1881. H. Hallett and Co. f Copyright. ..

in the choice of rulers. With us.PREFACE. and by the other so intemperately assailed. most readers will probably find many old prejudices dispelled. that popular suffrage. the authors have endeavored to be thoroughly impartial. he was called to consider. whom one would think of ranking with those many royal monsters who have This record in turn disgraced all the courts of Europe. the freedom of the press is so unlimited. that there is no other nation which can present a consecutive series of twenty rulers of equal excellence Probably the least of character and administrative ability. and not be convinced that both were inspired with the noblest zeal to promote the best interests of their comitry and of the human race. worthy of all our presidents would rank among the best of the kings whom the accident of birth has placed upon hereditary thrones and not an individual has popular suffrage elevated to the presidential chair. as we now dispassionately review the past. But. In writing these sketches. is a far safer reliance than hereditary descent. so as to look from his stand-point upon the great questions which . settles the question. There are few persons who can read this record of the Lives of the Presidents of the United States without the conviction. and to place themselves in the position which the subject of the sketch occupied. The writers have not thought that impartiality requires that they should refrain from a frank expression of their . but no man can read a true record of their lives. and political partisanship so intense. that few persons have been able to take really an impartial view of the characters of those who have been by one party so inordinately lauded. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were in political antagonism .

? of thousands of sincere friends. are unquestioned and all will be found substantiated in the memoirs and works. If they have failed. to present a miniature likeness of each character which shall be faithful and striking. But he will long live on. of this thor. more or less voluminous. or to gloss them over. that No faults as well as virtues should be honestly detailed. they can only say that they have honestly done their best. contained in most of our large libraries. to his eternal Note. There have certainly been errors and wrong-doings in the past administration of this Government. as one of earth's moral powers. They have not deemed it expedient to encumber these pages with foot-notes. ha^ passed on — . Conwell. and in the numerous thrilling volumes of history and liiograpliy whicii he has written. C. It is not the duty of the impartial historical biogThey should ignore such. ra2:>her to . It is an essential part of biogra}3liy. own views. with much labor. merit they possess must consist mainly in the skill which may be exhibited in selecting from the great mass those incidents which will give one the most vivid conception of the individual. in the heart. man is perfect. it is believed. as most of the important facts here stated. be distinctly brought to light as instruction for the future. The materials from which the writers have drawn these Whatever of biographical sketches are very abundant. book was written. The writers haA'e attempted. Russell H.4 PREFACE. Al)bott. of our Chief Magistrates. the celebrated auhome. Since the priucipal portion John S.

— Expulsion of the British from Boston. 148 CHAPTER V. ProfesAmerica. Madison. House of Representatives. The Marriage. — Letters to his Children. — Weary of Office. — Alliance with France. — Retirement. Franklin. — Battles. England. The Declaration of Independence. ticc'llo. Close of the War. — Vice-President. Parentage and Birth. THOMAS JKKFEHSOX. Franklin and Voltaire. — — — — — — — — — — — — . Mission to France. — Life at Mount Vernon. Bonaparte. — Chosen President. Adams and Delegate to France. — Death of his Wife. Patriotism. The Monroe 169 Doctrine. — Mrs.\merica. . — Domestic Griefs. Private Secretary'. Defence of the Soldiers. A Senator. His Boyhood. — Stormy Administration. — The White House. Old Age. Chosen President. Adams. — The Youthful Engineer. ton. Education in Europe. — The French War. Treaty of Ghent. — Inaugural. — Governor of Virginia. War and of State. — Life PAGE — Marriage.57 Presidential Career. Governor. and Death — — — — — — War . at Brad- 9 CHAPTER IL JOHN ADAMS.— CONTENTS. Last Days. — Secretary of State.Mission to Russia. Minister to the Netherlands. Retirement and Death — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER VI. — Mount Vernon. with . — — — . — Marriage. RetirePresident. Enters the Army. Ancestry. — President. I. Continental Congress. — Self-sacrifice.Jefferson. — Patriotism. Education. — Marriage. Friendship with . . Childhood. — Sickness and Death in the Wilderness. — Secretary of State. — Interest in the French Revolution. — Scenes at Monticello. Other "Missions. — Heroism dock's Defeat. Return to Studies Law. — College-life. — Estate at Mon— Tlie (Continental Congress. — Domestic Habits. Massachusetts Senate. — Jlinister to France. Secretary of State. A Legislator. Letters. Harvard College. Birth and Childhood. Death — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . — Death CHAPTER IV. Right of Search. Mission to England. sor of Rhetoric. — Kevolution. Re-elected. CHAPTER in. — Commander-in-Chief. — Framing the Constitution. — Enters Public Life. JAMES MONHOE. . Birth and Childhood. — A Law-student. — Monarcliical Sentiments. 183 ment. Secretary both of Colonel Monroe. — Returns to . — In Congress. Elected to the Presidency. The French Court. 97 JAMES MADISON. Ancestry. — Birth — War with the Indians. National House of Representatives. GEOKGE WASHINGTON. Mission to Holland. — Capture of Cornwallis. The A})pointment of WashingEnergy of Mrs. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. — College-life. and Death . CHAPTER and Childhood. Northern Tour.

Vir. Mexican War. — — — —A — Keeps — — — — — — — — PAGE . Fight with the Bentons. — Campaign in Florida. Tecumseh Slain. Birth and Ancestry. XIII. — CHAPTER IX. — Course in the Senate. — Success at the Bar — Democratic Principles. — Sufferto ings. gress. — Limited Education. —Early Distinction. Representative. His Success as a Lawyer. Entrance upon Public Life. Minister to England. —Death . CHAPTER Birth and Education. — — — — — — — — . — Elected Vice-President. Conversion. JAMES KNOX POLK. Death 284 — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XII. — The Civil War CHAPTER XIV. College Life. In ConAncestry of Mr. War with the Indians. MILLARD FILLMORE. March through the Country. His Promise in Boyhood. FRANKLIN PIERCE. — Monterev. Political Views. Sickness. Eaton. ' '. tary of State. tles — Emigration Kentucky.Birth. ties and Labors. — Death and in Political l^ife. — Joins in the Rebellion. — Palo Alto. Candidate for the PresRetirement. Speaker in the House.— 6 CONTENTS. War with Great Britain. . Sent to Congress. 324 Character of his Father. Major-General. — Struggles. . . Death 207 President of tlie United States. Battle of Tippecanoe. — The Mexican War. — Vice-President. Judge. Polk. — Ketirement. Senator. . — Buena Vista. idency. Keeper.. Rejected by the Senate. — Death — — — — — — — — — 253 CHAPTER His Parentage. Birth and Childhood. ment. — His Administration. Governor of Tennessee. Governor of Enters United States Army. ShopFrontier Life. WILLIAM HENKY HARRISON. — Rapid — In Congress. — Education and Scholarship. ^The Presidency. — Neglected Education. Service in the Mexican War. His Early Distinction. School. — Eagerness for Intellectual Improve— A Clothier. — Commencement of Practice. Retirement 332 — — — — — — — — . to . Studies Law.. Attains the Vice-Presidencj'. . — The Presidency. — Enters the Army. — — CHAPTER VIH. Success as a Lawyer. Passion and Violence. Birth. Defence of New Orleans. SecreStudies Law. PerplexiIndiana Territory. — Resaca de la Palma. Mrs.299 CHAPTER Low]}. The British Repulsed. 241 Retirement Chosen President. Emigrates.. 274 CHAPTER XI. Elected President. — President. ANDREW JACKSON. MARTIN VAN BUREN. Low Tastes. — — —A Bad Boy. — A Law Student. ZACHARY TAYLOR. — Batwith the Indians. Rise. Landing in Mexico. X. — Accession the Presidency. Success as a Lawyer and Politician. Marriage and its Romance. Quarrels and Duels. JOHN TYLER.

542 Influence of the United States on other Nations — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . — A Day Laborer. — Devotion Study. DaThe Printing-Press. Battles. College Days. Manufacturers in General. GARFIELD. festo. — Retirement to — Secretary of State. — His Assassination Log Cabin. — Minister to the Court of St. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. — Purity of — Presidency. —Cotton. Birth. — State Senate. State Representative. ONE HUNDRED YEARS' PROGRESS. A. JAMES BUCHANAN. Public Buildings. West Point. — A Legislator. HAYES. Vice-President. —Mexican War. The Declaration of Independence. City Solicitor.. Administration Congress. The Telephone. United States Senator. State Senator. — The Presidency. — Congressional CHAPTER Life in a XVI. Governor of Ohio. Siege Shiloh and Pittsburg Landing. — In Attempts to obtain an Education. Phonograph. The Navy. guerreotypes. Congress. and Wounds. The Railway. Cambridge Law School. . Capture of Fort Donelson. — Nomination for Presi— Election. Agriculture. India-Rubber. GRANT. —Battle Birth and Childhood. ernor of Tennessee. The Population. Childhood. — His Election His Legislative Career. Gorernor. ANDREW JOHNSON. — A Member of Congress — The Debate with Dou. — Wilderness. — Habits of Temperance. The Centennial Jubilee. of Vicksburg. Metallic Pens. Territory. — A Shop-Keeper. Conflict with Congress. of the Law. — His Campaigns. 481 President the Wilderness. — Death of his Father. Campaign of Chattanooga. — School Congress. — A Lawyer. Capture of Lee's Army. — A Student. Career. On the Frontiers. National Flag. The Telegraph. — Youthful Occupations. — Birth. Military Services.— President. Sewing-Machines. JAMES Parentage. 43G His Policy — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XVHL ULYSSES S. — Marriage. to to 542 CHAPTER XXI. and Electric Light. — Fleeted United States Senate. Anesthetics. to — — — — — — — — — Practice — Election 517 CHAPTER XX. Sciences. Struggles. Matches. Statistics of Progress. — A Boatman. Campaign of Lieuteuant-General. The SteamThe Armv. — Enters the War. . Life. — — CHAPTER RUTHERFORD XIX. of Belmont. Rapid Growth. — Ostend Mani302 Character. James. His Childhood's Home. — —At — — — — — — B. — — College Days.375 glas. 7 CHAPTER XV. boat. The Wonderful Development in Art. — Inauguration dent. Ancestry. His Lowly Origin. and Manufactures. CHAPTER XVH.— CONTENTS. Gas.— Coal. Military GovOpposition to Secession.

VIII. .. . James Monroe. Andrew Jackson. .. James Madison. Grant 485 Portrait of Rutherford B. . . Residence of Franklin Pierce General Pierce Landing in Mexico Residence of James Buchanan Invasion of Kansas Residence of Abraham Lincoln Assassination of Lincoln Residence of Andrew Johnson . . Polk. . III. namely: William Henry 233 319 Harrison.. 97 Residence of James Madison British Right of Search Residence of James Monroe . S.. 575 576 578 585 587 588 589 (Main Exhibition (Art Gallery. John Quincy Adams. Millard Fillmore..) . . 207 222 241 251 253 262 274 284 299 307 324 The White House Carpenters' Hall. . Residence of The Duel Andrew Jackson Residence of Martin Van Buren .. STEEL-PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS.. Battle of New Orleans V. (Horticultural Building. VII. B. . Jef. . Residence of Millard Fillmore . containing likenesses of George WashFrontisington. Faneuil Hall... Residence of William Henry Harrison Harrison's Interview with Tecumseh Residence of John Tyler Residence of James K. .. . Polk Residence of Zachary Taylor General Taj'lor on the Rio Grande .. . Zachary Taylor. . II. . .. Centennial. Garfield Hiram College . namely: John Adams. Battle of Buena Vista VI. Grant Grant's Interview with Pemberton Residence of R. Garfield 542 WOOD-CUT ILLUSTRATIONS. IX. piece.) (Agricultural Hall.. and Andrew Johnson. Hayes 517 Portrait of James A. of 203 . Abraham Lincoln. S. .. . ing. Philadelphia . PAGE 330 332 335 352 359 375 432 436 473 481 490 517 543 547 571 574 574 . .. . and Martin Van Buren 32 97 IV. . Philadelphia Liberty Bell. James K. . Independence Hall. . Hayes Residence of James A. Thomas Jefferson. 50 65 82 Thomas ferson Jefferson's Return to Monticello .. PAGE Washington in a Perilous Situation Mount Vernon Residence of John Adams John Adams the Ambassador Monticello. .. . The British Fleet leaving Boston Harbor Group Plate of Six Presidents.. Franklin Pierce. . I.. . and James Buchanan 3^o Abraham Lincoln entering Richmond 43C Portrait of General U. John Tyler. Group Plate of Seven Presidents. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. ..) Build- Centennial. . Group Plate of Four Presidents.. Boston Battle of Lexington Centennial. 120 148 162 169 181 The Barge Residence of John Quincy Adams 185 John Quincy Adams Representatives in the House . IG The United States Senate . Riot at New Orleans Residence of U. Burning of the Caroline . X... .) . Residence of . . Centennial. Philadelphia ..

beautiful Potomac.— Scenes of Woe. — Anecdotes. glided over the mirrored nificent inland sea. which was spread around them that bright summer morning. of wealth. they entered that mag- Chesapeake Bay. — The Youthful Ei> — Life the Wilderness. Two young Lawbrothers. the rivers. GEORGE WASHINGTON. Lawrence was a fine scholar. — War with the Indians. and seek their fortunes in this new world. the beautiful realm had obtained much renown from the sketches of chance tourists. — Washington chosen President. centuries ago. bays. — Sickness and Death. Close of the War. After a dreary voyage of four months. — The French War. even then. the soil. — Appointed Commander-in-chief — Expulsion of the British from Boston. intelligence. Two ness . gincer. — His Retirement. The climate. and from that ascended the It was a scene as of Fairyland. when their vessel. all combined to render it one of the most attractive spots upon our globe. in — The Fairfax Family. valleys. — The Tomahawk and Scalping-knife. — Marriage. — Capture of Cornwallis. were lured by these attractions to abandon their home in England's crowded isle. They were both gentlemen.— Domestic Griefs. 2 9 . — Patriotism of Washington. rence and John Washington. — Peaceful Life at Mount Vernon. Self-sacrifice. Virginia was almost an unexplored wilderbut. — Inheritance of Mount Vernon. — Battles of the Revolution. propelled by a favoring breeze. CHAPTER I. — Washington's Heroism at Braddock's Defeat. mountains. — Spirit of — Attacks upon the Character of Washington. — Domestic Habits. — Perplexities and — Alliance with France. — American Revolution.— LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and high moral principle. a graduate of Oxford John was an — — : accomplished man of business. Ancestry of Washington. Sufferings. — His Birth and Childhood.

leaving in the house. Distanoo lent enchantment to the view of wig- wam villages in sunny coves. energetic and prudent. wise. of joys and griefs. so trivial. The two brothers had purchased a large tract of land aboui miles above the mouth of the river. The birch canoes of the Indian resque attire of paint a^^- feathers. ried on the 6th of March. A beautiful lawn. that that name was to become one of the most memorable in the annals of time. like hib father. of smiles and tears. Augustine and Mary were marOn the 22d of February. so sublime. and a warm-hearted Christian. of births and d(^aths and the little drama. and married Miss Anne Pope. John built him a house. though very secluded. good man. cultivating its broad acres. In this respect. and his home was blessed with all substantial comforts. with boys and on the beach and in the water. is a life. '^very thing that Mary Ball was She was beautiful in person. died. were wealthy for those times. waters of that river which the name of Washington was subse* quentlj to render so renowned. He was . accomplished. 1732. tragedy always. was one of the most His parents picturesque spots on the banks of the Potomac. disappeared. ingulfed in the fathomless sea of the Augustine. found another mother for his bereaved household. character as she was beautiful in person. Little did they received into their arms their first-born child. family ages. three little The disconsolate father. birthplace of George. spread gentle descent from the door-stone of their one-story cottage in husband or child could desire. singularly fortunate in his choice. Explain it as we may. if prolonged. The unbroken forest in all ita primeval grandeur swept sublimely over hill and valley.10 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. 1730. remained in the paternal homestead. Jane Butler. intelligent. they bore their babe to the baptismal font and they dream. fifty Years rolled on. as lovely in motherless children. George Washington was very highly bierjsed. in the course of years. glided paddled by warriors in their pictii buoyant as bubbles girls frolicking over the waves. the second son of John. who. was an energetic. darkened with grief. The Both of his parents were patterns for a child to follow. Augustine's wife. there is seldom a great and a good man to be found who lias not had a good mother. as called him George Washington. of that . and on its western banks. Life. smooth and green.

when George was but died. and none in his peaceful." said he. A nation's homage gathers around the memory of the mother of Washington." Man Mary is born to mourn. rural. His reply to his indignant father. leaving Washington . the flash from the paddle glanced over the waves. Augustino and five other children father* George less. of his cutting the cherry-tree. The grief-stricken mother was equal to the task thus imposed upon her. io the 11 pebbly shore of the river. as far as the eye could reach. though the world has it by heart.GEORGE WASHINGTON. He . We must not omit the story. " Come to my heart. virtuous home were found to attempt to tyrannize over him. a fine form. that he left the income of the entire property to her until her children should respectively come of age. which here spread out into a magnificent breadth of nearly ten miles. or from displaying any of the airs of the bravado. In the final division of the estate. whose impetuous nature was roused by the outrage. there extended. Lawrence. the oldest son. He never tyrannized over others. I cut the tree. He attributed to the principles of probity and religion which she instilled into his mind much of his success during the eventful career through which Providence led him." was but the development in boyhood of the character of his manhood. the Ball. he was noted for frankness. " Father. Nobly she discharged the task thus imposed upon her. A few islands contributed their charm to this view of surpassing loveliness. and occasion- white man's ship were seen ascending the stream. The confidence of her husband in her judgment and maternal love is indicated by the fact. After twelve happy years of union with ten years of age. George developed a very noble charhad a vigorous constitution. : son. fearlessness. the forest-covered and vales of Maryland. I cannot tell a lie. From acter. In childhood. George never ceased to revere his mother. and moral courage and yet he was as far removed as possible from manifesting a quarrelsome spirit. and great bodily strength. The smoke of hills of the Indian canoe ally the sails of the Indian fires curled up from the forest. On the eastern bank. as he embraced him with flooded eyes "I had rather lose a thousand trees than find falsehood in my earliest childhood. The father was worthy of the child.

George. and very beautiful. after George had seen his mother safely home.t2 child of LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. ton admits. exultant. soothed the animal by caresses. and then. Hei well-balanced mind gave her great influence over her noble son. and they We must not. with the broad The other children were also amply proacres surrounding it. and was not aware of the injury he was doing nntil the horse broke a i^lood-vessel. ardent. and. great fondness for splendid Lady Washington had a span of iron-grays. retired. *'Come. Ya. though accustomed to the harness with his companion in the carriage. had never been broken to the saddle. Fearless. approached. her features lovely. and said. he five returned to tht party. Life's severe discipline developed a character simple. Hamil. dashed over the fields. including twentyhundred acres of land. urged him on. it is nine o'clock: it is time for us to go home. sat his horse like a centaur. Mrs. . and gazed upon the noble creatures feeding upon the lawn. and. in a frolic endeavored to mount the fiery steed. inherited Mount Yernon. and her demeanor dignified and cGiirtly. in Yirginia. a very brilliant party was given in his honor at Fredericksburg. gave him free rein. one day. watching his opportunity. grave. George. Lady Washington rose. horses. commanding. sincere. companions of George. There was then. plunged and reared. George received the paternal mansion. and dropped beneath him. he forgot the nervous energy of the noble steed. and often gambolling like children at play. vided for. With much pride she sat at her window. was regarded Her figure was R. Jane Butler. who was then about thirteen years of age. as now. in the vain attempt to free himself of his rider. very spirited. which was some distance farther down the river. half indignant. offered to his mother his arm. The horse. Alexander Hamilton tells the story. however." George. imprudent. fail to record that Mrs. with the speed of the winds. George. that. like a dutiful son. Some young men. before her marriage. cheered with earnest and unostentatious piety. One of these fiery colts. It could not be done. When the ohurch-bell rang the hour of nine. leaped upon his back. half terrified.1 one of the most beautiful girls in Virginia. that. Lady Washington. which she retained until the hour of her death. when George Washington was in the meridian of his fame. when he flagged.

It was this early training. expressing earnest religious sentiments. man in stature. then a man in character. tened to his mother to tell her what he had done. without embarrassment. Another manuscript-book. " tell My me son. and gasping for breath. and where he acquired the rudiments of a good Flngi^slj He was a diligent scholar. deeds. wills. to which he was indebted for much of his subsequent success in his secluded rural life. wliich Gciorga attended. left school." There was a common school education. because you have had the courage to Had you skulked away. Intention to and had become familiar with the principles of geometry It was then his become a civil engineer. in which. to which he was undoubtedly in some degree stimulated by the mind of his mother. that he might be ready on any emergency. 13 Covered with foam. with careful study. in those boyish days. I should liavo in tlie despised you. cultivating his mind. There is now extant a manuscript in his plain. George. Her o^^ri an-' characteristic reply was. bills of sale. leases. and his heart. he had carefully written out several forms of business-papers. in this new . --nd hasalmost immediately died. devotional character was developed in those early years. legible handwriting. which he had evidently collated with great care and sedulously promissory-notes. he had carefully transcribed. and a remarkably well-balanced mind. Several hymns. intellectual brilliance. iu home. to The manuscript contains draw up correctly such documents." The boy is father of the man. the poor creature George was greatly alumed. He could hardly have made better preparation for the career whicli was before him had some good angel whispered into his ear the immense responsibilities which were to be laid upon him. and was. and the renown he was to acquire. his manners. and almost a studies. I forgive you. the truth at once. studied. contained a record of " Rules of Behavior in Company and " in Conversation. neighborhood. and His serious." This lad of thirteen years. At that time.— GEOllGE WASHINGTON. land-warrants. He excelled in mathematical and trigonometry and of practical surveying. wis pondering the great mygteries of the present and the future life. without developing any great He possessed strong common sense. At sixteen years of age.

