits should be spaced as close together as structural requirements permit in order to allow use of a singlekstilling basin and a minimum width intake structure.32 times the conduit velocity head. the principles of the hydraulic design are essentially me hydraulic design of the intake structure should address the sac. when the outlet chute walls act somewhat like a draft tube (see para 5-2d(2)). Although some crosssectional shapes are superior to others from a hydraulic standpoint. structural md construction considerations usually establish the type of cross section. Loss coefficients for conduit intake structures with all gates operating range from 0. Intakes &d control gates for embankment dms are discussed as integral structures. d. Hydraulic characteristics of several shapes are shown in.::oj.-1602 4-2b levels. (b) boundary pressures.— plate C-5. but if designed as separate structures.06 to 1. Section II. Spacing. but foundation conditions may require its location to be farther from the river channel. since the wetted perimeter is suddenly increased. The types of intake structures commonly used include gated tower. Loss Coefficients. the spacing affects the stilling basin and intake design. and (c) vortices in the approach. the problems of (a) head loss. multilevel. Higher level conduits may have shorter length and the best potential for good stilling basin action and good flow conditions through the conduit for all discharges. Intake and Gate Facilities 4-3. and/or a combination of these. Where more than one conduit or tunnel is required. If the tunnels are designed with individual stilling basins. The discharge capacity decreases sharply when the depth of flow in a rectangular conduit increases from nearly full to completely full flow. Flood control conduits for embankment dams are usually c“ % either cut-and-cover or tunnel construction. the spacing at the outlet portal must be sufficient to provide the necessary width of stilling basin for each outlet. Horseshoe-shaped and rectangular sections provide large flow areas at low depths. Intake Structures. uncontrolled two-way riser. a.

The intensity of the circulation phenomena set up around an intake is a function of the submergence of the intake. and the intake and approach channel geometry. Data for observed prototype vortices at Enid (item 131) and Denison (item 125) Dams have been included in this plate. 1313 and 138). Gordon (item 43) has developed design guidance for preventing undesir-. It is recommended that Gordon’s curve for unsymmetrical flow be used for design purposes. conservative values be selected from these plates in accordance with the planned intake geometry. Although vortices are usually associated with high discharges and shallow intakes. The 4-3 “ .both dimensions at the entrance to the inlet bell mouth) should equal or exceed the inlet flow Froude number (otherwise.or exceed Froude number plus one) to provide vortex-free operation. the discharge. Model studies are suggested in questionable instances. gate passages. Trashracks and Struts. 125. Antivortex devices have been installed at int~es located at shallow depths. Reddy and Pickford (item 95) have analyzed vortex &ta pertinent to pump sumps and published a design chart for evaluating vortex potentiality for these structures. These gradients are helpful in evaluating pressure conditions in”intakes. Many of the coefficients given include allowance for trash struts or fender losses. Boundary Pressures. Average pressures do not reflect pressure fluctuations due to turbulence. This can be done by applying the energy equation (eq 2-3) to local changes in areas. 4-4. Both the intake tower and the centr~ control shaft have their respective advantages. able vortices (intensity such that they draw air and surface debris into the structure) at power plant intakes (plate C-35). Pressure gradients for intake structures should be developed to show local average pressure chages resulting from flow velocity changes. They should be examined in terms of the conduit back pressure for the entire operating range. Vortices at intake structures can affect int*e efficiency and create a safety hazard to the public. d. They concluded that when vortex prevention devices are used the critical submergence (ratio of water depth above top of inlet to inlet diameter . Vortices. and cavitation potential should be evaluated according to the criteria ”tiscussedin paragraph 2-16. It is recommended that for discharge calculations. Int~e Tower Versus Central Control Shaft. see the design guidance given in paragraph 3-5. they have been observed at intakes submerged as much as 60 to 100 ft (items 43. and transitions. 95. it should equal. C-33. b.4-3a ~ 1110-2-1602 1980 operating schedules are summarized in plates C-32. c. and C-34. If protection against clogging or debris daage to gates or turbines is needed.

In some cases this undesirable condition can be eliminated by use of a central control shaft to shorten the conduit length downstream from the control gate. Reservoir operating schedules may require the release of discharges under various heads and gate openings resulting in the pulsating flow condition (“burping”) discussed in paragraph 2-4d. Combined Intake and Gate Structure. with resultant piping of the material. When bul~ead slots are located downstream from the intake face. there is the important advantage of being able to unwater the entire length of conduit for inspections. has the advantage of being protected from freezing and thawing and from forces due to ice action. is minimized. A central control shaft. This is a coxmnontype of intake tower that usually requires a bridge for access. having a streamlined entrsnce to the conduit or tunnel which is submerged at a low reservoir level. This is an advantage in the elimination of possible cavitation. The submerged int~e is a comparatively simple and economical structure most often equipped with trash struts and bulkhead slots. provisions must be provided for closing the roof slot to prevent a high-velocity jet from entering through the slots and causing cavitation damages to the roof immediately downstream (item 20). The central control shaft has an advantage of not requiring a bridge for access as is the case of an intake tower. As the intake tower has gates near the upstrem end of the conduit or tunnel. and gate wells are. Submerged Int*es. Further discussion of gate structure locations is given in EM 111O-2-24OO. difficulty arises in unwavering the conduit or tunnel upstream of the service gates. However. Foundation conditions and economic comparisons may dictate the choice between the intake tower and the central control shaft.provided to accommodate the service and emergency gates. The submerged intake is satisfactory for reservoirs that function solely for flood control.J 4-5. Use of divers for bulkhead installation is to be avoided. and a trasition is required both upstream and downstream of the gate passages. When the gates are placed near the upstream end of a conduit.~ ~::o----16o2 4-4 intake tower may be expected to have higher back pressure at the gate section caused by the friction loss of the long downstream conduit. the conduit upstream of a central control shaft must be designed to withstad the reservoir head. when the intake will be permanently submerged by a conservation pool. In a central control the intermediate pier or piers are subject to high velocities and me designed to eliminate possible cavitation. which is usually located in an abutment near the axis of the dam. the danger of leakage into or out of the embankment or abutment. The emergency gate is upstream from the service gate and is utilized for inspection and maintenance of the service gate passage. 4-6. However. The gate wells are 4-4 .

Structural considerations are discussed in item 83. design considerations. An alternative to the conventional tower-t~e structure is an underground control structure buried beneath the embankment or in the abutment with a downstrea access gallery. The requirements discussed for sluice gates in paragraph 3-12 also apply to control gates for conduits 4-5 . Provisions must be made for continued releases as required during shutdowns of primary release facilities. This type of construction is frequently used for penstocks through embankments. 4-8. Flow control facilities located at the downstream end of a conduit.4-6 EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 generally wet for low head. and subsequent failure of the embankment. ad dry for high head structures. Bubbler gages are also used for this purpose and require less space. wet-dry combination for intermediate head. Determination of the well type is from structural and mechanical. when closed. The underground gate structures may be more economical than the conventional tower-dry well structure for high operating heads (~150 ft). Another economical advantage of this type of structure is the elimination of the service bridge which is required for a tower structure. Underground Control Structures. Therefore special design precautions are necessary when the control structure is located at the downstream end of the outlet conduit. The access gallery should be placed adjacent to and at the same elevation as the water passages. It is desirable to have two or three separate levels for the float well int~es. The conduit between the impervious cutoff and the control structure may be a freestanding steel conduit housed in a concrete-lined tunnel of sufficient size to permit access for maintenance. A float well is normally provided for installation of a reservoir stage recorder. 4-9. Other conditions under which an underground structure should be considered include projects where water quality releases do not require multiple intakes over a wide range of reservoir levels and where reservoir operation results in periodic drawdown of pool level to the top of the int&e bulkhead structure. and they should be away from any drawdown effects when releasing large flows. piping along the conduit. Gate Passageway Requirements. subject the entire conduit to the full reservoir head and the possibility of high pressure leaks. L-7. Outlet facilities with downstream control must also have an emergency gate upstream of the steel conduit and stop log provisions at the conduit entrance. Downstream Control Structures. essentially forming a multiple-box structure. ~is type of structure has been used by others and by the Corps at the Fall Creek Dam in the Portland District md the New Hogan Dm in the Sacramento District. Horizontal air vents will require check valves to prevent flow of water through them.

EM u1o-2-16o2 1980 4-9 through embankment dams. Entrances in concrete dams are ordinarily constructed as bell mouths for circular conduits and with entrance curves at the top. there usually is insufficient lateral space for full bell-mouthed entrance curves on the sides. so that only the roof is bell-mouthed and the piers and sides are extended upstream to support the trash struts. 4-6 . 4-12. The operation of large gates at small openings (<0. plate C-37) is satisfactory when the back pressure on the intake is great enough to prevent low local pressures. multilevel wet well facilities (see Chapter 6). plate C-37). In the case of a single r~tangular gate passage”. a. is equally applicable to conduits for embankments and concrete dams although the structmal setting and some details are different. and slots for bulkheads or stop logs should be provided for each gate passage to the conduit or tunnel. Low-Flow Releases. Int*es with sufficient lateral space for sidew~l stretiining should have curves as shown in plate C-22 and discussed in paragraph 3-6c. %neral. The total flow cross-sectional area of gate passages should exceed the downstream conduit area by 10 to 15 gate installations for both tainter and vertical-lifi percent. discussed in paragraph 3-6. consideration should be given to low-flow bypass culverts. A comprehensive series of tests on flared entrances has been conducted at WES (item 76). there is little curvature of the invert approachso that a bottom curve is not required. Normally a service gate. The general design of entrance shapes. The effects of upstre~ face geometry are given in HDC 221-2n and item 20. the top and sides can be flared or treated as above. the conduit inverts are normally set at approximately the same elevation as the floor of the approach channel. an emergency gate. In embankment dams. or a low-flow (“pig~-back”) gate incorporated in the service gate. Section III. 4-10. ~ical gates are shown in plate c-36. bottom. The sides and piers are c=efully transitioned from rounded noses to the gate passage. b. center pier cdverts . In the case of embankment dm intakes with two or more gate passages. Intake roof curves for conduits with fully suppressed intake inverts and limited lateral space for side flares should be designed as indicated in plate C-37. Consequently. and sides for rectangular conduits. Entrance Shapes 4-11. In cases where low-flow releases are required. The long elliptical shape shotid be used when back pressure is not adequate to eliminate low local pressures (fig. The short elliptical shape (fig.5 ft) is not recommended because of the increased potential for cavitation downstream from the gate slot. Selection of Entrance Shape for Design.

Plate c-38 shows the improvement of pressure conditions from using line= sidewall ad/or pier flare. a service gate.. Generally. General.and three-dimensional values. For this reason cable-suspended tractor gates are not recommended for flow regulation or for heads in excess of 150 ft. an emergency gate. 4-7 . respectively. and slots for bulkheads or stop logs =e provided for each gate passage to the conduit or tunnel (plate c-36). Cablesuspended tractor or hydraulically operated tractor or slide gates are normally used in conduits for embankment dams. Control Gates 4-14. 4-15. are equally applicable to conduits for emb-ent dams.4-13 EM 1770-2-1602 15 Ott 80 4-13. the vibration problem is more critical in the design of cable-suspended gates. . WES studies show that entrance roof pressure conditions for two-dimensional curves can be improved by tapering the divider piers.. Laboratory and field tests have shown that the 45-deg gate lip design shown in plate C-23 performs satisfactorily under all flow conditions. Gate Lip Geometry. will be discussed in this section. The 45-deg lip should terminate in a l-in. Unless model-tested. Section IV. The problems of determining the hydraulic forces acting on tractor gates. it is recommended that application of equation ~-l be limited to the cases where the horizontal flare does not exceed 1 horizontally to about 12 longitudinally. with emphasis on cable suspension. Linear Sidewall or Pier Flare.. ~ne computational procedure is illustrated in HDC 221-3 and 221-3/l. Although downpull forces on a partially opened gate constitute a hoist design problem in both hydraulically operated and cable-suspended gates. Twodimensional roof curve pressure coefficients can be converted to threedimensional coefficients for side flare by: 2 ‘2 C3 = C2 q () (h-l) where c = pressure drop coefficient A= flow area in square feet at the point of interest Subscripts 2 and 3 indicate two. The types of gates and valves md their operating characteristics discussed in paragraphs 3-8 to 3-17.

Hydraulic Load for Vertical.1 times the jet velocity head. the downstream conduit slope is mild and the flow profile will be the M3 type (see plate C-l). knife-gate valves.~ 1110-2-1602 4-15 15 oct 80 vertical etiension to ensure that the jet springs free from the upstrem edge of the lip. an initial depth in the downstrem conduit proper must be estimated and the profile computation proceeds in the downstream direction.2 times the average jet velocity head. Pickett et al. etc. There are many commercially available slide gates. 4-17. it is recommended that this depth be estimated from the jet vena contracta and assume an ener~ loss between the gate and the conduit proper (transition loss) of 0. 4-16. Single gate passage structures of nominal length and reservoir head generally have downstream free-surface flow for gate openings up to 80 percent of the gate passage height. thus possibly causing flow pulsations (“bmping” ) as discussed in para~aph 2-4d. Hydraulic loads are computed in the usual manner with the gate closed and the reservoir at maxim level. computation of the flow profile between the gate and conduit exit portal is necessary to ascertain the gate opening at which flow control shifts from the gate to the exit portal due to conduit friction for a given pool elevation. that are readily adaptable to low headnand small disch=ge flood control and drainage projects. L-18. Generally. Commercial Gates. a. (item 93) have compiled considerable data on discharge and head loss coefficients for various types of gates and valves. or for a mtitiple passage structure with balanced operation. The hydradic load on the gate leaf should be determined both for gate closed and part gate operation. this 80 percent value may be greatly reduced with two or more gates partially open. HDC 340-1 presents head loss coefficients for flap gates used extensively in flood protection ad drainage projects. The upstrem face should be flat rather than “bellied” in order to have uniform flow conditions across the width of the conduit. Therefore. Stage-discharge relations for selected gate openings and ~r freesurface flow downstream can be computed with CORPS H3201. For unbalanced gate operation. it is recommended to assume this ener~ loss at 0. In any event..-Lift Gates. The vertical hydraulic loads on the gate during partly open operation can be separated into upthrust on the bottom =d 4-8 . For a single passage structure. General. In multiple gate passage structures. Plate C-39 presents a suggested design discharge coefficient curve for use with equation 3-2 for developing rating curves for vertical-lift gates with 45-deg bottoms (plate C-23) md assuming free-surface flow downstream of the gate. Vertical-Lift Gate Discharge Computations. flap gates. tainter gates.

This may result in structural rupture. As the space between the int~e gate and downstream gate be‘comesftil. The occurrence of free-surface or ftil conduit flow downstream from the gate. AdditionQ hydraulic load data have been reported by Simmons.n The upthrust for ~5deg gate bot~oms determined from model and prototype tests is shown in HDC 320-2/1. by simply opening the int~e gate a few inches. the trmsition from either to the other. The amplitude can also increase rapidly if there is ‘ 4-9 . As the magnitudes and frequencies of the exciting hydraulic forces can only be approximated in most cases. a. The case of an elastically suspended conduit gate is used to illustrate application of the theory. The unit upthrust load is in terms of the effective head on the gate. 4-19.. stilling basin walls.4-18a EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 downthrust on the top as indicated in HDC 320-2. respectively). Thompson (item 121) treats the theory of vibration with the determination of whether any disturbing frequencies are inherent in the hydraulic system of a design that may approach the natural frequency of elements of the system (gates. A similar typenof graph for downthrust on the top of the gate is shown in HDC 320-2/2. Under these conditions sufficient hydratiic forces on the gate have occurred at several projects that would abruptly raise or “catapult” the gate tens or even hundreds of feet up the slot (items 40 and 98). the water may rise through an opening between the downstream side of the intake gate and the gate slot. Both slide gates and tractor gates are included. The data on downthrust are applicable only to gates with similar upstream and downstream clearances between the gate and the roof slot boundaries. HDC 320-2/3 pre~ents a smple computation illustrating the use of HDC 320-2/1 and 320-2/2 in the solution of a hydraulic and gravity force problem. 79. Fortunately most of the exciting hydraulic forces have high frequencies and the natural frequencies of the various elements of the structure =e very low. If this back-of-gate opening area is smaller than the gate opening area. and Smith (items 113. it may restrict the vertical flow of water into the gate slot. Naudascher et al. ad 115. When the forcing frequency is exactly equal to the natural frequency a condition of resonance exists. valves. it is necessary to effect conservative designs. Resonance. etc. or the space between the sefiice and emergency gates. An intake gate is sometimes used for rapidly watering-up the penstock and turbine scroll case. and the gate speed may have considerable effect on the hydraulic load. Gate Catapdting. The displacement ~plitude for the vibrating system increases without bound ad is governed only by the amount of damping in the system. b. splitter piers. Vibration of Cable-Suspended Gates.).

represents the factor by which the zero frequency deflection x of the spring-mass system under the action of a steady force must be m~tiplied to determine the aplitude x . The frequency of the vortex trail shed from a flat plate oriented with face perpendicular to flow direction as follows: ca be defined by the dimensionless Strotial number. The forcing frequency of a vortex trail shed from a gate may be estimated as: (4-4) L-1o . Forcing Frequencies. The undamped magnification factor x —= x o 1- 1 ff 2 ~ () (4-2) where ff/fn is the ratio of the forcing frequency to natural frequency.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 4-19a only a small difference between the forcing and natural frequencies. b. It is desirable to produce a desi~ with a low magnification factor. Two possible sources of distmbing frequencies are the vortex trail shed from the bottom edge of a partially open gate and the pressure waves that travel upstream to the reservoir and are reflected back to the gate. S t’ (4-3) where Lp = plate width f= = vortex trail shedding frequency L V = velocity of the fluid The Strouhal nwber for a flat plate is approximately 1/7.

Natural Frequency.1+-19b EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott. c. The natural frequency of free vertical oscillation of a cable-suspended gate can be expressed by the equation: (4-6) 4-11 . Data are given in HDC 060-1/2 by Parmakian (item 90) for various combinations of these variables. The frequency of a reflected positive pressure wave may be determined from the equation: ‘f ‘k where c = velocity of the pressure wave L= length of the conduit upstream from the gate (4-5) The pressure wave velocity is dependent upon the dimensions and elastic characteristics of the pipe or of the ~ining and surrounding rock of a tunnel. eliminating bottom pulsations. The vortex trail springs from the downstream edge of a standard 45-deg gate lip. A more recent research study at Iowa (item 60) on flat-bottom gates indicates that the 45-deg sloping gate bottom used by the Corps should be free of “vibrationinduced by vortices shed from the gate lip.80 where He = ener~ head at the bottom of the gate g = acceleration due to gravity Y = projection of the gate into the conduit or half of the plate width L P Unpublished observations of hydraulic models of gates have indicated that the vortex trail will spring from the upstream edge of a flat-bottom gate causing pressure pulsations on the bottom of the gate.

