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Notes 4 Page 1

4. Matrix Operations in Excel. Matrix Manipulations: Vectors, Matrices, and Arrays. How Excel Handles Matrix Math. Basic Matrix Operations. Solving Systems of Linear Equations. Matrix Manipulations: Vectors, Matrices, and Arrays. In this section we consider the topic of Vectors, Matrices and Arrays and their application in solving Linear Equations and other linear algebra problems. Simultaneous linear equations occur frequently in engineering in such areas as heat conduction, molecular diffusion, fluid mechanics and in data regression. Excel’s “Solver” feature will be used in a later chapter to solve more complicated linear and nonlinear systems of equations. Generally the term matrix (from mathematics) and array (from Excel) can be used interchangeably to refer to data organized in row and column fashion. Matrices consisting of a single row or a single column are called vectors. Even though the functions are “named” with matrix there is no help in Excel under “matrix” only “array”. Typical Linear Equation Set and Corresponding Matrices a11x1 + a12x2 +a13x3 = b1 a21x1 + a22x2 +a23x3 = b2 a31x1 + a32x2 +a33x3 = b3

a11 a12 a13 x1 b1

Where [A] = a 21 a 22 a 23 a31 a32 a33 Is represented in math as [A][X] = [B]

[X] = x 2 x3

[B] = b 2 b3

and has the solution [X] = [A]-1 [B] How Excel Handles Matrix Math. Matrix operations are handled in two different fashions in Excel. Addition of matrices and scalar multiplication are handled by conventional cell arithmetic (copying cell formulas) whereas advanced matrix operations such as transposition, multiplication and inversion are handled by matrix (array) functions.

This indicates that a matrix (array) result really is desired. etc. Matrix Addition : [C] = [A] + [B] Method 1: Corresponding elements will be added using “cutting and pasting”. Such a formula uses matrix functions and returns a result that can be a matrix. complete with identification of the rows and columns (i. After typing such a formula.e. if not for communication. initial conditions. To modify or delete the formula.. the "result areas" will be updated immediately whenever any of the numbers in the "input areas" change (unless automatic recomputation has been turned off). depending on the computations involved. coupled with the ability to see matrices. It also designates the entire selected range as the desired location for the answer.CHEN 3600 – Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department EWE: “Engineering With Excel” Larsen Notes 4 Page 2 Key to understanding the use of matrix operations is the concept of the matrix (array) formula. or a scalar. This can be a great help when one wishes to evaluate the effects of changes in assumptions. an area on the spreadsheet of precisely the correct size must be selected before the formula is typed in (otherwise you will either lose some of the answer or get added and possibly confusing information). Basic Matrix Operations. in the form that we have termed tables). Whatever the result may be. SHIFT and ENTER. you "enter" it with three keys pressed at once: CTRL. When matrix computations are performed in this way. will often make the spreadsheet environment the preferred choice for computation. This feature. select the entire region beforehand. . a vector.

Method 2: Matrix operator (+) will be used with “named ranges”. 3. This will introduce { } characters around the . Similarly highlight and name the range B6:C8 as “B”. CLEAR AREA “C” FIRST. Highlight and name the cells from B2:C4 as “A”.CHEN 3600 – Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department EWE: “Engineering With Excel” Larsen Notes 4 Page 3 Type the formula =B2+B6 in cell B10 and copy and paste into the cells in region B10:C12. This is done by typing “A” in the “name field” of the function picker. Highlight the destination range and type the following formula: =A+B but do not press “enter” instead press “control-shift-enter” to complete the formula. 1. 2.

=MMULT(first_matrix. To multiply two matrices.3) and the result of BxA is C(3. Matrix Subtraction and Scalar Multiplication. This should also suggest that AxB ≠ BxA since the result of AxB would be C(2. For example: {=6*A} would produce a new array with all values in A multipled by 6. That is.2). . second_matrix) Remember you must highlight the destination matrix BEFORE completing the formula with Shift-Control-Enter! Transposing A Matrices.3) because the “inner” numbers are the same. You should see the result in the area highlighted (in green above). use the MMULT function. Matrix multiplication requires that the two matrices are “conformable” (that is. The number of columns in the first matrix must equal the number of rows in the second matrix. The size of the result is governed by the “outer” numbers. you can multiple A(2.3). in this case (2. You can use either of these methods to subtract (element by element) or multiply (all elements by the same value). appropriate number of rows and columns.5)xB(5. YOU CANNOT SIMPLY TYPE THE BRACES. Multiplying Two Matrices.CHEN 3600 – Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department EWE: “Engineering With Excel” Larsen Notes 4 Page 4 formula {=A+B} which indicate an array operation.

Only square matrices have a determinant. Determinant Of A Matrix. The matrix must be “nonsingular” A matrix is “singular” is any of the following are true: 1. The mathematical operation of “inverting” a matrix requires that two conditions are met: 1. Inverting A Matrices.CHEN 3600 – Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department EWE: “Engineering With Excel” Larsen Notes 4 Page 5 The mathematical operation of “transposing” a matrix is simply to switch the “rows” with the “columns”. Hence. To take the inverse of a matrix. Any row or column contains all zeros 2. The determinant of a matrix is a single value and is often encountered in solving systems of equations. a row vector’s transpose is a column vector and the transpose of a 2x3 matrix is a 3x2 matrix. use the MINVERSE function. Any two rows or columns are identical 3. Any row or column is a linear combination of other rows or columns. . The matrix must be “square” (same number of rows and columns) 2. To take the transpose of a matrix. use the TRANSPOSE function.

5. In the example below. the last line is the same as the first line multiplied by -0. it is subject to “round-off” error. Multiply both sides of the equation by the inverted coefficient matrix. [A][x] = [b].CHEN 3600 – Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department EWE: “Engineering With Excel” Larsen Notes 4 Page 6 Since the calculation of a determinant involves a significant number of calculations. This is the solution matrix. To find the determinant of a matrix. Invert the coefficient matrix [A]-1 3. Write the equations in matrix form (coefficient matrix) x [unknown vector] = right hand side vector. Solving Systems of Linear Equations.[b]) . use the MDETERM function. Note. When the determinant is essentially “zero” (that is. 1x10-14 or less) it can be considered “zero”. the solution “x” is =MMULT([A]-1. Here are the steps: 1. 2. We now have the necessary tools to solve systems of linear equations.

CHEN 3600 – Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department EWE: “Engineering With Excel” Larsen Notes 4 Page 7 .

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