Aliout eight miles from Mount Vernon. his frankness. Lord Fairfax was at that time visiting William. every word was sciences. The house was situated upon a fiwell of land. over the Blue Mountains. his manliness. It was nearly one hundred miles above the birthplace of the two children and the home of George. with highly cultivated mind and polished manners. man. the boy entered the wilderness. cold and . a man in maturity of wisdom and character. with spelling. at Mount Vernon. but all executed with great beauty. Every thing he did. It may be doubted whether a lad of his age ever before undertook a task so arduous. Then. thus early formed. and wealth unexplored. He was rich. capitals. all correct. George became intimate with the family. a boy in years. little time with Lawrence. were retained through life. which extended far away. forests and prairies. resided. to an undefined distance in the interior It was a property embracing rivers and mountains. as now. there was great demand for such ser^vices. George went to spend a his elder half-brother. punctuation. had been lurod by the charms of this delightful region to purchase a vast territory. and the employment was very lucrative. a large portion of which was then^ ranged only by wild beasts and savage men. Lord Fairfax. his gentlemanly bearing. His diagrams and tables were never scribbled off. William Fairfax. Mr. and rapidlj-growing countiy. He had as plain as print.14 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Lawrence Washington had married one of his daughters. to explore and survey these pathless wilds. then but one month over sixteen — years of age. These excellent habits. his intelligence. that was an enchanting spot. and a model for imitation in all private and social virtues. He was charmed with young Washington. a man of large fortune and of romantic tastes. commanding an extensive view of the Potomac and of the surrounding country. a near relative of William. ladies. and derived much advantage from his association v.'itli these Upon leaving school. If he wrote a letter. There were then in the colonies but few men who were proficients in those George Washington came from school an accomplishec' formed his character upon the right model. It was the month of March. he did well. With a few attendants. Lord Fairfax engaged this lad. an English gentleman.

which give us a vivid idea of the life he then led. fell mournfully upon his ear. to The spring freshets had swollen The Indians were guides. We have run ofi" four lots this day. shared with him the fragrant hemlock couch. We have some extracts from the journal which he kept. Had we not been very tired. and then returned. 33 they call it. the rivers. to find himself at midnight. hundreds of miles from. and went into the bed. upon which we were lying. in the forest. " Worked hard till night. on the ground-floor of the hut. After supper. " A blowing." On the 2d of April he writes. It must have been a strange experience to this quiet. and willing Frontiersmen. friendly. was hospitably open to receive him. Under date of March 15. when. . choosing rather to sleep in the open air be^Lre a fire. I found it to be nothing but a little straw matted together. The Indian warrior. the haunts of civilization. blustering. Frequently he slept in the open Again the wigwam of the Indian air. a rough and fearless set of men. were scattered about among the openings in the wilderact as ness. 1748. he writes. and now climbing mountains or struggling through morasses which the foot of the white man of the Indian. Our straw. Often the cabin of the settler him shelter for a night. stripped myself very orderly. the howl of the wolf. we were lighted into a room and I. took fire but I was luckily j)reserved by one of our men awaking when it v/as in a flamo. and whitened the sunless ravines. I made a promise to sbep so no more in a bed. to ray surprise. had perhaps never yet pressed. rainy night. He gazed upon the brands flickering at his feet. with his feet to the fire." afforded . The cry of the night-bird. adventurous boy. . Through these solitudes the heroic trail boy was to thread his way. hospitable.— GEORGE WASHINGTON. I am sure we should not have slept much that night. without sheet or any thing olse^ but only one threadbare blanket. now floating in the birch now following the canoe upon the silent rivers. and the dusky pappooses. thoughtful. with double its weight of verxnin. and lie as d?7 companions did. [ was glad to get up and put on my clothes. his squaw. or perhaps the wailings of the storm. not being so good a woodman as the rest. lb Snow still lingered on the tops of the mountains.

with man. but have lain and slepj on them. after have not slept above three walking a good deal all the day. as set of people. noble character. among barbarians and an uncouth received Since you my letter of October . I me that I am still in tho I shall ever be proud I received it of increasing. except the few nights I have been in Fredericksburg. Though but seventeen years of ago. Yours gave me more pleasure. . or four nights in a I bed but. down before the fire on a little hay. George returned from this tramp with all his manly energies consolidated by toil."' Such experiences rapidly develop and create character. thoughtful. have lain bear-skin. wife. develops his his letters. into : life — unspeakable pleasure. or whichever was to be had. and hardship.16 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. fodder. — a friendship last. written at this the adventurous and also which he had plunged "The receipt of your kind leuter of the 2d instant afforded me serious. straw. peril. and children. AVASHINGTON THE SURVEYOR IN A PERILOUS SITUATION. like dogs and cats and happy is he who gets the berth nearest the fire. The following extract from one of time. as it convinces memory of so worthy a friend. I have never had my clothes off. .

Civilization was rap. At the age of nineteen. education. and the Indians lighted their torches and sharpened their scalping-knives and kindled their council-fires . was much more accessible from his field of labor. George Washington was one of the prominent men of the State of Virginia. was the victim of a love disappointment. churches. schools. there cau be no forest left for buffaloes. For three years he waa engaged in these laborious duties. and valleys opened in Edenoften. Billows of flame and woe desolated the land. and their bodies were consumed in the fire which destroyed their dwellings. upon the brow ol' the moun- gazing over an interminable expanse of majestic forests slept. well-regulated spirit found a singular joy. children. if were with his brother at Mount Vernon. The war-whoop echoed through the forest. which introduced him to scenes of romance and adventure.GEORGE WASHINGTON. where lakes like beauty. ments of industry. his headquarters. Though ho and streams glided. \\\\o. The Indians were now beginning to manifest a hostile spirit. morning sunlight. idl}^ supplanting barbarism. and the savages were alarmed. There is between savago and civilized life an " irrepressible conflict. it is said. were all speedily massacred. They pondered the question of the encroach. We The can hardly conceive of any thing more attractive than such a life must have been to a in young man his of poetic imagination. bears. The whole military force of Virginia waa 3 . had built him a substantial stone mansion in the valley beyond the Blue Ridge. he was a responsible. there cannot be highly is cultivated fields. tomahawks in preparation for the great battle. in which his calm. Sataninspired. offering food for the hunter. along the river or over the lake. with villages. and deer. as this we may so speak. li The State of Yirginiu. Husband. to sweep every vestige of civilization from the land. fairy-like canoe. visited the home of his mother. Indian paddled him. where he was living in a sort of baronial splendor. in the bright tain. and manufactories. and wealth and resolved. Now ho stood. now self-reliant man." Where wild beasts range freely. strong. and where George Washington was an ever-welcome guest. . employed him as public surveyor. Lord Fairfax. wife. during these three years. tiiat this continent might remain a howling wilderness. No tongue can tell the woes which ensued. Where the hum of human industry heard. Yelling savages rushed at midnight upon the cabin of the remote settler.

With characteristic sagacity and energy. and then retiring to those The depths of the wilderness where pursuit was unavailing. into districts. The loss of such a Lawrence had been l)rother. familiarizing himself with strategy and tactics. England had seized the coast of the North-American continent. Ingredients of bitterness are ments Storm after storm sweeps the every cup of life. is bounded for a distance of several hundred miles by the waters of the Ohio la belle riviere. so loving. and only reached home in time to die. . had peopled it with colonies. striking its terrific blows. Virtues. for. George Washington. called into action to meet this terrible foe. With fraternal love. over each of which a military State was divided commander was appointed with the title of major. with much sagacity. so noble. George accompanied him to fital disease. o-ency. The invalid continued to fail during the Oriental benedictions. whose enterprising. mingled in Lawrence Washington was attacked with a painful and ocean. Virginia. who. to George as both father and brother. was but nineteen years of age. be it remembered. deared to happy. The Washingtons were noble race. they w^ere necessarily intrusted with almost dictatorial powers. Lawrence and the Mississippi. was irreparable. France. leaving an infant child and a broken-hearted widow. making himself manual exercise. was one of these majors. hoping that tender nursing and a change of " May you die at home " is one of the climate might save him. a love company. should she die without heirs. Each of these European kingdoms. migratory population were rapidly crowding back into the vast and unexplored interior. . it was to pass to George. and acquiring the accomplishswordsman. and live in groups. the St. He left a large property. Mount Vernon was bequeathed to his infant daughter -and. who was the executor of the estate. The grief of George was very bitter. emerging at will frouj the forest. in the fearful emersibilities of these majors were very great .18 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. a proficient in the of a good ! tour. the West Indies. on the west. he applied himself to the study of the military art. Lawrence was the worthy brother of George. like vices. as the French appropriately named it. The respon. had seized the two most magnificent rivers of our land. enhis friends by every attraction which can make home He died at the age of thirty-four.

and France has never been wanting in ambition. And now the dogs of war were let loose. estabhahing military posts and trading depots. was jealous of the other. While the wordy warfare was raging between the two powerful contestants. to To carry it this remonstrance to the garrisons was necessary that he should traverse a wilderness for a distance of five hundred and sixty miles. upon tl e cabin of the lonely settler. by right of these explorations. The ostensible one was to present the remonobjects in view. the Governor of Virginia sent George Washington as a commissioner to remonstrate Avith the French against establishing their military posts upon the waters of the Ohio. equally eager to seize the boundless treasure. Just before hostilities commenced. Instead of settling the question by some amicable compromise. Lawrence and its chain of lakes. as they suffered all which savage brutality could devise. France. Lawrence and the Mississippi. filled all homes with consternation. and no abode but In this undertaking. all that vast valley of millions of square miles drained by the Mississifjpi and by the St. massacre. ConBagration. and the maiden. forming treaties with the Indian tribes. outrage. inquiring what portion of the country belonged to them. as they expressed it. was rushing up the St. demanded all the land on one side of the river. . then 19 While England eqiiall}'. was pushing her possessions rapidly towards the centre of the continent. swept like the moaning wind through the wilderness. there were two the wigwam of the savage. the mother. and no one was left to tell the tale. Both parties dragged the Indian tribes into the conflict. Woes ensued which can never be revealed until the judgment of the great day. The solitude of the wilderness was broken as savage bands burst from the l^rest.GEORGE WASHINGTON. where there was no path but the trail of the Indian. The shriek. a deputation to the Governor of Virginia. and France all upon the other. and claiming. Probably both were equally John Bull has never been famed for the spirit of conciliation. France and England met.powerful. with the hideous war-whoop. straining every nerve. since England. find its tributaries. and deluged the land in misery. the Indians shrewdly sent arrogant and unrelenting in their demands.i of the father. both parties determined to fight. which it was sent. upon the bloody arena.

and in eight days paddled down the river to the mouth of the Alleghany. and. George was then but twenty " Truly. Guided by the sagacity of the Indians. As Gov. and forms the Ohio. 20 LIV±:ti OF THE PRESIDENTS. They then descended the Ohio. not merely to kill their prisoners. he exyears and claimed. was a perilous in the wilderness. for a distance of a hundred and twenty miles. strength.— . lus way back through he started. which. they threaded the forest until they reached the Monongahela. with their packs . unites with the Alleghany from the north. He six months of age. where Pittsburg now stands. if you play your cards well. suitable person could be found to run these risks until No Washington volunteered his services. bis return. a sturdy old Scotchman. or instigated by the French. Hs^ving successfully accomplished thus much of his mission. enterprise. and position of the It French garrisons. He took with him but eight men. and plunged into the pathless forest. you are a brave lad and. Dinwiddie. Winter was fast approaching. intercept . you shall have no cause to repent your bargain. They soon passed the few sparse settlements which were springing up near the Atlantic coast. There was danger of perishing There was danger from the tomahawk of the There was danger that the French might not allow the . flowing from the •south. but to prolong their sufferings. two of them being Indians. commissioner to return with information so valuable to their foes it was very easy so to arrange matters that the party could be plundered and massacred. eagerly accepted the proffered service. to the principal port of the French commandant. as far as possible. and fearing that the Indiana might of their own will. well knowing that he was to pass through the region of hostile Indian tribes and that it was their practice. to ascertain the strance : the real one was number. in those rude times and regions. sublime in the calm courage with which he set out. through the most exquisite and diabolical tortures." Washington started from Williamsburg on this perilous expediThere is something very tion on the 14th of November. The early snow crowned the summits of the mountains. and its dismal gales wailed through the tree-tops. with an ever-vigilant eye. with but one faithful companion. Here they took a canoe. to make the wilderness on foot. 1753. and the autumnal rains had swollen the brooks and the rivers. savage.

they reached the Alleghany River. that in the morning the river was frozen over. and their guns in their hands. where they ice. regarding the wretched savage but as the tool of others. with all the arts of Indian cunning. services as a guide. but Washington. proposed that " The thanks of sits this DOW in the gallery. In the middle of the stream. was a As they struggled upon it through the broken masses of threatened every moment to go to pieces. their clothes frozen into coats of maiL The night was so cold. and offered his Treacherously he led them from their path. When ice. insisted upon letting him go. The speaker chanced to see him. The Legislature of Virginia was in session at Williamsburg when Washington returned. fired at Washington. on tlieir 21 backs. raft. He was saved from drowning by clinging to a log. for the gallant house be given to Major Washington. night. and sprang into the woods. for Ho was caught.on's gun. rising. who manner in which he has . but in vain. Washington's journal of this tour was published in London. and striving. he went into the gallery to observe the proceedings. and. at fifteen paces distant. seeing At them so much fatigued by their day's tramp that he thought that they could not possibly pursue him. it passed a dismal night. they found the banks of the river fringed with blocks drifting furiously site of Pitts- and large All It down the middle of the stream. Washington's companion. as resist contained conclusive proof that tlie French would any attempts of the English to establish their settlement^ upon the Ohio. with one poor hatchet. and then. missed his aim. They did so .GEORGE WASHINGTON. and attracted it much attention. he. AVashington's familiarity with and Indian strategy enabled him to elude them. and he was thrown into the river where it was ton feet deep. Some Indians were put bj the French. Washington's sus- picions proved not to be groundless. they toiled to build a frail aft'air. to get possession of Wayhingupon their trail life wilderness <. however. without rest and without a guide. At length. Gist. they succeeded in reaching an island. pushed on through the long December night. Washington's setting-pole became entangled. opposite the present burg. One Indian. day long. and unconscious that he would attract any attention. waa despatching him on the spot. hoping to lure them into some ambush. Modestly. and they crossed upon the ice. succeeded in joining them.

The nations were at peace. The speaker of the house happily came to his rescue. was madness. not a hostile gun had been fired. must have been awful. there was no war declared. in throwing up their ramparts upon the very spot which he had selected." Every member of the house rose to his feet and Washington was greeted with a simultaneous and enthusiastic burst of ap* Embarrassed by the unexpected honor. Washington had already had arrived very near Fort Duquesne before he received these The thought of attacking the French in such overpowtidings. and drive the French from the Ohio. kill.22 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and unaccusplause." its Washregiment of about four hundred men was raised. His sufferings. saying. not the subjects of the King of Great Britain. iha French had merely anticipated the English by a few days." Gov. ering numbers. tomed to public speaking. in their exhausted state. was almost Besides. Dinwiddie. he was disappointed and alarmed to hear that the French were already at work. eighteen pieces of cannon in position. all persons. and behind their ramparts. had kept a impossible. with orders " to drive away. As he was hurrying to this spot with his garrison. a reckless. who should modesty attempt to take possession of the lands on the Ohio or any of tributaries. Retreat. in view of the humiliating surrender of his whole force Avithout striking a blow. or seize as prisoners. But the French anticipated him. through the wilderness. Their Indian allies were on the march to intercept their retreat. His mission was to march again ington was appointed colonel. under skilful engineers. It A . Major Washington: your . back through the wilderness. As yet. instantly organized a force. close watch upon them. In building the fort on disputed territory. which was then in the hands of the French. He was ready for almost any act of desperation rather than to do this. executed the important trust lately reposed in him by his Excel lency the Governor. and with the tools to construct a fort. the French. the young hero endeavored in vain to give utterance to his thanks. is alone equal to your merit. through their spies. Washington had selected the point at the junction of the Monongahela and the AUegliany for a fort. " Sit down. A thousand men from Canada had descended They the river in sixty bateaux and three hundred canoes. headstrong man. Washington was then but twenty-two years of age.

Still he threw up such breastworks as could be hastily constructed. There was a short. fell instantly upon them. the camp where Jumonville and his men were unsuspectingly sleeping. and regarding it as one of the grossest of outrages (for Jumonville had reall}'' been sent as a peaceful messenger). The rest. Washington could not retreat neither could he fight such overwhelming numbers with any hope of success. their approach. and. leaving the rest to guard the camp. to avenge the wrong. . But this act opened the drama of war with all its horrors. The war was thus inaugurated. Just then. reached. Washington. a long. day have passed. A few escaped. The peculiar perplexity and peril in which the young soldier was placed shield his fame from tarnish. No such foe had appeared. ing appear to be the facts : — The French say messenger that they sent out M. There is some little diversity of statement in reference to what immediately followed but. guided by some friendly Indians. now that the pas. regarding them as foes who were on the march to strike him by surprise. The French. Nothing is more certain than that Washington would have shrunk from any dishonorable deed. so far as can now be ascertained. . as there — This occurrence created great excitement at the time. was generous. the followbut this was rumor merely.GEOKGE WASHINGTON. the French magnanimously concur in the general verdict. Jumonville as a civil to confer with the English respecting the object of was no declaration of war. M. Washington was informed that a party of French. twenty-five in number. fought for a whole day against the army which surrounded him. The Virginia troops were allowed to retire with every thing in their possession except sions of that . fierce conflict. and through the midnight tempest and gloom. Starvation compelled him to capitulate. Washington took forty men. de Villers. the French commander. there came a night dark and stormy. and Washington was very severely blamed but. bloody war of seven years. was on the march to attack him by surprise. was said that Indians allies 23 were marching against the English. from the fort. immediately despatched fifteen hundred men. that the event must be regarded as an untoward accident. were taken prisoners. with less than four hundred men. cruel. French and Indians. with floods of rain. Jumonville and ten of his men were killed. apprised of the deed. just before daylight in the morning.

Braddock. The following record from one of the orders of the day will explain itself: " Col. when commander-in-chief At the table. without a offence. landed in Virginia with two regiments of regular troops from Great Britain. Arrogant in the pride of his technical military education. uttered an oath. and Braddock started on a march through Washington the wilderness for the reduction of Fort Duquesne. accompanied him as volunteer aid. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. one of the guests. And the love of adventure. if they do not leave them off. waifs from all lands. as a gentleman and a Christian. Thus they returned unmolested to the settle ments. he despised colonists. were coarse and wicked men. if they hear any man swear or make use of an oath or execration. he must probably have been influenced by patriotism alike With his force. Frenchmen. and thus arrested In very deliberate and solthe attention of the whole company. tlemen to my table. he shall be more severely punished. Many of the wild frontiersmen. offender twenty-five lashes immediately. adventure. The officers are desired. was considered evidence of both sagacity and military genius. On the whole. Washington's character did not suffer from thia That he should be able to secure such favorable terms of capitulation. a self-conceited. struggling for our national independence. to order the . of his great displeasure at such practices and to inform them assures them. " I thought that I had invited only genemn tones he then said. versation. in such formidable numbers.24 their artillery. were marshalled against him. who had been gathered into the ranks of Washington's army. Indians. — Washington has observed that the men of his regiment He takes this opportunity are very profane and reprobate. to which they were very much addicted. and received no remuneration whatever for his services. Washington. he invited a army number of with him. and march back his little force through tho wilderness. in con- Washington dropped his knife and fork as suddenly as if he had been struck a blow. For a sec^." of the On another officers to dine occasion. As he abandoned important domestic business. who. In a straggling line four miles in . they shall be severely punished. Gen. that. notwithstanding the lawless character of the Indians." Early in the spring of 1755. abhorred the vice of profane swearing. stubborn man.

when nearly half of the array were slain. through the forest. the foe they were to encounter. The ambush was entirely successful. who had never Indian warfare. was alarmed at this recklessnes. commenced its march. The ground was soon covered with the dead. serene. and a tempest of lead swept through their astounded ranks. so calm. calm. length. bull-dog courage. After a short scene of confusion and horror. on the Crash followed crash in quick succession. until he fell pierced by a bullet. What had they to fear from cowardly Frenchmen or painted savages ? It was one of those silent days. and fled. and urged greater caution. An unseen ghostly. came the crash of musketry. which Herbert has so graphically described. — " Sweet day. and on a beautiful summer's day they were exultingly marching along the banks of the Monongahela. totally unaijquainted with and thoroughly despising such barbaric foes. left." Suddenly. when they entered a defile of rare picturesque beauty. They were British troops. like the burst of thunder from the cloudless heavens. They made the forest ring with their derision in scorn of the folly of Braddock. Braddock stood his ground with senseless. Proudly the army straggled along. tbis 2!) army of two thousand men. it was It was supernatural fire was assailing them. on the right. Six hundred of these unseen assailants were . the remnant broke in wild disorder. with laughter and song. behind. so bright. rising as high as the men's heads. No foe was to be seen its yet every bullet accomplished mission. The majestic forest spread around in all directions. Indians. and with the wounded struggling in dying agonies. for the distant junction of the Washington.^.. when all nature seems hushed and motionless. The regular British general was net lo be taught the art of war by a provincial colonel. Successfully they had threaded the wilderness. sunny.lleghany and the Monongahela. GEORGE WASHINGTON. . On each side of a sort of natural path there was a deusc growth of underIt would seem as brush. led by British regular officers. before. Amazement and consternation ran through the ranks. though some bad genius had formed the spot for an Indian ambush. The bridal of the earth and sky. with burnished muskets and polished cannon and silken banners. who well knew A. so still. with ponderous artillery and a cumbrous baggage-train. oven seen the inside of a military school.

which had been shot from is at his person. Each man instantly placed himself behind a tree.26 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. The provincials. the present time in possession of one of The state of things in Virginia was now awful. War was with them pastime. and the heroism with which he had rescued the remnant of the army. submitting to military authority. a seal of Washington. that he took direct aim at him several times. which he bad been cod fitantly anticipating. Indignantly he writes. It is one of the legemds of the day. penetrating the and secluded farm-houses along a frontier of nearly four hundred miles. were now either dead or wounded. and that the bullets seemed either to vanish into air. All Washfor this. to complete the massacre. and drove them back. in orderly march. had their woltish natures roused to the most intense excitement. according to the necessities of forest war- As the Indians were bursting from their ambush. proclaimed far and wide the cautions which Washington had urged. the unerring But fire of these provincials checked them. thai an Indian sharpshooter declared that Washington bore a charmed life . Washington. forests. It is one of the mysteries of God's providential government. had scattered its villages that he could have allowed such horrors. did every thing which human sagacity could do to retrieve Two horses were shot beneath him. ington's endeavors to rally the British regulars were unavailing. protected The provincials. the army would have been utterly destroyed. who in silent exasperation. and the family. which no finite mind can fathom. exultant. passed through his coat. After the lapse of eighty years. they continued their tumultuous retreat to the Atlantic coast. the only field of renown. No imagination ^aD . having lapped blood. fare. Eight hundred of Braddock's army." Panic-stricken. at the distance of but a few paces. had allowed themselves to be led into this valley of death. Braddock's defeat rang through the land as Washington's victory. and. containing his initials. all The savages. or to glance harmless from his body. Washington rallied around him the few provincials upon whom Braddock had looked with contempt. them from pursuit. through this awful scene. " They ran like sheep before the hounds. and Advancing civilization. including most of the officers. with the coolesi courage. was perfectly collected. with tomahawk and scalping-knife. was found upon the battle-field. and four bullets the disaster. abandoning artillery and baggage.

making themselves merry with the shrinks of their victims. On the bed. Apprehending some scene of violence and horror." One It day. Fifteen hundred demons.— GEORGE WASHINGTON. was in a little clearing which the settler had made by his axe. torture and outrage in every form which fiends could devise. he came upon a single log-house. and which he could not alleviate. we saw a sight. became the amusement oi bands of howling savages. that. struck us. and which was surrounded on all sides by the forest. he wrote force nominally of to the governor. to protect the scattered villages and dwellings of this vast frontier. was raised. lay the budy of a young woman. . in gangs of sometimes but eight or ten. For three years. but quietly retired to Fort Duquesne. though we were familiar with blood and massacre. should the English decide to make one. with feelings more had ever experienced before. melt 1 me into such deadly sorrow. It would require a volume to record the wonderful and awful scenes through which he passed during these three years. they heard the sound of a gun. and flourishing dripping scalps. swept the frontier. 2't Midnight conflagration. Upon the appearance of the soldiers. As they were approaching the clearing. picture them. Washington thus describes the scene which met their eyes : — " On entering. as Washington. there to await iielpless infancy. dashed into the forest. A " The supplicating tears of the women. swimming in mournful than I . and showing no mercy to mothers or maidens or The French made no attempt to pursue their advantage. they crept cautiously through the underbrush until they came in sight of the settler's cabin. and again of several hundred. who came and went like the wind. with the fleetness of deer. at least myself. and placed under the command of Washington. laden with plunder. with a small portion of his troops. that I solemnly declare could offer myself a willing sacrifice to the butchering enemy. the savages. but in reality of but about seven hundred. was traversing a part of the frontier. calling themselves Indian braves. while a party of savages were rioting around. in one corner of the room. In after-life. could that contribute to the people's ease. two thousand men. Smoke was curling up through the roof. Washington consecrated all his energies to this arduous and holy enterprise. At the time. Washington could not endure to recall the spectacles of suffering which he witnessed. another assault. and moving petitions of the men.

the scene was often such as I shall never forget. apparently twins. now mingled after-life in one current again. fifteen years of almost unalloyed happiness. while the torch tomahawk would " sink into was applied to the dwelling. the the brain." Eagerly the soldiers followed in the trail of the savages. Martha Custis. . with their heads also cut open. and English ever. and. a Washington was already lady of great worth and beauty. — On leaving one spot -for the protection of another point of exposure. not to leave them to be butchered by the savages. Fort Duquesne was wrested from the Trench. A hundred times.28 blood. and crying out to us. where he spent . who had been working in the fields. and the boy was driving the horse. to be roused by the yell of the savage. for God's sake. 1758. but did I raise me souL Never in my my hand against a savage. On the 6th of January. which once flowed in the same veins. The father had been ploughing. gash in her forehead which almost separated the head into two parts. I declare to Heaven. On her breast lay two little babes. wealthy and his wife brought with her. he married Mrs. less than a twelvemonth old. was shot down. he retired with his bride and her two children to the lovely retreat of Mount Vernon. as her dower. Their innocent blood. supremacy was established upon this continent without a rival." In November. the terrified boy had run some distance towards his home ere he was overtaken and murdered. beseeching us to stay and protect them. and the Valley of the Ohio passed from their control forThe Canadas soon after surrendered to Wolfe. The beautiful Washington was now twenty-six years of age. estate of Mount Vernon had descended to him by inheritance. The women and children clung round our knees. both dead and scalped. with a LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS.jid scalping-knife. without little calling to mind the mother with her twins. liable. this cut I was inured to the to scenes oi' bloodshed and misery. I would have laid down my life with pleasure. could I have insured the safety of those suffering people by the sacrifice. their heads cleft asunder. even under the tomahawk . When the father on the every cabin were perils of life frontier. Washington writes. 1759. at No home was safe. After the marvellously tumultuous scenes of his youth. a fortune of one hundred thousand dollars. The inmates of midnight. Such were then the Thus the whole family was swept away. They had gone but a few steps ere they found a little boy and his father.

soon burst Avith fearful desolation over all the colonies. The British ministry. use was imported. and shipped for sale. Make yourself perfectly an interesting development of his : . A dictatorial style. temperate. which in Avood or uncultivated land. called a Congress. is always accompanied with disgust. England was the undisputed . and chose George Washington commander-inchief. His habits were His imposing mansion. the frugal. contains admirable advice. from which country then almost every article of domestic This splendid estate consisted of eight thoutillage : sand acres. and methodical. and not. Never exceed a decent warmth and submit your sentiments with diffidence. He rose at four o'clock in the morning. It was his invariable rule to retire to rest at nine o'clock. The tobacco was sent to Engplanter. raising land . ho was a considerate and indulgent master. abode of a generous hospitality. upon exercising the despotic power of imposing taxes upon the colonists. All American remonstrances were thrown back with scorn. The wheat was ground upon the estate. four thousand of which were in the remainder was During these serene years of peace and prosperity an appalling storm was gathering. denying the insisted colonists the rights of British subjects. The Americans sprang to arms. ests of the little is own character " If you have a mind to command the attention of the house. being almost a million less than the present population of mis* the single State of New York. though it may carry conviction. Hireling soldiers were insultingly sent to enforce obedience to the mandates of the British crown. "Washington's occupation was that of a large wheat and tobacco. was visited by the most distinguished men from all lands. Though a strict disciplinarian. — master of the subject. and the gospel ministry received from him very efficient supThe following letter. which he wrote to a nephew Avho was port." At Mount Vernon. The had subdued his passions. A more perilous post man never accepted. *^fi Ho chase enlarged the mansion. but on important subjects. and by pui made very considerable life additions to his large estate. We now come down to the notable year 1775. embellished the grounds. chosen to the legislative assembly. speak seldom.GEORGE WASHINGTON. while withholding the right of representation. The whole population of the United States then did not exceed three millions . Avhcther he had company or stern discipline of The religious intercommunity around him deeply engaged his attcL* tion.