In complex intakes. Transitions 4-20. Genera. ad to spread the jet on the spillway face. Entrance and Intake Transitions. circular to rectan~=. etc. Water usually flows through several different passageways in its route from the reservoir to the river below the dam. Sample Computation. Singh (item 114) has recently presented a procedure for designing a streamlined circular-to-rectan~ar transition resulting in essentially a straight-line variation in area effecting improved hydraulic performance. 4-21.m 1110-2-1602 15 OCt so where E= 2= 0= modulus of elasticity of the cable len@h of the supporting cable 4-19C unit stress in the cable d. and (3) exit. Transitions are required to effect changes in conduit size (expansions and contractions) and shape (rectangular to circular. a. Location. In-Line Trmsitions. Transitions fall into three general categories: (1) entrance. Transitions have the function of providing a smooth change from one cross section to another in such a maner than hydradic losses and cavitation 4-12 . to increase sluice back pressure. ~d c-38. At Mica D~ abrupt expansions have been designed as in-line ener~ dissipators (item 104) . the entrance loss is ineluded in the combined intake loss. it can be assumed that loss coefficients for well-designed simple entrances will not exceed one-tenth the conduit velocity head.). C-32. Section V.r oblong-shaped conduits. They are also used at conduit exits to help spread the flow prior to entering the energy dissipator.horseshoe. Comparable entrance pressure data are given in plates C-22. Entrance transition design for both circular and noncircular inlets has been discussed in paragraph 3-6. C-37. and C-33. ~ical entrance transitions are shown in plates C-21. trmsitions are used to connect a usually rectangular gate passage to circular. 4-22. (2) in-line. In sluices they are frequently used to effect exit portal constrictions. They may be abrupt with high head loss or streamlined with small head loss depending upon the purpose. HDC 060-I/4 and 060-1/5n present sample computations illustrating the above theory. In flood control conduits. From the data presented in these plates.

) C“ ~ The required length Ofthe transition as Comparedwith the conduit diameter depends upon the lateral. Construction joints should not be located at or nea the end of the transition. As the number of gate passages increases. the lemgth of the transition generally increases. in which case the length should be increased to reduce the angular rate of change along the transition. A well-designed transition . Smoothness in Direction of Flow. The junction of the corners of the transition with the desired section downstream should be carefully checked to determine whether the desired curvature is obtained to prevent the occurrence of separation or negative pressures along corner boundary lines. and the curves should be well defined to facilitate construction. and (3) at the outlet end of the conduit. b. (2) upstream and downstrem from a central control gate passage. vertical. for certain combinations of gates and tunnel sizes. fiessure Gradients. double curvature of the transition fillets will be avoided. . this ~ideline may result in too severe contraction for low heads. Thus . The procedure is applicable to all in-line transitions. A study should be made of the local average 4-13 d“ . The number ad arrangement of gate passages also affect the len@h of the transition. Transitions are generally required at one or more of the following locations: (1) between the intake gate passage md the upstream end of a circular conduit. should provide a gradual change in area boundary shape. maximum angle of contraction or expansion relative to the conduit center line shotid be limited to about 7 deg. The maximum change in flow direction occurs along the path of convergence of the outside corners of the transition.4-22a EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80) potential are minimized. If gate passages are the sme height as the downstream conduit. to eliminate the possibility of cavitation damage within md just downstream of the transition and to minimize head loss. Since a negative direction change of boundary (away from the flow direction) reduces pressure. A sample computation for the design of transitions is presented in Appendix E. the ratio of a contraction transition length to maximum radial offset from the outside boundary of the gate passage to the corresponding location (V and D being the on the conduit boundary shotid be about V/@ average of the maximm average velocities and equivalent diaeters at the beginning and end of the transition). and diagonal boundary changes. The trasition bounduies should follow easy curves. However. any misalignment of construction forms or subsequent small movement of monoliths on either side of a joint may further accentuate the drop in pressure md cause cavitation. As a gen-eral rule. with intervening tangents if required. (See item 7. d.

b-23. Average pressures can be computed using the Bernoulli equation (eq 2-3) and the average pressure should be equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure. Exit Transition. Normally the shape (circular.m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 4-22d pressure throughout the transition. Design details of a typical outlet works exit transition are presented in Chapter 5. respectively. 4-14 . Fressure data in transitions may be found in items 68 and 132 for entrance and midtunnel transitions. etc. When the embankment slope is relatively flat. horseshoe.) of = outlet conduit or tunnel for embankment dis maintained to the exit portal and the transition into the energy dissipator is made in an open channel downstream from the portal. the tunnel or conduit can be shortened by moving the transition upstream into the embankment and abruptly raising the roof to ensure free-surface flow in the transition. oblong.

The typical energy dissipator for an outlet works structure reqtires a stilling basin to produce a hydraulic jump. 88.EM lliO-2-1602 Change 1 15 Mar 97 CWTER ENERGY DISSIPATION ti Section I. to horizontal aprons with baffle piers and ~ end sills (item 69). to impact dissipators (item 46). General. and the duration. -(b) hYdraulic jumps in low-pressure conduits (item 130). (c) flip buckets. The structure(s) may consist of (a) abrupt expansions in high-pressure conduits (item 104). hydraulic jump. intensity. The latter vary from sluice jets spreading on spillway faces and toe curves. This chapter treats in detail the design of the transition. and frequency of outlet flows. adequate dissipation of energy can be obtained by the use of riprap aprons~ preformed scour holes (items 10 and 33).the conduit and the stilling basin proper at a section where the slope of the chute invert is flatter than IV on 6H (see plate C-40 for definition sketch. and other economical devices (item 34). a. whether it be from the world’s largest dam . Hydraulic-Jump Type Stilling Basins. etc. and the rectangular cross-section stilling basin for a single conduit. b. and 89). The invert of the outlet portal of a conduit is “low” tith respect to tailwater if for any operating discharge the curve intersects the tailwater for that dis‘2 charge in the transition chute between. the erosion resistance of the exit channel bed material. Low-Level Outlets @th Respect to Tailwater. and items 85. The stilling basin is joined to the outlet portal with a transition chute which has flared vertical sidewalls and a downward parabolic invert. In many cases of low-pressure flow (storm drains. The outlet flow.or from a small storm drain. but at low and intermediate 5-1 .). DOWNS~ 5 C-EL PROTECTION Energy Dissipators 5-1. and deflectors which spray high-velocity jets into the air before plunging into a downstream pool. usually requires some type of energydissipating stmcture to prevent downstream channel degradation. General. and (d) conventional hydraulic-jump type stilling basins. Appendix F presents the procedure as set forth i% this chapter for the design of outlet works stilling basin to include an illustration of a “low-level outlet with respect to tailwater” where an eddy problem may occur within the stilling basin for low and intermediate discharges. valves. depending upon the size and number of conduits involved. 5-2. The design may vary from an elaborate multiple basin arrangement to a simple headwall design. At several Corps installations such stilling basins performed adequately throughout the higher ranges of discharges.

and (5) whether the conduit will operate in conjunction with spillway flows. Thus. closure of the outlet works during spillway operation will effect appreciable economy in the outlet works stilling basin design. (2) the minimum anticipated tailwater for the design discharge is used in establishing the basin floor elevation. If eddy problems are likely to occur. This action resulted in impact and abrasion damage to the concrete apron. and sidewalls. design pool elevation. The design of stilling basins usually includes the following considerations: (1) the design discharge for the basin will exceed that for outlet works capacity and is recomputed assuming smooth pipe flow in the flood control conduit (see Moody diagram in plate C-4). and submergence needed to minimize cavitation. In many instances.) c. Appreciably less-than optimum performance can be accepted for higher flows of short duration as long es the jump is confined to the stilling basin. Suc~ flows usually occur for lorigperiods of time and are the most critical to the lffe of the structure. (See also para 2-7 relative to submerged outlets. Rocks and debris were trapped in the eddy and were moved upstream to the point at which they met the efflux from the conduit. TransitIon Chute. Basic Considerations. This divides low flows down both sides of the stilling basin and prevents an eddy from forming until the tailwater becomes excessively high. and negligible energy losses in the flow between the conduit exit portal and the stilling basin (see also para 2-18 relative to short conduits). foundation conditions. (3) 0. baffles. (4) the riprap immediately downstream from the stilling basin is designed using the average velocity of the flow depth over the end sill. flows.85 to full d downstream depth is recommended for design depending on the lateral distribution of flow as it enters the stilling basin. A model study should be made if the above guidance cannot be followed or if the flow from the outlet portal is not “ideal” with a horizontal transverse water surface and a uniform. here they were agitated and some were bounced violently against the apron as they were picked up by the issuing jet and moved downstream where they again were trapped in the eddy. an eddy formed in the basin and downstream flow was confined to a narrow section along one of che sidewalls.~ 1110-2-i602 Change 1 Is y~r s. the idealized example problems given in Appendix F illustrate the pro* cedure to determine whether eddy problems may or may not occur. s~etric velocity distribution. Stilling basins are generally designed for optimum energy dissipation of controlled flows equal to the capacity of the outlet channel. duration end frequency of high flows. (1) Sidewall Flare. d. the trajectory should be designed with an inverted V as shown in para 5-2d(3). The angle ($) of the flared section between the projected conduit axis and the stilling basin sidewall is defined by the equation: 5-2 .

If the flare ratio (AL) is too large. and the energy gradient at the exit portal was depressed nearly to the conduit Invert.e. ft flow velocity at the exit portal. i. side venttig of che free-surface jet was apparently restricted by the sidewall design. conduit diameter. (2) Sidewall Restrictions and Abrupt Offsets.5 times the conduit diameter or height (1. . Model studies with circular conduits indicate that a straight wall with a minimum flare ratio (AL) of twice the Froude number but not less than six produces a satisfactory design. The possibility of a depressed pressure gradient throughout a conduit and subsequent more than normal discharge has been noted in laboratory and field tests. The transition chute sidewalls should be connected to the exit portal with a radius not less than five tfies the outlet diameter or height (SD) and the invert continued on conduit slope for the length of the corner fillets (see plate C-41). In model tests on an oblong-shaped conduit. In extreme cases two side rollers will form. the flow will not spread uniformly over the flared section and lateral nonuniform energy dissipation will occur in the stilling basin. whichever is greater (5-2) where D.— 2V @ or = 6 . If the flare ratio is too small. ~. fi. fps This should also be satisfactory for rectangular conduit outlets.5D). The conduit shape was vertically oblong.5-2d(l) -1 $ = tan 1 E (i (5-1) where AL is termed the flare ratio and represents the distance along the axis in the direction of flow for unit divergence. The sidewall flare should terminate at or upstream from the beginning of the stilling basin apron.2~.. The length of the fillets for a circular conduit outlet transition should be approximately 1. Tests performed at the State University of Iowa (item 102) showed that the flare of a jet followed a curved path and was dependent upon the Froude number of the jet at the exit portal. the length of chute between the outlet portal and the stilling basin becomes excessive. the vertical sidewalls had a mitered flare (1 on 5-3 .

ft/sec 2 g“ v= = average velocity for smooth pipe flow at the beginning of the cume.63) from the horizontal diameter. Such effects on other conduit shapes have not been determined and this type of sidewall design should be avoided unless model-tested. The trajectory should be joined to the stilling-bash floor with. R-d subject to low-flow eddies as discu~sed in para 5-2b should be designed 5-4 * . corner fillets were not provided at the intersection of the invert and sidewalls.m 1110-2-1602 Change 1 15 Wr 87 5-2d(2) 5. abrupt offsets result in flow riding up the sidewalls.e. i. there was less satisfactory spreading of the jet into the stilling basin. the velocity (Va) in equation 5-3 has been increased 25 percent over the average flow velocity computed for smooth pipe flows.a tune that has a radius equal .. ~ outlet works stilling basin to the entering depth. These effects can exist at one discharge and disappear at either a higher or lower flow rate. Offsetting the walls laterally (1. ft g= angle with the horizontal of the approach invert at the beginning of the verti%al curve. (See Tuttle Creek data in plate C-3 and item 134.5 ft on each side of the conduit) raised the pressure gradient and reduced the discharge. or the flow will tend to separate from the transition floor with resultant negative pressures. Moreover.) (3) Parabolic Drop. The invert curve must not be steeper than the trajectory that would be followed by the highvelocity jet under the action of gravity. deg acceleration due to gravity. The profile of the transition chute invert from the outlet portal invert to the stilling basin floor is in the form of a parabolic tune based on the trajectory of a jet. The floor profile should be based on the theoretical equation for a free trajectory: Y= -x tan 0 *’ (5-3) where X . however. and y =“horizontal and vertical coordinates measured from the beginning of the tune. and the transition invert curve was parabolic. fps As a conse~ative measure to prevent separation of flow from the floor.

and x equal to the distance from the beginning of the tune to its intersection with the stflling basin apron (same as ordinary trajectory). Thus. The equation of the new parabolic trajectory al~ng the center line of the basin fdrmed by the addition of the inverted V can be computed by the equation: Y’ = -cmx~ (5-3a) where Y’ and x are the vertical and horizontal coordinates measured from the beginning of the curve in feet.. dl and d2 = sequent depths F= Froude number of the flow entering the jump.5-2d(3) Ey lllo-~_~602 Change 1 ~~ War 87 with an inverted V beginning at the exit portal and sloping upward on a lV on 7. e. Its purpose is to reduce the high-velocity outlet flow to permissible exit channel velocities. C trajectory can be determined by using y’ equal to t~e elevation at the beginning of the cu~e (outlet portal elevation + 0.19D) minus the elevation of the stilling basin apron. rectangular section is: +=+(JQ- .e. i. Plate C-41A shows an elevation view and section of an outlet works stillin~ basin with an inverted V. = F ‘1 ml (5-5) 5-5 . The energy dissipation phenomenon is the hydraulic jump. The stilling basin is designed as an energy dissipating device for the flow from the outlet works conduits.9H slope for a distance equal to the length of the fillet ‘f : ‘he height of the inverted V above the invert of the exit portal at a distance from the outlet will be 0. Elevation of Stilling Basin Floor. The formula for a hydraulic jump in a level. The center-line trajectory should intersect the floor of the stilling basin at the same distance downstream for the center-line from the outlet as the ordinary trajectory.19D as shown in Plate C-41A (where D = equiv‘f alent di&eter of the conduit).) (5-4) where .

5d2 to 4. If the natural tailwater depth is greater than the computed depth (see para 5-2b).85 of the theoretical The adequacy of the ‘2 “ tailwater cume to fit d2 values for flows less than the design discharge should also be checked.~ 1110-2-1602 Change 1 15 &r 87 where 5-2e and are the average flow velocity and depth.5d2 may be adequate. Longer basins should be considered when Froude numbers (~) -teed 12 due to the magnitude of residual energy leaving the basin. A basin length of 3. The required depth (d2) is then compared with the available depth (obtained from a tailwater rating cume) and the floor elevation assumption adjusted accordingly. If the basin floor is to be level with the conduit invert. The depth of tailwater required to form a jump is computed as d. It is of value for the designer to examine the type of jump to be expected with the Froude number involved. maximum discharge through the outlet channel) is used in determining the elevation of the basin floor. The effect of increasing the stilling basin width is to reduce the required depth of basin. This depth and velocity are used to compute the Froude number ( E). f. For basins with Froude numbers (IF) axceedlng 3 and less than 12. When the outlet channel is located in rock (item 17). Basically. a basin length of 2. a length of 3d2 is recommended. the length of the jump and ‘2 position of the jump toe on the cu~ed i~ert should be determined using KDC sheets and charts 124-1 and 124-1/1. ‘1 ‘1 of the entering flow.) Basin Length. a satisfactory hydraulic jump can be made to form in a stilling basin with end sill and baffle blocks by a tailwater that produces 0. the problem is an economic one in which various combinations of width and depth of basin are compared to obtain the least cost combination. . equations 5-2 and 5-4 may be combined in a tinner to relate the stilling basin width and depth for convenience in an economic study. the length of a stilling basin is pregdicated on the length of the hydraulic jump for which it is designed. Basically. If downstream degradation is likely to occur after construction. Chow (item 17) presents a discussion on the types of jump to be expected with various magnitudes of Froude numbers.0d2 shotid be 5-6 \ . respectively. (Also see para 5-2d(l ) above. A floor elevation may be assumed in the case of a drop from the conduit outlet and the corresponding depth and velocity of flow entering the basin computed using Bernoulli’s equation and neglecting energy loss between the conduit outlet portal and the stilling basin. Laboratory investigations have demonstrated that in the range of Froude numbers ( lF) from 4 to 10. estimates should be made of the possible lowering of the tailwater curve and the lowest expected tailwater tune should be used in designing the stflling basin. The stilling basin design flow (generally. Basin Width.

This will help prevent backrollers from pulling rock into the basin which can cause concrete abrasion damage. A stilllng basin with a high entering Froude number flow ( F >10). However. The second row should be ap~r~ximateiy 0.0. Walls with as little as 4V-OU-lH batter can create downstream eddies. end sf. Stflling basins without baffle piers and end sills should have paved apron lengths of 4d2 to 5d2 . Velocities against the face of the baffles can be estimated from HDC 112-2/l. Sloping end sills (1V on. Baffle piers on the apron should have a height of or l/6d2 . The width and spacing of piers should be equal to or slightly less than their height (dl) .llsbecause their self-cleaning characteristics reduce damage from trapped rocks and debris. Jo Training Walls. model testing 5-7 . whichever is less. The ~it transition flare should not be carried through the stilling basin.5d2 down- ‘1 stream from the toe of the transition chute for entering velocities s60 fps with Froude numbers of 3. they impart a vertical component to the bottom exit velocity increasing the intensity of the bottom backroller immediately downstream.n End Sills. Freestanding training and dividing walls are designed to tithstand static loads due to turbulence in the hydraulic jump.5 to 6. If the basin apron elevation is placed such that existing tailwater produces 85 to 90 percent of d a second row of baffle piers is recommended. Any higher tailwater resulting from spillway flows during outlet works operation must be considered. Riprap at the downstream end of the stilling basin should be lower than the top of the end sill. End sill height of half of the baffle height is rec~nded (see plate C=41). For higher velocities they should be moved farther downstream. The static load is usually assumed to be that resulting from maximum tailwater on one side of the freestanding wall and no water against the opposite wall. This dynamic loading created by the jump cannot be easily computed and where such loading is critical. The top of the stilling basin walls should be at the maximum tailwater elevation that may occur during operation of the outlet work in order to prevent side flow onto the hydraulic junrp. foreshortened by virtue of baffle blocks and high end sill.5-2g considered for highly erodible outlet channels. h. Baffle Piers. lH) are preferable to vertical i.5d2 dotistream from the first row. A second row of baffle piers is ve~ effective in reducing scour downstream from the stilling basin. although such combined operation is not recounnended. has very violent turbulence. Vertical parallel training walls are recommended. A distance of at least half of a pier width should be allowed between the end piers and the basin walls (see plate C-41). They should be located 1.

Results of a study of pressure fluctuations in model stilling basin sidewalls is reported in item 35 and prototype tests results in item 48.In such cases the designer must exercise considerable judgment and a model study may be desirable. It is recommended that the sump be located close to the training wall in the low-velocity area between the baffle piers and the end sill and that the stilling basin floor have a slight slope toward the sump. vertically hung baffle and by eddies formed by changes in direction of the jet after it strikes the baffle. However. Under this condition of operation a tailwater depth equal to 0. The stilling basin design should be based on the tailwater ~th all conduits discharging their desigm flows.3d2 wider than the stilling basin and wraparound side slopes are provided (plate C-42). Best hydraulic action occurs when the 5-8 . (items 137 and 139).w. Wing Walls. they permit more attack on the channel side slopes than freestanding basin walls with wraparound offset slopes. 1110-2-1602 Change 1 i5 >kr S7 is recommended. Whenever ”possible. a. k. Where more than one conduit discharges into a common outlet channel (items 124 and 126). . drainpipes should be provided to alleviate standing water and to reduce pumping costs during inspections. Quadrant wing walls at the end of stilling basins are effective in protecting the exit channel invert against scour. Dissipation is accomplish. m. Many types of energy dissipators have been developed for low-head outlet structures such as outfall storm sewers.ed by the impact of the incoming jet on a fixed. etc. Efficiency of the operating basin can be appreciably reduced by this flow. Low-Head Structures. 5-3. low dams. Dynamic loading of the dividing -wall(s) may be significant. 1. Multiple-Basins. The stilling basin design should ensure satisfactory energy dissipation for all anticipated conditions of operation. the design should be checked for design flow operation of a single conduit to be sure that the reduced tailwater is sufficient to hold the jump in the basin. Wing walls are usually not required if the exit channel invert is made at least 0. When practical. drainage culverts. farm ponds. Dewatering sumps are required in the floor of all outlet works stilling basins to facilitate dewatering for inspection and maintenance.85d2 may be acceptable. However. the dividing wall or walls between basins should be sufficiently high to prevent side flow into a basin over the dividing wall when the adjacent conduit is not operated. operating schedules should provide for equal discharge from all conduits or symmetrical operation of conduits. Dewatering S.s. The impact energy dissipator (items 46 and 139) is an effective stilling device even with deficient tailwater. Impact Energy Dissipator.

EDC 722-3n presents design dimen~ sions in terms of the entering flows having velocities less than 60 fps”and Froude numbers between 2.) Energy dissipation from a sloping conduit can be accomplished by apansion in an enlarged vertical stilling well. (Items 46 and 133. and quantity is readily and economically available. It involves a very short apron with chute blocks. Basin widths greater than three times the conduit diameter have proven unsatisfactory ~.5 and 3. Stilling Wells. e. me dimensionsnof this energy dissipator in terms of its width are given in HDC 722-2.D 2.5 for greater than 9. d. gradation. by the impact of the fluid on the base and walls of the stilling well opposite the incoming flow! and by the change in momentum resulting from redirection of the flow. baffle piers. The top of the well is usually set flush tith the outlet channel. The necessary dimensionless design information . Q is the conduit flow in cubic feet per second and D is the con:uit diameter in feet.ameterratios (Q/D2“5) up to 5. This type of energy dissipator is adaptable to regions where riprap in the required sizes. Appreciable additional energy dissipation is obtained by setting the apron at an elevation up to 0. (Items 9 and 46. and end sill. The impact basin is recounnendedfor outflow velocities between 2 and 50 fps. but (ioesnot exceed. Department of Agriculture for small dams and achieves energy dissipation through impact on baffle piers and end sill in addition to that accomplished in an incomplete hydraulic jump. b. a level halfway up cne height of the baffle.5-3a tailwater approaches.5.5 discharge-pipe diameter ratios (Q/D ) up to 10 with a stilling well-inflow pipe diameter ratio of 5. is required for acceptable performance. . Economical energy dissipation and scour control can be accomplished by a paved horizontal apron at a culvert outlet for discharge-conduit df. The necessary information for sizing these structures can be computed using HDC 722-4 and 722-5. Flared Outlet Transitions. Pertinent design information is given in HDC 722-1. Riprap Energy Dissipators.n The required D50 riprap stone size can be estimated using KDC 722-7.) The impact-jump basin was developed by the U. c. is presented in item 34. Tailwater depth equal to at least 0.5 conduit diameters below the exit portal invert and adding an end sill of appropriate height.5. Impact-Jump Basin. Riprap energy dissipators for storm drain outlets have been developed by WES (items 10 and 33) for both horizontal aprons and preformed scour holes.85d. Its action is essentially independent of tailwater and ~S tests indicate that it performs satisfactorily for 2. S.n The 5-9 .

Model tests (items L5 and 77) have demonstrated the advantages in providing for or preforming a “scour hole” in which the flow can expand and dissipate its exce”ssenergy in turbulence rather than in direct attack on the channel bottom and sides. The flow leaving an outlet works energy dissi-patoris generally highly turbulent~ and contains inverse velocity gradients and large surface waves. will greatly reduce the severity of attack on the channel boundaries. A relatively smell amount of expansion. ~is makes it possible to “stabilize the channel”with rock of an economical size and provide” additional factors of safety against riprap failure end costly maintenance (plate C-43). 5-5. A riprap transition between the two riprap design sections is recommended. a riprappedlined trapezoidal channel provides this function. Outlet Channel 5-4. Provisions are recommended for an enlarged channel immediately followlng the hydraulic structure in which the flow can expand and dissipate excess energy. General.h Additional information is 5-1o . and Zf feasible. for example. This zone should have a length of three times the flow depth with a gradual downstre~ reduction h the D stone size. channel riprap design based on EM 1110-2-1601h should be used. reduction in stone sizes at upper levels is not recommended. ‘2 Response tl. preferably both vertically and horizontally. therefore.U Section II. the channel shodd be designed so that the tailweter cume will. es nearly as practical. Beyond this point. The function of the outlet channel is to connect the outlet works to the downstream river channel. preformed scour holes provide areas of good fishing. All riprap gradation should be in accordance with ~ given in item 84. a transition zone preceding the nsturd channel surface should be provided. Generally. sides basin using size of riprap for the channel Dete--tion of the ’50 to a distance of 10d2 downstream from the upstream end of a stilling should be made in accordance with the guidance given in HDC 712-in the average flow velocity leaving the stilling basin. Design of exit channel riprap should provide protection ~~atist waves as well as velocity.meof tailwater to increase with increases in the outflow discharge may also be a factor. approximate the cu=e for the full range of flows. Tailwater at the stillhg basin should also be a consideration.m 1110-2-1602 Change 1 15 Yar 87 5-3e major dimensions of unprotected scour holes and the riprap Size and horizontal blanket dimensions can be computed with CORPS H7220. As riprap creates locally high boundary turbulence. Avoid using a “perched” outlet channel spilling into a lower river channel in erodible material. The provision of recreation facilitie$ should be a consideration in the outlet channel design. 1110-2-1601.

However. As nccerl in paragraph 5-2k. Consideration should be given to a ing the outlet channel wider and lower in an area with erodible soil. the original streambed load should be consic in the outlet channel design. a quaaranc wali c neccing the training wall at the end of stilling basin to the channel b: ilasbeen found effective in protecting the floor of the exit channel ag: scour.SiIe-SloDe Ercsion. The bed load is cut off by the dam. this wall permits more severe attack on the side slope: the outlet channel than does a training wall terminated at the end sill extended straight downstream as a freestanding wall. a: with a preformed scour hole. resul in possibly more erosion downstream. (plate C-42). except noneroding beds and banks. Furthermore. the training walls should terminate at the er sill and the toe of the side slopes should be offset at least 0.15d2 a ing the bottom of the outlet channel 0.3d2 wider than the stilling bas 5-6. 5-11 \ . Therefore.

and project purposes. Three general types of freestmding intties predominate. a. me appropriate t~e of int~e structure for a given project depends on a number of considerations including reservoir size. A description of the design ad operation of each type is presented by Austin et d. Water quality control structures can be used in a variety of situations including single purpose and multipurpose projects. The third is one through which all discharges. For all types of selective withdrawal structures. A general description of the 6-1 . Types. or a combination of the two. Types (b) and (c) predominate at Corps projects. usually incorporated into the flood control outlet facilities of embankment dams. The design of a water quality control structure requires an understanding of the mechanics of stratified flow. water quality and hydrologic considerations. the freestanding intake. discharge rates. The second is the dual wet well structure which consists of a flood control passage and two collection wells. The weir(s) can have a fixed elevation or variable elevation. except spillway. (b) freestanding intake tower. the withdrawal device usually consists of one or more ports or weirs. degree of stratification. can be released. “In both the single and dual collection well systems the selective withdrawal capacity is generally less than the flood control capacity.6-1 EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 CHAFTER 6 SELECTIVE WITHDRAWAL STRUCTURES 6-1. water quality objectives. The most common type of selective withdrawal structure is (b). and hydraulic design requirements. and (c) face-of-dam intake. 6-2. constructed as an integral part of the vertical upstream face of a concrete dam. This type is generally appropriate for shallow reservoirs with minimum stratification where single weir or port operation is anticipated and blending between intties is not required. need for flow blending between withdrawal levels . This type is generally appropriate for reservoirs expected to exhibit strong stratification where anticipated operations for water quality objectives indicate that the capability for blending between intakes is desirable. Design. Each individual reservoir exhibits unique water quality and hydrodynamic characteristics and therefore it is difficult to provide general information pertinent to the desi~ and operation of outlet structures for water quality control of reservoir releases. in item 5 (see plate C-44). State of the Art. Selective withdrawal structures fall into three general types: (a) inclined intake on a sloping embankment. The first consists of a flood control passage and weirs or ports in a single collection well.

b. Mmy needed design principles have yet to be established and in many cases. they do not require venting. These slots may also be used for trashracks. economic considerations dictate the design. 36. (1) Inlet Ports... Design Information. Inlet ports should be provided with trashracks to prevent debris from entering the collection well. Port velocities primarily affect trashrack design. (2) Inlet Weirs. An inlet port that is not totally submerged 6-2 . flow stability.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 6-2a zone of withdrawal from a stratified body of water for single and simultaneous multilevel releases has been described in item 12. 61. Inlet ports to water quality collection wells are designed to operate fully open or closed. However. Total flow is regulated by a downstream control gate.ary to design water quality structures are given in ER 1110-2-1402. 62. =d (3) exit passage(s). Inlet ports operating under appreciable submergence with relatively low velocity can be expected to be cavitation-free. me principles of design given in this manual apply to the hydraulic design of water quality structures. Velocities of 4 to 6 fps or lower are recommended for normal operation. Placing inlet ports vertically above each other can result in interference of operating equipment. and 67. Since inlet port gates are not normally subject to cavitation pressures. This section summarizes a nwber of designs and design problems that have been investigated with physical models. The capacity of ports and collection wells is based on water quality and hydrologic considerations. their entr=ces should be bell-mouthed for efficient inflow conditions. and collection well turbulence. the port size md geometry affect selective withdrawal characteristics.’ . Ports should be operated under submerged flow conditions. Several exmples of physical and mathematical model studies that have been conducted to design water quality structures from a water quality and hydrologic standpoint are given in items 26. The entrace curves terminate possibly with a short tangent section at the inside vertical walls of the collection well where the gate is located. Additionally. Presently availaile pertinent design information is smarized in the following paragraphs. . but designs with velocities up to 20 fps may be possible with hydraulic model studies (item 68) of conditions where fine control of selective withdrawal is not a governing consideration. Upstream bulkhead slots or other provisions for maintenance and repairs are required. Ports are generally placed directly facing the upstrem direction. (2) control gate passage(s). Requirements for water quality and hydrologic investigations neces. 28. Free flow conditions should be avoided. 27. Water quality outlet structures naturally divide into three parts: (1) inlets and collection well(s).

Head losses that normally occur in the intake are the int~e loss. (4) Outflow Passages. They may also be located on the 6-3 . Entrance velocities should be within the range of 4 to 6 fps and are normally governed by selective withdrawal considerations. thus allowing movable bulkheads or a selector gate (variable position. and the velocity head of the vertical velocity in the well when the service gate passage is at an angle to the collection well.to 5-ft surges occurring with a 3-ft head differential from the pool elevation to the water-surface elevation in the wet well. The crest of such a weir is usually thin and vertical. Damage to ladders in the collection well at Nolin Dam has occurred with 2. friction in the well. In concrete gravity d-s they may be located in the nonoverflow section and discharge through the sidewall of the stilling basin (plate C-45). The weir flow should be submerged with flow control maintained downstream. m d spacing of inlets and vary appreciably from project to project. Sometimes the flow direction changes can result in appreciable surging and head loss. size. If the release of surface water is desired most of the time. mechanically actuated gate) to serve as a movable weir so that upper pool releases can be made for varying pool elevations. Each wet well should have individual flow control. causing a flow instability. Without sufficient flow constriction. a structure may be designed to be operated specifically as an inlet weir. Blending of flows for water quality proposes should be done by blending flows from separate wet wells in a dual wet well system. velocity head through the inlet.6-2b(2) EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 can be operated as an inlet weir provided sufficient flow constriction is maintained by a downstream control gate so that submerged weir flow restits. Inlet weirs should always have trashracks to prevent debris floating on the water surface from entering the structure. The primary purpose of a collection well is to provide a tower facility for the inlets ad their gates. Collection well geometry and size are dependent upon the number. (3) Collection Wells. Experience has shown that erratic blending due to flow instability between inlets in sepwated wet wells may occur where the wet wells are connected and only a single service gate and gate passage are provided for flow regulation. and inlet(s) at only one elevation should be open in each wet well. entrance loss to service gate passage. The depth of flow over the weir and the weir length are sized to provide the required discharge and release water quality objective. Equipment in the collection well should be securely anchored. Water quality outflow passages are usually very short and operate with free-surface flow except sometimes for the maximm design flow. The collection well also serves as a junction box where the flow direction changes from horizontal to vertical to horizontal. flow control may shift between the inlet weir and the control gate.

Concrete Gravity Dams. Model Investigations. The location of the water quality tower adjacent to the left abutment of the spillway resulted in undesirable flow contraction around the tower with spillway flows in excess of 25. In multiple flow passage flood control intakes. A water quality outlet design for a concrete gravity dam is shown in plate C-45.m 1110-2-1602 80 6-2b(4 ) 15 Ott upstream face of the dam and discharge onto the spillway. In either case$ press~es in this transition should be careffily studied in accordance with guidance in paragraph 2-16. . Therefore. These tests were conducted to determine the selective withdrawal characteristics of this structure (item 26). . (5) Submerged Weirs. the flood control service gate is used to regulate the water quality flow release discharge. Preliminary tests of the water quality inlet orifices indicated that their elevation and size were not capable of meeting the required withdrawal characteristics. 6-3. or through the emergency gate well (plates C-47 ad c-48). Submerged weirs upstream of outlet works (plate C-49) can be used to prevent withdrawal of bottom waters from reservoirs by flood control conduits and penstocks (items 11 and 32). through bypass pipes around the service gate (plate C-47). a model study to determine the selective withdrawal characteristics is recommended where sn upstream submerged weir is included in the project design. and adjacent structures have appreciable effect upon the performance of these weirs. Water quality facilities for embankment dams are most frequently incorporated in the intake towers of the flood control outlet works and discharge into the flood control conduit. Qualitative model tests of this design were made at WES (item 1). it is essential that the issuing jet be adequately vented. a.-. Discharging the gate jet into a enlarged section with venting all around should’be considered. Since the gate normally operates under little or no back pressure. the water quality releases can be made through the intake dividing pier (plate c-k6). Model tests were dso conducted on the multiple penstock intake structure at the proposed Dickey Dam (plate C-50). The principles involved have been studied and reported by WES (item 12). Flow Rem ation. Local topography. 6 6-L.000 cfs. Venting should be provided in accordance with the guidelines presented in paragraph 3-17. me gate passage section can be connected to the bottom of the collection well by a bell mouth or by a long radius elbow. In the latter case. The Dickey Dm will consist of two earthen embankments with the multiple penstock 6-4 . flow requirements. Flow regulation is accomplished by means of a control gate(s) located in a uniform conduit section(s) downstream from the collection well(s).

tests of the Taylorsville structure dso showed the need to limit service gate openings for water quality releases. renamed B. b. and c-52. Everett Jordan) structure. At New Hope Dam. When the emergency flood control gate is closed. c-48. The Taylorsville design (plate C-47. 29-ft-diam conduit. This structure provided selective withdrawal capability for both flood control and hydropower releases. The Beltzville design (plate c-46) releases the water quality flows into the flood control conduit through an outlet with its exit portal in the nose of the dividing pier of the flood control intake tower. the emergency gates will be closed and flow will be discharged through the multilevel intakes into the wet wells and through an opening or throat located in the roof of the gate passages between the emergency md service gates. The cylindrical gate in the intake tower is not operated as a flow control device. the emergency gate well serves as the water quality collection well (plate c-48). Embankment Dams. Placement of the trashrack pael determines the withdrawal elevation. For the Taylorsville structure. Five model-tested earth dam water quality control structure designs are shown in plates c-46.-diam pipe bypass around each service gate will be provided to regulate the release of low flows with the service gates closed. Everett Jordan) design. (item 70). c-47. The level of withdrawal of flow into the collection wells will be controlled by the location of the top of the movable selector gates. an 18-in. The DeGray design (plate C-51) consists of a single four-sided intake tower equipped with multilevel openings and a cylindrical gate (item 14).6-4a EM 1110-2-1602 15 oct 80 intake structure located in the concrete gravity section. The service gates will be used to regulate the selective withtiawd releases. The selector gates will function as a variable crest elevation submerged weir. The conduit is bifurcated to provide for flood control ad power generation releases. The flood control regulating gate serves as the water quality regulator. ~erett Jordm Dam. Model tests showed the need to limit service gate openings to a maximum of 34 percent of fully open for water quality releases to prevent serious negative presswes in the throat section between the collection well and the flood control gate passage. water quality releases pass from the collection well into the flood control gate passage and under the regulating gate. The intake structure will have individual collection wells connected to each of five 27-ft-diam penstocks. Additionally. service gate openings greater than 55 percent of fully open resulted in negative pressures in the throat section. c-51. The flood 6-5 \ . The tower has two bulkheads and a trashrack in a single set of gate slots in each of its four sides. Flow passes vertically from the intake tower through a 21-ft-radius elbow into a 1205-ft-long. and item 25) has dual collection wells similar to the New Hope (B. During selective withdrawal operation. Similar to the model tests of the New Hope (B.

The structure has dual collection wells. each with 30-in. Model tests were conducted on the water quality outlet structure at Beech Fork Dam (plate C-52) primarily to evaluate the effects of local terrain on the water quality performance of the outlet works (item 42).-diam conduits and control valves that release water quality flows into the flood control conduits immediately downstream of the flood control service gates. 6-6 .m 1110-2-1602 15 oct 80 6-bb control releases are regulated at the end of the bifurcated conduit so that releases for both flood control and power generation can’be drawn concurrently through the intake tower.