" his wife. they will discharge. who stepped forth to meet this roTiafrirKdeadly conflict.— so tress of the seas. that. nor^pphes. Unhappy though. The and the strongest military power upon the globe. It requires long discipline to transform a These veterans could. and that the once happy and peaceful plains of America are either slaves. Those. and without any disciBunker's Hill and in the streets of Boston. its already been crimsoned with the blood of patriots. he wrote that affliction was his greatest to must obey. The British war-ships held undisputed possession of the harbor. as no pecuniary consideration could have tempted me to accept this arduous employment at the expense of my domestic ease and happiness. and he He said that he could not decline the appointment without dishonoring his name. Sublimely he stepped the home of opulence and domestic joy. The Americans will fight for their it is. esteem. army. That is all I — desire. pierce the thin patriot man. line. to reflect that a brother's sword has been to be sheathed in a brother's breast. I will keep an exact account of my expenses. wretchedly armed. " I beg leave to assure the Congress.)rward from his all Defeat to Washington would prove not merely ruin. be separated from her. Charlestown and Boston. at any time. pline. occupied a line nearly twelve miles in extent. just taken from . and property. I doubt not. and the battle of Bunker's Hill had rolled friend in England. and accepted The green in Lexington had responsibilities of the post. apparently with ease. drenched ! in blood or to be inhabited by Strange alternative But can a virtuous of the man hesitate in his choice ? " To the Congress which elected him commander-in-chief American forces. To who was ever the object of his most respectful it regard and tender affection. he replied. had neither fleet. on the land side. and sinking himself even in her Twelve thousand British regulars were then intrenched on About fifteen thou sand provincial militia. that it seems row little handful of colonists. strange that any courage could have met the encounter. I do not wish to make any profit from it. " echoes through Christendom. liberties To a Washington wrote. bly an ignominious death l. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. but that duty called. The odds were so fearful. encircling. but inevitaupon the scafibld. military resources.

he despatched a large force of picked troops. during the hours of the night. At length. without regard to station or rank." oners. in the city. Washington arrived in Cambridge. directing that the prisoners should be treated with all the humanity consistent with their security. Having established his batteries upon those heights. The French prisoners perished miserably by thousands. Washington was prepared for decisive action. 1775. and took command of the army. in throwing up breastworks which would protect them from the broadsides of the English lieot. into merely a part of that obedient. they practised the same inhumanity. Under cover of this roar of the batteries und the midnight storm. the endearments of home. are destined to the cord. " — great in sparing the lives of those who. were thrown into hulks. "Washington's remonstrance against such barstill stands immortalized by the event. as fierce foe. To Gen. and Napoleon.GEORGE WASniNGTON. There. by the laws of the land. to take possession of the Heights of Dorchester. into loathsome dungeons. In a dark and stormy night of March. with the utmost diligence. He counter- manded the order. In the subsequent and more successful war which the British Government waged against popular rights in Europe. Washington at first resolved to retaliate upon the English prisBut his generous nature recoiled from the inhumanity of punishing the innocent for the crimes of the guilty. He barity. and threw them all. had been the friend of Wasliington during the seven-years' war. Gage seized every patriot upon whom he could lay his hands in Boston. 31 uq questioning machine called an army. re- fused to retaliate upon the helpless captives in his hands for the infamous conduct of their government. and had fought by his side at the time of Braddock's defeat. a bombardment as his means would possibly allow. mander of the British forces. he opened upon the from his encircling lines. Gage was com. power number fresh from the pursuits of peaceful The British had opened fire at Lexington on the 19th of April. like Wasliington. the soldiers worked. and yet this Gen. after surmounting difficulties more than can be enumerated. I recognize no differis My clemency ence of rank but that which the king confers. The ceremony took place under the elm-tree which Gen. with the utmost secrecy. On the 2d of July. he . he returned the insolent reply. are ever regarded as equal in military that A thousand trained soldiers to three or four timeq life.

that a fort bristling with cannon had sprung up. and contemplated in silent triumph. Washington. the exultant colonial army. almost over his head. history does not record. while the gale swept sheeta of mist.32 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. defiant of the storm of iron which fell around them. over earth and sea. He immediately opened upon the works the broadsides of all his ships. and the English would be compelled to fleet into the air." " If you harm the city. and the hostile armament. The storm had passed away. Howe. with music and banners. from the Heights of Dorchester. and floods of rain. 1776. or he would blow their In the early dawn of the morning. that not a boat could be launched. the evacuation of Boston. Such another case. Every The whole British army was crowded on board the ships. continued to pile their sand-bags. two parties was now very singular. but the Americans." said Washington. and to ply their shovels. ivithout ammunihad maintained his post for six months within musket-shot the eff"usion of blood. the English were permitted to retire unharmed. if The situation of the : — they It left the city uninjured. A fresh breeze from the west filled their sails. to his consternation. the redoubt could defy any attack. the British admiral saw. The British fleet was at the mercy of the Americans Boston was " If you fire upon the fleet. peared bej'-ond the distant horizon of the sea. It was a glorious victory." at the mercy of the English. " I will sink your fleet. said Gen. loaded to the gunwales with British soldiers. As the last boats. and aimed at the hostile fleet. In a sj)irit almost of desperation. won by genius without tion. The gale increased to such fury. Every gun of was shotted. miral ordered three thousand men in boats God came to the and take the aid of the colonists. perhaps. had disaphis batteries torch was lighted. that no cannonade could injure them. during the night. marched over the Neck into the rejoicing city. heights at every hazard. commanded withdraw. serene and majestic. before the sun went down. " I will burn the city. the adto land. The British fleet was now at the mercy of Washington's batteries. Before another day and night had passed. The blue sky overarched the beleaguered city and the encamping armies. left the shore for the fleet. Washington sat upon his horse. . was the morning of the ITth of March. the harbor. until ramparts so strong I'ose around them." By a tacit understanding.



ess of grievances.GEORGE WASHINGTON. The British. which would be his inevitable death-warrant should the arms of America fail." and assumed the proud title of " The Army of the United States. gathered their strength Congress. and it was received with bursts of enthusiasm. The to the army. Thomas Jefferson was chairman. and had army . sought only the red. and has recorded no spectacle more sublime than July." to this Gen. of which to draft a Declaration. A com- of fleets and armies for an attack upon in Philadelphia." The latter part of June. Not one faltered. solely on the success of our arms. and had then driven the enemy into his and out into the sea. recruited another ships. History tliat which was witnessed as the members of the Continental Congress came forward. as knowing that lio is now in the service of a State possessed of sufficient to reward his merit. just before the Declaration of Independence. Washington in Philadelphia to to be communicated it in the vicinity of hear read. troops thus defiantly threw back the epithet of " rebellious colonists. two large British fleets. It was sent to Gen. Every individual pledged to this sacred cause " his life. thus alludes will serve as a fresh incentive to every officer and soldier to act with fidelity and now the peace and safety of his country depend. one from Halifax and the other direct from England. and his sacred honor. under God. in : momentous occurrence " The general hopes that this important event — an order of the day. The committee presented this immortal it was unanimously adopted. to sign that paper. his fortune. The assembled which at first mittee was appointed. each one in his turn. This Declaration was read from the steps of the State House an immense concourse. of a powerful British army. disembarking quite a powerful army. now resolved to strike for independence. Washington. 33 During this time first the small force of raw militia he at he had disbanded had with him. and. and that courage. New York." It was the 4th of document to Congress. met at the mouth of the Bay o:' New York. took possession of Staten Island. thus expelled from Boston. It which he had now assembled The regiments were paradea to was greeted with tumultuous applause. New York. power and advance him to the highest honors of a free country. 1776. Washington had assembled aU his availabla 6 .

The Britisli Governmenl in Con- regarded the leaders of the armies. was exceedingly pained by that vulgar and wicked habit of profane swearing which was so prevalent among army the troops." Gen. Howe frankly confessed that he had adopted this discourteous style of address simply to save himself from censure by the home government. wrote again. Gen. by example as well as by influence.S occasional intercourse between the generals of the two armies was of very great moment. &c. 34 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Add to this. that the commander-inchief of the American army could receive no communication from Gen." fane practice of cursing . Esq. that every man of sense and character detests and despises it. Thus were the members of the British cabinet in London disci plined into civility. The letter was returned unopened. &c. conse- quently. in this instance. which. sacrifice essentials to punctilio but. without any temptation. military force to resist their advances. 1776. endeavor to check it. to insist upon that respect. and their supporters gress. the following notice to his " at In August. I would willingly have waived. he issued New York — The general is sorry to be informed that the foolish and pro- and swearing. to regulate questions respecting the treatment of prisoners and other matters. I deemed it my duty to my country. writing to Congress upon this subject. to Again the letter was returned unopened. Howe which did not recognize his military position. Gen. The British officer then sent a letter. on any occasion. Howe sent a flag of truce. a vice hitherto little known in an American army. a gentleman and a Christian. thority. with a letter.. Washington. &c... doomed to the scaffold. Washington. and with the emphatic announcement. in any other Washington. and to my appointment. as felons. notwithstanding this merited repulse. directed to George Washington. A. He hopes that the oflicers will. to recognize any titles conferred by Congressional an. insolently addressed to George This letter was also refused. says. A — than a pubhc view. Howe. Gen. " I would not. but insultingly. They refused. the same address.. it is a vice so mean and low. George Washington. communication was then sent to Gen. Esq. We : have already alluded to his abhorrence of this vice. is growing into fashion. and that both they and the men will reflect that wo can have little hope of the blessing of Heaven on our aims if we insult it by our impiety and folly.

that. Washington witnessed this rout with the keenest anguish for he could not detach any troops from New York to arrest the carnage. earnestly soliciting In this plea he writes. flushed with victory. Boats were rapidly collected and. sulbattle was short. troops. and quite unaccustomed to military discipline and A few regiments of American to the hardships of the camp. but especially an as 1 trusts that every officer becomes a Christian soldier. . on Staten mouth of the Hudson River. The East River flowed deep and wide between the few troops on the island and their friends in New York. overpowered. which settled down so thick upon land and river. strong. To oppose them.'' and danger. A dense fog was rolled in from the ocean. " The blessing all and protection of Heaven are at so in times of public distress times necessary. Avith a . The Americans. Washington had about twelve thousand men. with the gathering darkness of the night. were gathered near Brooklyn. retreat. The British fleet had already weighed anchor. improved the propitious moments with energies roused to their highest tension.GEORGE WASHINGTON. leaving fifteen hundred of their number either dead or in the hands of the English. poorly armed. Just before this. in the few hours of that black night. he had written to Congress. A vastly superior force of well-trained British troops. were safely landed in nists. and made a combined assault upon the Americans. with nearly all their artillery and military stores. nine thousand men. to attempt to retreat was difficult and perilous in the extreme. a force of nearly numerous and well-equipped fleet. The The Americans. To remain upon the island was certain destruction. the British had assembled. lenly retired. The wind died away to a perfect calm. strangers to the country. 35 chaplains for the army. familiar with every foot of the ground. so that the British fleet could not move. The English. The general hopes and man will endeavor to live and act By the middle of August. fifteen thousand Island. could only stand upon the defensive. but bloody. . about five thousand in number. A few thousand more were stationed at other points on Long The English landed without opposition. and was sailing up the Narrows to cut off their fslond and at the thirty thousand soldiers. pressed upon the rear of the dispirited colo- Their situation seemed desperate. and fearing some surprise. Again Providence came to our aid. one's outstretched hand could scarcely be seen.

despising his foe. in all probability. A man easily depressed by adversity would. that though the Americans could hear the English at work with their pickaxes. nor food. minds with apprehension and despair. Her well-drilled armies. that Washington.— 86 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. We were then. supplied with the most powerful weapons and strengthened with all abundance. The check our detachment and received has dispirited too great a proportion of our troops. and were even within hearing of the challenge of the hostile sentinels. New The transportation was conducted so secretly. with his feeble and dispirited band. in hours apparently so hopeless. neither arms. and confident that the colonists could present no effectual resistance to his powerful army. tramped contemptuously over the land. offering pardon to all who would bow the neck . was compelled to evacuate the city. ocean and river and bay. not a nation. filled their . with muffled oars and hushed voices. were on that side. Howe. force. no Each colon}'' furunity of counsel. scattering our militia before them. vicinity of New York who were in sympathy with the British Nearly all the government officials and their friendsii ministry. but merely a confederacy of independent colonies. fleet God does not always help the "heavy battalions." The British noAV presented themselves in such Washington wrote to Congress. nished such resources as it found to be convenient. England's omnipotent fleet swept. There were thousands in the almost mutinous. and would have risked a general engagement. have abandoned the cause. to seize him. unobstructed. which. A conspiracy was formed. issued his proclamations. intractable. would have secured our inevitable ruin. ammunition. and deliver him to that ignominious death to which the British crown had doomed him. York. are dismayed. of both and army. A rash and headstrong man would have been goaded to desperation. no concentration of effort. and impatient to return to their homes. " Our situation is truly distressing. in which a part of Washington's own guard Avas implicated. and in rags. the last boat had left the Long Island shore ere the retreat was suspected. The militia." The American army was now in a deplorable condition. It had The soldiers were unpaid. There was no bond of union. or withheld them at its sovereign pleasure. instead of calling forth their utmost efforts to a brave and manly opposition in order to repair our losses. Gen. burning and destroying in all directions.

Washington. splendidly this requires a degree of moral courage and an amount equipped. to allow the country as well as the onemy to believe that one has a splendid army. in order to save that little handful from destruction. sustained. thus far in the history of this world. usji madly into the conflict. ever to refuse a battle. the Heights of Haarlem. At one time General Reed in anguish exclaimed. and then over the . . Washington replied. Thousands could be found capable of this. in the . excepting only Washington. He saw that the only hope was to be found in avoiding an engagement. which the enemy did not venture to attack. The British troops ascended the Hudson and the East River to assail Washington in his rear. . The most effeminate races on the globe. and a few others of the most illustrious of the patriots. with sleepless vigilance watching every movement of the foe. required mere ordinary ds^ring. and in wearing out the resources of the this 1 enemy in protracted campaigns. while at the head of a mere handful of ragged and unfurnished troops. has been developed only in George Washington. Here he threw up breastworks. Franklin. . A weary campaign of marches and countermarches ensued. to meet the enemy only to retire before him to encounter silently the insults and scorn of the foe to be denounced by friends for incapacity and cowardice and. in which Washington. Animal courage is the cheapestof all virtues. shall we fly ?" retreat. — of heroic virtue. over every river of our country. with scarcely the shadow of an army. But to conduct an army persistently through campaigns of inevitable defeat. that he might take advantage of the slightest indiscretion. the apparently hopeless fortunes of his country. to be compelled. laughing lead and iron and steel to scorn. by a few months of suitable drilling. how long Gen.— GEORGE WASHINGTON. midst of a constant succession of disasters. can be converted into heroic soldiers. which. course required great moral courage and self-sacrifice. if ''We shall necessary. America had many able generals but it may be doubted whethei there was another man on this continent who could have conduc ted the unequal struggle of the American Revolution to a Washington slowly retired from New York to successful issue. "My God Serenely ! Gen. Washington was equal to the crisis. \n 37 unquestioning obedience to the dictation of the British king. To adopt To and sell life as deaily as possible.

Avere amusing themselves with feasting and dancing. and forcing his boats through the floating blocks of ice. hastily adjourned to Baltimore. The Americans sprang upoD . I mountains. It was rapid December. Facing the storm. before daylight the next morning. A storm of wind and snow raged so violently. infantrymen. in landing upon the opposite shore twenty-four hundred men and twenty pieces of cannon. in all its pride and power. welcomed by the Tories in the large towns. The British officers and soldiers. that both man and beast were forced to seek shelter. but three thousand men. music. he retreated to Trenton. and that a broad. to take possession of Philadelphia. was very dark." will make a last stand against our ene Washington crossed the Hudson into the Jerseys. where mies. the blood of their lacerated feet. considering the patriots utterly dispersed. sweeping down the stream. In the darkness of that wintry night. and storms of The " strong battalions " of the foe tracked the patriots by sleet. alarmed by the approach of the foe. Nearly all of New Jersey was now in the They needed but to cross the river hands of the British. he baflSed all the efforts of With an army reduced to a freezing. with its wintry gales. In this heroic deed there were combined the highest daring and prudence. The British With consummate skill. with horsemen. gathered around the firesides. that they would soon be able to was now so rapidl}'' pass at any point without obstruction. and frozen ground. icy river flowed between them and the retreating American bands. he succeeded. not dreaming of danger. just as the British army. and ponderous artillery. deeming the conflict ended and the revolu pursued him. arrived upon the banks of the stream. The night of the 25th of December. with apparently nothing to fear. The ice forming. and amidst the conflict of its elements. and intensely cold. The British pressed exultantly on. With great difficulty. banners. The British officers. until the blocks of ice. and to plunge with all his strength into the midst of the unsuspecting foe. starving band of the foe. ton succeeded in crossing the Delaware in boats. Washington re-embarked his troops to recross the Delaware. The British were carelessly dispersed. tion The Congress in Philadelphia. The enemy. should be consolidated into a firm foothold. Washingcrushed. deep. 1776.38 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. relaxed his vigilance.

in a short time. which so harassed the enemy. and three hundred lish at Princeton. rose the next morning. There he intrenched them for winter-quarters. the first 39 body of the foe they met." The sun lines. Avere taken prisoners. marched upon Trenton. Sir William Erskine urged the British commander to make an immediate attack. the heavy booming of the battle at Princeton fell upon his ear. " Our troops are hungry and weary. To-morrow. at midnight. tat will neither bear their weight. In the night. nor admit the passage of their boats. While this event was taking place at Princeton. the encampment Cornwallis replied. foe. with the utmost precaution his and precipitation. that. having received large re-enforcements. and. confident that Gen. Elated with this success. A hundred and sixty of the British were shot down. the foe. He. which astounded and humbled American troops recrossed tha river. terdemalions cannot escape for the ice of the Washington and his Delaware them. he pressed hand to his brow. dication of vitality in the American army. I will attack The rising sun shall see the end of the rebellion. at the break of day. the American army had vanished.— GEORGE WASHINGTON. " Where can Washington be gone?" Just then. . after a short but bloody prisoner's strife. and. and Washington took possession of Trenton. had been crowded with the ranks of war. It was at the close of a bleak. that they retreated to Soon the Pvinceton. scattered them. exclaiming. gazing in astonishment upon the deserted his and waning fires of the Americans. fell upon the rear of the Eng- The sun was just rising as Washington's troops plunged upon the foe in this totally unexpected onset. ''There he is !" he added. Solitude reigned along those which. Washington could no longer escape them. capturing a thousand and six cannon. "By Jove! Washington deserves to fight in the cause of his king. and gained their The British were so alarmed by this inin safety. under Lord Cornwallis." Cheered by this Washington led his handful of troops to the Heights of Morristown. by a circuitous route. sent out frequent detachments. Replenishing his camp-fires to deceive the enemy. he evacuated camp. cold but cloudless. Quite bewildered. Lord Cornwallis stood upon an eminence. however. winter's day that Cornwallis with his army appeared before the lines which Washington had thrown up around Trenton. New Jersey was delivered from the . the evening before. success.

of whatever name.40 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. but the Lord's table . I have no occasion. ascertain it from yourself. in cordial sympathy with our cause. I thought I would be." " That is as it ought to " I am glad of it. " Ours table. and the genwas found seated with the communicants next sabbath. the communion* service was to be administered in the Presbyterian church of the village. During the remainder of the winter. The difarmy at Morristown. as I propose to join with you on that Though a member of the Church of England. nicants of other denominations ? " Certainly. The sympathy excited invaluable service to us. But. Each State claimed itself the pay it would ofler to the troops. I understand that the' Lord's supper is to be celebrated with you next Sunday. general." the general replied. J. to peril his in the cause of American independence. I would learn if it accords with the rules of your church to admit commutor of the church. however much they might be needed for the general service. with certain clearly defined rights reserved for the individual States. and yet unable to compel him . Washington. Jones. vessels. The people of France. then pasand said to him. "Doctor. harasseci by Washington's sleepless vigilance. however. When the army was in the environs of Morristown.. Gen. in behalf of our cause in France was of left his life The Marquis de Lafayette The man- sion of opulence. presence of the The country became somewhat animated bj these achievements. sent two WashImmense embarrassments were. from the fact that we were not a nation. to Gen. " is not the Presbyterian and we give the Lord's invitation to all his followers. and Congress roused itself to new energies. British officers." The doctor eral re-assured him of a cordial welcome. exclusive partialities. vigorous efforts were made in preparation for the ferent States sent troops to join the opening of the spring campaign. continually experienced. but a mere Each State decided for conglomeration of independent States. N. was an earnest Christian. as we have said. ington. and his youthful bride. Dr. Washington called upon Rev. It was these difficulties of the old confederacy which induced " the people of the United States " to form themselves into a nation. as I was not quite sure of the fact." was the reply. foe. containing twenty-four thousand muskets. the right to withhold an}'- portion of its troops for its own security.

marched to encounter them. the winter of 1777 and 1778. The all surrender of Burgoyne. The British were comfortably housed in Washington Philadelphia. Winter again came. about twenty miles from Philadelphia. the army was rapidly recruited. They landed near Elkton. overpowered. and the British took possession of Philadelphia. as his secure retreat for winter-quarters. which occurred about this time at Sara- through the States. The two forces again met. to capture Philadelphia. The two hot:tile bodies met on the banks of the Brandywine. a storm three miles from the city. suff'ering. with neatly arranged streets and avenues. The encampment. some of them quite sanguinary. rolled a surge of exultation The Americans were. with but eleven thousand men. ascended the Delaware in a fleet. and powder. and with such floods of rain. A bloody battle ensued. that neither army Washington. they retired upon Philadelphia. retired with his ammunition spoiled. after a short but severe engagement at Germantown. and. Congress had now invested Washington with nearly dictatoiial powers.GEORGE WASHINGTON. new courage.ely adjourned to Lancaster. before the British had recovered from the blows which they received at the Brandywine. but none 'eading to any important results. Wash- hjgton. at the head of Chesapeake Bay. and the whole country approved of the act. Washington was again upon the march to meet them. The Americans. In Philadelphia. about twentyJust as the battle commenced. Lafayette was wounded. could long pursue the contest. The soldiers commenced Each rearing their log-huts here the latter part of December. hut was fourteen feet by sixteen. petty battles ensued. and thence to Various York. the English held the city. and determination still unflinching. Eleven thousand men here passed It agement and arms. With unbroken ranks. with eighteen thousand soldiers. and accommodated twelve soldiers. that he resolved to hazard another battle. lest the foe should rush upon him . however. which was well protected by earthworks. For eight months. so violent. were compelled to retire. clothing. \\\ the enjoyment of every luxury. 41 or to lure him into a general engagement. and continually gaining toga. arose. It was so important to save Philadelphia from the enemy. in a state of destitution which Washington did not dare to proclaim abroad. selected Valley Forge. — was a period The army was destitute of great discourof food. Congress precipita'. presented the aspect of a very picturesque city. acquiring experience.