7. and Swain. M. Minn. H. Proceedings of the Institute. Jr. “The S~ Stilling Basin. Russian River Basin. HY1O. Vol 89. American Society of Mechanical Engineers..” Technic~ Report H-73-3. A. “Cavitation Design Criteria. Pp 81-114. W. Paler 3643. U. PP 379-416. Miss. H. 9-14 Aug 1970. . University of Minnesota. J. Gray. Minn. 6. New York. W. AW ~gineer Waterways Experiment Station. Ball. A Summary and Bibliography of Literature.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 APPENDIX A BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. held at Colorado State University. No.” Journal. Anthony Falls Laboratory. Ables. D. Cheat River.. Army Engineer Waterways E~eriment Station. . Minneapolis. No. Construction Division.” Agricultural Handbook No. “Outlet Works. pp 1793-1808. American Society of Civil Wgineers. CE. Blaisdell. Sonoma County. Hydratiics Division. St. Minneapolis. 1959 (Ott). Warm Springs Dam. and Boyd. Vicksburg. Vicksburg. Agricultural Rese~ch Service and St. 19~7 (Aug). Proc Paper 6877. C. D. J. Ables. A. and Pickering. Miss. H. 1959 (Apr). 156. S. 8..” Project Report No. American Society of Civil Engineers. F. 9. G. Anderson.. 1958. 3. Hydraulic Model Investigation. G. Collins. c02. California. “Fluid Flow Diversion. 2. No.” Control of F1OW in Closed Conduits. 1970 (Jun). HY6. West Virginia. “American Standard Letter Symbols for Hydraulics. 1969 (Nov).” Technical Report H-70-7. “Mdti5.“ Journal. 1963 (Sep). Rowlesburg Dam.. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory. pp 91-11o. Jr. 1970 (Aug). Austin. . “Construction Finishes and High-Velocity Flow . VO1 85. A.” Journal. Ft. “Hydraulic Characteristics of Gate Slots. G. S. 1. Hydraulics Division. “Spillway and Outlet Works. CE. 1973 (Feb). U.” ASA Y1o-1958. 4. American Society of Civil Engineers.. VOI 95. G. Colo. Hydraulic Model Investigation. J. Dry Creek. level Outlet Works at Four Existing Reservoirs. .

Jr. Bradley. New York. L. “Spillway and Sluices. Vol 11. C. 2-684. and ~ompson. Vicksburg. “Water Temperature Control Weir for Meramec Park Dam. S. London. S.. R. L. U. S. S. Des Moines River. . U. Missouri. F. 1965 (Jul). Hydraulic Model Investigation. 12. R. Open-Channel Hydraulics. Hydraulic Model Investigation. E. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 1951 (Mar). CE. Hydraulic Model Investigation. md Pickett. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. U. J. Miss. CO1O. 11. Vicksburg. E..” Technical Report No. Miss.” Technical Report No. 2-673. Miss. 1970 (Jan). N. 1973 (Mar). U. and Grace. “Outlet Works. DeGray Dam. S. “Resistance Losses in Noncircular Flood Cox. Arkansas. B.” Engineering Monograph No. 1973 (J=). Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. U.6o2 15 Ott 80 10. J.” Technical Report H-73-4. 4 Bucci. R. D. U. 1939. S. A2 ‘\ . Vicksburg. R. CE. Vicksburg. V. 1959. CE. Bureau of Reclamation. 7 (Revised 1965). Iowa. S. and Mmphy. Bucci. Control Conduits and Sluices. Bohan. “Friction Factors for Large Conduits Flowing Full. CE. 14. B.EM 111o-2-I. Vicksburg. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Miss. CE. F.” Research Report H-70-2. Miss. P. Hydraulic Laboratory Investigation. Campbell. Denver. Chow.” Journal.: . G. J.” Miscellaneous Paper H-73-1. Bohan3 J. CE.. 13. “Erosion and Riprap Requirements at Culvert Storm-Drain Outlets. pp 133-156. Miss. T. 1965 (Mar). Colebrook.” Miscellaneous Paper No. 2-857. Meramec River. Hydraulic Laboratory Investigation. P. 1970 (Feb). 16. “Turbulent Flow in Pipes with Particular Reference to the Transition Region Between Smooth and Rough Pipe Laws. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. McGraw-Hill. “Selective Withdrawal from Man-Made Lakes. 18. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 17.. Vicksburg. S. 15. Institution of Civil Engineer. “tiototype Performance and Model-Prototype Relationship.” Technical Report H-70-1. U. U. T. 1966 (Nov).. Vicksburg. CE. . Red Rock Dam. Miss. D. Caddo River. 19.

G. Engineer Division.. p 1359.. Vicksburg. S. Hartwig. 28. 1969.. Salt River. 22. Creager. 26. Cincinnati.” Miscellaneous Paper H-69-8. E. Davis.-H. A. S. Vicksburg. md Chu. D. Dr~ond. Miss. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 4.” Journal of Engineering for Industry. Term. H. R.. . 1972 (Nov). Crandall. Hydroelectric Handbook. M. Ohio River.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 20. S. Miss. J. 21. G.” Tennessee Valley Authority. D. Wiley. U. G. 25. R. W. West Virginia. Army Engineer Division. Y. Vigander. and Robey. S. U. “Heat Budget Analysis and Development of Design Criteria for Selective Withdrawal Outlets. Elder. Ohio. 1975 (Aug). et al. 3d cd. Dann. and Dougherty.” Speci~ Report No.. 27.... Kentucky. 1969 (Sep). Norris. 1972 (Apr). Cox. P. A-3 . 2. Cincinnati. CE. L. C. U. and March. Kentucky.. and Justin. E. “Heat Budget Analysis and Development of Design Criteria for Selective Withdrawal Outlets. CE. New York. U. V. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Taylorsville L~e. U.” Technical Report H-76-22. “Outlet Works for Thylorsville Lake. P. R. J. 1950. Dortch. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 2d cd. McGraw-Hill. New York. Stonew~l Jackson Lake..” 24. s. Paper No. Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.” Technical Report H-75-12. Ohio. CE. “Dickey-Lincoln School Lakes Hydrothermal Model Study. P..” Special Report No. 29. W. 75-DET-63. “Unlined Tunnels of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Authority. Miss. A. “Characteristic Pressure Distribution in Outlet Works Intakes. “Hydratiic Characteristics of Howell-Bunger Valves and Their Associated Structures. 1976 (Dee). Ohio River. Hydraulic Laboratory Investigation. 23.. Dortch. S.. S. Vicksburg. H. C. K. 1950 (Nov). 1975 (Nov). and Sorensen. 1964 (Ott). md Hunter. R. Australia. M. American Society of Mechanical ~gineers. “Destructive Vibration of Trashracks Due to Fluid-Structure Interaction. S.

Summersville Dam.” Technical Report H-77-5. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. et al. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Trman. and Pickering. Vicksburg. and Clarence Cannon Dams. U. 2. CE. G. pp 78-80. Vicksburg. B. “Dynamic Loading on Stilling Basin Sidewdls” (in preparation). Hydraulic A-4 . F. P. Report 1.” L’Energia Electrica. S. J. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 900-MW Project. CE. Hydratiic Model Investigation. Kansas. et al. Vicksburg. L. 33. Hydraulic and Mathematical Investigation. 39. Vicksburg. and Stockton. “Powerhouse InGeorge. Miss. J. CE. Jr. and Grace. 1977 (Apr). Melvern Dam. G. Missouri. S. 36. VO1 46.. 1969 (15 J=). S. “Some Roughness Values of Water Pipelines.. Fontane. “Marysville Lake Hydrothem. Big Bend Dam. 1977 (Apr). 1972 (May). CE. U. S.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 30. U. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Fletcher. Salt River.. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. “Flow-Induced Vi’brations of Trashrack Bars. S. Miss. P. Fletcher. Miss. . Hydraulic Model Investigation. 40. NO. B. D. U. J. Miss. “Practical Guidance for Estimating and Controlling Erosion at Culvert Outlets. Missouri. “Howell-Bunger Valves. Miss. Miss. No. 5. “~aluation of Flared Outlet Transitions.. Vicksburg. Fortey. B. Vicksburg. 37.” Civil Engineerin~ Vol 42. Franke.-G. S. and Tiry. New York. U.” Miscellaneous Paper H-72-5.al Study. . Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Hydraulic Laboratory Practice. 34. “Pressure Tests in Flood-Control Conduit. .” Memorandum Report. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.. Miss. pp 44-45. R.” Miscellaneous Paper H-77-5. 1969 (Feb). 38. L. 1929.” Research Report H-72-1. . F. Fletcher. CE. A. 1972 (May). 35. T. South Dakota. S. CE. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. P. Harry S. Freeman. “Spillway for Clarence Cannon Reservoir. U. Vicksburg. Fagerburg. 1971 (Ott). 31. 1977 (May). P. CE.” Technical Report H-71-7. ed. take Gate Catapult Study. U. R. J. 32. W. 1972 (Jun).

44. 1966 (Feb). J. 47. Jr.” Technical Report H-72-1. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 1976 (oct). 41. T. Grace.” Water Power. A. T. . U. Miss. 1914. Hoffman. J. Vicksburg. Miss. “A Scouring Rock Trap in Lemonthyme Power Tunnel. J. “Losses in 90-Degree Pipe Bends of Constant Circular Cross Section. Vicksburg. and Stilling Basin Wall Pressures. CE. Army ~gineer Waterways E~”eriment Station. CE. U. 1972 (Jan). 1974 (Dee). and Bohan. U. and Cottonwood Springs Creek. West Virginia. 1929. South Dakota. Nebraska. “Vortices at Intakes.” Technical Report H-77-8. Translation published by American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Gate Hart. Gibson. Kootenai River. Vicksburg. Beech Fork River. Vibrations.” Engineering. 1935.. Vicksburg. 1973 (Sep).” Fifth Australasian Conference on Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics. Montana. “The Conversion of Kinetic to Potential Energy in the Flow of Water Through Passages Having Divergent Boundaries. S. and Pickering. Miss. and Brett. L. Gloriod... U. E. T.” Technical Report H-76-17. A. vol 93. 45. Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. S. Hydraulic Model Inves$i. A. Ar~ Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 46. and Tool. S. 49. “Sluice Fressures. CE. M.. G. J.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 Model Investigation. A-5 \ -.” Transactions. New York. U. Miss. S. 43. Vicksburg. Vicksburg. “Selective Withdrawal from Beech Fork L~e. L. L. Griffiths. H. pp 138-139. Jr. Hydraulic Model Investigation. CE. CE. “Resistance Coefficients for Structural Plate Corrugated Pipe. Hydraulic Laboratory Investigation. 48. Miss. Oak Creek. D. Bulletin 3. Miss.” Technical Report No. A. 1970 (Apr). . Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. _ Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Hydraulic Model Investigation. p 205. Libby Dam. S. U. S. . CE.” Rese~ch Report H-71-1. 42. Hydraulic Institute of the Munich Technical University. “Evaluation of Three Ener~ Dissipators for Storm-Drain Outlets. 2-715. . 1971 (Apr). P. Gordon. Grace. R.gation. “Outlet Works for Branched Oak and Cottonwood Springs Dams.” Technical Report H-73-14. L. P. A.

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APPENDIX B NOTATION - Term a A Length of miter bend segment Cross-sectional area (subscripts denote locations) Width (in breadth) Distance in fillet detail Circular shape Discharge coefficient Pressure drop coefficient (subscripts denote dimension of flow) Celerity (velocity) of pressure wave Resistance coefficient in Chezy’s equation Relative loss coefficient Half width of conduit Critical-slope surface profile (subscripts denote relation to depth) c= Units ft ftz B c c ft ft — -— ft/sec ftl’2/sec -- ft -- Contraction coefficient Conveyance factor (1. -- * * Ck cm ftLg/6/~ec — * Coefficient for modified center-line trajectory for stilling basins subject to low-flow eddies Pressure drop parameter * — — c P ~onversationally ~riented ~eal-Time ~rogrmGenerating ~ystem Diameter Depth of flow Depth of flow entering hydraulic (Continued) (Sheet 1 of 8) B-1 cows d ft ft ft ‘1 .486 AR 2/3.

E?f1110-2-1602 C1hange ! i5 Yar 8? NOTATION = Term ‘2 dy/dx D Depth of flow leaving hydraultc jump Differential of y with respect to x Diameter or height of conduit (subscripts denote locations) Dimension of conduit in plane of entrance tune Valve diameter Depth of gate slot Equivalent hydraulic diameter (4 radius) x Units ft ft/ft ft ft ft ft ft ‘h hydraulic ’50 Median diameter of riprap stone (by weight) Uf of transition wall conveyance ft ft lb/ft2 ft msl --- e E Modulus of elasticity Gate passage invert elevation Energy grade line Resistance coefficient (factor) in DarcyWeisbach formula Forcing frequency Natural frequency Froude number Gravitational acceleration Gate opening Bend loss Entrance (intake) loss (Continued) EGL f ‘f fn IF a Hz Hz -- ft/sec2 ft “ ft (Sheet 2 of 8) B-2 .

EM 1110-2-1602 15 oct 80 NOTATION - Term ‘f hg ho hv Head loss due to surface resistance (friction) Head loss due to form Pressure head in ‘disturbed flow Velocity head Vapor pressure Total ener~ head Horseshoe shape Height of conduit or wall Piezometric head Horizontal Horizontal channel smface profile (subscripts denote relation to depth) Pressure drop Pressure drop Ener~ head Minimum piezometric head Total head loss (subscripts denote locations) Velocity head Roughness height Loss coefficient (subscripts denote type) Length of cable L Length of conduit Distance along conduit (Continued) Units ft ft ft ft ft ft -ft ft -. -- H ‘d % He Hi ‘L Hv k K ft ft ft ft N ft ft -ft ft ft (%eet 3 of 8) B-3 .


Length of basic Le ‘f L P ‘t ‘T LN M


ft ft ft

Equivalent conduit length Length of fillet Plate width Length of targent Length of transition Natural logarithm (base e ) Mild-slope surface profile (subscripts denote relation to depth) Momentum Model data Resistance coefficient in Manning’s formula Oblong shape Pressure (subscripts denote locations) Vapor pressure Wetted perimeter Offset distance Prototype data Number of gate passages Point of curvature Point of intersection of tagents Point of tmgency (Continued)

ft ft ft -. -ft3 -~1/6


P Pv P

lb/ft2 lb/ft2 ft ft



4 of 8)




15 Ott 80 NOTATION


Term Pcc PGL PRC
Q Qa


Point of compound curvature Piezometric grade line Point of reverse curvature Discharge Air demand Water discharge Curve radius (subscripts denote locations) Arc radius Fillet radius Hydraulic radius Rectangular shape Curve radius (subscripts denote locations) Radial offset distance Reynolds number, IR = ~/v Average loss of head per unit of length (energy gradient slope) Steep-slope surface profile (subscripts denote relation to depth) Submergence Conduit invert slope Friction slope Strouhal n’mber (Continued)

ft3/sec ft3/sec ft3;sec ft ft ft ft -ft ft -ft/ft -ft ft/ft ft/ft --

r r a ‘f R

IR s

‘f ‘t

5 of 8)




15 Ott 80 NOTATION


Term s cn t ‘h

Units ft/ft ft ft ft ‘F ft ft/sec -ft/sec
ft ft

Critical slope for normal depth Gate leaf thickness Local transition half height Local transition half width Temperature Width of water surface Average (mean) velocity (subscripts deno’te locations) Vertical Average (mean) velocity for smooth pipe flow Conduit width Gate slot width Width of basin Local width of basin on sloping apron Medim weight of riprap stone



v sm w

‘b Ws

ft ft lb ft ft


Vibration amplitude Horizontal or longitudinal coordinate or distance Zero frequency deflection Horizont~ or longitudinal coordinate or distance (subscripts denote locations) Vertical or transverse coordinate or distance Depth of flow (subscripts denote locations) (Centinued)

x o

ft ft


ft ft

(Sheet 6 of 8)



Term Y= Y. Critical depth Normal depth Height of pressure grade line at exit portal Average piezometric pressure

Units ft ft ft ft ft ft ft it ft5/2 — *


-Y’ Y

Vertical coordinate Vertical or transverse coordinate or distance Projection of gate into conduit Elevation above datum plane (subscripts denote locations) Section factor Kinetic energy correction factor (subscripts denote locations) Angular distance to location of Gate lip angle Specific (unit) weight Change in area * Increment of width Flare ratio of stilling basin sidewall Length of reach between two sections Pressure difference Depth ratio (y/yo) ‘i




deg deg lb/ft3 ftz ft ft/:t ft ft ft/ft


(Conttiued) (Sheet 7 of 8) B-7

... lb/ft’ lb/ft — — deg deg — -- e v T u u Ui 4 ~ ‘F > < (Sheet 8 of 8) B-8 .NOTATION = @ Term Conduit invert slope Boundary contraction or expansion angle Angular displacement or deflection Slope bf tangent extension from pier P Kinematic viscosity 3.. Root-mean-square of random roughness height Unit stress in cable Interracial surface tension Cavitation number or index Incipient cavitation number Flare angle of stilling basin sidewall Center line Fahrenheit temperature Greater than Less than Units deg deg deg deg ftzlsec -ft .14159 ..

Corrugated Metal Pipe Head Loss Coefficients. Circular Conduits.4-2c 2-12f 2-12g(3) 2-13b. Horseshoe Conduits Resistance Coefficient. Abrupt Transitions Loss Coefficients.2-9. c-l c-2 c-3 c-4 2-7. Rectangular Conduits. Multiple Miter Bends Loss Coefficients.g.e.g(2)(~)>5-2c.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 APPENDIX C PLATES Paragraphs in With Plate Is Mentioned Open-Channel Flow Classifications Pressure Flow Definition Sketch Exit Portal Pressure Resistance Coefficients. Table D-4 2-12f.4-16 2-6. F-3e(l) 2-12a. g(l)(c). Concrete Conduits Hydraulic Elements.3-7 Plate No.5-2d(2). Conical Transitions Bend Loss Coefficients. Circular Bends Loss Coefficients. Rectangular Conduits. Primary and Secondary Maxima Air Demand c-1 2-3. Conduit Sections Flow Characteristics. Rectangular Conduits. Circular Conduits Loss Coefficients.c.d.g(l)(b) .Table D-~.c 2-13d 2-13e(2)(a) 2-13e(2)(a) 2-13e(2)(b) 2-13e(2)(b) 2-13e(2)(b) 2-14 2-19 2-19 c-5 c-6 C-7 c-8 c-9 c-lo C-n C-12 C-13 C-14 C-15 c-16 C-17 . Triple Bend Examples of Cavitation ~draulics Air Demand. 90° Circtiar Bends Relative Loss Coefficients.

Monolith Center Line Typical Off-Monolith Center Line Sluice Location Conduits.D-8. c-18 C-19 C-20 C-21 c-22 C-23 c-24 c-25 c-26 c-27 c-28 c-29 C-30 Title Sluice Location.3-l?f.m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 Para~aphs in Which Plate Is Mentioned 3-1.4-21 3-9a.3-13.3-3a 3-1 3-3b 3-4.4-21 4-3a 4-3C . Gate Slot Incipient Cavitation Coefficients for Slots Sluice Exit Portal. Folsom Dam Model Intake Loss Coefficients. Sluice Entrances Vertical-Lift Gate. Fixed-Cone Valves Pressure Coefficients. Drop Inlets Vortex Formation c-2 C-31 C-32 c-33 c-34 c-35 3-20 b-3a. Allegheny Dam Model Sluice Exit Portal. Roof Constrictions Exit Portal Deflector. 4-16 3-9b 3-10d 3-13 3-13 3-19 3-19 3-19 Plate No.4-12. All or Fewer Gates Open Concrete Conduits.Table D-4 4-3a.4-15. Gate Slot Details Discharge Coefficients.4-21 3-6c. All Gates Fully Open Intake Loss Coefficients. Minimm Pressure Sluice Intakes Pressure Drop Coefficients. Red Rock D= Model Sluice Eyebrow Deflector. Circular Bends. Intake Losses. Free Flow Discharge Coefficients. Conduit Tainter Gates.4-21. Sidewall flare with Roof Constriction.

4-14 4-12. Entrance with Roof Curve Only Conduit Entrances with Roof Curve and Side Flare Discharge Coefficients. DeGray Dam Water Quality Intake. Rowlesburg Dam Water Quality Outlet. Beech Fork C-41 * C-41A C-42 c-43 c-44 C-45 C-46 c-47 C-48 c-49 c-so c-5 1 C-52 5-2k.EY 1110-2-1602 Change 1 15 ?Iar87 Paragraphs in Ifiich plate Is Mentioned 4-9. Dickey Dam Cylindrical Gate Intake Tower.6-4b 6-2b(5) 6-4a 6-4b 6-4b c-3 . Single Outlet Stilling Basin Trajectory Modification to Reduce Low Flow Eddies Outlet Channel Preformed Scour Hole Water Quality Intake Types Water Quality Outlet. . Earth Dam. C-36 c-37 C-38 c-39 C-40 Title Types of Conduit Gates Pressure Drop Coefficients. Low-Level Outlets Stilling Basin Layout.6-4b 6-2b(4). New Hope Dam Temperature Control Weirs Multiple Penstock Intake Structure. Earth Dam. VerticalLift Gate Definition Sketch. Multilevel Detail.4-21 4-16 5-2b 5-2d(l).5-2h.6-4b 6-2b(4). Concrete Gravity Dam.4-21 4-13.5-6 5-4 6-1 6-2b(4) . Taylor-ille Dam Intake Structure.6-4a 6-2b(4). ”Multilevel Detafl. Beltzville Intake Structure.5-”2i 5-2d(3) * Plate ??0.


rRANsfrt:i ‘i” — ‘= IMPACT TuBE $ Z* —.“T / ~-’NC _ ENERGY GRAOE L INE(EG HYDRAVL(C GRAOELINE (HGL) ~p:20ki6TRlc pnEssuRE) fi —— -_ _ LOSS .. . P (n o N ~..ho: ~e(~’~ _ l-r... .---L b-CONDUIT OR b b DA T@M I @“7 K > — . . . o c9~ 0.....7 2/ ~ WL KHEAO sLOr .EMERGENCY GATE SERVICE GATE — INTAUE -\ PI \ 2$ ~ ~ /1 ~yPIEZOMZ?ER —. . DATUM > I —TUNNEL .-. . Vp SLUICE PRESSURE FLOW DEFINITION SKETCH . -@ A —-— -— — ----_ _ ------.


587891O* 234 5 .1 0789101 REvN0LD5 NUMaCR R.0W 800. — e — ‘_ I \ —. . tt~ ++0 ‘VON &=2 I 1 I .FP9 f = RESISTANCE FACTOR m = REYNOLOSNuMOER V = KINEMATICVISCOSITY.l ! [.60 X 104 ~ 40” F RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS CONCRETE CONDUITS .l. 23.1.ooo Om OEIEIS Im. I.1 I 1I i I ! 1 40.+ +:...000 .1.LWLLUHUUK-WHIIL ~.000.... ! !!’ I I I I . .VALUE OF [VD) FOR wATERAT 80.. S 2 40810 6 8 lo~ 2 2 46EI 101 2 4 0035 0.~-:“ .CfKl eO.. -! ! 1 I o —1 j 1 f —.w+~~ . I ~..i~ ~F-.1. FT L = LENGTH OF CONDUIT.1..1 678910- 1. . 1 I l.74 ~t 1I 1 >=+ d -“.1 I 5 10$ 1 ..[l. .030 2W 0025 600 800 Ioixl 0020 w=!-! 1--1 !-!--~.1.1. moo 0015 ! KARMAN-PRANDTL– LOG&+ I I I I + VI \ I IAI!I 1 Vr c.1.—1 * I -.4-. . . .21 X 10-5 @ 60-F 1.. ~ I 234 1.1.. . I I -------.1.FT D = DIAMETER.1 1...FT v u VELOCITY.TIVEROUGHNESS. ..... F !.>!~—- V I I 1111 I I 1 1 I 00!0 .000 0001 0W6 600.000 oh.IJ NOTE: h<= RESISTANCE LOSS.000 ..cQO So.X.1. — l . +L 0 —.1 1 . I. I 2345678910 I I.FT*/SEC 0 93 x 10-5 GI 80.ooo 200.1. .. F’ k = EfFEC.1. .— I 1 I \ ++ 2.000..



3 FT 4 56 8 1 RESISTANCE CORRUGATED COEFFICIENT METAL PIPE (FromSAFHL.03 \ \ 966 \ -70” HELIX ANGLE .04 062 \ b\ 0.122 D-0”4 0.20 .8 1 PIPE 2 DIAMETER D.= \ 0.15 -*= 90 0. 070 ! .% -\ 90 \ \ 90 O. \c 01 * b 80” 0.00 \ .10 \ 90 0.6 0.05 “o= \ -.02 0.5 0. item112) PMTE c-r . 0. -.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 0. 0.


2 LEV!N— / X’ I /..4 1.0 0.GIBSON / ! ___ . =AVfRAGE VELOCITY CONOUIT.e I K 0. CONTRACTIONS + BASIC EQUATION hf FROM FOR PLATE O=9W. FT s =ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY.oEG w 60 I 00 a.8 /- ----- T / A% .__J + D=/o. m 80 100 b.G5F-&--- f’ 1 2.02. FT~C2 V.m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 8( 0.2 / ~&‘ o 0 20 40 e. C-8 K =— v2/2g WHERE: kl=HEAD LOSS. FPS IN THE SMALLER LOSS CONICAL COEFFICIENTS TRANSITIONS FROM HDC 228-4 PLATE C-9 . EXPANSIONS K 0.2 ~ m . “–– 0 20 40 6.53 Y 0.

SINGLE MITER u ENDS SA31C EQUATION WHERE K . ‘ I // /’ 0. lEN7 C hineAO LOSs ouc TO 8END BEND LOSS COEFFICIENTS CONDUITS CIRCULAR FROM HOC 2281 AND 2282/1 .8 12 -T .5x705 T ~ 0.!0 / / / 0 . 0. / R=6x 10’ 10 / + ‘R 0.5 Ott 1110-2-1602 80 0. C!RCULAR So” ANGLE BENDS e r/o so’ RATIO 120” 0. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ao elN DEGREES b.15 OE. Norc: IGURESONINOICATf F GRAPH 40“ DEFLECTION . i =2.=2=104y { / / 0.20 6.BENO LOSS COE~F.8 / 0. LEc TtONANGLEINRAbIANs / / 0..051 1 —/ I ~1 < 20.m .

%8 30./’ .* .m~ 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 m .1- -IL 0 PLATE C-n .’ * @ - F . 9. + . m 45.

07H H= -. a 2 d .5H —=— r. item 64..0 H .o H < 4 \ I + . 0.OH — =—(MITER I BENDJ H =W/2 .OH * I .OH I 4 6 8 105 NUMBER. J.— 1. FPS OF GRAVITY. \ -.--H=2W --” ‘2 .. --. RECTANGULAR 90 °Cl RCULAR = AcCELERATION ‘FromASME. 2 TR 4 6 8 REYNOLDS BASIC EQUATION v’ hb=KZ ‘2 r. -. 0. and WES Tram.0 H ? —=— r.=— ‘1 ‘2 <H =W/2 I - 2.. ‘mORclH w w WHERE: t HEAD LOSS LOSS.OH I.5H k —=— ‘2 l.item116) .5H ‘.=— ‘2 7. 2W ‘2 7. -.-- ----- . FT G = BEND COEFFICIENT H = W/2 — H=2W ----- hb = BEND K LOSS FTISEC2 COEFFICIENTS CONDUITS BENOS V 9 = FLOW VELOCITY.-‘2 1.I ‘2 O.



o — E. VENTURI METER 0 mm 11 ~-.-*-+ -16 Ii .EM 1.67..4 ‘ AIR VENT 0 V = JO FPS— +~ Q k GO ~:~’_ VENA V =82 FPS G_o =02 D’ (Cc = I cONTRACTA 0.4 EXAMPLES OF CAVITATION HYDRAULICS PLAm C-15 .-~ -’6’W:I=I . HDC 320-3) b.8 (HDC PSIA FT 000-2) FT VAPOR PRESSURE AT 50” F (HDC = 0.G. HEAD LOSS =O.15AP .5.11o-2-1602 15 Ott 80 ~ 8 ... 1 I I I a.E I I I II I I { VAPOR ’48 PRESSURE = -33. 1 1/ I PR’ESSU’RE ‘ f~. IN-LINE PHYSICAL ATMOSPHERIC AT 50” F AT GATE CONDITIONS: PRESSURE SEA LEVEL = 0.0’ } ~ ..17 001-2) = 33. -40 ~ I ]1 VArUK rKl=SJUK= ‘-2a. L.


94 x 10-2 x 10-2 x 10-2 LEGEND ~ O----4 60 H = 370 FT 40 1. CFS CFS KINEMATIC TEMP “F So VISCOSITY ~T2/5~c 1.69 x 10-4 WATER DISCHARGE.36 x 10-4 1. FREE PR08 ABLY CONDITION AIR DEMAND FROM HDC 050-1 PLATE c-1 .m 2.NSUE”6 ~~w=0.4 FT H=24 = 92 VT FT H= 114 FT -H=154FT S12LTZVILLE (3-TEST AvG1* POOL TO CONDUIT SHOW FLOW H = HEAD.47 x 10-3 x 10-3 PINE FLAT- *-4 ~ x~ ~ PINE FLAT-H= 304 FT PINE FLAT ‘H = 254 FT Of NISON HULA HNOR FORK TYGART .46 x 10-4 2. 0.OX 6.60 1/”1 SUGGESTED DESIGNURIQE C 5V 4 0. ?Si A fill 1.35 7.OA I A>v i v 5.EM 1110-2-1602 2. FAT : VENA AT SEA AIR LEVEL PROPERTIES ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SPECIFIC OENSI SLUG/FT3 2.26 x 10-3 TY WEIGHT LB/FT3 CONTRACTA = WATER DEPTH AT VCNA CONTRACTA.40 La 0.0066 678910 I 20 30 ho (F-1) NOTE :F v B q= G= = V/~ = WATER (FROUOE NUMBER) VELOCITY .63 7. FT AIR DEMAND.0 1 R08ERTSON {F-1)’4 I TESTS I I \ ao4 2 3 45 z KiL. ‘-oz”~ “’”w Q06 v 5.00 (00 I 1 ] 4~ 1 . ‘H . 7. FIGURE5 OPENING q CENTER GATE LINE ON GRAPH IN FEET.H = 6.

.-— w CROWN OF ROADWAY ~ RADIAL GATE ml ——---- ____ I _—— ——— — . . .... — — — — — = d T ~ PILLW . . . .. : .. L .——— ___ OUTLET: ILl?’ 0.. .’ . .. :CHAMBER . ‘F -. . ... .’. . :...: . .. . . .. . ..$ . . . . ...&.“. .. ! .... . l#L I B i: Ii. . P. . . . b.. ‘.. b .. .. . . . .“. . OIJTL1 .. SLUICI .. ~ 3 .’w: LINE ‘ ! ‘i A - DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION SECTION THROUGH SPILLWAY SLUICE MONOLITH LOCATION CENTER LINE .” d’ I ‘ — m I m z . ..b... Oy 4’ . ..”...” .::. . ~ ‘a = ——— ___ SLUICE o~ * ... . . a c1 .. .. . ‘ ..9. ‘} . ‘ ‘. . .. “b ““..”A”.... . ‘.. . . . “ ‘EiTIMA Tkb kXCA VA TION . . -’.. !! . 4. . +...

EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 -. I ‘_. 1 --.A VM711dS 1 1: . \ii ----------. —.--- a ~.---- L : --------- w < -----u 2 ----------------- ..1: i . ..-----.-------—. .. L ----- w MM I WAS --—.



6 1.6 Oe o 2 0.2 04 0.8 P c. SIMPLE CURVES 0. r ‘ ‘Iy ORIGIN 3=033 T PT.2 1.4 0.2 1.6 1. x —.c.6 I. oR.4 1.0 0. z 02 04 0.0 “ *.EM 111o-2-16o2 15 Ott 80 “ q .0 I .32 T PT.0 & D 1.4 !6 16 20 P.6 0. OISTANCE ALONG PRESSURE DROP COEFFICIENTS FROM HOC 211-1. L u b. Y’ 1 (032 0)2 NOTE: CONOUIT CONDUIT HEIGHT WIDTH = ‘ ’765 IN FT FT ~ .1/1 SLUICE ENTRANCES Mm c-22 . $=067 I x’ ~+—. COMPOUND CURVES OIMENS1ON OF cONDUIT OIRECTIOh CONCERNED. : ~ c L : u E K 0 : > 2 u a a 0. CONDUIT.6 0.2 04 06 08 10 12 0. a.2 0.Gl:A—p ‘~Y +=0.0 0.




5 y EQUATION Hd=CHV WHERE: Hd = pRESSURE REFERENCE DIFFERENCE PRESSURE. a.10 t .12taper. NOIE X/W= RATIOOF OISTANC~FROM ~WNSTREAM EOGEOF WJOTH OF SLOT SLOT TO w 00 -0. 1{2 COEFFICIENTS GATE SLOT ‘ROM LATE HOC 212-1/1.la 0.5 I . 091 w l.0 x w I . MINIMUM PRESSURE C Hv = PRESSURE = CONDUIT PRESSURE FT VELOCITY HEAD AT REFERENCE PRESSURE STATION. C-26 .0 2.0 k w . imrease to 1:24 for heads> 250fi.0 0.30 0.00 u a o \ 5 0 .0 2.5 2.0 1.2-1602 5 Ott 80 a20 n 1 I I REFERENCE PRESURE 1 -— ~*~sso~ r o q ’ z ~ u ~ 0. & 0. PRESSURE DETAILS -0.10 n \ * - DEFINITION SKETCH k g IAl K 2 2 0.557W (MA Y BE SOUAREI 1 ‘ fo.20 m : & MINIMUM PRESSURE DOWNSTREAM FROM SLOT -0.EM 1110. z w G $ ~ u a ~ -0.0 3. COEFFICIENT FROM FT o b.10 v *.

EM 1110-2-1602 15 Oct. = IF U> ~i. ANDD SLOTS 1 PLAN E. FT FLOW.425 0. SLOTS A.708W GATE SLOTS 0. G.725 1. IN Fps UNDISTURBED WATER.200 0.00 :’ 0. .. cAvITATION WILL NOT OCCUR ‘g CONDu PRESSURE IT vEI_Oc HEAD PRESSURE ITy.sc * q mlco bb Vo * ! . V2 0 WHERE. C.36 SLOT 4 A TYPE t: SLOTS A. VO he .425 0. . R -“ —— + + . C. G. CONDUIT HEIGHT = 0.556 W FLOW - * “4 w * I B L9 0. B. 0.42S 0. ::: 1. AND D .625 0. -.825 TO W L 2.& L SLOTS DOWNSTREAM E.025 P 0. FT h. = VAPOR ~ OF = CAVITATION ACCELERATION INDEX OF COEFFICIENT GRAvITY.50 .18 1 b. F. u. PI_AN F. OF AND GATE H ! H : . FT/SEC2 INCIPIENT CO E FFO I C I EN CAVITATION TS F R SLOTS g = mm c-27 . AND H *UF t 11-- h + Pc DIMENSIONS 1 RELATIVE R 0.27 NOTE: SLOTS a. BASIC EQUATION: AIR VENT AND ORAIN INLET PROFILE hO-h a. B.675 ‘!w 10. .

EM 1110-2-1602 i ~Ct 80 Pu~ c-28 .



”:.556 Q B -B 0.89 D po..7D+ 0:’ B T 0.df: b . :?: ‘ VIEWA- A VIEWC - C SLUICE EYEBROW FOLSOM DEFLECTOR DAM MODEL PLATE C-31 . .. .’ ::. .EM 111o-2-16O2 15 Ott 80 \ \ Y =0. VIEW B - 0“’+’” L 0..”... . :. . .”. “0.. .J7D b ‘ : B ““.00 9 ) ELEVATION SPILLWAY c FACE w 0:”0..”O .




EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 llQ OROVILLE 100 90 NONVORTEX 80 REGION / / (VORTEX) 70 iIL . =vELOCITY FT / / ENID (VORTEX) v IN CONDUIT. FPS s D =CONDUIT OR HEIGHT DIAMETER.l_ / I/ NOTE: S = SUBMERGENCE. ~ 60 w u z o z 50 w 2 m J W 40 30 / 20 / [ 10 / /’ /~ ~ “: 1 Vo RTEX REGION { i ‘ /’ / t . LEGEND OROVILLE DEN ISON ENID ----MODEL PROTOTYPE PROTOTYPE GORDON GORDON (Symmetrical (UNSYMMETRICAL App RoACH) APPROACH) VORTEX FORMATION Pum C-3 . FT - L > 0 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 D VD.


4 t EaUATION 0.785 = CONDUIT PRESSURE FROM HOC 221-2.PRE5SURE DROP COEFFICIENT .6 1.8 PRESSURE DROP FROM POOL.c.4 9A 0.6 1.4 1. - N ‘c 0.2 1.0 . t . FT OA % <10 P CORNER X= DISTANCE ALONG CONDUIT.0 “SHORT” CURVE 0.2 1. 1.s 1. 2/1 DROP WITH COEFFICIENTS CURVE ONLY ENTRANCE ROOF PMTE c-37 .0 0.8 2.0 ~ 1.6 0. “LONG’ P.6 WHERE Hd= 0..2 0. 0. FT 1.2 DEFINITION SKETCH HEIGHT-WIOTH RATIO 1.CURVE b.—.0 x 7 a. : : I t “SHORT” .m lllQ-2-$602 15 Ott 80 0. FT C .4 0.4 1.4 NOTE: O. x PT — &--—-—-—+J & . HEIGHT OF RECTANGULAR CONOUIT SECTION.0 .8 2.2 0.0 0.8 1.