Laurens. and sent their heavy . scarcely possible that our independence could then have been Valley Forge with unutterable joy. But for this efficient assistance. and contained expressions. reputation of the commander-in-chief was too firmly established The British army now in in this country to be thus demolished. reproaches keenly. President of Congress. The forgflry was skilfully got up. But the alliance with France gave us the assurance that re-enforcements would soon come to our aid. containing found in a portmanteau taken from a servant of Wash- forged letters. if true. without disclosing secrets moment talent. The whole American army did not exceed fifteen thousand. ington after the evacuation of Fort Lee. alliance were received at The most dishonorable means were now taken by our enemies to paralyze the influence of Washington by destroying his reputation. The letters denounced Con- gress for madness in declaring independence. The British. he endured them all with that external imin Lis helplessness. and scattered widely throughout the States. and that motives of pohcy dopriN e me of the defence I might otherwise make against it is their insidious attacks. The tidings of the French in London. They know tlie delicacy of my situation. evacuated the city. apprehensive that a French fleet might soon appear. many proved Washington to be totally unfit But fortunately the to be in command of the American armies. and thus endanger the troops in Philadelphia. of the utmost however injurious. have ever been subject to it.— 42 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. They know But why I cannot combat their insinuations. entering into a friendly alliance with us. to conceal. it is . which. '• My enemies take an ungenerous advantage of me. The commander-in-chief was assj-iled wiih Though Washington felt these terrible severity for this inaction. New York and Philadelphia amounted to thirty thousand men. the unfailing lot of an elevated station Merit and which I cannot pretend to rival. and sending both a fleet and an army to our support. should I expect to be exempt fron ? censure." It was in this dark hour of our struggle that France generously came forward to our aid recognizing our independence. A pamphlet was published achieved. purporting to be private letters from Washington to his wife. He wrote to Mr. perturbability of spirit which so wonderfully characterized hiir throughout all the conflict.

while an unclouded sun poured down its blistering rays upon pursuers and pursued. It is said that Washington. Not a breath of air was stirring. what means this ill-timed prudence?" The reout. The cold of winter had given place to the heat of summer. Washington turned to the men. and over six The — — . Night closed the scene. Washington sent orders to him immediately to commence the onset." It was no time for altercation. A sanguinary battle ensued. They left three hundred of their dead behind them. The English common soldiers had but little heart to fight against their brothers who were struggling for independence.GEORGE WASHINGTON. The Ameri- hundred in hundred had deserted from their ranks since they left Philadelphia. farm-Louses. They had now inhumanly summoned the Indians to their aid. material of 43 war to New York by water. and their inhabitants men. Lee. At his command. was a day of for a chance to strike. I know of no man menced their '' '' blessed with a larger portion of that rascally virtue than your Excellency. 1788. The British ti'oops were at Monmouth. no foe was to be seen. At Middletown. with great vehemence of manner and utterance. They greeted him with the English cheers. The British had retreated in the night to the Heights of Middletown. with five thousand men. The march of one more day would so unite them with the army in New York. tliat they would be safe from attack. The tomahawk and the scalping-knife were mercilessly employed. the British embarked on board their ships. cried Gen. watching The 28th of June. women. Lee. Washington followed closely in the rear of the foe. Gen. in full retreat. Washington. inspired cans lost but sixty nine. villages. Lee at the head of his troops. When the morning dawned. colonists slept upon their arms. while tlie troops commarch through New Jersey. Washington ordered an assault. with the assurance that he would hasten to his support. British also lost one prisoners. and children were massacred by savages. wrapping his cloak around him. As Washington was pressing eagerly forward. were burned. prepared to renew the battle The ill the morning. and charged the enemy. they Avheeled about. and were conveyed to New York. treating general threw back the angry retort. was in the advance. intense heat. threw himself upon the grass. and slept in the midst of his soldiers. and were driven from the field. Towns. to his inexpressible chagrin he met Gen.

never." they acted upon maxim. to the Six Nations of Indians. some aided us with their money and counsel. and at the very foot of the throne. " cordial sympathy with the colo- nists struggling for their rights. The massacres of Cherry Valley and of Wyoming were among the most awful of the tragedies which have ever been witnessed on this globe. lishmen the must not be forgotten that there were many noble Engwho espoused our cause. pursued vigorously by the English. atrocities. to arrest. These fierce savages. and thousands in throughout England. The savages. if possible. in tones which echoed throughout the civilized world. " Were I an American. said that rebellious into submission to and all make use But it of America must be punished punishment. on the Hudson. 44 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. The narrative of these fiendish deeds sent a thrill of horror through England as well as America. Washington detected and thwarted their plan. Gen. They sent agents." Of these men." . tion The summer campaign opened with an indiscriminate devasta and plunder. to be put right. accompanied by Tory bands. The British remained within their lines at New York. never. perpetrated horrors too awful for recital. exclaimed in the House of Lords. and the American army went into winter-quarters mainly at West Point. " Our country. who waa their forces for an attank . in inflictinjj this placed in their hands. and to get the control of the upper waters of the Hudson. as I am an Englishman. "A war of Lord George Germain. and some entered our ranks as officers and soldiers." said rebellious provinces to return to their allegiance. right or wrong. to be kept right when wrong. " will probably induce the this sort. where they were rethat noble — — ! ceived into an English fortress. The British ministry encouraged these They . Clinton. and their still more guilty allies. were ble sentiment." The British now concentrated upon West Point. however. never Another cold and cheerless winter came. when right. some pleaded for us at home. Some of the ablest men in both House of Commons and the House of Lords. with the furj of demons. were driven to Niagara. it was right the instruments which God and Nature had that. to arm them against our defenceless frontier. Four thousand men were sent by Washington into the wilderness. I would never lay down my arms. Instead of adopting the execra- Our country. these massacres. Lord Chatham.

ammunition. comfitiire. Wayne conducted the enterprise. The sky was reddened with wanton conflagration. on the night of the 15th of July. In July. During this summer campaign. Arnold. vigorous campaign in the spring. in France. Incited by his urgent appeals. commenced a more vigorous prosecution of a system of violence and plunder upon the defenceless towns and farm- houses of the Americans who were unprotected.GEORGE WASHINGTON. Believing the ship to be sinking. Gen. that Washington was compelled to make the utmost exertions to save his wasting band from annihilation. with great galSixty-three of the British were killed. The flourishing towns of Fairand Korwalk. Washington planned an expedition against Stony Point. Gen. immediately blockaded in Newport by a stronger British fleet and another expedition. exasperated by this dis. then in 45 command of the British forces. impoverished as they now were. It was. up detachments. These long years of war and woe filled many even of the most sanguine hearts with despair. in Connecticut. hundred and forty-three were taken prisoners. driven houseless into the field the colonics made new efforts to augment their forces for a more Cheering intelligence ari'ived that a land and naval force might soon be expected from our generous friends the French. on the Hudson. he ingloriously sought to take care of himself. and all the military stores of the fortress captured. however. and five thousand soldiers. however. and misery deluged our unhappy land. Not a few true patriots deemed it madness for the colonies. which was held by the British. with arms. and with unusual severity. Women and children were fields. The war still raged and conflagration. The American army was in such a starving condition. who was at this time in command at West Point. While the enemy was thus ravaging that defenceless State. in was effectually shut . The winter of 1779 set in early. . widely spread in that port. blood. twelve vessels of war arrived from France. incessantly employed striking blows upon the English wherever the eagle eye of Washington could discern an exposed spot. five lantry and success. any longer to contend against the richest and most powerful monarchy upon the globe. American army was never sufficiently strong to take the offenthe sive. were reduced to ashes. which was about to sail from Brest. He . This squadron was. saw no hope for his country.

became the necessary victim of Arnold's crime. Lord Cornwallis was now. Again our heroic little army went into winter-quarters. Greene was sent. Thus the dreary summer of 1780 lingered away in our war-scathed land. was laid in ashes and a general system of devastation and plunder prevailed. with a well-provided arm}^ and an assisting navy. mainly on the banks of the Hudson. sell bis fortress to . with all the force which Washington could spare. the war was renewed. with hope which never failed. and guiding with his well-balanced mind both military and civil legislation. Washington wrote. The enemy ascended the Chesapeake and They landed at Mount Vernon. The British directed their chief attention to Richmond. Virginia. On the 1st of May. You ought to have considered yourself as my representative. Instead of arsenals well supplied. Gen. and making a voluntary offer of refreshments to them. which was far weaker than the North. witli a view to prevent a conflagration. and should have reflected on the bad example of communicating with the enemy. with patriotism wlu'ch posure. to Avith all the protection in his watch and harass the invaders. that. with his eagle eye fixed upon the foe. of the estate. to save the mansion from pillage and The manager flames. . cheering the army. The was detected : but the traitor escaped and the lamented Andre. in the South. the quartermaster-general is but now applying to the several States to supply these things. animating the inhabitants. and offered to treason the English. turned traitor. " It would have been a less painful circumstance to me to have heard. He wrote to his agent. furnished the legalized robbers with abundance of supplies. As the spring of 1781 opened. " Instead of magazines filled with provisions. we have a scanty pittance scattered here and . Lafayette was in the vicinity of New York. and the workmen all kiaving. and to furnish the inhabitants power." The prospects of the country were still very dark. who had been lured into the position of a spy. they had burned ra}' house. Washington was much displeased.— 46 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. rousing Congress. in consequence of your non-compliance with their request. ready to pounce upon any detachment which presented the slightest exWashington was everywhere. 1781. the Potomac with armed vessels. and laid the plantation in ruins. never flagged. there in the different States. overrunning the two Carolinas. Instead of having field-equipage in readiness. they are poorly provided.

: . increase their naortilioation. Lord Cornwallis. Washington resolved. After a few days of hopeless conflict. Instead of having the prospect of a glorious offen- we have a gloomy and bewildering defensive one. Lord Cornwallis was now at Yorktown. Neither by land nor by sea could he obtain any supplies. Washington hastened to encircle the foe. about this time.GEORGE WASHINGTON: 47 Instead of having the regiments completed. little an eightli part of its quota in the field . in invincible strength. we could not have gained this victory. in the rays of the morning sun. Let no shouting. Shot and shell soon began to fall thickly into his despairing lines. Early in September. in conjunction with our allies from France. Washington thus addressed his " My brave fellows. He succeeded in deceiving the English into the belief that he Avas making great preparations for the siege of New York. land-ti'oops. Without the assistance of our generous allies the French. At about the same hour. and money. Let not our gratitude be stinted or cold. unless we should receive a powerful aid of ships. graced the triumph. There was no force in his vicinity seriously to annoy him. before the harbor. 1781. Posterity will huzza for us. no clamorous huzzaing. let no sensation of satisfaction for troops the triumphs you have gained induce you to insult your fallen enemy. at this hour. When the British soldiers were marching from their intrenchraents to lay down their arms. had become almost entirely valueless. with which the troops were paid." The army had in fact. instead of having every thing in readiness to take the we have nothing. By rapid marches. scarce any State has. as he arose one morning. with corresponding military stores. sive campaign. Cornwallis was caught. but a few miles ^rom Chesapeake Bay. the French fleet appeared. on the 19th of October." . in Virginia. dwindled away to three thousand and the paper-money issued by Congress. Seven thousand British veterans laid down their arms to the victors. Thus they were prevented from rendering any aid to Yorktown. from our generous allies. There was no escape there was no retreat. to make a bold movement for his capture. was amazed to see. he was compelled to surrender. One hundred and sixty pieces of cannon. In a word. . the heights around him gleaming with the bayonets and the batteries of the Americans. is prospect of their ever getting more than half. and there field. Famine stared him in the face.

with himself at the head. The commander-in-chief earnestly rec- ommends that the troops not on duty shoidd universally attend. emphatically expressed the wish that Washington would assuiLe the supreme command of the government. shouting at intervals. citizens rushed into the of an enfranchised people rose. half clad. now would never again yield to the aristocratic tions for the vigorous prosecution of the war in the spring. being very then only a collection of delegates from independent States. The darkness of the long night was passing the away. were abundantly capable of gov- . 48 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. The day after issued the following order to the army: " Divine service is to be — Washington devoutly in the several performed to-morrow brigades and divisions. country. and gratitude of heart. nobody can tell how and the shout .. disheartened by the apparent inefficiency of Congress. Candles were lighted windows thrown up figures in night-robes and night-caps bent eagerly out to catch o'clock. and organize the country into a constitutional kingdom. Though the fury of the storm was over. The British cabinet itable perseverance. A watch- man traversed the streets. But Washington was a republican. as tho most effectual means of securing a speedy and an honorable peace. This glorious capture roused hope and vigor all over the became disheartened by our indomcapitulation. religious ia their habits. trained in the science of legislation. Cornwallis is taken These words rang upon the ear almost like the trump which wakes the dead. The news flew upon the wings of the wind. Washington. from our and with such a victory. settled. like a roar of thunder. The conviction was now so general that the war was nearly at an end. for whole land. 1781. late in November. — they shouts were raised . . that republican America government oi England. question -was With France an ally. the billows of war had not yet subsided. . that with difficulty ten thousand men were marshalled in the camp. "Past twelve ! " and a pleasant morning. again He urged Congress to make prepaiaretired to winter-quarters. The army. the thrilling sound streets. . and intelligent. the and forever. for Congress had really but very little power." The joyful tidings reached Philadelphia at midnight. wept they laughed. He believed that the peo- — — ple of this country. with that seriousness of deportment. whicn the recognition of such reiterated and astonishing interpositions of Providence demands of us.

on the Hudson. I cannot come to each of you tc take my leave. at any moment. burg. . i\cd doomed to a life-long wretchednei^s. the British cabinet opened negotiations for peace. It was the fearful price '/7hich America paid for independence. His voice trembled with emotion as he said. deluged this land with blood and woe. but shall be obliged if each of you will come and take me by the hand. — . the British evacuated New York. construction required the highest energies of every thinking mind. and no untoward incident foes departed. Hostilitios Avere. " With a heart full of love and gratitude. marching from West Point. England had. It was also necessary to keep the army ever ready for battle Thus the for a new conflict miglit. Thousands had perished on the gory field of battle thousands had been beggared thousands had been made widows and orphans. entered the city as our vanquished It was a joyful day. I now take leave of you. with a flushed cheek and a swimming eye. I most devoutly wish that your latter days may be as prosperous and happy as your former ones have been glorious and honorable. entered Washington. tacitly laid aside.— GEORGE WASHINGTON. almost indignantly. Negoiiations were protracted in Paris during the summer and the ensuing Washington had established his headquarters at Newwinter. summer and winter of 1782 passed away. aad Early in May. Late in November. break out. ernmg themselves. The snow was still lingering in the laps of the Highlands when the joyful tidings arrived that a treaty of peace had been signed The intelligence was communicated to the American ut Paris. The affecting interview took place on the 4th of DecemWashington. their ships. ber. entered the room where the principal officers of his army were assembled. 7 . 1783. And now the day arrived when Washington was to take leave of his companions in arms. and yet of efficiency. for eight years. Washington was the savior of his country. 49 He repelled the suggestion promptly. America was free and independent. was to be organizad and its Hcan liberty. ." . just eight years from the day army on the 19th of April. when the conflict was commenced on the common at Lexington. to retire to his beloved retreat at Mount Vernon. and sailed for their distant island. by each party. marred its festivities. and was busy in consolidating the interests A government of repubof our divided and distracted country.

under wLos© orders I have so long acted. where he was to resign his commission. It was a his hand in this last parting. were present. I retire from the : — great Ibfatre of action this offer and bidding an affectionate farewell to august body. Aii unaccustomed cS Washington was to exhibit erjiotun. In every city and viliag'8 through which he passed. Washington travelled slowly towards his beloved home at Mount Vernon. . members of Congress. from c. he was greeted with love and veneralion. At Annapolis he met the Continental Congress. and which words cannot describe.'][ which he had so long been absent. 1783. I hers . the-se heroic men silently grasped Not a word was spoken.50 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. my commission. Tears blinded his eyes. ar.d he could say no more. the All It was the 23d of December.'' mv leave of all the emoloynieiiLa of p'lbli? MOUNT VKKNDN. and take iife. scene of those invisible strugglings of the spirit which the pencannot picture. His address was closed with the following words " Havirig now finished the work assigned me. and a large concourse of spectators. One after anotner. he was now cuite overcome.

A convention was called to deliberate upon this momentous question. I am solacing myself with those tranquil enjoyments. Washington was sent a delegate from Virginia. with a general govern- which could exert the energies of centralized power. the equal in efficiency. of life perhaps the ruin of other countries. and. Envious of none. who is always watching tbo countenance of his prince. I am become a private citizen and under the shadow of my own vine and fig-tree. with supreme powers for all the purposes of a general government. of which the soldier. It assembled at Philadelphia in the year 1787. The old confederacy. Washington. as all . The Constitution of the United Stato*) i?. with the renowned kingdoms and empires of earth. I will move gently down the strean?. created a nation from the people of all the States. those minor questions of local law in which the inteprity of the nation was not involved. The next day. . whose watchful days and sleepless nights spent in devising schemes to promote the welfare of his own. while a nation should be formed. free from the bustle of a camp : — : and the busy scenes of public life. as State governments leave with the towns. if this globe were insuffiand the courtier. in the judg. To this subject. that all thoughts were turned to the organization of a government upon a difierent principle. in hopes of catching a gracious smile. cient for us until I sleep with my fathers. being the order for my march. and thus take its stand. he returned to 51 Mount Yernon.GEORGE WASHINGTON. was placed in the president's chair. njjecting a mere confederacy of independent States. And this. who had suffered so intensely from the inefficiency of the Continental Congress. The result was the present Constitution of the United States which. are . devoted his moct anxious. who is ever in pursuit of fame the statesman. The following extract from a letter which he then wrote to Lafayette reveals those gentle and domestic traits of character which had been somewhat veiled by the stern duties of his military career " At length. I am determined to be pleased with all. had developed such utter weakness. . which was merely a conglomeration of independent States. and leavirg vith the States. by unanimous vote. my dear friend. -— can have very little conception. attention." all The great problem which now engrossed solidation of the thirteen States of America in minds was the consome way which should secure to the States certain reserved rights of local administration raen^.

and do now most firmly believe. laent of the millions of the It is stated in the Madison Papers. title of President of the United was done at the instance of Dr. that. and reported in favor of the simple States. in reference to slavery and the colored people. sarcasIt has been said that this proposed to insert immediately after " His Excellency *' the words. American people. it was proposed that the title of the President of the United States should be His Excellency . The world must look at the fruit.^' There were some provisions in the compromises of the Constiwhich the heart and mind of Washington recoiled. and which subsequently worked out its natural fruit of woe and death. it is the best constitution that can be obtained at the epoch. the most sagac lous document which has ever emanated from uninspired minds. who. and Jefferson Avished to establish but there was a spirit of aristocracy. New York was then the seat of government. obtain my cordial approbation. but the Committee of Style and Arrangement negatived this. Alluding to the unfortunate compromise which this spirit insisted upon. all eyes were turned to Washington as chief magistrate.— 52 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. under the law. and that this. But I did then conceive. and I am persuaded never will. Washington wrote. There was probably scarcely a dissentient voice in the nation. As WashingtcD tution from — . It has made the United States of America what they now are. of exclusive rights for peculiar classes and races. Adams. Equal rights. His most sutically perfluous Highness. awaits our choice. was the corner-stone of that American democracy which Washington. "And the Vice-President shall be styled. when the question was under discussion. in the convention which framed our Constitution. By the unanimous voice of the electors. and is the only alternative. and wonder and admire. to give to the masses of the people those rights of which aristocratic usurpation had so long defrauded them. he was chosen the first President of the United States. for all men. or a dissolution. in the aggregate. which infused its poison into the Constitution. "All men are born free and equal" was the motto of the banner under which. He had fought for human liberty. Franklin. that. It has created the strongest government upon this globe. which never did. he had rallied his strength." Upon the adoption of the Constitution. " There are some things in this new form. I will readily ao knowledge. .

Gentlemen. punctual here my cook never aska marked. come. liaving a few friends at the social board that." he adds. he wrote a letter to a friend. out of respect to me. in the year 1796. my writing-table. but whether the hour has. I answering its expectations. if not prevented by company. And how ! The usual time of sittable. and.. previous to which. bequeathing to his grateful countrymen The admiration with the rich legacy of his Farewell Address." The to following anecdotes have been related. it will serve for a year.S on the 30th of April. At the close of his illustrious administration. in which he described the manner in which he passed his time." Washington was inaugurated President of the United Sta--. when he always sat down •'* : . o'clock. merely allowing five minutes for To those who came late. Whenever he assigned door of His dining-hour was at to his table. and tea. he seldom failed of passing the the hall when the clock struck twelve. and first '* made preparations is for the business of the day. counsels were received never will wane. with the best disposition to render service 1o my country in obedience to its call. bade adieu to Mount Vernon. whether his four guests were assembled or not. which these parting Soon after Washington's return to his beloved retreat at Mount Vernon. illustrative of Presi- dent Washington's habits of punctuality. of four years each. He rose with the sun. By the time I have accomplished these matters. as soon as the glimmering taper supplies the place of the great luminary.— GEORGE WASHINGTON. at which I rarely see strange faces. '' breakfast This being over. he rethe variation of time-pieces. bring me within the dawn of candleting at Hght. 1789. I will retire to the letters I have received. but with less hopes o:^ " About ten o'clock. farms. and to domestic felicity. we are whether the company has arrived. I mount my horse." meet Congress at noon. and ride round my which employs me miss t'o until it is time to dress for dinner. I resolve. he again retired to the peaceful shades of Mount Vernon. He remained in the presidential chair two terms. left 53 Mount Vernon and care. with a mind oppressed with more anxious and painful sensations than I have words to express. ready. set out for New York. for the metropolis to assume these new duties (if toil we find recorded in his journal. as different is this from they say. to private Hfe. a walk. and acknowledge Having given you this history of a day.

When visiting morning dle. while was mounting his sad. he Salem and.: 84 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. " Major.' that true friend of popular rights. Pease had to remain a whole week in Philadelphia before he could get another opportunity to exhibit his span. on not disagreeable conse- account of their mixture by marriage with the dower negroes. be attended with such would. he appointed eignt o'clock in the as the hour when he would was tiiis set out for the Old-South clock striking eight. did not overtake to escort him. he inscribed these noble words " Upon the decease of my wife. is a striking evidence of the state of your heart. I shall be happy to join you in so laudable a work.o excite the most painful sensation. Pease had purchased a beautiful span of horses. tain arrived. my dear marquis. which he wished to sell to the President. I him until As the troops came hurrytheir commander with a good-natured thought you had been too long in o'clock." Lafayette. twenty. though earnestly insuperable difficulties. a slaveholder. if . In 1786. The President's time was wholly pre-occupied for several days. Washington wrote to him in 1788.four. having inherited a large landed estate in Virginia. ing up. it is my will and desire that all the slaves which I hold in my own right shall receive their freelife dom. not anticipating ho had reached Charles-River Bridge. he wrote to Robert Morris. vrished To emancipate them during her by me. as a matter of course." my family not to know when it was eight Capt. but was then gone to attend to other engagements. The system met his strong disapproval. was extremely anxious to free our country from the reproach which slavery brought upon it. with his span. " The scheme." In his last will and testament. Boston. The President appointed five The capo'clock in the morning to examine them at his stable. so that Capt. The whole number which he held at the time of his deatli was one hundred and was. aa *. He was told by the groom that the President was there at five o'clock. which you propose as a precedent to encourage the emancipation of the black people of this country from the state of bondage in which they are held. at quarter-past five. " There is no man living who wishes more sincerely than I do to see a plan adopted for the abolition of slavery. in 1789. saying. Washington. the President said to smile. The company of cavalry which had volunteered punctuality.

and shivering with Though the snow was clinging to his hair behind when he cold. effect. unless some particular circumstances should compel me to it. but without Two consulting physicians arrived during the day. and : . At sunrise. he was relief. to possess another slave by purchase it being among my first wishes to see some plan adopted by which slavery in this country ma^ be abolished by law. Dr. " I never take any thing to carry off a cold. learning from his will that the only obstacle to the immediate emancipation of the slaves was her right of dower. feeling that he had taken cold. answering letters. and the hoa^'seness increased as night came on. as the difficulty in breathing and swallowing rapidly increased. as bled by one of his overseers. 1799. The 12th of December.GEORGE WASHINGTON. became quite severe. however^ took no remedy for it saying. however. ai Dr. his case doubtful. remained by the fireside during the morning. was chill and damp. About two o'clock the next morning. He was then hoarse. The next day. wet with sleet. from the 55 latter.evening as usual. while both descriptions are in the occupancy of the same proprietor. under the tenure by which the dower negroes are held. he had recorded his resolve " I never mean. let it go os '^t came. but with no he rapidly grew worse. venesection was It is again attempted. d immediately bled his patient again. came in. Washington. Ee. as the afternoon wore away. took his usual round on horseback to his farms. and. Craig reached Mount Vernon at eleven o'clock. and the slaves were at once emancipated. Still he retained his mental faculties unimpaired. he went out to superintend some work upon the lawn. Craig. and the sky was clouded. for. he awoke in an ague-chill." Mrs. Saturday. and spoke briefly He examined . was sent In the mean time. : was seriously unwell. As it cleared up in the afternoon. he sat down to dinner without changing his dress. evident that Washington then considered his will. who resided at Alexandria. and conversing with his family. leadrng the papers. it not being in my power. papers His sufferings from inflammation of the throat. to manumit them. quences." He passed th«." Long before this. Washington. three inches of snow wiiitened the ground. immediately after her husband's death. and struggling for breath. and returned late in the afternoon. his physician. Washington. immediately relinquished that right. and destroyed some which he did not wish to have preserved. the 14th.

" if About in his six o'clock. he said. but let me go off quietly. not take any more trouble about me." He then sank back upon his pillow. At the moment of his death. Mount and . as now fill the world. his rem?. where they nor/ repoi?o." she added in the same I shall soon follow untremulous utterance. year of his age. Mrs. " It is Soon after this. and collected voice. " I die hard but I am not afraid I believed. '' " 'Tis well. . About ten o'clock. just going. He held out his up on his pillow. gave a well. him. of his approaching death and burial. he said to Dr. All is now over. when he said." On the 18th.i!?s v. 1 hands. in the sixtj'^-eighth silent b-ignal of assent. it: my breath cannot last long. enshrined in a nation's love his fame will forever. and made several unavailing attempts to speak intelligibly. Craig. Do you understand me ? " To the reply. and do not let my body be put into the vault until three days after I am dead. " I am Have me decently buried. unable to speak. " Yes. The physician. that I should not survive to go. his physician asked him he would sit up bed. I have no more trials to pass through. 7 am going. from my first attack. sir. About four o'clock in the afternoon.56 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Washington sat in silent " Is he gone ? " she asked in a firm grief at the foot of his bed." last These were the words he uttered." he remarked. ere deposited in the tonb at Vernon. " I feel that You had better I thank you for your attentions. . he gently expired. and was raised cannot last long.

— Riot in Boston. What business do you wish to follow ? " I wish to be a farmer. In the bright. a worthy. The father of John Adams was a farmer of moderate means. " My son. — Journey Baltimore. — The Appointment of Washington. — Anecdote. — Second Trip to Paris. John Adams was born elder brother. — Last Jlrs. and the ocean rolling in its grandeur before him. he was anxious to give his son a collegiate education. John Adams was not fond of his books. Like most Christian fathers. — Presidential Career. had been educated at Harvard. industrious man. — His Influence in Congress. — Anecdote of his Boyhood. — Patriotism of Adams. You must give up play." the energetic boy replied. — The Declaration of Independence. — Mission to England. the sunlight sleeping upon the meadows. — The Con— Franklin and Voltaire. with the primeval forest waving around. on the 30th of October. John Adams. — Interview with Lord Howe. without which no farmer can get a nish his family. — Adams's Defence of the Soldiers. to trast. hoping that he would become a minister of the gospel. like most boys. and enter upon that steady. his father said to him. Adams. N. — Energy of Adams. Days and Death. minister of a Congregational church Newington. — Delegate to France. — State of the Country.CHAPTER JOHN ADAMS. the sparkhng brooks alive with trout. then a His father's Joseph. toihng early and late for the very frugal support which such labor could furat fact that he was a deacon of the church which he was held by the community. — The Voyage. But.H. it is time for you to decide respecting your future occupation in life. out-door life seemed far more attractive than the seclusion of the study. A::3estry of II.— Marriaga — British Assumptions. When he was about fourteen years of age. — Conflict with the French Court. sunny morning of his boyhood in Braintree. — Letter from Mrs. town of Quincy. and was. and the apparent monotony of life in the midst of books. in the present upwards of sixty years. hard work. — The Continental Congress. for portion of Braintree. — Successful Mission to Holland." said the judicious father " it is time now for you to commence your life-work. attests the The in esteem '' : . 1735. " Very well. — Adams and Franklin.

strangely lost their charms. The next morning. He must have struggled with small means found it necessary to add to his labors as a farmer the occupation of a shoemaker. he was considered as having received his full share of the small paternal patrimony. John Adams wrote a . A large number of the young men of the colonies were called to the camp.58 living. and have concluded that I should like to try my books. his ignoble defeat. The colonies were in great peril. and. He would have enjoyed wandering through but that was boy's play which he had given up. As he hoed. and ocean . " Father. I have been thinking to-day. He worked all the morning till noon. not farmer's work upon which he had entered. energy. When John graduated at twenty years of age. highly esteemed for integrity. . . A young Virginian by the name of George Washington. at an early hour. At this time. and was willing to make every effort in his power to indulge his son in his choice. While teaching school. with his education as his only capital. was then beginning to be known. . This was a period of great political excitement. He obtained the situation 3'-oung graduate needed was money. work. whether French or English influence was to dominate on this continent. . and graduated in 1755. above forest but there \Nas also a bla^nirg. was trembling in the balance. In the evening he said to his father. scorching sun. and the great theme engrossed every mind." LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. he went out to take his The first thing the place in the conflicts of this stormy world. if he were determined to devote There was a all his energies to the acquisition of an education. was now to him life's doom and forest. of instructor in one of the public schools in Worcester. John was with his hoe alone in the field. with some considerable hesitation. He entered Harvard College at the age of sixteen. All thoughts of the ministerial profession were soon abandoned." His father offered no objections. who had saved Braddock's army. very good school in the town. work. he also studied law. and for his father ability. came home to his dinner returned to the field worked all the The blue sky was afternoon till night. to meet the expenses of his household. . France and England were then engaged in their great seven-years' struggle Braddock had just suffered for the mastery over this continent. brook. he thought. The question. it with his gun Work. The hira waved around. and John laid aside his hoe for his grammar.

he declares that he should infallibly have been a soldier. James Otis was engaged by . His journal studying law. Soon after this. pastor of the church in of very rare of her character. and which led to that cruel war which resulted in the independence of the colonies. then a towri jf but a few hundred inhabitants. clamors. To these engrossing themes young Adams consecrated all the enthusiasm of his nature. He hesitated whether to give himself to law. or to the army. He thought. to intellectual cuL Speaking of the profligate around him. contributed not a She was a lady endowments of person and of mind. thinking. ture. prove? time. caused him to rise rapidly in public esteem. in which. The legality of the law was contested before the Superior Court. The British and authorizing an indiscriminate search to find goods which might have evaded the tax. 59 very remarkable letter to a friend. ing. — some of the young men is '' What pleasure can a young gentleman. profession. opening a law-office.. ho wrote. &c. Government was now commencing that career of aggressions upon the rights of the colonists which aroused the most determined resistance. who had taken His native powers of mind. take in playing cards It can entertain the It gratifies none of the senses. his father died and he continued to reside with his mother and a brother. In Octo . daughter of Rev.JOHN ADAMS. and. he consecrated lives of his w ith great moral courage and self-denial. are the great antidotes to reflection.. and. he talked. he described the future greatness of this country. and untiring devotion to his the farm. by the force little to Weymouth. he writes. mind only by hushing its backgammon. he married Miss Abigail Smith. Avho ? capable of Cards. that. with almost prophetic vision. her husband's celebrity. a — prophecy which time has more than fulfilled. he returned to his native town of Braintree. inspired by a noble ambition. imposing taxes upon certain goods. ber. to think- What in learning and sense are " we to expect from young gen- tlemen whom a fondness for cards. For two years. Could he have obtained a troop of horse. John Adams remained in Worcester. 1764. Wil- liam Smith. outgrows and chokes ? the desire of knowledge When but twenty-two years of age. devoted himself to study with renewed vigor. &c. An order was issued by the British crown. teaching a public school and He was a very earnest student. to politics. or a company cf foot.

" A literary club was about this time formed of prominent gentlemen of the bar. gather ing up his strength to resist these encroachments. The town of Boston sent a petition to the governor that the courts might be re-opened. With a promptitude of arbitrary power. at each other's houses. to discuss subjects of popular interest. he hurried away all before him. the Stamp Act was repealed. James Otis. and closed the courts. by more than forty towns in the State. Popular commotion prevented the land- This stopped all legal processes. afl'airs. Jeremy Gridley. ready to take up arms. Every man of an immensely crowded audience appeared to me to go away. word for word. a profusion of legal authorities. and which were subsequently adopted. violating both the English Constitution and the . " Otis. and a prophetic glance of his eyes into futurity. all the ardor of his soul into political life. urged upon the council the great distress which the closing of the courts was causing. Otis argued that this distress fully warranted them to open the courts. Soon after this. and John Adams. It is said that this was the Mr. classical allusion. a torical events depth of research. which Avere adopted at a public meeting of the citizens at Braintree. American independence was then and there horn. Adams read an essay upon the state of which was published in the journals." he wrote. while the question was being referred to the authorities beyond the sea but John Adamsbold ly took the ground that the Stamp Act was an assumption of arbitrary power. remonstrating against fHe^tamp Act." The memorable Stamp Act was now issued and Adams. ing of the Stamp-Act papers. which met once a week in a small social circle. the merchants to argue their cause against this encroachment ot With consummate ability he performed his task. The friends of the colonists in England pronounced it " one of the very best productions ever seen from North America. Adams now entered upon a distinguished political career. Mr. Mr. " was a flame of fire. as I did. first direct denial of the unlimited right of parliament over the colonies.^^JIa drew up a series of resolutions. republished in England. charter of the province. were chosen to argue the cause of Mr. A press-gang from . a rapid summary of hisand dates. Gridley the petitioners before the governor and council.60 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. entered with . John Adams was a delighted listener. and which attracted great attention.

of soldiers to Boston. me for the . the British crown sent two regiments A more obnoxious menace could not have been devised. and shall apologize for it only in the words of the Marquis Beccaria: 'If I can be the instrument of preserving one a sufiicient consolation to and tears of transport. to be under the domin. and to frenzy. and you. He argued that the usage of impressment had never extended to the colonies that the attempt to impress Nickerson was unlaw." JOHN ADAMS. tried for murder. a small party of soldiers. But both of these ardent patriots had witnessed with alarm the rise of mob violence. The intrepid sailor thrust a harpoon through the heart of Lieut.' Capt. They were stigmatized as deserters from the cause of popular liberty. Very nobly. thus and Mutual exasperation was now roused almost The lieutenant and six soldiers were arrested. fired in State Street. that the infamous royal prerogative of impressment could have no ex* istence in the code of colonial law. ful . The first sentence with which John Adams opened his defence prt)duced an electrical effect upon the corrt and the crowd. : On the 5th of March. as follows : — "May it am for the please your honors. and with moral courage rarely equalled. It was assailed. shall be contempt of all mankind. The populace insulted the soldiers the soldiers retaliated with insolence and threats. John Adams and Josiah Quincy undertook the task of their defence. 1770. a king's ship in the harbor of Boston seized a 61 young American by the name of Ansell Nickerso-'i.i tion of the worst of England's kings than that of a lawless mob. Boston. and received a very slight punishment. excepting two. the leader of the gang. a thousand-fold. who were found guilty of manslaughter. 1 prisoners at the bar. and the bribed advocates of tyranny. Though Boston instituted an annual commemoration life. John Adams defended him. Better it was. killing upon the crowd wounding several. Panton. An immense and excited auditory was present at the trial. gentlemen of the jury. his blessing. was established. that his act of killing his assailant The hero was acquitted. and they felt deeply that there was no tyranny so dreadful as that of anarchy. daily becoming more manifest among the people. and the principle was justifiable homicide. To sujipress the spirit of independence. They encountered unmeasured obloquy. He was tried for murder. Preston and the soldiers Avere acquitted.

^2 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. " has determined on her system. had induced the repeal of the tax upon all articles except tea. disguised as Indians. exasperated. a band of men. Large shipments were made it The con- signees endeavored to send The crown-officers in the custom-house refused a clearance. first being the He was to entreated by a friend. The crown. Anxious to secure the royal favor. punished Boston by sending armed ships to close the port. and their determination not to submit to the wrong. Combinations were formed to refuse all importations from Great Britain. more secluded home The energetic remonstrances of the colonists against taxation without representation. Gov." said the attorney-general. . boarded the vessels. as one of their representatives to the Colonial Legislature. This led to organizations back. hoisted the chests upon the deck. little. Adams's popularity suffered so he was elected by the citizens of Boston. The die is now cast. the king's attorney-general. " Great Britain. . Her power to all is irresistible. This was a deadly blow to the heroic little town. and those who shall persevere in opposition to her de- signs. A General Congress was convened in Philadelphia. In 1772. In all those measures. and will be destructive to you. he gave all his influence in favor of the demands of the crown. Under the circumstances. John Adams was one of the five delegates sent from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress. 1774. to make common cause against the powerful foe. On the evening of the 15th of December. not accept his appointment as a delegate to the Congress. Adams. John Adams was recognized as one of his most formidable antagonists. You know that I have been constant and aniform in my opposition to her measures. The heroic reply of John Adams was. and emptied their contents into the sea. Hutchinson. all over the land to abandon to Boston. returned to his at Braintree. to which place he had removed. Mr. though a native of the province. this was a deed of sublime daring. Mr. The other colonies sympathized nobly with Massachusetts. finding his health failing from his incessant application to business. tliat of the massacre." ain has determined on her system " I know that Great Britand that very determination determines me on mine. the use of tea. open act of rebellion. upon which he was dependent for his office. was a man of great energy and of insatiable ambition.

on the scaffold. in any form. I am are often in reveries and brown studies. in education. have passed the Rubicon. his its ability Bagacity led him to concur in the This Congress. I fear forever but you may depend upon it. when Mr. . We are deficient in genius." Adams might have desired this to be true. : . God grant us wisdom and suppressed. George Washington was one of the Virginia delegation. I 63 die. Adams took his seat. " I see we must part and with a bleeding heart I say. Mr. I ruminate . determination. The army and Much as Mr. Adams was strongly attached to his friend Mr. '' Adams of the crisis which was impending. fortitude unutterable anxiety. On bidding him adieu. with my country. what infamy and ruin Death. and ponder ." The Colonial Congress commenced its session at Philadelphia the 5th of September. wrote at this time in his I I wander alone. by immortal. He wrote to James Warren. live or survive or perish. is my fixed. in travel. Very few wished to break away from the British crown. unalterable fully than Mr. I feel ! We have not men fit for the times. Adams. He was speedily placed on several of the most important committees." was not blind to the danger of incurring the vengeanr^fi of the British Government. The general desire then was merel}^ for a redress of grievances. and England will give up her foolish project. in its arrogance. and heroism. who remonstrated with him against his patriotic course. is less terrible." the sublimity Few comprehended more journal. said to Mr." Mr.— — ! JOHN ADAMS. in every thing. rendered its memory Lord Chatham said. Richard Henry Lee. Hampden died in the field Sidney. . ^'- We shall infallibly carry all our points. I mope. Adams said. should this Should the opposition be country submit. Sink or swim. be recalled. and who was disposed to espouse the cause of the king. would relinqi/ish its insane attempt to deprive the colonists of their liberties but forbid ! God fie . 1774. Sewall. The objects before me too grand and multifarious for my comprehension. fleet will All the ofiensive acts will be repealed. You will be completely relieved. this adieu is the sharpest thorn upon which I ever set my foot. — He muse. Brutus and Cassius were conquered and slain. judgment of George Washington. He doubted whether the British cabinet. another of the Virginia delegation. " There is one ugly reflection. in fortune.

and master-spirits of the world . and children were flying . approaching Braintree or Weymouth. yet not crushed. most populous State in the Union and its representatives. not without a show of reason. Mrs. 1775. by the weight of his anxieties and unpopularity. the firing of cannon." and was erty took the alarm. have studied and admired the free States of antiquity. About the middle of May. A Virginian wrote the DeclaIndependence a Virginian moved its adoption by Con. borne down. proud of the ancient dominion. avoided like a leper. the war of the Revolution was opened. She immediately sent a courier to Boston." At this time. pursued its reckless In April. British crown. with utter infatuation. and ibund every thing in great confusion. for a time he walked the streets of It would have been well for him could he have Philadelphia. precedence of this Continental Congress. " ' We were No'^:. Adams was roused from sleep by the ringing of alarm-bells. The course. manifestly on some hostile mission. On the 10th day of May. Three vessels of war had loft the harbor. women. Adams all says of the Massachusetts delegation. the but for solidity of reason. 'you must not utter the word "independence. suspected of having independence in view.' : was soon rumored throughout Philadelphia that John Adams The Quakers and the gentlemen of propAdams "was sent to Coventry. deemed it their right to take the lead in all important measures. Mr.' said they. the idea of independence was extremely unpopuVirginia was the lar in Pennsylvania and in all the Middle States. Adams kept her husband minutely informed of all the events occurring in Boston and its vicinity. and the beating of drums. blended a little more of the suaviter in modo with the fortiter in re. Boston was placed under martial law.— 64 " I LIVES OF TUE PRESIDENTS. Men. one sabbath morning. we are undone. With a saddened yet imperial spirit. as brave men were shot down by English soldiery upon the green at Lexington. was appointed commander-in-chief. Mrs. All its citizens were imprisoned within the lines of the British fleet and army which encompassed the city. the Congress again assembled in Philadelphia." nor give the least hint or insinuation of the idea. either in Con" gress or in private conversation if you do. It was for independence. and were sailing along the shores of Massachusetts Bay. ration of gress. force of wisdom of conclusion. A Virginian . The inhabitants were plunged into the deepest distress. almost in solitude. no body of men can take the sagacity.

eighty tons. writes. Our men landed. Adams.dams wrote . a night. and set fire to the hay. and were marching up into the town of Brainsoldiers Men seized their guns. The sick were placed on carts. a week. The impetuous colonists soon mustered two vessels. ing. The 1775. The British. Mrs. A. to buttle of The next her husband. — 9 Bunker's Hill was fought on the 17th of June. Sometimes refugees from live.a:su)£NCB of jobn adasis. that three hundred had landed. 65 in beds m all directions. Mrs. until two thousand were collected. afternoon. tree. for drink. . tired and fatigued.— JOHN ADAMS. in giving an account of Our house has been. ried to a place of safety. and put off for the island.can hardly imagine how we . upon this alarm. which was Sunday. seeing them coin decamped. jumped on It soon turned out that the hostile expedition board. seek an asylum for a day. in the same scene of confusion that it was upon the former soldiers coming in for lodging. and came flocking from their farms. had landed on Grape Island to seize a large quantity of hay which was stored there. Boston. for supper. for breakfast. about this. and hur- The report was. Yo.