8 NOTE: O- DIMENSION OF RECTANGULAR GATE SECTION IN OIRECTION CONCERNEO.~ 11 Lo~2-1602 15 Ott 80 1 +’ z : 9 “ L ~ k o v & 0.6 0.%1 I ty “ t.2 0.4 0.2 I .~N.FT I “. —=vELOCITY HEAO 29 ~ATEsEc~.0 % i.x ---- EQUATION WHERE: 1. FT ‘i r~. FT I 0 K o i i. FT C =PRESSURE COEFFICIENT IN RECTANGULAR I 1.D/MENS/ONAL L= OISTANCE ALONG CONDUIT. \ 7 I I I THREE . .0 0.0 TjO-D/MEjS. \ 1.2 \- <j w 0 COMPUTED I 1 II I “2 ‘d=c% I I I : > g : 1 ‘--- -----.6 0.6 PLAN ELEVATION FROM LATE c-38 HDC 221-3 CONDUIT ENTRANCES WITH ROOF CURVE AND SIDE FLARE .8 1.T.4 Hd= PRESSURE DROP OROP FROM POOL.0 1. 1. .0 2.0N4L- ~y P.4 1. - 1.


5 Ott 80 “NolLvA3i383LvA71vl (M07 SI ~37~no uo H91H S1 M31 VM71V1) ‘ Noll>v Nlsy8 VS Nol12v ---t Aaa3 AY013VdSll // -—— i 4 / — /’ I l-H9 NoAl 3d07S NOMd V I . 0 ‘LATEC-40 ..EM 1110-2-1602 .

5 705 i ) 0. ~ WHICHEVER IS LESS WHICHEVER Is LESS OR l/6d2. II I _A_m t Ill . I * d. STILLING BASIN LAYOUT SINGLE OUTLET L BAFFLE PIER DETAIL *R . 1.sdl oR l/12d2.m ~ 2 % PIER WIDTH I — ‘c SIDEWALL — . . 1- x I TRAINING WALL i 2 .5d.~6 d. O.AL=2V/~. 1 —w APRON TRANSITION I . . I t 1 rw BASINLENGTH(2. -1 r L.

.w t < ‘F$ a . c-41A . mm .

EM 1110-2-1602 z a _l L I PMTE c-43 .




m 1110-2-1602 PLAm c-47 .

. . m Ii. I .1110 -2-1602 ..’ IH — ~: :---------------------. 1.’... 1-- J B . ... =In 3s ~g >0 1 z < J n ill PLATE!c-48 ..: . ... .EM ..


.. $. OVERALL 40 - PLAN .\.— 2--3 .. .4 .’..k .. ... . -.. ... . . MAX POOL+ /~NTAMU_.. . “d ..K~4_ IN TA-RE 6 INTAKE 5 : FACE OF WAL(. ..... ... ) {: ~ t--” POOL ~ MIN Wrl b FACEOFWALL . i - . ’. —.. .. —. -h A ‘CONVEN TIONiL TU@BINE & PENS TOCN IN TAMES ~EVEI?S18L~ ?i~lNE & PENS TOCK IN TARES INTANEJ I IN T. I . CTION u B-B 20F1 MULTIPLE PENSTOCK INTAKE STRUCTURE DICKEY DAM ‘~ . *! ‘. . SELECTOR GATE SLOT > .

.’ .:. / .SECTION A-A A SC L~ IN FEFT CYLINDRICAL GATE INTAKE TOWER DE GRAY DAM . .. . .... / [ SECTIONAL PLAN B-B u.... -A 4 ~ . & .. “..& A- . ..3 I . . . . GATE SEAL AT WATFR PASSAG NOT TO SCA~ . . . +. ...’. . < ‘i. .. ..!... . .. ... .. . . .. . .


Computer Programs. trial distributions of ass~ed total discharges must be made. and pool elevations. The procedures are applicable with or without the aid of a programmed computer. D-2. and a parabolic drop into the stilling basin.002 ft (capacity) and smooth pipe (velocity) conditions for full flow and k = 0. length. corresponding to the trial discharges. This example is limited to the capacity curve computations.D-1 EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 APPENDIX D COMPUTATION OF DISCHARGE RATING CURVES FOR OUTLET WORKS (Illustrative Example) D-1. A section along the center line of the conduit is shown in plate D-1. respectively. D-4. The following simplified example is presented to illustrate some of the procedures and guidance given in Chapter 2 and paragraph 4-16 for developing rating curves for outlet works. A number of comments applying to any conduit discharge computations are included. and the disch=ge control does not occur at the entrance. the flow will be distributed equally. the distribution of flow in the conduits is determined by assuming pool elevations and calcdating individual conduit discharges.007 ft and 0. must be determined for each conduit. The applicable CORPS progrsm rime(s) will be noted throughout this example problem. A number of computer programs applicable to developing rating curves have been developed and these ae available on the computer-aided design system CORPS. a transition section. The correct flow distribution will be determined when the computed pool elevations are identical for all of the conduits. Example Structure. the total flow must be proportioned among the conduits before the head-discharge relation can be determined. Multiple Conduits.by 22-fi gate passages. and invert elevation and have uniform flow conditions at entrances and exits. that is. When the conduits are variable in size or the invert elevations are not identical.002 ft . for partly full flow. when all the conduits are identicd in size. When the outlet works contain conduits of several sizes which have the same entrance control. shape. The outlet works selected for this sample computation have two 11. a 22-ft circular conduit. Rating curves should be computed for both k = 0. Introduction. For an outlet works composed of several conduits operating in parallel. “ D-1 . It is recommended that the designer periodically check the list of available progrms in CORPS to determine if additional programs have been added to the system. The division of flow depends upon the nature of the conduit layout. D-3.

) e.) d. the following hydratiic characteristic curves should be prepared: a. Prior to determining conditions of open-channel flow and type of control and computing the rating curves. (CORPS H6002.0) If manual computations are used. pressure flow. (CORPS H6140 . Determinations are needed of whether there is inlet control. As the reservoir level is raised or the gate opening is increased. Discharge Controls.m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 D-h He should also check with the WES ~gineer Computer Progrm Library to see if programs are available outside of the CORPS system.0 or King’s Handbook (item D-h) Tables 7-1 or 7-5. ~ring diversion when the upper pool is at low stages or at lower partial gate openings at any stage. H2041. the conduit chmacteristic curves should be plotted to a sufficiently large scale so that areas may be read to the nearest square foot and hydraulic radius to the nearest 0. and gate discharge computations. H2042. 8-9. . Conduit discharges in cubic feet per second as abscissas against the corresponding normal depths in feet as ordinates. H6141. outlet control.0 or King’s Handbook (item D-4) Tables 8-4.01 ft. Conduit discharges in cubic feet per second as abscissas against the corresponding critical depths in feet as ordinates. The open-channel flow computations probably will require flow profiles to evaluate ener~ losses and establish the limits of the open-channel flow ranges for both diversion and gated flow conditions. The computation of flow through a conduit usually involves consideration of several conditions of flow. Conduit hydraulic radii of flow section in feet as abscissas against flow depths in feet as ordinates. the depth of flow in the conduit increases until the conduit flows full. H2040. (CORPS H6002. H2040. b. Tailwater stage-discharge curves for several conditions of any mticipated downstream channel degradation or aggravation (see para l-10b(4)(a)). H2042. critical depth control. Hydraulic Characteristic Curves. 8-5.) c. Approximate characteristic curves for the 22-ft circular D-2 . or 8-1o. S6 . D-5. open-charnel flow may occur in the conduit. Definition of the discharge curves requires open-channel. H2041 . (CORPS H6113 to H6118. or gate control and when the control shifts from one type to another. or King’s Handbook (item D-4) Table 7-4. Conduit cross-sectional areas of flow in square feet plotted as abscissas against flow dept:s in feet plotted as ordinates.

D-6 EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 conduit are shown in plate D-1. D-9. Typical computations are s~rized in table D-1 and plotted as curve A in plate D-2. and intake losses upstream of sta 2+00. the head-discharge relation for open-channel flow is determined from the curve of discharge at critical depth (see para D-6d above and plate D-l). Discharge for a conduit flowing full is determined by equations and computations for conduit losses and discharges given in table D-2 and plotted as curve B in plate D-2. On a rising pool (with gates fully open) it was assumed that open-channel flow conditions existed until the flow depth in the intake was equal to approximately 90 percent of the conduit diameter. On a falling pool it was assumed that pressure flow existed until the pool elevation hopped a few feet below the shift elevation for a rising pool. D-8. backwater curve computations to sta 2+00. Open-Channel Discharge. Flow control will occur at sta 10+70 for dl open-channel discharges (without gate control). Therefore. critical depth discharge control will occw at the outlet (sta 10+70). The discharge curves indicate that when open-channel flow occurs in the conduits. The transitions from partly full to’full or pressure flow md vice versa cannot be computed with present theory and must be estimated by judgment. Backwater cwve computations are described in paragraphs D-n and D-12. and a practical maximum depth is about 18 ft. Discharge Curves. there will then be less discharge for a given pool elevation. Pressure Flow. full conduit flow at a lower discharge. If the tailwater causes the flow to be at greater than critical depth at the outlet. normal depth is greater than critical depth for each discharge. The shaded areas on the curve represent these regions in which head-discharge relations may be unstable. The computed discharge curves (capacity) for the 22-ft circular conduit are shown in plate D-2. in this case to the intake crown level. subject to a rising or falling pool. Backwater computations are required to determine the water-surface elevation at the intake. Model studies may be helpful in some cases where operation in the unstable range is necessary. Also. In this case. D-3 . they may be required at selected discharges extending over the full range of open-channel flow to determine whether and how much the tailwater influences open-channel discharge in the conduits. Computations of the various parts of the curves for the different flow conditions are explained in the following paragraphs. D-7. Actual prototype behavior of a conduit with similar geometry would be helpful but such information is generally lacking. afier which flow conditions shifted rapidly to less efficient.

5 1.21 1. tt 0.00115.38 v2/2g f’t 0.69 14.11 0.73 3.56 4.67 500 4. Sta 10+70 Yc Y.14 10. D-4 * t .79 2.38?-.65 11.41 11.K = 1.10 3.19 1.01 14. S = 0.24 5.00 5.96 12.77 1.26 9.000 6.3 1.3 250 2. ft ft .6o2 15 Ott 80 Table D-1 Suary of Example Computations for Head-Discharge Curve Open-Channel Flow.25 from plate C-32.58 3.1 l.45 3. Critical Depth Control at Outlet (Capacity Flow) D = 22 ft.900 12. Ke = 0.235.30 1. For a given Q: $ Pool elevation = conduit invert elevation (1229) + y + (Ke + Kv) ~ all se~ents at sta 2+00.56 0.m 111o-2-I. L = 870 ft.49 2.98 3.11 7. k = 0.2b5. or use CORPS H6208. (normal depth).67 6.45 7.04 7. R (hydraulic radius) and Area b See table D-3 for example manual computations of water-surface profile.98 2.86 1.233.29 12.000 10.4 1.0 1.007 ft.89 15.21 x 10-5 See plate D-1 foryn (critical d~pth).0 Coefficient for open-channel flow intake loss upstream from sta 2+00 assumed to be 50% larger than pressure flow coefficient of 0. 0.26 Pool El ft msl 1.99 yn Sta ft Y* ft Sta 2+00 Q cfs A ?/2g ft - 1.248.05 2+50* l-t tt tt t-t t+ 3.99% would occur upstream from sta 2+00 if conduit section was extended upstream.09 Conduit flows full at 3940 cfs Values obtained with CORPS H6208.238. y.26 18. ft2/sec at 60°F.242.00 u V = 1.000 8.

25 0.use smooth pipe curve.72 0.0118 0.47 0.67 0.4 1.2 43.63 2.47 0.0 1.000 15.74 7.00 1.00 1.47 0.000 20.6 74.0118 0. 1.() 1.9 2.6 1.72 1.21 .000 30.000 25.47 0.0 2.25 0.37 4. cfs -Am y /D+f ~a Kv —.3 ~.407.4 0.72 1.12 9.47 0.72 0.15 26.) ++ Intake loss coefficientfor double intake (similarto Fort Radall prototype)from plate C-32.5).25 0.7 t Froude number.72 H — ft Pool Elevation ft msl ‘/ 5.25 0.0118 0.61 13.4 1. where H = K ~ and K = Ke+Kf+K 2g v D –= k 11.0020 ft (for capacity) For a given discharge: Pool elevation= Exit portal invert elevation (1228.7 1.2 96.264.5 3.0118 0.2 13.6 18.000 10.5 1.72 4.72 1. (In computingconduit dischargeand flow velocity for ener~ dissipator.00 1.5 2.48 11.7 0.h 41.00 K 1. $ Dcrcy-Weisbach resistancecoefficientfrom plate c-4.316. Q v @/2g ‘P m — /107 — f+ —‘f Ke*~ .0118 0.Table D-2 Example Head-Discharge Computationsfor Conduit Flowing Ml PressureFlow (Capacity) D= 22 ft A=380ft2 T= 60°F v = 1.9 14.6 116.000 1.7 10.0118 0.0 115.7 13.9 22.8 14.47 1.% Kf=f.00 0.00 1.000 m .25 0.357.00 1.5 52.0)+ yp + H 2 .0 67.0 15.7 24.254.82 0..285.5 1. tt Pressuregradientat exit portal from plate C-3 (extrapolated for ~ = 0.0 18. Gs OL 01 ft~ cog ON .3 39. 10-5 fi2/se~ L=870ft k= 0.25 0.8 78.6 65.

H3. an abrupt ewansion loss coefficient (plate c-8). and Chow (item D-2.) ~is will reduce the effective head through the gate and produce aerated flow in the conduit downstrem from the gate. plate C-1 . The open-channel flow computations generally involve flow profile calculations. or S1 upstream from conduit outlet. M2. Local pressures just downstream from the gate should then be checked by subtracting the contracted jet velocity head from the pressure grade line just upstream from the gate. at changes in cross section and alignment . If the local pressure is subatmospheric. ~pical profiles in an outlet works conduit might include: a. See paagraph 2-3. Most of any needed computations can be done with CORPS H6208 and H6209° for straight. Slug flow also may occur in this range of unstable flow (see para D-13 below). cl.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 D-10 D-10 . at any hydraulic jump. or S3 downstream from a partly open gate. air will be drawn through the vents. b. (See para 3-17 in main teti. at the outlet. Gate-Controlled Discharge. both factors severely complicating calculation of a headdischarge relation in this flow condition. D-12 . Rapidly varied profiles may occur in the intake and transition. uniform-section D-6 . m. Flow Profiles Through Conduits. M2 upstream and S2 downstream from a point of critical depth control. If pressure flow occurs downstream from the gates. C3. these conditions are very difficult to compute accurately and will require experimental evaluation. Chapter 9) for more information and procedures. Typical computations are given in table D-3 and plotted as curve C in plate D-2. The head-discharge relation for partial gate openings with free-surface flow downstream (see para 4-16 and CORPS H3201°) is modified to include intake losses upstream of the gates. Profile Analysis. and past obstacles. D-n . M3. depending on stilling basin apron slope and tailwater elevation. c. In this exaple M2 curves occur upstrem of the outlet for low flows and M3 curves occur downstream of the gate at partial openings. and a conversion to the appropriate reference section (as noted in para 2-13(a)). the head-discharge relation can be computed as in paragraph D-9 above with an added loss coefficient for the partly open gates. Except for a few relatively simple boundary configurations. A qualitative profile analysis should precede computations in order to predict the general shape of the possible flow profiles that may occur in a conduit system. This loss coefficient can be determined from the gate flow contraction coefficient (plate c-39).

06 13.01 2.86 10.08 13.09 0.752 16.oo 1.00 1.00 1.229 1. cc = GO = gate passagewidth = 11 ft = number of gate passages 2 gravitational acceleration 32.374 8.88 2.o34 8.340.24 Ke </2g ft 0.260.300.36 0.260.a5 6. kh 20.300.280.19h 17.oo 1.ft ener~ grade line elevationat gate.81 cfs 2. g.360.280.23 1.oo 1.50 0.4 V2 H= Q= (H-1229-CCGO) Pool El=H+K~ e 2g = Ke = Intake loss coefficient 0. ~ol 4.41 5.oo 1.3115.81 Pool El H+Ke v2/2g 1. Vp = averagevelocityin gate passageupstrem from gate = Q/(2xllx22)= Q/484 fps Gate Opening Go.07 7.45 1.250.260.oo 1.260.340.362.00 1.250. ~.68 1.380.00 1.15 0.33 42.324.65 10.387.oo ~.383.T93 36. msl 1.or about half of full loss for this type of tunnel intake).45 1.261.360.78 1.2 ft/sec2 = gate passage invertelevation= 1229 ft msl contractioncoefficient(plateC-39) gate opening.88b 5. ft 5.6b4 5.301.68 7.51 1.36 1.00 1.397 22.300.50 Contr Coeff & 0.47 30. o? D-7 .320. 17.320.oo ~.68 0.54 6.260.33 1.60.58 1.280.380.320.280. ft msl 22 CCGO J64.300.091 27.2k 51.42 1.77 14.360.366.79 1.01 1.oo 1.865 25.bo 19.68 1.21 29.— m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 Table D-3 Head-DischarEe Computations for Partly Open Gates Open-Channel Flow Downstream Q= B Cc Go P ~2g(H-E-CcGo) B= p.84 56.280.00 1.54 1.296 14.2g 0.10 12.28 4.46 36.782 lb.00 1.28 1.42 1.15 3.74 23.303.51 0.00 Disch Q v & 6.321.09 1.74 15.340.58 0.97 1.585 20.15 ~.342.14 h7.79 o.969 9.503 9.250.’734 EGL El H.78 3.61 33.88 1.250.816 16.00 1.41 1.464 6.97 1.oo 1.340.47 0.00 1.92 27.835 6.380.00 1.555 11.360.25 0.23 0.136 11.380.320.250.29 1.25 ~.oo 0.00 1.49 1.578 13.00 1.I.40 ~6.00 1.6 (plate C-32) (short.33 2.649 7.935 3.streamlined entranceupstreamfrom gate assumedsimilarto sluice intake.15 1.

In this flow transition zone. Slug Flow. Application of the theory to free-surface flow is covered in paragraphs 7 and 8 of EM lllo-2-1601. It is most often encountered in long. Slug flow occurs when the discharge and ener~ level are almost sufficient to cause the conduit to flow full. or if the conduit does not have gates. and n can be expressed as C/1. or low velocities (see plate D-4 and item D-3). The basic theory is given in Chapter 2 of the main text.007 ft for capacity and 0. tineimpact is wave action through the energy dissipator and the downstream channel. but they may impact on appurtenances at the ends of a conduit. the designer should try to obtain a design such that the range of troublesome discharges is sufficiently narrow to permit it to be quickly passed through without changing the downstrem water levels ad/or velocities too rapidly. small diameter conduits. or a design such that slug flow conditions will occur only under unusual and infrequent operating conditions of short duration. where R is the hydraulic radius of the flow boundary. The following procedure can be used to D-8 . In the more common case with the slugs moving downstrem. f . Although the Manning n coefficient has been etiensively used for free-surface flow. trashrack vibration problems. between partly full and full flow. Should the slugs move upstrem they can cause adverse gate vibrations and possible air vent damages.8/fl/2 = R1/E/n . The relations between the coe ficients C . An enlarged portion of the open-channel flow resistance coefficients diagram from HDC 631n (similar to Moody diagram in plate c-h) is given in plate D-3 for computational convenience.002 ft for velocities are recouended for concrete conduits in accordance with the guidance given in EM 1110-2-1601.k86 = 10. D-13. use of the Darcy f or Chezy C relates losses to the Reynolds number of the flow as well as to a physical estimate of the equivalent boundary surface rou@ness k .h Although it is sometimes assumed that free-surface flow is hydraulically rough flow in large concrete conduits. they most commonly move downstream in an outlet conduit./ D-12 conduits flowing partly full.h A sample computation using k and C in a nonprismatic channel is given in plate 9 of EM lllo-2-1601. Slug Flow Limits.h Equivalent roughness heights k of 0. Because these impacts me usually very adverse. It will occur in any conduit that is operated at a given pool level with discharges that will produce either full or partly full flow conditions. Although these slugs can move in an upstream direction in conduits with steep slopes. large air bubbles (the slugs) are trapped by the flow and are separatedby sections of full flow in the conduit. D-14. the example given in table D-4 for a surface profile upstream from the outlet is applicable to smooth surface and transition zone flows. Neither the air bubbles nor t~ water sections will cause ay impact on the conduit proper.