' " Charlestown is laid in ashes. Adams alone dissented. Mr. The battle began upon our intrenchments upon Bunker's Hill. or sleep. ship to Massachusetts to take command of the Five days after his appointment. more. Saturday morning. supplies. Through the powerful influence of John Adams. said to contain twenty-eight thousand seamen and to thousand land troops. or discipline. I have just heard that our dear friend Dr. sabbath afternoon. A strong friend- Washington hastened immediately sprang up between Adams and Jefl'erson. about throo o'clock. and urged the appointment of George Washington. a delegate from Virginia. Better The day. perhaps the decisive day. Washington was nominated and elected. Thomas Jefferson mado his appearance upon the floor" of Congress. is ' . drink. but little known out of his own State. come. Our destruction seemed Goliah was striding down upon David. without efficient arms. amounting to some fourteen thousand. but fell gloriously fighting for his country saying. Ward. which. supported by a powerful fleet. The New-England delegation were almost unanimous in favor of Gen. After a brief adjournment. pitch-forks. and has not ceased yet. human visi*^. grasp. The first thing now to be done by Congress was to choose a commander-in-chief for this army." These scenes had aroused the country around Boston to the very highest pitch of excitement. Congress met again . and all onlookers expected to see the stripling tossed upon the giant's spear high into the air. and any other weapons of ofitence or defence which they could Thus a motley mass of heroic men. A powfifty- erful fleet. which was held by about eight thousand British regulars. five He was chosen without an opposing voice. continued for the remainder of their lives.66 " LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. shot-guns. were surrounding Boston. then at the head of the army in Massachusetts. army. Warren is no pen. powder. The farmers had come rushing in from all the adjoining towns with rifles. that 8uch a force could then be resisted. sure. on which the fate My bursting heart must find vent at my of America depends. that we cannot either eat. would seem impossible. Avith a short interruption. v/as It now crossing the ocean for our enslavement. to die honorably in the field than ignominiously hang upon the gallows. and it is now three o'clock. The constant roar of the cannon is so distress- ing.

enough for the business. he yet came out with a power. " The great pillar of support to the Declaration of Independence. Sherman. each urged the other to make the draught. Franklin. and all the morning and evening in committees. Adams wrote to a friend. Adams's earnest request. "That these United States are. Mr. and committing every kind of atrocity in John Adau:3 presented and carried the decisive all directions. were . resolution. both of thought and expression. in 67 September. a few weeks after. was John Adams. At Mr. Richard Henry Lee of Virginia offered the memorable resolution. which John Adams seconded. Third. which moved us from our seats. and its ablest advocate and champion on the floor of the house. and of right ought to be. a sub-committee to draw up the Declaration. and was no public speaker. Adams. Everybody is engaged all day in Congress. not always fluent. That which he wrote in the silence of his closet. Mr. " I will not do it you must. by the rest. Not graceful. from seven to ten in the morning in committee. though so able with his pen. with free ingress was still raging about Boston and and egress by their fleet. in land. from ten to five in Congress. " I am engaged in constant business. Jefferson and Adams were appointed. on the 7th of June. Jefferson prepared thai immortal document." Mr. which embodies the fundamental principles of all human rights. take the lead in this business. you can write ten times . Second. When Adams and Jefferson met to draw up the Declaration of Independence. It consisted of Jefferson. The battle the British. that. and Livingston. Mr. Jefferson.— JOHN ADAMS." A committee was then appointed to draught a Declaration of Independence. At this time. Adams closed the friendly contention by saying. free and independent. I am obnoxious. had little skill in debate." Having thu/i [)repared the ^^ay. suspected. He was our Colossus. you are a Virginian and Virginia should — — — : ." Jefferson wrote of his illustrious colleague. unpopular : you are the reverse. John Adams defended in the stormy hall of Congress. and from six Our assembly is scarcely numerous to ten again in committee. plundering and burning. First. " it if) view of the aggressions and demands of Eng- necessary that the exercise of every kind of authority under said crown should be totally suppressed. 1776. There are three good reasons why you should.

which I hope we shall not. free and independent States. 1776. writes. and that posterity will triumph. sports. The to be. will be a memorable epoch in the history of America. Mrs. Of the fifty-five who signed that declaration. as the day of deliverance. Adams wrote to his wife as follows : — was decided that was ever debated in America and greater. — have just returned from Penn's Hill." better than I can. and pencil has been lavished. is one of the . and signed by each of its members. bonfires. That these United States are. guns. from this time forward for- generations as the great anniversary festival. Every man of who affixed his signature to that paper thus cast the glove mortal defiance at the foot of the most majestic power on this The scene was one upon which the genius of both pen globe." — if you insist upon it. and had driven the British out of Boston. I can see that the and support and defend end worth more than all the means. not. in a letter to her husband. will cost to maintain this Declaration." Jefferson replied. under date of March "I 4. . through all the gloom. was John Adams. The day after the achievement of this momentous event. " do as well as I can. A resolution was passed. It ought to be solemnized with pomps. I will the 4th of July. Mr. Adams. ' It ought to be commemorated. the Declaration of Independence was adopted by Congress. and of right ought The day is passed. 1776. This On was one of the boldest acts in the records of time. without one dissenting colony.' 4th of July. there was not probably one who would deny that its most earnest advocate. You will think me transported with enthusiasm but I am I am well aware of the toil and blood and treasure that it . early in March. these States is yet. and its most eloquent defender. where I have been sitting to hear the amazing roar of cannon. from one end of the continent to the other. though you and I may rue. the greatest question . ever. I think. never was or will be decided among men.68 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. bells. " Well. The sound. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated by succeeding " Yesterday. Washington had taken possession of Dorchester Heights. by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty God. In its grandeur it stands forth as one of the most sublime of earthly acts. and from whence I could see every shell that was thrown." A few weeks before this. sho'5vs. perhaps. and illuminations. games.

Mr. He was well assured that England would present no terms to which America could accede. and come to bed. He therefore requested an interview with some of the leading members of Congress. Howe imagined that the discouragement of this would induce the Americans to listen to terms of submission. was appointed to treat with the British general. grandest in nature. landing from their fleet. Franklin and Rutledge took chairs. Dr. and the bursting of shells. I with you out of hearing. Adams opened the window. Howe on Staten Island." Mr. The window was open and Mr. the continual roar of twenty-four pounders. 1776. and twelve. that I soon fell asleep. overran Long Island. who was quite an invalid. Franklin. the delegates set out to meet Gen. 9. Adams rode on hoiseback. " The doctor then began an harangue upon air and cold. consisting of Adams. A committee. open the window. a vehicle for but one person. and but one window. and Rutledge. with no chimney. the jar of the house. Come.: JOHN ADAMS. John Adams was not in favor of the conference. under Lord In August. that Franklin and Adams had to take one bed in a chamber but little larger than the bed. I wish myself I cannot assist them. " don't shut the window: we shall be suffocated. she adds little "I went after one. " Oh " said Franklin. defeating the American army. they lodged at an inn in New Brunswick. with which I was so much amused. and I will convince you. give us such ideas. which was so crowded. as only escaped destruction by retreating in a dark and foggy night main land. and leaped into bed. On Monday. The next morning.' to her letter." British army. The first night. and rose again a is 68 of the true species of the sublime. and respiration and perspiration. "The air within this chamber will soon be. He writes." Mr. ! — . Adams. which still. Adams replied. To-night we shall realize a more terrible tion. : I could to bed about no more sleep than if I had been in the engagement the rattling of the windows. a Howe. and indeed is now. The ships are all drawn round the town. that he was afraid of the evening air. wished to shut it. and left him and his philosophy together to the defeat — . however. and realize a scene to us of which we could form scarcely any concep- we got possession of Dorchester Hill last night. Franklin answered. four men upon it to-day lost but one man. Sept. I hear thousand scene : sometimes think I cannot stand it. worse than that without doors.

safe return. not from abroad. he said. " Gentlemen.— 70 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. but from within. that. nounced as if . Seeing the officer in their company." They walked up to the house between a line of guards. who was killed in the a monFrench . which was " dirty as a stable. so that it looked picturesquely beautiful. who had only permission to offer pardon to the leaders of the Revolution. you pay me a high compliment. Howe had sent as a hostage for their. was profuse in expressions of gratitude to the State of Massachusetts for erecting in Westminster Abbey nment to his brother Lord Howe. cold re- upon business. and that he preferred to trust entirely to the honor of Gen. I remember little of the lecture. " that it would be childish to depend on such a pledge." His lordship." The next morning. they met an officer whom Gen. we should imbibe the real cause of colds. except that the human body. Lord Howe came down upon the beach to meet them. Lord Howe remarked that his powers enabled him to confer with any private gentlemen of influence in the colonies. " We came. When they came to the water's edge. Howe. but I believe that they were equally sound and insensible within a few minutes after me for the last words I heard were pro. they entered We shall consider ourselves in no other character than that in which we were placed by order of Congress. anxious to conciliate the delegation. They therefore took the officer back to Staten Island with them in his lordship's barge. replied. in breathing over and over again the matter thrown off by the lungs and the skin. and you may depend upon it that I will consider it the most sacred of things." was carpeted with a sprinkling of moss and green sprigs. and that he could only confer with them in that character. if the States would return to their allegiance to the king. with a few exceptions. Franklin. As they approached the shore. Mr. by respiration and that two such perspiration. except that of British subjects. he Avere more than half asleep. they proceeded on their journey. You may view us in any light you please. but to listen to your propositions. destroys a gallon of air in a minute persons as were now in that chamber would consume all the air iuitin an hour or two. past. who manoeuvred and handled their muskets in the most approved style of military etiquette. with his characteristic straightforward bluntness. sir. John Adams. The house. After a slight. Adams said to Mr.

It has been said that Mr. as for a brother . if America should all fall. he writes. One can now go to California in about the same time. It was in those days a long and tedious journey from Boston to that " far-away country. remarks that his lordship appeared to feel this with Mr. and replied. Adams affairs is a decided character. with much gravity and Mr. rode across the State of Connecticut to Fishkill. sometimes warm. anc\ that. in his journal. Franklin and Mr. Dr. as the firm attitude of the patriots overawed them. to which not a little much sensibility. Franklin. with an easy that grace and suavity " bowed and smiled. that even the most sanguine were disheartened. Adams. that he America air. to attend a session of Congress in that distant city. so strong. in his account of the interview. Many were exceedingly dissatisfied with that prudence of Gen. He passed through Sussex County in New Jersey. he should lament it like the loss of a brother. and sometimes He . 1777. 71 He said that his affection for felt for America was. Then he Btruck across the country to Easton in Pennsylvania. on the Hudand ascended the banks of the river to Poughkeepsie. he said. son. " The weather has been sometimes bitterly cold. with which marked him as one of the most accomplished of diplomatists. Many were anxious to displace him. for. '' nettled . He then rode down the western banks to New Windsor. Rutledge. sometimes rainy. The advance of the enemy towards Philadelphia had rendered it necessary for Congress to adjourn to Baltimore. from Boston." Mr. Our looked so gloomy. Adams called it. He denies it peremptorily." This was the darkest period of the conflict. turning to Dr.JOHN ADAMS. Washington which alone saved us from destruction. Adams. Adams was one of this number. where he was able to cross upon the ice. and with far less discomfort. but encountered no insult. Alluding to the weary ride. Adams's remark. — My lord. But with we have referred. gives an account of a horseback-ride which he took in January. the stronghold of the Tories. on that account. war. five miles below Newburg." as Mrs. It took him three weeks of excessive fatigue to accomplish this journey. he was evidently solemnity. we will do our utmost endeavors to save your lord- ship that mortification. Mr.

will be found inadequate to the purpose. Adams's influ- ence : " I never can think we shall finally fail of success while Heaven continues to the Congress the life and abilities of Mr. deliver to you the opinion of every man in the In a word. often falling as low as twenty-three. Mr. was about who met the foe in the and their toils scarcely less severe. The labors of these men have never been properly appreciated. before ten years. John Adams. Marchant. He rose through his thumb and forefinger. a pause and perfect calm succeeded. He is equal to the controversy in all its stages. like its venture to predict. a failure. one of the delegates. sir. Mr." any man The energy with which he was posed in inspired and the confidence re- him may be inferred from the fact. sir. by rotation. It was a mere league of States. Adams was assiduous in his attendance upon Con» . He stood upon the shoulders of the whole Congress when reconciliaHe was equally conspicuous in tion was the wish of all America. Adams predicted. each reserving all effective powers to itself. Mr. * . snowy. . Gordon gives the following testimony to Mr. Heaven grant that wisdom and ' I experience may avert what we then have most to fear The Confederacy proved. Dr. . seems to be finished but. as Mr. Until November. and chairman of twenty-five. that. the Confederation. PresiAdams sat and appeared full of thought. much of our time. The imperfections of the Old Confederation were very palpable to the sagacious mind of John Adams. a rope of sand. Mr. cutting the knot which tied us to Great Britain. the members. as great as that of those Their peril field. upon this : — : ' . that he was a member of ninety committees. and conferring upon Congress but the shadow of sovereignty." 72 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. with a dent' His cane slipped quick tap upon the floor his eyes rolled upwards his brows were This business. and dissolution will take place. I now. that he possesses the clearest head and firmest heart of in Congress. This being concluded. that has taken up so raised to their full arch. and the roads abominably hard and rough so that this* journey has been the most tedious I ever attempted. 1777. I house when I add. relates the following characteristic anecdote " The articles of confederation being completed. were called upon to place their signatures to them." The number of members assembled in Congress had become quite small. floor.

and to co-operate were then in Paris. R. a wintry wind roughening Massachusetts Bay. on the other hand. " in all who had always encouraged and much agitation of mind. After and a thousand reverses unnecessary to be detailed. and Mr. which would undoubtedly be employed to intercept him. and exposed him to imminent peril of capture by the British cruisers. The news of his appointment was known by the British. 1777. The voyage was and accompanied by stormy. Adams had no doubt that they would proceed to execute him. 1778. three large English frigates were seen. I resolved to devote family and my my life to the cause. consisting of a wife and four children. 73 devoting himself with tireless diligence to his public In November. who the colonies to declare their independence. As was to be exall pected of the man. gress. he adopted the heroic resolve to run risks. Mr. probably They gave Two them were . France was the only nation from which there was the slightest hope that aid could be obtained. cruising for the " Boston. Anxiously he pondered the question. Adams had done perhaps more than any other man to induce . was rowed out to the frigate " Boston. Mr. Capture would lodge him iu Newgate.. uncomfortable. and made preparation for the voyage. accepted the appointment. duties. compelled him to cross the ocean in winter. I.JOHN ADAMS. without the aid of some friendly European power. then a lad of but ten years of age. Mr. the " My wife." It was several months before a frigate could be got ready. This was a severe trial to hii patriotism." he writes. that. France. ani« fail mated me the antecedent dangers and perplexities. children. But. to take the place of Silas Deane. in the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money from the French Government. Adams was appointed a delegate to who had been recalled with Benjamin Franklin and Arthur Lee. He was a man of ardent affections and it was hard to be separated from his family." 10 When chase. as it separated him from his home. and eventful. Adams took a sad leave of his wife and three his son John Quincy. It was clear. and they had a large fleet in Newport. our feeble armies must be crushed. five days out. our country was in extremest peril. on the of 15th of February." rid ing at anchor at some distance from the shore. He would be tried in England for treason. On a cold day in February. did not me on this occasion.

sir? commanded to carry you safely to Europe. Adams was sitting in the cabin. gentlemanly man. Mr. fighting as a common marine. and. a better sailer. when suddenly the black clouds of a rising tempest gathered in the skies. vessel said. Mcintosh. in his Eulogy of Adams and Jefferson. less Adams. Capt. with a cargo insured The captured in London for seventy-two thousand pounds. On the evening of the 15th of March. they gave chase and it was soon overtaken and captured. he forcibly carried him from the scene of . was sent to Boston. Two large British men-of-war are bearing directly down upon us. and I will do it " and. Trusting that it might prove a prize which they would be able to take. On the 14th of March." Mr. he rushed up to his I am illustrious passenger." was a very intelligent. . this ship will be captured by my countrymen in than half an hour. lilclntosh came down.— 74 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. danger. Tucker saw Mr. continued the Arrangements were made for a desperate fight. " My motives. the British frigate was nowhere to be seen. "Why are you here. " Mr. The wind rose The clouds hastened the approach of the darkness of to a gale. as they were approaching the French coast. Adams on deck with a musket in his hand. In the excitement of the moment. pursuit.' or sunk to the bottom in her. Mr. ' . They took the prize. in which the ships lost sight of each other. and. of fourteen guns. and a prize indeed it was. It proved to be a letter of marque. Adams urged them to contend to the last extremity. Sprague. addressing him with great solemnity. retire to a place of safety below." he writes. Mr. Tucker begged Mr. Adams to dote of this engagement. and are just by. seizing him in his arms. Adams. the " Martha. exclaiming. when the morning dawned. Mcintosh. than to be taken prisoner. " were more urgent than theirs foi would have been more eligible for it will be easily believed that it me to be killed on board the Boston. the night. The third. another sail hove in sight. watching the frowning enemy gaining very rapidly upon them. Capt. relates the following anecCapt. who was kept on board the " Boston. while the ocean was tossed by a hurricane. as the balls of the hostile ship were flying over their heads." Capt. Soon after. when Capt. soon run out of sight. and held much friendly conversation with Mr. Adams sat at the cabin-windows. 1 . You will hear from them.

Mr. that I feel for — on board. villages. and have always ascribed to you the good treatment which I have received. only responded with a It was silent bow. His virtues and his defects were those of a blunt. You may depend upon it. and there even the men within musket-shot. Mr. Adams did not arrive any sooner. Whether they were two American frigates. gave indescribable pleasure. and dreary a voyThere was a French ship in the stream. Franklin. and who. unpolished Englishman. Adams was charmed with siglit the appearance of La Belle France. which had been about that time in France. He was not at all at home in French diplomacy." This was. indeed. Adams. afiability. we never knew.JOHN ADAMS. warrant you. it is probably fortunate that Mr. Adams was decidedly unpopular in the Parisian court. on his return to London. served up in style. a member of the British House of Commons. or perhaps to be saluted with a broadside. Mr. In Paris he met with David Hartley. all the good service I can render you with my countrymen shall be done with pleasure. Let me take the liberty to say to ydu. startling intelligence. " I stood upon deck. who had been received by Louis XVI. was admirably adapted to impress the French mind. and aptness in paying compliments. The of land. they made Bordeaux Lighthouse. had already succeeded in concluding a children. into the river. Hartley. you more than for any one else. inclination to inquire about their business or destination. But the two ships passed without speaking a word. Mr. from his courtesy of manners. to which they had been quite unaccustomed in their frugal provincial home. straightforward. after so long women and age. who had heard an uncommon trampling upon deck." On the morning of March 30. in six <5 minutes. They there learned that Dr. While Franklin was greatly admired and caressed. treaty with France. were the two ships already a bright moonlight evening. Indeed. with great pomp. said to Sir John . cattle. Adams and his son were invite i to a very elegant entertainment. They could see every thing." writes Mr. ascended the cabin-stairs. and. and Mr. We had no and were very happy that they discovered so little curiosity about ours. " till they had got so far oiF as to remove all apprehension of danger from them. taking his hat. They came together like two icebergs. Adams. and ran safely farm-houses. I have always liked you since I came on board. All expected every moment to be hailed.

but with affection which was even I have long felt for you a brother's love. and his polite auditors averred that his pronunciation was truly Parisian. by the people m ranks and by the principal merchants. hypocrisy : it was only politeness. he may have ungracious man I ever saw. As the amI thought it bassador of the infant colonies. " Temple and Your Mr. by no means. by the ministers of state. from authority. others. Adams." — that jou represent is as a that. and. You have encountered many dangers and sufferings in the cause of liberty and I have sympathized with you in them all. tender. Mr. upon the whole. Adams was kindness." Mr. and almost suffocated. Adams. and the two friends would have separated. has been very remarkable. Franklin would have responded in a similar strain. myself. man of fiuch good sense. charmed with each other. which was almost a obstacle to his success as a courtier. Dr. He says that Dr. He was an exceedingly gallant old gentle." All this was in accordance with national courtesy. . after land-travel of five hundred miles." said he. Dr.76 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Franklin all succeeded in speaking so well as to charm with whom he conversed. struggling for independence. since my arrival in Paris. decorated. for I have suffered in that cause . reached Paris on the 8th of April. with French compliments. but. Adams could not speak French. received by both court and people with the utmost In his journal he records. of all my first landing in France. : never would come to an end but it did and I concluded. Franklin all could not speak it grammatically it . I have trembled for you in the great perils through which you have passed. Bondfield had to interpret : — all this effusion of compliments. " The attention to me whi -jh has been shown. ." Mr. there was a form of sincerity in it. " to see you. and his little son John Quincy. The premier received him not only res])ectfully and politely. at events. and others of the fatal first consideration. Adams's first interview with the President of the Parlia- ment of Bordeaux was alike characteristic of the affable Frenchman and the bluff Yankee. We learn how Mr. " [ am charmed. but he the most Mr. sincere as are the usual salutations of social It was. and was as life. Adams received these cordial advances by the following ungracious entry in his journal " Mr.

and the Count de Vergennes. he resolved that he had rather run the gantlet through all the British men-of-war. On the other hand. and exchanged bows with. He became unduly suspicious of the designs of France. Lee. Adams was an earnest. methodical. My feelings on this occasion of America into were kept to my- my reflection was. is certain. In a sketch of his colleagues. soon finding that there was but little for him to do in Paris." said Mr. and all the storms of the ocean on a return. . that Congress might be put to The treaty of alliance with France as little expense as possible. He undertook a vigorous reform. They passed.— JOHN ADAMS. to be produced." Mr. on the when 1 am struggling to throw off those of Great Britain. " but he is sometimes completely out of his senses. man 77 of seventy. a confirmation strong of the design at court of getting the whole their self. a That he was a great great satirist. a great wit. bought some blank books. There was not a minute-book. Frank- That he was a great genius. in my mind. . often a wise one colleague. or . philosopher. •' : — " This escape was. is more questionable. Mr. command own but hands. Adams thus comments on these words account-book. a great moralist. he was crossing the court of the palace of Versailles with his colleague. before I will voluntarily put any other manner chains of France." This was a very natural remark. than remain where he was. Adams writes of Di. or in sacrificed." Mr. Lee. One day. declined invitations to dine. bois. Mr. letter-book. the distinguished general. a great liumorist. a great politician. business man. He was disgusted at the loose way in which he found business conducted by his colleagues." " Mr. a great statesman. lin. and bowed down to the hard work of acquiring the French language. Dr. " that he had the command with you. I wish. and when even many of our own most devoted patriots were distrusting Washington. Franklin writes of his Adams is always an honest man. was already formed before his arrival and. when we had then no generals of distinction in our country. Marshal Maille" That is a great general. Adams's earnest patriotism induced him to practise the most rigid economy while abroad. Mr. possessed of extraordinary tact in paying com' pliments. " I will be buried in the ocean." responded the count.

The Chevalier de la Luzerne. Lee was Franklin sole minister at the court of France. " eat pensions and sinecures they would stick in my throat. Adams to America. Frank lin. Franklin but his popularity with the French court. despatched to Madrid but for Mr. Adams." On the 17th of June. distracted condition of Congress at that time. Count de Vergennes. after an absence of seventeen mouths. Thus doomed to idleness. the French minister. There was a long and bitter conflict in Congress respecting the appointment of commissioners of his mission. the supremacy of whose influence could not be concealed. In September. M." he wrote. His journal shows that he was entirely devoted to the business It also an unwearied. At the same time. so far as it might have a bearing on the interests of the United States. he was chosen to represent the town in the state convention then held at Cambridge. to the foreign courts. and especially with the minister. and offering him a passage in the return French frigate. there was no such thing as rest. Marbois had been so much impressed with the distinguished talents of Mr. Immediately upon his arrival at Braintree. and especially from Dr. shows that he was deficient in certain qualities essential to success in the court of Versailles. there to hold himself in readiness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce with Great Britain so soon ass the British cabinet might be found willing to listen to such proposals. wrote him a ver}^ polite note. defeated this measure. . Adams's son. he prepared an elaborate review of the state of the different nations in Europe. Mr. who had accompanied Mr. and in consequence of rcpresentationa from both Franklin and Adams. he embarked on board the French frigate " Sensible " and arrived safely in Boston with his son on the 2d of August.78 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. " I cannot. in such stirring times. There were many who were in favor of recalling Dr. — . For such a man as Mr. Adams was chosen again to go tc Paris. 1779. self-sacrificing patriot. Congress decided to make Dr Mr. 1779. : . Adams no provision was This oversight was simply owing to the harassed and made. his situation was exceedingly painful. John . congratulating him upon his appointment. Under these circumstances. and that he was daily becoming more alienated from his colleagues. The controvei'sies between the individual members of the foreign delegation had agitated Congress and the country. and uncertain respecting duty.

as victims of oppression. Fianklin did not sympathize in these views. The count was so indignant. and did not give Mr. and being in danger of foundering. On the other hand. for the United States to negotiate a separate peace with Great Britain. tliat • 79 back. Quinuy. In his bold . withf^'yi the approval of the French nation. as patriots struggling for liberty: the other was a national dislike to England. Mr.JOHN ADAMS. Mr. Adams acted upon the principle that sympathy with Americans. Dr. 1780. and a desire to humble that uncompromising power. Adams very properly assumed that the United States had not placed their destinies in the hands of France. that France. The that of Ferrol. tion. the behests of a master. ihey were compelled to make the first European port. that he sent to the Congress at Philadelphia. . and reached Paris on the 5th of February. Adams was again on board the " Sensible. cation. should be specially consulted upon any terms which w^re to be presented to the British cabinet and that it would be manifestly unjust. There were two motives which influenced France to enter into the American alliance. Much annoyed. Count de Vergennes assumed. that he might profit be sent his father a special injuuction to carry him by the advantages of a European edu- On the 13th of November. 1779. distrust." outward bound. Mr. had no influence whatever with France that the French Government. Mr. so as to lose all their independent power. and tiio ship having sprung a leak. like a slave. Here came the split. Adapis at length decided to go to Holland. One was a strong popular sympathy in our cause. to obey our powerful . . ally. In taking his departure. in Spain. He was to remain in the French capital until an opportunity should present itself to open negotiations with Great Britain. and to be bound. Adams. in its alliance. Avas influenced by pure and undiluted selfishness. In Holland he was eminently useful negotiating important loans and forming important commercial treaties. Mr. he wrote a letter to the Count de Vergennes. soliciting the recall of the commissions which had been intrusted to Mr. aliena- mutual repugnance. which was In midwinter. under the circumstances. which did but increase the alienation. and very properly. and so to secure the friendship of America as to obtain a favorable commercial treaty. Adams crossed tbo Pyrenees. The voyage was dismal. Adams his moral support.

was as arduous as that in the field. Adams and the French court was known and an agent was sent by Lord North to sound bim upon the possibility of a separate truce. " you are the Washingtua of negotiation. On the very day that he was thus received by the States-General. . The tant in alliance with Holland its was a great victory no less imporbearing upon the war than the surrender of Cornwallis. his mission to Holland as the greatest success of his life. Mr. Adams hended that the count would insist upon terms of peace so favorable to French commerce as to cripple the commercial intercourse of the United States with England and the other nations of Europe. Mr. for it is measures here. and justly. he ited minister of the was at length received as the accred- United States. do full In this brief sketch. H. which occurred about the same time.^0 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. " Monsieur. Congress had appointed a commission. Adams returned to Paris. Franklin would die . he proposed a treaty of amity and commerce and on the 7th of October. . . which he was impossible to commended by Congress. began to manifest some disposition 1782. justice to these complicated negotiations. that two medals were engraved in Holland in its com memoration. he assumed much responsibility. Franklin. Private emissaries had been London to ascertain who the Americans were who were authorized to treat. The glory of this great event belongs undeniably to John Adams. consisting of Adams. Adams on his return to Paris. with full authority to negotiate a treaty of sent to the continent from peace. Laurens. Adams was highly gratified by the compliments which were lavished upon him but he intimates that Dr." said a French gentleman to Mr." Mr. It was deemed so important. and recognized as a member of the corps diplomatique at the Hague. In October. 1782.. and what was the extent of their powers. Jay. Adams ever regarded. sagaciously conducted. abandoning France. A well . and Jefferson. of jealousy should he hear them. Great appre- Mr. In anticipation of this event. Adams might propose terms Britain unfavorable to the interests of France. The alienation between Mr. Both had reason for their fears. had the pleasure of announcing the second alliance entered into by the United States as a sovereign power. The Count de to Vergennes apprehended Mr. Through his very great efforts. The The conflict in the cabinet British ministry now to negotiate.