Reasonably good correlation was obtained between the calculated limits and those obtained from the Warm Springs Outlet Works model study (item D-l). The sketch in plate D-4 defines these two conditions for computation of this discharge. assuming the conduit to flow full at the same Q . Then m*e similar computations for other pool leveis in the range of interest. p=t-gate discharge which will cause the conduit to flow full. Entrained air is assumed to bulk the flow 15 to 20 percent ad thereby effect full conduit flow with the above-computed depths of nonaerated water. The lower discharge limit of slug flow for any pool level is approximately equal to the minimum. For a given pool level. Increasing the conduit slope will raise both limits and will narrow the band of D-9 . assume a gate opening Go and compute the free flow discharge Q and the momentm at the vena contracta (condition 1): (D-1) where A= ?= cross-sectional area of flow distance from hytiaulic grade line (free surface for openchannel condition) to centroid of flow area v= average velocity through A Then. The upper discharge limit for a given pool level is approximately equal to the discharge for which the downstream momentw at the vena contracta with partly full flow is equal to the upstream momentum that would occur at the gates with the sme discharge if the complete conduit were flowing full. compute the elevation of the piezometric grade line (PGL) at the gate (stinting from the dowstream portal) and the momentum of the full-conduit flow at the gate (condition 2): QV2 = A2~2 + ~ (D-2) ‘2 Adjust the assumption of Go as necessary to give a value of Q that will result in equal values of M and M2 . The conduit is determined to flow ftil if a water-surface profile computation initiated at the vena contracta immediately downstream of the gate indicates that the depth will increase to about 80 to 85 percent of the conduit height before exiting the downstream portal.D-14 m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 --- determine the lower and upper discharge limits for a given pool level within which slug flow can be expected to occur.

31 1239.86 222.21 1240.32 13.46 3.98 2.70 11.40 1.64 2.97 1241.25 u44 .38 1241.0000121ft2/sec at 60° F.17 3.059 0.46 1.95 9+00 8+00 1228.10.93 1243.023 0.70 12.69 1239.04 1.32 u44.90 12bo.54 1228.02 W.6 loglo (12.63 1241.008 0.30 11. D-10 .60 1228.00115 a = 1.50 Invert El Station ft ft msl 10+70 10+65 lo+5r) 10+00 1228.15 15.88 216.07 230.92 205.14 13.20 1228.14 11.83 2.68 2. C = 32.243.31 13.025 0.026 0.58 196. El.244.62 x43.26 209.3o 210.15 1239.00 ft v = 0. * If not ~0.4113.61 3.s.64 1241.75 3.86 1242.053 0.49 13.14 2.53 and Chezy C .005 0.013 1238.66 1240.00 1241.32 1239.78 1239.022 0.84 1.72 12.31 3.22 12.50 11.66 2.20 226. 0.70 12.026 0.31 4+00 1228.244.70 2.22 7+00 6+00 5+00 1228.80 12.63 2.018 0.50 227.94 14.32 13.243.08 11.21 1243.80 12.40 13.18 3.14 229.&l 227.06 14.08 1.005 0.47 12.18 1. ft mal * 1 hv=g ft 4.20 12.26 229.47 3+00 2+00 1228.83 1241. Example Computationof Flow Profile at 3000 cfs using k ‘2-Vi V2+V : 10.027 0.044 0.4T 1244.62 1241.25 208. reduce ** If in fully rough flow.57 1241.71 2.?5 13.23 abh.43 1228.84 14.36 1241.021 0.04 w44.01 1228.022 0.83 12.46 14.244.000 D = 22.73 2.62 2 -.14 1243.019 0.75 12.90 11.00 1228.77 1241.007 ft (capacity) s = 0.21 3.60 201.014 0.20 228.m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 Table D-4.39 1.17 227.46 14.90 1242.OT 1244.23 13.09 1. distancebetween stations.01 12.88 note: Q = 3000 cfs k = 0.65 12.71 2.85 193.243.018 0. Trial EGL El ft ml 1242.07 230.69 11.93 1239.005 0.lR/k).85 12.243.To 11.6715.75 14.66 2.49 13.244.31 3.80 1241.04 231.89 1229.57 13.37 205.

— 5.169 0.48 130.116 0.00166 0.186 0.00171 100 0.96 2.001985 100 100 100 100 0.79 5.242. x 107 x 107 x 107 lo7 0.00 1243.59 2.00220 0.08 131.99 5. 62 130.17 1244.59 798.00239 2.09 131.76 2.62 x 6.00179 0.72 2.76 5.92 x lo7 129.171 124h.00220 0.oo186 1243.00205 0.9 2.175 1.00169 0.63 0.00169 0.002769 5 0.60x 2.165 1244.00168 0.00166 0.00233 0.82 x 107 0.79 2.00170 0.174 0.57 816.86 K42.99 0.52 130.002959 0.95 855.43 846.24 824.44 1243.06 0.17 12.97 853.50 12.97 131.88 861.75 855.168 0.06 131.69 11.93 5.o2 6.20 1243.107 107 131.60 2.99 1243.00211 0.00165 x 107 lo7 2.77 5.76 2.166 0.8b x 107 129.00232 0.82 0.00246 0.00208 0.01 0.45 130.00175 0.61 2.00226 100 100 0.97 x 107 x 107 x 107 12.6 5.02 858.00169 100 100 0.87 Y from CORPS H6208 ft 10.99 6.99 1243.21 0.00162 0.00 131.14 0.00 6.71 sf=— ? C2R Sf avg L —— hf Check EGL El ft —— mal 1242.53 x lo7 x 107 X.00214 0.’74 x 107 2.6o 0.66 0.oo168 0.00174 0.54 5.01 6.01 0.27 12b2.03 858.01 6.69 130.23 0.R .86 5.oo II.86 131.00258 0.58 131.02 5.48 826.20 12.00167 0.6I.19 130.00164 0.34 130.=? C** R/k ft .174 1243.88 11.198 0.43 0.66 5.169 0.244.167 0.00174 1243.86 816.61x 2.71 5.114 0.031 131.34 130.87 U44.226 0.77 5.99 822.17 1244.34 12.54 791 5.01 0.00166 0.24 808.38 12.11 x lo7 D-n .00169 0.68 2.37 2.71 5.81 860.64 2.61 x 107 x lo7 x 10T 11.8I 859.51 1244.73 2.0 130.00164 0.00202 1243.00172 0.00192 0.00252 5 50 1.41 2.51 1244.59 855.01 130.00 12.12 2.22 857.40 771.00228 0.65 2.51 836.

D-3. CE. California. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. V. and Pickering. “Air-Water Flow in Hydraulic Structures” (in preparation).m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 D-14 discharge within which slug flow will OCCW. J. Miss. As the normal change combinations have opposite effects. T. In most cases a change in both slope and size will be necessary to maintain discharge capacity and effect the desired change in band width or shift of the limits of slug flow. Dry Creek. 1973 (Feb). Handbook of Hydraulics for the Solution of Hydrostatic =d Fluid-Flow Problems~ 5th cd.. H. Chow. Denver. G. Jr. . U. Ables. McGraw-Hill. T. Colo. W.” Technical Report H-73-3. 1963. Increasing the size will raise the lower limit while decreasing the size will lower the lower limit. and Brater. A. S. F. D-15. D-2. Open-Channel Hydraulics.. Vicksburg. Warm Springs Dam. New York. King. S. H. E. U. Hydraulic Model Investigation.. New York. D-1. Falvey. Russian River Basin. D-12 . Changing the conduit size will primarily affect the lower limit. “Outlet Works. D-k. Bureau of Reclamation. McGrawHill. Sonoma County. each case will be unique and generalized guidance cannot be given. Engineering Monograph 41. while reducing the slope will produce the opposite effect. References. 1959. H.

EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 [ :... /EL 1229 1 . SQ FT I o J I 1000 1 2000 I 3000 I 4000 5000 CFS 1 6000’ I 7000 I 8000 DISCHARGE. k& . 22 ‘ t I 1 R70’ I 81 < CONDUIT PROFILE 1ml 22 1 I I 20 la 14 ill... HYDRAULIC FOR 22-FT CHARACTERISTIC CIRCULAR CURVES CONDUIT ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE OUTLET DISCHARGE DETERMINATION PMTE D-1 .. 12 -L : .00115 ~. i 400 FT I 500 I 600 1 o I I I I 700 I 800 100 200 300 AREA. .. s =0. I i 10 0 8 6 4 f 1 1 r 1 1 1 I 1 I I I I 2 HYDRAuLIC RADIUS.“.


010 – 160 0.012 – = 150 7 0.016 - u-l a : 0.93 X 10-5 AT 80”F KINEMATIC 1. R = HYDRAULIC RADIUS.00912 .015 - 130L s II o i. FT FT/SEC2 170 2 4 6 8 108 ROUGH FLOW LIMIT: lR/C = 50 R/k k = EFFECTIVE v = VELOCITY.000 6.019 - 0.024 0.000 170 -105 200 ~ 110 0.000 160 8.RV FOR WATER AT 60” F _ 2 6 I 1 I I Ill 1 1 I I I 1 II I I I 1 I I I I II 4 8 101 2 4 23 I I 8 2 8 102 4 8 8 103 34 1 1 6 8 10° 1 1 I I 1 II 100 100 150 100 0.018 - = 120 t 0.021 110 300 120 400 500 600 130 800 1.011 - 0. FT/SEC S = ENERGY GRAOIENT lR = REYNOLDS NUMBER SLOPE FT 2 4 6 8 10Y u = 0.023 0.025 0.21R + k/12. ROUGHNESS HEIGHT.014 - II ‘t > 0.017 In ~ ‘u 0.6 LOGIO (C/5.000 10.022 E 0.000 150 4.21 X 10-5 AT 60”F VISCOSITY 1.000 3.013 – I – 140 k Ill o a $ 0.16 X 10-5 AT 40”F } FT2/SEC OPEN-CHANNEL RESISTANCE FLOW COEFFICIENTS FROM HDC 631 .000 5.4 6 8 106 2 -4 68107 m = 4RVIV GENERAL EQUATION: C = -32.020 - 0. g > 0.2 R) NOTE: 9 = Acceleration OF GRAVITY.500 140 2.000 x z 1.

. Y 1- tl- u.*\ . 0 -.EM 1110-2-1602 15’ ‘Ott 80 am $ f / —— — ‘L---------“ ‘t L at W m. .0. 0 e 3NlS=3dOlS q 0 o .

The following example is presented to illustrate the principles of transition design discussed in paragraph 4-22. E-4.loo~fl~)=. and the design involves only horizontal convergence. detailed computations =e omitted from this illustration but the general procedure and equations are included as a guide. E-3.) E-1 . Tangent extensions from the end of the pier are assued to enclose a nonflow area. The transition considered is located between a two-gate intake gate section and a circular conduit. Introduction. The minimum thickness of the tapered pier section has been limited to 2 ft for structural reasons.8 percent.8% (E-. Maximum discharge will be 50. Therefore. -*)=12. Convergence Computations. The end of the pier is blunt to ensure a stable point of separation of the flow from the pier.by 20-ft parallel rectmgular conduits separated by a 6-ft-thick pier. However. The pier taper is also curved. Desi~ Conditions. Design Computations. The fillet design conforms to circular quadrants of varying radii to accomplish the required geometric change from rectangular to circdar and to provide a gradual mea reduction. the procedure discussed is applicable to transitions having both horizontal and vertical convergence. Transition designs are generally based on simple curves and tangents which result in relatively easy but laborious design computations. The percent area reduction is computed by the following equation: AA (percent) . a. The general transition layout is shown in plate E-1. All curves should be selected to effect gradual changes in the direction of flow.000 cfs. The downstream conduit is 2C ft in diameter resulting in an area reduction of 12. which’is believed to be realistic. E-2. Area Reduction. The example int*e gate section consists of two 9.E-1 APPENDIX E COMPUTATION FOR DESIGN OF TRANSITION SECTION (Illustrative Example) E-1. The necessary outer wall convergence is formed by reverse curves of equal radii.oo(.

Ra) /~\ — \~gD/ L u u = (15.4 ft maximm radial offset from the outside boundary upstream to the corresponding location in the conduit boundary downstream average of the velocities and equivalent area diameters at the upstrea and downstream end of the transition (139 and-159 fps. _ _ (23)2 + ~= 2 2(1) 2 265 ft (E-3) E-2 . The required transition length (LT) is based on flow conditions and a limiting angle of contraction by the more conservative of the computations: Lm = (R.D= (Ru .1228 = (E-2b) where 13 is the maximum allowable angle of contraction of the boundary relative to the conduit axis (use e ~ 70).62..10) 45.8 ft (use 46 ft) 0.62. Wall Curves. Transition Len@h.70 where Ru-Rd= = )1 (E-2a) 32.2 (20. The sidewall transition curves are composed of reverse circular arcs of equal radii and therefore are defined by the equation: %RC2 ‘w== e _— . c.10) 149 [432.Rd) ‘T = tan 8 = (15.41 and 20 ft) V. 21.m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 where ‘d = downstream circular conduit area E-4a Au = upstream total gate section area b.

tm ep = ‘FT ‘P-e (rP-e) e (E-4) %=t. ~gent Extension. The slope of the tangent etiension (tan 9n) e.. Additiond computations are required to locate the pier curve PT where the minimum pier thickness is 2 ft. The development of a transition area curve requires area computations at cross sections normal to the transition center line. These sections me usually selected close together at the beginning and end of the transition to accurately define the curve in the region where E-3 . The pier curves are also composed of circular arcs of equal radii and are based on equation E-3 (with e = 1. In these computations the curve (rp) is considered to st. Pier Curves.=t at the conduit center line at the end of the transition and efiend upstream to (~T) to the point where the example value of e is 1 ft.E-4c where EM u1o-2-16o2 15 Ott 80 ‘w = %RC = wall curve radius conduit center-line distance PC to PRC or PRC to end of transition (=~/2) one-half of convergence of one wall from PC to end of transition d. Area Curves.ep= (E-5) %T where ‘P = %T = radius of pier curve conduit center-line distance from pier ~ to end of transition e = 0. and its intersection with the conduit center line are required for the’ area computations md may be computed using the following equations: .5 ft in example).5 minimum pier thickness ‘T = conduit center-line distance from pier FT to the intersection of the tangent extension and the conduit center line E-5.

The total flow width at each section is multiplied by the transition height to obtain the cross-sectional area.25641on 1 for the uniformly varying radius curve. Sever~ trial fillet designs are usually required in the development of a satisfactory curve. as shown by the fillet radius plot in plate E-2. Areas of Converging Rectangul= Sections. Fillet Quadrant Desi~.)2]”2 (E-7 ) E-4 . The fillet radius (r+) for each section was then computed using the following equation: ‘ Upstream arc ‘f=raDownstrea arc r2 . a. The curve and tangent extension equations previously discussed can be used for these computations. resulted in a slope of 0. The computation of the areas of the converging rectangular sections requires determination of the distances of the walls. b.~ 1’2 ( a ) (E-6) r<:- [r= ~:- (LN . pier surface. Weliminary computations based on uniform variation of the fillet radius from zero at the beginning of the transition to the conduit radius at the end of the transition are helpful in developing fin~ radii for the fillets.m 1110-2-1602 15 oct 80 E-5 the slope of the curve is approaching zero. The design of the quadrant fillets necessitates the determination of fillet radii that will adjust the converging rectan~ar sections to provide a smooth. A satisfactory area curve was obtained by use of nonuniformly varying fillet radii defined by circular arcs near the upstream and downstream ends of the transition and uniformly vaying radii in the middle section. gradually changing area curve as well as result in gradual changes in the direction of flow ~ong the fillets. and tangent extension from the conduit center line at the selected sections. The shape of the curve depends upon the horizont~ and vertical convergence of the outer walls and the taper of the pier as well as upon the radii of the quadrant fillets. respectively. With vertic~ convergence the appropriate height at each section is used. Tangent distances of 2 and 5 ft. The resulting areas are plotted as shown in plate E-2. fien the ho~izontal and vertical convergence me-fixed (plate E-l). selected for the upstream and downstream arcs. an area curve for the converging rectangul~ sections (plate E-2) is helpful in designing the fillets which result in the final transition =ea curve.

tangent length of upstream arc) (E-8) where ‘f = fillet radius r = arc radius a x= center-line distance from beginning of transition c.E-511 m 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 Uniformly varying fillet radii ‘f = slope (x . The full fillet =ea to be subtracted from the rectangul= cross-sectional area is computed by the equation ‘f where ‘f ‘f = fillet area = fillet radius = 0. examination of the locus of the 45-deg point in the horizontal (X) plme and the vertical (Y) plane is helpful in judging the smoothness and rate of change in direction. Such a plot referenced to the conduit center line is shown in plate E-2 and indicates a smooth ad gradual change in the direction of flow. The change in direction of flow along the 45-deg points of the fillets should be smooth and gradual. However. Computation of the coordinates (X and Y) of the 45-deg points (Point C on Section C-C. E-6. The path of the flow is three-dimensional and cannot be readily illustrated.5twE-5 c (E-10) (E-n) .8584 r: ( E-9) The final transition area curve is shown in plate E-2. Fillet at 1+5-DegPoint. Fillet Area. This curve has a zero slope at both ends of the transition. The slight irre@arity in the curve near the downstream end results from use of the tangent extensions in the area computations rather th= theoretically extending the pier curve to the end of the transition. plate E-2) is accomplished using the following relations: c = rf versine 45° x= o.

E-6 \ . and downstream transition sectio. Transition Pressures. middle.EM 1110-2-1602 15 Ott 80 and Y = where E-6 o. Superimposed upstream. General pressure conditions throughout the transition can be computed by examination of the fiange in velocity head from section to section. and the locus of the fillet 45-deg point.5th- c (E-12) c = horizontal or vertical distance from corner of local rectangular section ‘f tw = local fillet radius ‘ local transition half width ‘h = local transition half height E-7 . Plate &2 shows graphically the variations in the fillet radii. These conditions result from the relative outward flare of the bound=y as it changes from converging to straight. However. Plate E-1 illustrates the general transition layout and fillet intersections with the sides and floor of the transition. local pressure conditions can only be investigated by means of a model study. Layout Data Information. the transition area. E-8. Model experience indicates that undesirable pressure conditions may exist immediately downstream from the transition unless the transition is c=efully designed. Plates E-1 to E-3 illustrate transition drawings and data pertinent to review of transition designs and to field construction.are ~so shown in this plate to illustrate the geometric changes from section to section and to identify data tabulated in plate E-3.