When asked. comThe British cabibined with the United States against England. She deserves from a nation's gratitude a monument equally high and massive with that of her illustrious companion. was anxious. 1783. Frank- and the Count de Vergennes. Adams had been absent three years. made a covert effort for a separate pacification with France. to wreak her whole vengeance ness should be present at the interview. after a moment's hesitation. Mr. husband. Burning with fever. These conditions so embarrassed Digges. covery. Adams had passed. British envoy. and Holland were now all. — feel 1 pleasure in being able to sacrifice 11 my selfish passions to the general good. but I would not have opposed it. a definite treaty of peace with England was signed at F'aris on the 21st of January. incessantly for twenty-one hours out of the twenty-four. which was also unsuccessful. threw him into a fever. It was a thoroughfare over whose pavements a constant stream of carriages was rolling. in the Place du Carrousel. Spain. who were in cordial sympathy with each other. Adams would have remained so long abroad. The re-action from the excitement. exasperated against the nation which to this proposal. would you have consented that he should have gone ? " she replied. " If I had known that Mr. " Had you known that Mr. with a noise like thunder. toil. he found sleep impossible. and that he should be permitted to communicate lin all that should pass both to Dr. upon our generoua This was just what Count Vergennes had apprehended. After a vast amount of diplomatic manoeuvring. Adams could have effected what he has done. after Mr. The sufferings of Mrs. with more or less of zeal. that his mission was an entire failure. and anxnet which Mr. Adams consented to meet this emissary at Amsterdam on the 20th of March. Adams. in this long separation from her A nobler woman never breathed. the France. Dieaner act 81 could not have been guilty of than to have acceded England.JOHN ADAMS. were very severe. painful as it has been. and in imitating the example which has taught me . that a w\{the conflict. by detaching us from we ally. though he wisely attached the condition. had rescued us from her grasp. His friends despaired of his reiety through He occupied the HOtel du Roi. I would not only have submitted to the absence I have endured. I eve)i though three years more should be added to the number.

waiting for a wind were tossed upon sickening . A journey to Holland. was winter. still drooping and desponding. Adams could be removed. he Auteuil.3 when compared with the great community. Adams was in England. languid. at that season. for London." writes Mr. Adams. his friends advised him to go to England to drink the waters of Bath." As soon as Mr. " My health was very delicate. myself and family but as the small dust of the balance i/P. . he set out. Feeble. taken to where he enjoyed the pure air and silence of the country. with his son and one servant. A it. But recovery was very slow. emaciate. I scarcely saw a possibility of surviving Nevertheless. no man knows what he can bear +ill he tries. would very probably put an end to my labors. in Adams aud his son repaired to the coast . the 20th of October. few moments' reflection determined ma" " It JOHN ADAMS THE AMBA8SADOK.82 to consider LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. While Mr. he received despatches urging the indispensable necessity of his repairing immediately to Amster- dam to negotiate another loan. On Monday. Mr. spent three days a miserable inn.

miles. eight in number. the only vehicle which could be obtained. them over were water till they came to the ice then the sailors. 1784. for twenty days together. Adams succeeded in raising another loan. Yet I never sufi'ered so much in any of these situations as in that jaunt from Bath to Amsterdam. where the ice was thin. where Mr. in a leaky ship. dragged the boat upon the ice. JOHN ADAMS. . of foundering at sea. I had passed the mountains in Spain. billows three days. in January. Wet. in 1777. Adams writes in his journal. and there obtained conveyance through intense cold to the Hague. ^ . over roads and across ferries. at a great price. Were all day. in 1778. of these adventures ever do such lasting injury to my health. rowed . from Braintree to Baltimore. they all jumped in again. of which the present generation have no idea. and the boat broke through. and there are other battles besides those which are fought with powder and bullets. on a trotting horse. I had crossed the Atlantic. and partly on foot. beating against a wintry gale . all the boats on the other side they reached a ferry to cross over to the main land waited at the ferry several . . and all perish. and once. exhausted. I aevcr got over it till my return home in 1788. five hundred miles. Nor did any hired a peasant's to take wagon them to Brielle. in a furious hurricane. and pushed it When they came to a spot Along while the passengers walked. with perhaps four hundred men on board. Mr. and until late at night. in 1779. among ice and snow. till found days . partly on mule-back. There is other heroism besides that which is exhibited on the bloody field. chilled. an ice-boat to take in the . at their last prayers. in the winter. 83 the Island of Goeree. snow to a wretched town hired a fanner's cart. and a storm of thunder and lightning." . " I had ridden on horseback often t Congress. who were scarcely able. I had been three days in the Gulf Stream. without cushions or springs rattled over the deep ruts of the frozen ground twelve miles over ice and . to keep water from filling the hold in hourly danger. . making the passage. dreading every moment that a butt would start. which st] uck down our men upon deck. and landed on a desolate shore were driven to walked five . with two large pumps going all the twenty-four hours. and saved the credit of his country. in the dead of winter. reached the shore could find no carriage hired. embarking and disembarking many times. and cracked our mainmast when the oldest oflQcers and stoutest seamen stood aghast..

with Franklin and Jeiferson. And now came probably the happiest period of Mr. John Quinc}''.. Adams. peace with England having been . in her letters. It was absolutely necessary to keep a coach and the coachman and horses cost fifteen guineas a month. and coldly elegant. A heavy tax was imposed upon every thing. A servant polished the floors each morning with a brush buckled to one of his feet. At the same time. but destitute of comfort. Mr. Their expenses were so heavy. Adams's life. As it was evident that his residence abroad was to be extended. All articles of domestic use were about thirty per cent higher than in Boston.84 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. with mirrors and waxed floors. The walls were hned with magnificent mirrors but there was not a carpet in the house. the intense gratificeu to Parlia- tion of hearing George from his throne. The social customs of the country rendered it indispensable that they should keep seven servants. gives a very graphic account of her life at Auteuil. Adams's remarkable financial skill to save them from pecuniary ruin. It Avas situated near the celebrated park called the Woods of Boulogne. then rising into a youth of great promise. The happy re-union took place in the summer of 1784. near Paris. While in England. which he recogWhile in Holland. were with him. of Prussia of commerce. Adams to join him with the residue of their family. The expenses of housekeeping were found to be enormous. Adams Adams received a new com- him to act. Adams had enjoyed III. his eldest son. Jay was compelled to resign his office. On the 24th of February. made overtures to Mr. he wrote to Mrs.'al. for a treaty Frederick II. as he found thai he nould not support himself upon his salary. whose health required that he should take mucli exercise. The humble style in which they wero compelled to live. 1785. Mrs. Mr. walked several hours every day. where Mr. compared with the splendor in which all the other foreign ministers indulged. that it required all Mrs. The village was four miles from Paris. mission. to negotiate treaties of commerce with any of the foreign powers. nized the independence of the United States. and his daughter. . . nor a table better than an oak board. The house was very large. announce in ment that he had concluded a treaty of peace. Adams. Mr. His wife. whose beauty and accomplishments made her justly the pride of both father and mother. authorizing and they selected for their residence a quiet retreat at Auteuil. must have been no small ti.

between people. and affection. bishops. the United States of America have appointed me their minister plenipotentiary to your Majesty. Mr. and for all sorts of courtiers.citihaving the distinguislied honor to be the first to stand in your Majesty's royal presence in a diplomatic character and I shall esteem myself the happiest of men if I can be instrumental in recommending my country more and more to your Majesty's America. in his despatch to Mr. each waiting his turn closet. who had so long regarded him as a traitor. and have directed me to deliver to your Majesty tliis letter. the King of England. addressed his Majesty in the following words " Sire. tliough separated by an ocean and under different governments. generals. He rode to court. which contains the evidence : — of it. . St. He then. proclaimed. . who. It is in obedience to their express commands that liberal I have the honor to assure your Majesty of their unanimous disposition and desire to cultivate the most friendly and intercourse between your Majesty's subjects and their best wishes for your Majesty's health and family. in better words. and of restoring the entire esteem. He crossed the Channel to assume these of his first public reception. Jay. fhen secretary of foreign affairs. He was now to meet. \n the ante-chamber he found the room full of ministers of state. 85 to tlie court of Adams envoy new arduous and delicate responsibilities. citizens. Adams. in his coach. and the third when — he stood before the king. in a voice tremulous with the emotion which the scene was calculated to inspire. upon which he had one at the carefully informed himself. He was soon conducted into the king's where he was left alone with the king and his secretary of state.JOHN ADAMS. Mr. face to face. have the same language. according to the court etiquette. another when he made a couple of steps. and of their for that of the royal " The appointment of a minister from the United States to your Majesty's court will form an epoch in the history of England and 1 think myself more fortunate than all my fellow. and kindred blood. and against whose despotic power he had assisted the nation so successfully to cDntend. royal benevolence. by invitation of Lord Carmarthen. or. the old good nature and the old harmony. an audience. izens in . Congress appointed Mr. confidence. a similar I beg your Majesty's permission to ••eligion. Adams. door. has left an interesting account James. made three low bows.

regarding those effbrts as purely selfish. that we should manifest " a disposition to give this country the preference. and blood. of all your the manners of France. and replied. it was never. last from France. the circumstances of this audience are so extraordinary. I must Dvow your Majesty. in my whole life. for to his not a agitated . is to France. and a disposiThe king listened little to this address in evident emotion. that I have done nothing in the late contest but what I thought myself indispensably bound to do by the duty which I owed to my people. I was the last to conform to the separation but the separation having been made. religion. 1 will be frank with you. I have no attachment but to my own . Yet Mr. Adams if he came Upon receiving an affirmative reply. " That opinion. we should inevitably have been crushed by the British armies." and throws light upon the suggestion he bad ventured to throw out.n intrusted hy mr country. the king asked Mr. Adams had spoken. assuming an air of fluuiliarity. want of attachment not mistaken. which Mr. and. a embarrassed by to the king's allusion to his sir. however. I have always said. see such sentiments and language as yours prevail. and having become inevitable. the language you have now held is so extremely pioper. " I am glad that the choice has upon you. "Sir. said. and that it may be their minister. that moment I shall say. as I say now. to the reason fallen you are not the most attached. he replied. — . " There is an opinion among some people countrymen. although I have sometimes before bei. that. sir." But for the aid of our ally. add. and the feelings you have discovered so justly adapted to the occasion. he smiled. tion to give this country the preference. to believe. that I must say that I not only receive with pleasure the assurance of the friendly disposition of the people of the United States but that I am very glad that the choice has fallen upon you as But I wish you. Let the circumstances of language.86 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS." He seemed proud spirit it was an hour of deep With a voice even more tremulous than that with liumiliation. in a manner so agreeable to myself. understood in America. little He was." This perhaps explains that why the king had said. have their full effect." This formality being over. was not disposed to manifest the slightest gratitude. that I would be the first to meet the friendship The moment I of the United States as an independent power. Adams.

The first Congress under the Constitution met in New York . and exerted a powerful influence. There is not upon this earth a more perfectly honest man than John Adams. We had no national sense of honor. " An honest man will never have any other." Paris. *' Gentle- men. in June of 1788. you do not know that man. was chosen Vice-Presi- America. and reached his rural he solicited permission to return to his own home in Braintree. Adams felt that he was accomliterary labors in plishing but little." Five years after the accomplishment of our independence. 'country. umes. It is not in his nature to meditate any thing which he would not publish to the world. The Constitution which they drew up was accepted by the States. Adams of being covertly in favor of monarchical institutions. " the opportunity of becoming as in colonial days. where Independence had been signed. They met the Declaration of . that a more honest man . As Great Britain did not condescend to appoint a minister to the United States." 87 The king instantly responded. from which he had so long been absent. and we became a nation. There was no common principle harmonizing the action of tho different States. I know him well and I repeat. in Philadelphia. Adams's situation in London was more painful even than in He was met there only with haughtiness and ill-will. Mr." in three vol. as ho pu-blished "A Defence of the American Constitution. Jefferson replied. supercilious indifference. rendered illustrious by his signal services at home and abroad. to the very bitter disappointment of many. while matters a respectable nation. which displayed much ability." Fifty-five delegates were appointed by the various States of the C'onfederacy to frame a Constitution for the United States of in Independence Hall. When some persons accused Mr. neither was order so well established. and as Mr. «lent. were manifestly growing worse.JOim ADAMS. as Washington said. We were not a nation. The success of the Revolution had afforded the United States. Hia London were of much service to his country. George Washington was unanimously chosen President for four years and John Adams. country. Mr. that there was not so much prosperity. Every where he encountered cold civility. It was necessary to organize the Federal Government anew. never issued from the hands of his Creator. it was found.

the Old Continental Congress it adjourned from Philadelphia to Princeton. The question government was brought before the Convention for forming the Constitution. which was assembled in Philadelphia. The Eastern States were in favor of New York. cated the banks of the Potomac. and that there was no city in the world so celebrated " for the orderly and decent behavior of its inhabitants. His journey to New York was a continued ovation. and the corpora tion of New Haven presented him with the freedom of the city.* for the banks of the Delaware. in carriages and on horseback. 1789. At Hartford the manufacturers presented him with a piece of broadcloth for a suit of clothes. who conducted him through the swarming streets to the house of John Jay." seat of On as the other hand. where time the halls of college.88 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. He was received with the ringing of bells. where the Custom House now stands. Dr. near the Bowling Green. was to count the votes for President and Vice-President. and had received the name of Federal Hall. Trhich stood at tho corner of Wall and Nassau Streets. and was escorted by a troop of horse to Boston. the firing of cannon.. left his o'clock on the morning of the 12th of April. military officers and private citizens. The first business. had been remodelled for their accommodation. York. in the lower part of the city. Adams was At ten the first to receive the information of his election. and the shouts of an im- mense concourse of people. The question at this time was very warmly agitated in Congress and throughout the country respecting the permanent location of the seat of government. but tear Congress away from New York in . The President's mansion was the house since known as Bunker's Hotel. Pennsylvania pleaded The more Southern States advv. that " honesty was in fashion " there. Mr. Adams occupied a very beautiful residence at Richmond Hill. occupied for a Thence it adjourned to New York of the where it assembled in the spring of 1785. on the 4th of March. " I rejoice in the prospect of Congress leaving New It is a sink of political vice. Do any you please. after the organization of the two houses. It was urged in favor of New York. oflScial Mr. a large number of members of Congress. he residence in Braintree. In 1783. The City Hall. The West-Chester Light Horse escorted him from the Connecticut line to King's Bridge. Rush wrote. where he was met by a cavalcade of the heads of departments.

She thus describes her new residence at Bush Hill: " Though there remains neither bush nor shrub upon it." One morning. and But for the influence that Conogocheague would be forgotten. way." By uniting the two questions of the location of the Capitol and the assumption of the State debts. Eobert Morris. He concluded. said Jefferson. Adams superintended the removal of their effects to Philadelphia. "It is impossible. it is not improbable that this might have been.JOHN ADAMS. some encouraging. now tho District of Columbia." This question. " This way. and very few trees except the pine grove behind it. Morris. in the mean time. It represented Robert Morris marching off with Federal Hall upon his shoulders." Mrs. they case. they said. by some mutual sacrifices of opinion. beckonTho irritation of way to Mr. '' thome. was quite influential in . The people of New York were greatly vexed. way. the stout Pennsylvania senator as he bore away the prize. discussing the agitating of the Quakers. of Washington. Its windows were crowded with members of both houses eagerly looking out. It was agreed that the government should be permanently established on the Potomac. to form a comprocan mise which is to save the Union. and saying. which was connected with another respecting the assumption of State debts. Jefferson proposed that Hamilton should dine with him the next evening. " were eternally dogging Southern members about with their schemes of emancipation. In conclusion. promising to invite a few other influential friends to talk the matter over. senator from Pennsylvania. yet Bush Hill is a ing in a patronizing Bobby . others anathematizing.' men. consulting together coolly. this 12 . at a place called Conogocheague. Philadelphia should be the metropolitan city. a compromise was ejected. if the public offices would continue there. fail. The Devil stood grinning upon the roof of Paulua Hook Ferry-house. Jefferson met Hamilton on Broadway. and for an hour they walked up and down the crowded pavement. that. " that reasonable accomplishing this result. threatened to dissolve the Union." 89 The Soutb-Carolinians objected to Philadelphia on account who. that ten years should be allowed for the erec tion of the necessary buildings for the accommodation of the government and that. caricature which New York received graphic expression in a was posted throughout the city. the were once opened in Philadelphia.



very beautiful place

but the grand and the sublime




Richmond Hill." For a long time, Congress ^was not at all pleased with the change, and bitter Avere the complaints which were unceasingly uttered. But at length the murmurs subsided, and were lost in the excite« ment of politics and the gayeties of the republican court. The
winter presented a continual succession of
balls, dinner-parties,

and similar


" I should

spend a very dissipated winter,"
accept one-half the invitations


writes, " if I



receive, particularly to the routs, or tea and cards."

In the midst

of this external gayety. Congress was tossed by angry passions and stormy debates. Both Washington and Adams were assailed with intensest bitterness. Both were accused of monarchical tendencies, and of fondness for the pomp and pageantry of royalty.


Deir.ocratic party

was now rapidly

rising into controlling


both Washington and

Adams were


again on the 4th of March, 1793, took the oaths of

There was certainly then a degree of ceremony observed, resomewhat the pageantry of European courts, which has not since been continued. President Washington every fine day walked out. Two aides always accompanied him, who were kept He at a respectful distance, never engaging in conversation. had three very splendid carriages. He drove to church with two horses, into the country with four; and six magnificent creamcolored chargers drew him to the Senate. His servants wore a livery of white, trimmed with scarlet or orange. Both Washington and Adams were " gentlemen of the old school," reserved and somewhat stately in courtesy. An eye-witness describes the scene presented as Washington opened a session of Congress. An immense crowd filled the street through which ho was to pass. As he left his carriage, he ascended the steps of the edifice, and paused upon the upper platform. " There he stood for a moment,

He stood in distinctly seen by everybody. and moral grandeur, erect, serene, majestic.

all his

civic dignity

suit of black velvet


his hair, in itself

His costume was a blanched by time,




whiteness, a dress sword at his side, and his

Thus he stood in silence and what moThroughout the dense crowd profound stillNot a word was heard, not a breath. Palpitations ness reigned. took the place of sounds. It was a feeling infinitely beyond that
hat held in his hand.

ments those were



Every heart was ful. In vain \vhicli vents itself in shouts. would any tongue have spoken. All were gazing in mute, unutEvery eye was riveted on that form, terable admiration. the greatest, purest, most exalted of mortals." Just about this time, that moral earthquake, the French RevoluMr. Adams felt no sympathy tion, shook the continent of Europe. with the French people in this struggle; for he had no confidence in their power of self-government, and utterly abhorred the atheistic character of those jo/u7o50/?Aers, who, in his judgment, inauguHe wrote to Dr. Price, rated the movement. " I know that encyclopedists and economists, Diderot and D'Alembert, Voltaire and Rousseau, have contributed to this event perhaps more than the more than Sidney, Locke, or Hoadly, American Revolution and I own to you, I know not what to


make of a republic of

thirty million atheists."


the other hand, Jefierson's sympathies were strongly enlisted

behalf of the French people, struggling to throw off the yoke

of intolerable despotism.


originated the alienation between

Washington at first hailed the French Revolution with hope; but, as its disorders became more developed, he leaned more strongly to he views of Mr. Adams. Two very powerful parties were thus soon organized. Adams was at the head of the one whose sympathies were with England. Jefferson led the other in sympathy with France. England proclaimed war against the French republicans; played the tyrant over weaker nations upon the ocean; and, despising our This conduct feeble navy, insulted and harassed our commerce. swept increasingly the current of popular feeling torvards Mr. Upon the retirement of Washingto?., at Jefferson and his party. the close of his second presidential term, there was a very hotly contested election and Mr. Adams, by a slender majority, was chosen President and Thomas Jefierson, Vice-President. Weary of the cares of state, and longing to return to his loved home at Mount Vernon, Washington gladly transferred the sceptre to the hands of his successor. Henry VH. said of his son, who was eager for !;he crown, "Alas he little knows what a heap of cares and sorrows he snatcheth at." John Adams found indeed, as even Washington had found before him, the crown of empire to be a crown of thorns. On the 4th of March, 1797, at Philadelphia, John Adams was inaugurated President of the United States. At
these two distinguished men.



au early hour in the morning, Chestnut Street, in the vicinity of Congress Hall, was densely crowded. The hall itself was thronged, many of the members surrendering their seats to the ladies. Mr. Jefferson first took the oath as Vice-President. At twelve o'clock,

Washington entered the hall, followed in a few moments by Mr, Adams. They were both received with enthusiasm. As soon as the oath had been administered, Mr. Adams pronounced his inaugural. At the close of the ceremony, Washington retired, followed by a tumultuous throng, eager to catch a last look of the object of Mr. Adams had but just reached his residence their veneration. when President Washington called upon him, and cordially congratulated him with wishes for his happy, successful, and honorable

These were stormy days, and
to navigate the Ship of State.


required great wisdom safely


conscientious, patriotic,

That Mr. Adams's administration and able, will noAv be universally con-


In the then divided state of the public mind, an arch-

The excitement which the French Revolution created in this country, as the community ranged themselves on the side of England or of France, was intense. For four y ars, Mr. Adams struggled through almost a constant tempest of -ssaults. He was never truly a popular man. The party arrayed against him, with the Vice-President at its head, was powerful in numbers, and still more powerful in ability. He was not a man of conciliatory manners or of winning speech. After four years of harassment, which must have been the four least happy years of his life, he was mortified by losing a re-election. Jefferson was chosen President Aaron Burr, VicePresident and ^ohn Adams was left to return to his farm at Quincy. His chagrin was great, so great as to lead him to the
angel could not have conciliated the hostile parties.

lamentable mistake of refusing to remain in Philadelphia to witr
ness the inauguration of his successful

There had ensued a breach in the friendship of these illustrious men, which was not closed for thirteen years. But it is the duty of the historian to record that there was never a more pure and conscientious administration in this country than that of John Adams. Posterity has given its verdict in approval of nearly all his measures. In almost every conflict, it is now admitted that he was in the right, and his opponents in the wrong. Though the treatment he had received wounded him deeply, and he keenly


ei .otions

the failure of his re-election,


was not without some

of gladness that he laid aside the cares of state to seek refuge

the quiet retreat of his


at Braintree.

was on the 4th of March, 1801, that Mr. Adams retired


after uninterrupted devotion to the public service for

twenty-six years,
voted, as ever

— service

as arduous, as self-sacrificing, as de-

any man. During these long years which he was laying, broad and deep, the foundations of an empire destined to be the greatest upon which the sun has ever shone, he had received from his impoverished country but a meagre support. The only privilege he carried with him into his retirement was that of franking his letters, and receiving them free from postage, for the remainder of his life. He had barely sufficient property to give him needful comforts

to the lot of

of anxiety and


during his declining years. Party spirit then ran so high, that obloquy pursued him even into his retreat. Many hours were
imbittered by the attacks which were
their shades

made upon him.


of social grief, which at times darken over every family, threw

upon the homestead at Quincy. About the time of Mr. Adams's retirement, his eldest son, who was married, and settled in New York, suddenly died, leaving as a legacy to his father's care a wife and two infant children. He
then spoke of this event as the deepest

of his


Almost forgotten

he found the transition painful from his life of excitement, agitation, and the most intense intellectual activity, to one of repose, amounting almost to stagaain his secluded retreat,

He was

then sixty-six years of age.


quarter of a century
generally avoided

remained to him before he died.


public gatherings, and took but

part in political questions,

devoting his time mainly to the cultivation of his farm.