6154 4.6154 8.6263 2.2821 3.0019 to.9454 2.9630 2.0170 10.8974 5.4566 0.6496 9.0561 o.0145 0 II 7.7135 11.9668 11.9487 6.0868 1’ 6299 6.9166” 2.66s8 0.S657 11.4570 10.1 ?37 0.8495 45 9.2049 10.5530 7.4708 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 -.7984 8.9ss5 11.2 FOR DEFINITION By APPROPRIATE CHANGES OF THE SIGN OF THE .0616” 11.6000 1.9696 9.9321 6.7135 9.2326 0.7504 1.m 11.0679 0.6923 0.758s 8.0256 2.4229 1’ .( 00 9.26 28 3.9674 46 lo.9s65 ( 9.2727 ! 10.0000 1. SEE PLATE E.7976 2.0000 12. I o COORDINATES OF POINTS IN OTHER OUADRANTS CAN BE 08TAINED TABULATEO VALUES.0126 “ BASEDON TANGENT EXTENSION.6317 11.W32 o 0.1044 7.0767 lo.9231 6.0561 0.1864 9.0711 10.8861 DISTANCE ALONG CENTER LINE DF TRANSITION FT LENGTH OF FILLET RADIUS FT x FT FT 12.1606 7.7179 0.6164 4.9454 32 36 36.2104 10.7174 2.9231 6.89s1 1.9629 11.COORDINATES OF POINTS IN FIRST OUADRANT Pol POINT B I POINT C I Y rA POINT O x FT FT SECTION 1 o 3.0935 7.3880 1’ 1666 1’ Oooo 5.4672 11.1304 10.5731 S.9065 9.8863 44 9.8733 9.ocmo Io.S272 2.0505 0.1026 11 .1061 0.0859 7.9467 9.6874 5.m 9.90s5 9. NOTE: 1 SKETCH. 16 17 18 19 20 21 II 0.9360 10.9740 0.6778 1.2024 (ENO ANO PT OF PIER) 6.0748 7.0826 9.0000 0.of45 o 0 0. WIDTH OF PIER FT Y F1 Y o 1 0.3334 3.OD76 10.-24 9.3882 T 7.2726 7.4709 15 -.4672 6.0126 0 IENO OF TANGENT EXTENSION) 0.7287 10.61S4 4.8907 11.5630 ?.8334 I 4.5126 1.1026 4.1262 4.5247 42 43 9.2864 6.4229 9.6865 11.9648 2.7397 9.3646 6.Oooo 0.2940 6.9687 2.000o 12.616s 9.2848 5.0766 4.0505 0.1137 0.2865 0.8733 9.9s64 9.9161 1.?307 0.6974 2 3 4 8 10 14 18 21 23 (PRC} 25 2?.1307 0.5247 0.4467 2.9360 10.2S54 6.2024 0.6896 11.4570 11.9563 11.9664 9.1026 HALF.6s65 9.9744 1< 6112 7.6716 1.8718 1.4885” 6.mo 2.8657 1.45s6 7.9744 7.7529 6.2326 0.0316 2.12s2 4.1214 7.3077 1.mo 7.0513 3.2466 6.0711 7.0302 0.OOOO 9.1267 0.73 40 9. 13 14 7.

Vm v= ~= 80. Design Conditions. Two examples with different tailwater and exit channel elevations are used to illustrate a normal design and a design for a low-level outlet with respect to tailwater were eddy problems within the * stilling basin are likely to occur. Design Computations.14(14)2 . Stilling Basin Design for Conduit Outlet Works.01 ft/ft (0= 0“ 34.0 = 80.320 cfs.5’ = 0.0 fps = 3.154 ftz 4 “ Conduit area Q- 12.F-1 EM 1110-2-1602 Change 1 15 Mar 87 APPENDIX F COMPUTATION FOR DESIGN OF OUTLET WORKS STILLING BASIN (Illustrative Examples) F-1. rD A = ~ 2 = 3. Introduction.77 ~32. CORPS. found in the USAE computer program library.573”) Design discharge Q = 12. a. (Note: These calculations may also be performed using the computer program H2261. The following detailed examples are presented to illustrate the procedures for the design of outlet works stilling basin discussed in Chapter 5. example: The following information is used for design D=14ft Conduit diameter Conduit slope s = 0. .) * F-2 .320 cfs (for smooth pipe and design pool) Elevation outlet portal invert = 100 ft mel Case 1: Exit channel invert elevation = 90 ft msl Tailwater rating cume shown in plate F-1 Case 2: Exit channel invert elevation = 98 ft msl Tailwater rating curve shown in plate F-1 F-3 . Transition Sidewall Flare.2(14) F-1 .

0. the tailwater elevation at design discharge (12.2x2 * y = -(). * L -x tan 8 - 1. Assume energy losses bemee~ portal and basin apron are negligible. use AL = 7.61’ ) ( c* Length of Fillets. From plate F-1.573° ~ 32. Case 1 Design.00161x2 e. The shape change from cirrectangu3. 0. required downstream depth to force jump (d2). d. Lf = ~05D = 1.OIX. R. cular to = 2(3.2 ft msl.e. entering flow velocity (Vl).5(14) = 2] ft Therefore invert must continue on slope of conduit (0..E?! 1110-2-1602 F-3a From equation 5-2.54 Since AL>6. Y- Using equation 5-3 paragraph 5-2d(3).= 5D = 5(14) = 70 ft Lt = tangent length = R tan ~ = 70 tan 6 ~ Arc tan ~ q = 4.25 Vm therefore = 100 fps Y=-x or tan 0. paragraph 5-2d AL=21F b. Froude number of entering flow ( lFl). Assume various basin apron elevations and compute basin width (Wb).320 cfs) is 100.ar cross section till be made with free surface flow. entering flow depth (dl).01 ft/ft) for a distance of 21 ft. i. * (1) Stilling Basin Geometry. F-2 outlet .85d2 and actual depth from apron floor to tailwater water surface (d).54 Radius to Connect Outlet to Sidewall. Parabolic Invert Drop.77) = 7.

79 107.0053.06 34.Apron el) = height of pressure grade line at ‘wit portal (plate C-3) = 0.47 35.55 2.26 29.20 30.04 13. Cf s Table F-1 8aeiaApron E2avatiou(Caae1) tationa for Dete~ing (3) (4) (5) ‘b (2) Apron (6) (7) (8) (9) ‘2 (lo) 0.39 ~ 7.Apron El ~ c(1) Q —.25 2.22 36.16 2.25 9. Then -y = El outlet .20 -29.000 70 4.98 56.73 29.57(14) = 8.00 53.44 16.79 l&3.52 -29.79 .61) = 14 + X+16. This can be sinxplifiedby making a plot of x versus y for the parabolic invert drop equation (plate F-2).10 8.57D = 0.79 133.000* 70 m: -29.85d2 (11) ktual d ft El mel Y —— ft x ft — ft ‘1 *s__— ‘1 ‘1 ft ft 12.320 12. F-3 .ApronEl = 99.54 u where X is determined from the parabolic equation after Y is determined from assumed apron elevation.82 1.0.29 11.63 71.46 10.65 20.93 9.63 26.320 80 65 70 -19.21 .79 133.Apron El = 100 .2 notes See explanatory on page F-4.S(Lf) .79 133.63 93.20 35.01 2.25 -34.96 89.(Outlet el .84 46.63 59.K.00 53. 8.F-3eLl) V2 ~+yp where ‘P ‘: ‘Z+dl .95 30.76 31.320 12.66 24.97 Check jump with lesserdischarges 20.20 O.0 ft and Also Wb=D+ 2(x+Lf-Lt) = 14 + 2(X+21-4.54 95.

2ing baain aproo qlevation .3(35. graphicallyor numerically Width of stilling basin 2( X+Lf-Lc) q Ub-D+— AL * (6) Flow velocity in stilling baain at section 1 solve (7) F20u for VI “ qt “eithergraphic82.*->(m-l) (10) Saquent depth (d2) titipLied by 0.Ly section 1 or nunrisally (cubic q quation).?ailmter Saaults : ql .EM 1110-2-1602 Change 1 15 \lar97 ExplanatoryNotes for Table F-L F-3e(l) (1) Design discharge = 4408 CiS) Qfull (2) Aasmd (3) (4) (* Denotes partially fullconduitflowcondition.26) . depth all-+ lb (8) Froude mmber of flow at section 1 =1-= (9) SaWat ‘1 baaiu qt esccion 2 q depth in st- q . 154 ft basin length LB .APron ql Sti21inS Sti3.e-~ 2(1.25V)4 cosAe Solve (5) by qudratic formuk.105. vtiue of apron el frm -Y = El outlet Y S(Lf) Apron C~ced X2 With c~tad valus of (Step 3) cquce x q Y--x t.3d2 .85 (11) Mtue2 depth at section 2 d .70 ft aal baain tith Wb - 53.Lf + X .8 Or 106 ft F-4 .6 ft TrUition St- Langth .

5 ft o.9 ft. invert elevation of section is 100. F-5 .4. 2.5(35.49 ft msl.01X thus g or .()1 0. (2) Baffle Piers. The height of end sill should be half of the baffle height or 0. Since the stilling basin apron elevation was set at 0. place seccnd row 18 ft downstream frcm first row.A = .0.5(2. say 2.39)/3.86 d2 for tailwater at the design discharge. Thus. and the local width of basin on the sloping apron Ws = 14 + (48.1667 6 X = 48.00 .26) = 17.0.5 ft.66 ft and y = -4.F-3e(2) m 1110-2-1602 Charge ! 15 Yar s. or 0.k. first row of baffles should be placed farther than 1. 2.00161x2 = -().5 ft. The 16.5d2 = 1.25 ft . Height of baffle piers d = 2.5) = 1.5d2 = 0.5(35.) Since velocity entering basin is greater than 60 fps. Since 1. Determine section in the transition where parabolic invert slope is IV on 6H.0. Computed d2 elevations are well above the tailwater elevations and there should be no eddy problems ia the stflling basin.30 = 95.26) = 52.21 . two rows of baffle piers should be used. (4) Determination If Low-Level Outlet. y = 4. and the upstream face should have a IV-on-lH slope. place first row of baffles 60 ft down- stream.77 = 31.46 ft.6 ft .3 ft Thus.48 ft ~.5d2 downstream from toe of parabolic drop.00322x = . This is based on judgment depending on flow velocity entering basin.25 ft . (Check l/6d2 = 35.5d2 farther do-stream. Make width of baffles and spacing equal to baffle height or (3) End Sill.26/6 = }. Second row should be approximately 0.66 + elevations for lesser discharges ‘2 and the corresponding tailwater elevations are compared in table F-2. Check to determine if conduit outlet portal is low tith respect to tailwater for low flows.

5 101.2 103.56 ft (5) Lf -21ft.07 Tshlo F-2 fdl cast 1 Caae TUE1 TUS2 -l —Esl 91.90 31.25 28.76 5.56 1.58 105.5 93.2 104.EM 1110-2-1602 F-3e(4) Table TAILwAT22 F-2 2L2vAX0N -us (5) v.77 7.30 9.55 5.18 19. V . dL .b. L t.-D+~ vinrex-48.51 0.61 ft ti ?20u tioti~ qt tietf.ou mows (9) ‘1 (10-1) (10-2) 2 (1) (2) (3) (4) v Qd v dl= Cfs * —&=& a=.25 32.iu2Ly or oumrit8L2y (6) 6WC:OU) 1/6 Y2w d~th dl.63 25. of .0$ 100.Q/A vhmre A llOml depth (4) q WLS Width of tran8it:oo t point uhsre 2nv@rtslope q 2(Af-Lt) U.56 103.98 1. dapth for ms~d disctirga(assuming .0S 5.onlurm slops -s v L16 6 <+d-$+~-(~t~tel - M@rt ql at section) (tubic as Solw for V.03 31.——— 500* 3.7.66ft.66 0.25 35.16 1.500* 5.37 SxPticory dzl ‘1 ft 6.3 * 92.2 Notes for (1) Lov flou Qfull . (6) ~ATxON (7) (8) d2~ mn r. . d. qt aactiontire slope fargrrslops WIS .000* 4.53 23.012) n h aru of flow for the 1/6 velocity.0.19 31. qit2ur ~aph.U08 efs) (2)No-1 (3)Nom Cet$d di8t~rgc (* -tes partwy flow edition.+ q (7) ~ -r v= =1-W s (8) Saqwat dspth of q * (9) .

use D50 = 12 in.F-3e(5) ~ 1110-2-1602 Change 1 15 ‘.5 ft Sti22.ar87 (5) Riprap Design.82 29.1.17 31.96 38.77 3. The extent of riprap downstream depends on local scour conditions and exit channel configuration.25 33.3(38.320 12.23 42.26 21. ~=:= 12. the tailwater elevation at design discharge (12.10 2.10 63. Qfti - 4. 8.85d2 Attual d fc 80 90 86 107. (Ban COle-olm Thus. ) q pron qlavatlon .0 fps 53.608 cfa. 38.80 ft or 9. + (1) Stilling Basin Geometry.5D +X .50 23.46 O.05 50.60 32.22 7.21 ‘1 &a 0. Details of the stilling basin and recommended outlet channel configuration are shown in plates F-3 and F-4.54 38. Iable cm F-3 rations for Decemining Baain Apron Elevation (Case 2) (3) (~) x ft (1) Q (2) Apron (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) ‘2 AA_ (10) (11) El Mel —— cfa 12.60 28. LO 42.320 cfs) is 118.79 -L3.79 89.Lf + X .60 25.77 8.0 fps .320 Y ——ft -19.20 8.81 16.6 in.86 76.6 (30. The average velocity over the end sill is used in HDC 712-1* to determine minimum riprap size (W50 and/or D50).000 b. respectively. .1 ft baati Transition Langth .53 89.320 12. From plate F-1.5) * From HDC 712-in with specific weight of stone of 165 lb/ft3 and V = = 0.79 ‘b — ft A ‘1 89.110.96 89.DOO* 86 86 -L3.79 -L3.57 87.@ 6.114. Case 2 Desi~.06 diachargee 3.39 36.320 = 8.76 39.93 3.53 Cheek b6. ’50 = 45 lb and ’50 or greater.60 j- ultb lesser 42.79 .5 or 115 ft F-7 . “ f.53 q Denotes ~~y q fti flOU condition.36 9.2 .01 1.86 ft msl Vldtb Wb .55 85.42.6 ft ml.61 32.17) . Sttig stu* basin description (axp2anatorYnocsa) as table F-1.9. Assume various basin apron elevations and make computations as in paragraph F-3c above and similar to table F-1.3d2 .lng bash Zangth ~ .K.1.94 13.90 6.

The center-line elevation of the inverted V at a distance d~tream from the outlet portal is 100 + ‘f 0. and the upstream face should have a . y = 4. Thus.5d2 downstream from toe of parabolic drop. y = 102. ~ .5(38.5d2 = 0.5 ft from y’ = -cmX2 16. Thus.para F-3e(4)).e. 1.66 = 102. i.5)2 Thus.ate F-5.49 ft msl.0021 X2.5) = 1.17) = 57.. therefore.17/6 = 6. an inverted V is needed along the center line of the trajectory.75 ft . an eddy problem is lfiely to occur with these low flows. (Check l/6d2 = 38.5d2 = 1.66 . F-8 y’ = -0.5 ft o.1. say Second 20 ft Make width and spacing equal to baffle height or 3.66 ft .0.66 . and invert elevation was 95. Since the tailwater elevation is above the elevation of d~ at the section vhere the slope is * IV on 6E for discharges of approximately 1100 cfs and less.5d2 farther downstream or 0.5(3. say 3. first row of baffles should be placed farther than 1.19D = 100+ 2.17) = 19.~ 1110-2-1602 Change 1 15 Mar 87 (2) Baffle Piers.5 ft. Height of baffle piers = dl = 3. .49.66 ft and x = 89. .5(38. Check to determine if outlet portal is low with respect to tailwater for low flows as for Case 1.3 ft.IV-on-lH height or slope. row should be approximately 0. the equation of the center-line trajectory will be The trajectory is shown on P3. The section in the transition where the invert slope was equal to IV on 6H was at x = 48.0021 cm = — (89.) F-3f(2) Since velocity entering basin is greater than 60 fps.86 (stilling basin apron elevation) = 16.3 ft Therefore.66.5 ft (3) End Sill.36 ft A 3. The height of end sill should be half of the baffle 0. (4) Determination If Low-Level Outlet.k. place first row 65 ft downstream from toe of transition. check elevation versus tailwater ‘2 elevations for several low flows as h table F-2. (Case 1 . The tailwater rating curve for Case 2 (plate F-1) tidicates that the tailwater elevations for lesser discharges are considerably higher than 95.36 ft.

(5) Riprap Design.F-3f(5) =.9 in. * 12. larger Use D50 = 15 in. 1110-2-1602 Change 1 “C >!ar87 .2. F-9 .1(32. Q Average velocity over end sill = ~ = From HDC 712-in .0) = ‘“6 ‘Ps D50 = 1.W50 = 135 lb.320 42.16 ft or 13. or Details of stilling basin and outlet channel are shown in plates F-5 and F-6 .6 .

108 106 104 T 102 L u 1a 100 3 98 96 94 r 92 900 ~ d ~ * .8 DISCHARGE. .4 OF CFS .6 . ““ I 22 120 - 118 - 116‘ 114 ‘ d o z 1L z“ ~ ~ z d u u : a 2 112 110 .2 “b.0 . THOUSANDS TAILWATER RATING CURVE PUTE F-1 .EM 1110-2-1602 lG n-+ Qn .2 .

EM 1110-2-1602 15 oct 80 180 160 / 140 120 100 x 80 -y= -0.00161X2 60 40 20 0 o -10 -20 -30 ‘f -40 -50 -60 PARABOLIC TRANSITION INVERT CURVE .OIX -0.

m.G.+ Qf) -. 1110-2-1602 15 n. .Ff d .. “. z u t + .9’ES ElaEfalao91au z m. ? EIEEE9QBBQE 4+4+4 m“ w- ~ 0 4 : h- — a .

c 0 ii c — . \ o z I o > 6 — + PLATE F-4 .

ofx o.75’ V = -o.m161x2 (ORIGIMAL tSTILLING BASIN CASE 2 .-. w .2’ A v“.5’ 1.-am21x2 (TRAJECTORYLONG CENTERLINE) TRAJECTOR Y) 3.EL J24.- .

31 EL 98..0 hi’’’’’’’’”’: - RIPRAP AND EXIT CHANNiL CASE 2 .0’ L EL 80. PLAN %> EL 86.

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