England, looking contemptuously upon our feeble navy, persisted
perpetrating the outrage of searching American ships wherever

they might be found, and dragging from them any sailors


might be designated by any pert lieutenant as British subjectu, both John Adams and his son John Quincy nobly supported the policy of Mr. Jefferson in resenting these outrages. It now seems strange that a single man could be found in all America willing to
submit to such insolence.

But Mr. Adams was

for this bitterly

accused of being recreant to his life-long principles, and of joining the party who were charged with seeking an excuse for dragging



our country into a war against England, that

we might

thus aid


this occasion,

John Adams,

for the first time since his retire

ment, broke silence, and drew up a very able paper, exposing the
atrocity of the British pretensions.

was one of the shrewd

observations of Napoleon, that
nation will do from what
it is



not safe to judge of what a

for the interest of that nation to do,

as peoples are governed far more by their passions than by their

supposed interests. England, actuated by haughty and imbittered feelings, plunged into her second war with America. Mr. Adams had been associated with a party hostile to France, and in In advocating refavor of submission to the British pretensions. sistance, he was regarded as abandoning his old friends, and with bitter animosity was he assailed.* Years rolled on. The treaty of Ghent brought peace with EngMadison and Jefferson's two terras of service expired. land, Mo:2roe came and went; and still the sage of Quincy remained, approaching his ninetieth year. In 1813, their only daughter, who was not very happily married, died, after a long and painful sickIn 1818, when Mr. Adams was eighty -two years of age, his noble wife, who had shared with him the joys and griefs of more than half a century, died, at the age of seventy-four. The event

threw over him a shade of sadness which never disappeared. A gentleman who visited Quincy a year or two before her death gave a description of the interview. Mr. Adams was, in bodily but strength, very infirm, tottering and shaking with age Ms mind seemed as vigorous, and his heart as young, as ever. There was a boy's joyousness and elasticity in his hearty laugh. He joked, was full of fun, ard talked about everybody and every His knowledge thing with the utmost freedom and abandon. boundless for he was equally at home upon seemed to his visitor whatever subject might be introduced. Nothing could be more entertaining than his conversation, it was so replete with anecdote
; ;

and lively sallies of wit. While thus conversing, Mrs. Adams came
lady of rather formal




and stately


cap of exquisite lace sur-

rounded features still exhibiting intellect and energy. Her dress was snowy white, and there was that immaculate neatness in her
It is

not impossible that some of

rertible evidence will

but incontrotliese statements may be disputed be found to sustain them in the " Life and Times of John Adams."



appearance which gives to age almost the sweetness of youth. With less warmth of manner and sociableness than Mr. Adams,
she was sufficiently gracious, and her occasional remarks betrayed
intellectual vigor

and strong sense.

The guest went away,


ing that he should never again behold such living specimens




While his drooping frame and feeble step and dimmed eye showed the ravages of years, his mind retained its wonted vigor. He read until his vision failed, and was then read to, many hours every day. He loved, in conversation with his friends, to recall

younger years, and to fight his battles over His son, John Quincy, rose to distinction, and occupied high posts of honor at home and abroad. In 1825, his parental pride was gratified, and his parental heart gladdened, in the elevation of his son to the chair which the father had honored as President of the United States. When John Quincy Adams received a note from Rufus King, informing him of his election, he enclosed it to his father, with the following lines from his own pen, u.vider date of Feb. 29, 1825
the scenes of his again.


dear and honored Father,
will inform

— The





can only

you of the event of this day upon which I you my congratulations, and ask your blessing and Your affectionate and dutiful son,

John Quincy Adams.
John Adams was now ninety years of age. His enfeebled powend was drawing nigh. The 4th of July, The nation had made arrangements for a more than 1826, came. usually brilliant celebration of that anniversary. Adams and JefIt was hoped that they might be brought toferson still lived. It would gether, at some favored spot, as the nation's guests. indeed have been a touching spectacle to have seen these veneraers indicated that his


other's hands,

men, after a separation of twenty-five years, again clasp each and exchange congratulations in view of the prosperity and power of the nation which they had done so mucli
to form.

But, as the time drew near,
could bear a journey.


was evident that neither of them
30th of June, a
toast to be pre-

gentleman called

On Friday morning, the upon Mr. Adams to obtain a



" I give

sented on the 4th of July at the celebration in Quincy.
you," said he,
his physician

Independence forever^

On the morning of the 4th, rapidly declining. judged that he would scarcely survive the day. There was the ringing of bells, the exultant music of martial bands, the thunders of artillery from ships and forts, from hills and valleys, echoing all over our land, as rejoicing millions welcomed the natal day of the nation. Mr. Adams, upon his dying couch> " Do you listened to these sounds of joy with silent emotion. " Oh, yes " he replied know what day it is?" some one inquired. " it is the glorious 4th of July. God bless it God bless you " Thomas Jefferson," he all It is a great and glorious day." murmured at a later hour to himself, " still survives." These were his last words. But he was mistaken. An hour or two The sands of before, the spirit of Jefferson had taken its flight. own long and memorable life were now run out, and gently his he passed away into that sleep from which there is no earthlj"

He was now




waking. Mr.

Adams was



of rather cold courtesy of manners, of


of incorruptible integrity.

was one defect

in his character, that he


deficient in those genial, sympathetic,

Wherever he ap commanded respect seldom did he win love. His neighbors called him the " Duke of Braintree." But, through all
brotherly graces which bind heart to heart.

peared, he
time, he


must occupy a conspicuous position in the history of this country. It is not easy to find any other name to which America is more indebted for those institutions which constitute its power and its glory +han that of John Adams.







and Childhood. — College Life. — A Law Student— Waniest Scholarship. —Marriage. — Estate at Monticello. — Interest in Public Affairs. — Action the Continental ConGrief. — Letters to Chilgress. — Governor of Virginia. — Death of his Wife.— dren. — Minister to France. — His Popularity. — Political Views. — Scientific Accuracy. — Interest the French Revolution. — Returns to America.— Tue two Parties, Federal and Democratic. — Secretary of State. — Monarchical Seufin^erth. — Letters. — Corro— Vice-Presispondence with John Adams. — Alexander Hamilton. — Weary o' Retireraeut. — dent, — President. — Inaugural. — Stormy Administration. — Life Scenes at Monticello. — Death.




ancestors of


JeflFerson are said to

have been of

origin, emigrating

from the vicinity of Mount Snowdoa




Peter Jefferson, the father of But little is known of them. Thomas, was a man of handsome property and of considerable
13 97




married Jane Randolph, a young lady of nineteen,

of opulent parentage, born in London, and accustomed to the

refinements of

Mr. Peter Jefferson, from his worth of char-

acter and mental attainments, acquired considerable local distinction, and was at one time professor of mathematics in William and Mary College. Peter, with his young bride, took an estate of fourteen hundred H(;res upon the slopes of the Blue Ridge, in what is now called Alliemarle County, and in the vicinity of the present town of




his Avife was born. name of the parish in His home was literally hewn out of the wilderness. There were but few white settlers within many miles of the mansion, which con-

was London where

called Shadwell, from the

and a half cottage-house. A wide hall and four large rooms occupied the lower floor. Above these, there were good chambers and a spacious garret. Two huge outside chimneys contributed to the picturesque aspect of the mansion. It was delightfully situated upon a gentle swell of land upon the slopes of the Blue Ridge, and commanded a sublime prospect of far-reaching mountains and forests. Here Thomas was born, the oldest child of his parents, on the 2d of April, 1743. When he was fourteen j'ears of age, his father We know but very litdied, leaving a widow and eight children. Mr. Jefferson seldom alluded to them. tle about these parents. His most distinguished biographer says, " He was singularly shy
sisted of a spacious story

in speaking or writing of matters of family history."
loTiown of his mother, that she

It is



was a beautiful and accomplished an admirable housekeeper, a good letter-writer, with a great
Mr. Jefferson used to mention as his earliest

fund of humor.

recollection that of being carried

by a slave on a pillow on horseof age, in one of the journeys

when he was but two years

cf the family.

His father and mother belonged


the Church of England


Avas naturally of a serious, pensive, reflective

turn of


the time he Avas five years of age, he Avas kept

gently at school under the best teachers.
favorite with both teachers and scholars


Avas a general

his singular amiability

Avinning the love of the one, and his close application to study

of the other.

and remarkable proficiency securing the affection and esteem It is not usual for a young man to be fond both oi



mathematics and the classics but young Jefferson was alike devoted to each of these branches of learning. He has often been heard to say, that, if he were left to decide between the pleasure derived from the classical education which his father had given him and the large estate which he inherited, he should have
decided in favor of the former. In the year 1760, he entered William and Mary College. IIo was then seventeen years of age, and entered an advanced class.

Williamsburg was then the seat of the Colonial Court, and
the abode of fashion and




JeflFerson lived

somewhat expensively, keeping fine horses, and much caressed by gay society. Still he was earnestly devoted to his
and irreproachable in his morals. he was not ruined. In the second year of his college course, moved by some unexplained inward impulse, he discarded his horses, society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had previously given much time. He often devoted allowing himself for exercise fifteen hours a day to hard study only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out of the city, and back again. He thus attained very high intellectual culture, The most diffialike excelling in philosophy and the languages. A more cult Latin and Greek authors he read with facility. finished scholar has seldom gone forth from collegiate halls and there was not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a more pureminded, upright, gentlemanly young man. Immediately upon leaving college, he entered the law-office of Mr. Wythe, one of the most distinguished lawyers of the State. Mr. Jefferson was then not twenty-one years of age. But there was something in his culture, his commanding character, and his dignified yet courteous deportment, which gave him position with men far his seniors in age and his superiors in rank. The English governor of the colony, Francis Fauquier, was a man of great elegance of manners, whose mansion was the home of a very generous hospitality. He had three especial friends who often met, forming a select circle at his table. These were the eminent counsellor, George Wythe Dr. Small, a Scotch clergyman, one of the most distinguished professors in the college and Thomas Jefferson. It is said that that polish of manners which distinguished Mr. Jefierson through life was acquired in this society. In the law-office he continued his habits of intense application
It is strange that
; ; ,

to study.


In the winter, he rose punctually at five o'clock. In the summer, as soon as, in the first gray of the morning, he could discern the hands of the clock in his room, he sprang from his
o'clock in summer he retired at ten o'clock in His vacations at Shadwell consisted only of a change of place there was no abatement of study. His politeness to all shielded him from incivility, and he never became engaged in any Gambling he so thoroughly detested, that personal rencounter. he never learned to distinguish one card from another. Ardent spirits he never drank, tobacco in any form he never used, and ho was never heard to utter an oath. He was fond of music, and had studied it both practically and Architecture, painting, and sculpture had attracted as a science. so much of his attention, that he was esteemed one of the best oi The accurate knowledge he had acquired critics in the fine arts. of French was of immense use to him in his subsequent diplomatic labors. He read Spanish, and could both write and speak the Italian. The Anglo-Saxon he studied as the root of the English, regarding it as an important element in legal philology. Thus furnished, he went forth to act his part in life's great


At nine



While a student at law, he heard Patrick Henry, who had suddenly burst forth as Virginia's most eloquent orator, make one of

produced an impression upon Jefierson's mind which was never effaced. In 1767, he entered upon the practice of the law. His thoroughly disciplined mind, ample stores of knowledge, and polished
his spirit-moving

speeches against the Stamp Act.


were rapidly raising him

to distinction,


the out-

break of the Revolution caused the general abandonment of the courts of justice, and introduced him to loftier spheres of responsibility, and to action in an arena upon which the eyes of the civil
ized world
his pen, was not distinguished as seldom ventured to take any part in debate. Still, wherever he appeared, he produced a profound impression as a deep thinker, an accurate reasoner, and a man of enlarged


were concentrated. though so able with

a public speaker.


and statesman-like views. He had been but a short time admitted to the bar ere he was chosen by his fellow-citizens to a seat in the Legislature of Virginia. This was in 1769. Jefferson was then the largest slave-

" in Charles-city County.THOMAS JEFFERSON. tilled by about fifty slaves. disappeared in the flames. Mr. In 1772. who resided at a seat called " The Forest." was the reply and then the face of the music-loving negro grow . was celebrated with much splendor. Upon Mr. that he introduced a bill empowering slaveholders to manumit their slaves if they wished to do so. Jefferson's large estate at Shadwell. consisting of two thousand volumes. "None. . called Monticello. took place at the house of John Wayles. Slavery caught the alarm. which. Jefferson's house at Shadwell was burned to the ground and his valuable library. It was the month of January. he married Mrs. which he soon increased to five thousand acres. which the most distinguished resort in our land. holder in the house. energies for the abolition of slavery. the ground was whitened pect of wonderful extent and beautj% new home . radiant as he added. and highly accomplished young widow. In 1770. his It is a 101 remarkable evidence of his foresight^ moral courage." In afteras- when the grief of the irreparable loss was somewhat suaged. and the love of liberty which then inspired him. " But . a curse to the slave. Mr. were none of my books saved ?" exclaimed Mr. which commanded a pros- selected for his This spot Mr. years. as her munificent dowry. She brought to thousand acres of land. " But. the father of the bride. forty one hundred and thirty-five slaves. we saved the fiddle. a very beautiful. next to Mount Vernon. there was a ma- jestic swell of land. amounted to five thousand dollars a year. He — sum in those times. along the Valley of the James. He thus became one of the largest slaveholders in Virginia and yet he labored with all his : wealthy. It was a long ride in their carriage. declaring the institution to be a curse to the master. His income from this land. became His wedding. and him. to their secluded home among the mountains of Albemarle County. A slave came to him with the appalling news. Martha Skelton. Jefferson was in the habit of relating this anecdote with much glee. Jefferson. As they drew near the hills. and from his practice a large at the bar. Jefferson and here he reared a mansion of modest yet elegant architecture. and an offence in the sight of God. massa. He was absent from home at the time. had inherited an estate of nearly two thousand acres of land. The proposition was rejected by an overwhelming vote.

The slaves were soundly in the house But youth and prosperity and love could asleep in their cabins. Some very spirited resolutions were immediately drawn up by Thomas Jefferson. It is said that." sta- tioned in Narragansett Bay to enforce the revenue-laws. when led out. There was. to prepare for united action in opposing any infringement of colonial rights. the groom was sure of a severe in the : when reprimand. the Earl of Dunmore. and by communicating this knowledge. which increased in depth as they advanced. uighl. that even the moderate party could not refuse to vote for them. to its being decoyed aground. if there was a spot on the horse. and his retinue of servants. Late at the raountain-track which they were now threading. a British vessel. nearly six hundred feet above the level of the stream at its base. however. when quite a young man. convert this " horrible dreariness " into an occasion of mirth and fun and laughter. 1772.102 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and mount their horses The snow was two feet deep along It was a cold winter's night. with snow. a court of inquiry was sent over to try those implicated in the " Gaspee " affair. The British Government retaliated by passing a law that the wilful destruction of the least thing belonging to the navy should be punishable with death. With his large estates. which would soil a linen handkerchief. He was very particular about his saddle-horse. manifested his displeasure by immediately dissolving the house. appointing a standing committee to obtain the earliest intelligence of all proceedings in England with regard to the colonies. Mr. until. they reached the summit of the hill. The committee. evening they were entering the mountains. met the next day sent a copy of the resolutions to the other colonies. shivering and weary. about insolence of this time. that they were compelled to leave their carriage at a dilapidated house. they found the road so obstructed. " The Gaspee. They were so skilfully worded. . or to send them to England for trial should they choose to do so. This was the intent of the resolutions. in correspondence with the sister colonies. But the then governor. At the same time. and burned. Here a gloomy reception awaited them. He usually kept half a dozen high-blooded brood-mares. There were no lights all the fires were out. Jefferson could afford to indulge in the luxury of magnificent horses. in June. The its officers had led.

and placing him erect and solidly on his centre. and to turn the hearts of the king and parliament to moderation and justice. The governor was so irritated.THOMAS JEFFERSON. arousing every man. When the British cabinet. it was published in several editions in England. in 1774." It attracted so much attention. met in association." . to inspire us with firmness in support of our rights. " The effect of the day through the whole colony was like a shock of electricity. and requested them to appoint a 103 the Virginia committee. Jefferson was now very thoroughly aroused and he was busy with voice and pen in the assertion. a man of grave and religious character. He wrote a pamphlet entitled ''A Summary View of the Rights of British America. moved the resolutions and they were adopted without opposition." which afterwards became so potent in resisting the encroachments of the British crown. Mr. received into their number several clergymen and it private citizens. that they considered an attack on one colon}'^ an attack on and recommended a General Annual Congress. "were the active agents in this important movement. appointing a day of and prayer " to implore Heaven to avert from us the evil of civil war. that the American colonies had a right to govern themselves through their own legislatures. The day of prayer was almost universally observed with appropriate discourses. drew up fasting some resolutions. The clergy entered into the measures with earnest patriotism. Je£ferRon and a few of his associates met. shutting up the harbor. enacted the Boston Port Bill. that . The British had now unsheathed the sword at Lexington. denounced the course of England. and. and the two Lees. The members of tlie Colonial Court. for some unexplained reason the measure did not go into action and Jeiferson is justly entitled to the honor of having put into operation the " Committees of Correspondence. Jefferson writes. Patrick Henry. after the dissolution. Mr. to rouse the people of all the colonies to sympathetic action with Massachusetts. This was in the spring of 1774. Nichols." Mr. that he dissolved the house. avowed all. Thomas JeflFerson. and thus dooming Boston to ruin. declaring that the measure " was a high reflection upon hia Majesty and the Parliament of Great Britain." Mr. committee to correspond with Thougli Massachusetts had two years before made a similar movement. and Jefferson was in . as a measure . declared unpatriotic to purchase any of the articles which she had taxed.

more exposed to this than the careful writer who ponders the significance of every word. The native suavity of Jefferson. heart. in his autobiography. Jefferson made. Yet Thomas Jefferson suffered the reputation of the authorship to rest with one of his associates on the committee his life long. The production was mainly from his pen. magnanimous. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were on the committee to carry 1775. fiery debater. line that and everj came from it At the meeting of the second convention of Virginia. two spare horses . captivated his opponents. 1775. in March. Congress had been in session six weeks when he arrived and he was the youngest member in the body but one. It is said that he had not an enemy in Congress. It was one of the most popular documents ever written. and disciplining a sufficient number of men. and decisive upon committees and in conversation (not even Samuel Adams was more so). and he Adams could not brook was ever involved in quarrels. John opposition. arming. was adopted. elled in a phaeton. earnestly advocated by Jefferby embodying. His pen was ever was marked with power. brave-hearted.104 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Mr. and was greeted with enthusiasm from the pulpit and in the market-place. Jefferson left "Williamsburg to take his seat in the Colonial Congress at Philadelphia. to put the colony into a state of defence thes(^ resolutions into effect. he had to hire guides. that. of course. alluding pression which Mr. frank. he was appointed on a committee to prepare an address on the causes of taking up arms. he was so prompt. On the 11th of June. . that he soon seized upon my Though a explicit. writes. at times. leading He trav- and was ten days in making a journey which can now be accomplished in as many hours. John Adams. His reputation as a writer had preceded him and he immediately took a conspicuous stand. all It was only after the death of both Jefferson and Dickinson that the real author of the document was publicly . The roads were so intricate and unfrequented." Blunt. and the frankness and force with which he expressed his views. active. the resolution son. his modesty. is. though he seldom spoke. It was read at the head of the armies amidst the booming of cannon and the huzzas of the soldiers. . " — to the favorable im- silent member in Congress. The impetuous. favor of decisive measures. In five days after he had taken his seat.

he for reconciliation who still wish for re-union with and would rather be in dependence on Great Britain. Soon after this. consisting of Benjamin Franklin. and which late experience has shown they will so cruelly exercise. he wrote to the same man." At length. But I am one of those too. Randolph. dear sir. by the God that made me. in tones of almost prophetic solemnity and indignsr ish ministry tion : — "Believe me. would lend my hand to sink the whole island in the the parent country . cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do: I will cease to exist before I yield . Lee. on such terms as the British Parliament propose and in this I think I speak the sentiments of America. " I am sincerely one of those — ocean. that and the most cautious of the conservatives." chosen by these illustrious colleagues to draught the paper. wrote. Franklin and Adams suggested a few verbal corrections before it was fiubmitted to Congress. and Richard H. were appointed to report on Lord North's "conciliatory Jefferson. properly limited. the youngest member in the house. were warm personal friends of Thomas Jefferson. The immortal document was presented to the Congress on the 28th of June. who had sided with the British. who. The Declaration to a connection 14 . a committee. Jefferson was hoping with England. It is a 105 These traits of character which are thus developed. known. John Adams. Even as late as the autumn of 1775. Li a letter to Mr." The responsible task was committed to the pen of Jefferson. or than on no nation. never in the slightest degree a trimmer. Thomas Jefferson. John Adanifi on the one side. decided as he was in his views. there is not in the British Empire a man who more but. and John Dickinson on the other. the hour came for draughting the " Declaration of Independence. rather than submit to the rights of legislating for us assumed by the British Parliament. and was adopted and signed on the 4th of July." Three months after this. Mr.THOMAS JEFFERSON. after another. and was about to sail for England. roused by the ferocity which the Britwere displaying. one very noble and extraordinary man. on the 22d of July. than on any nation upon earth. then in England. he won the confidence and the affection both of the most radical men of the progressive party. was proposition. surely indicate a remarkable fact. 1776.

slender man. The British were now preparing to strike their heaviest blows upon Georgia and the Carolinas. has been said. should the feeble In the midst of this scene. continued. a heroism which only glared forth more luridly at the approach of danger. Mr. For three days. with whose name the future of the nation became intimately blended. 1 shall have the advantage. and remarked. In 1779.— 106 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. they might prove value . and which doomed him inevitably to the scaffold. that. of spotless purity of character. room as one after another which brought down upon him aflttxed his name to that document." tragic. when the hanging comes. a will of torrent-like force. whom a breath of wind would almost blow away. He was then thirty-six years of age." it lips. with a characteristic Almighty God." independcDt States. momentous event than the signing of the DeclaIt was accompanied with prayer to ration of Independence. fragile. Here we first meet in public with a young You'll kick in the air half an hour after man — James Madison — of refined culture. One may search the ages to find a more solemn. a small. Benjamin Harrison. Jefferson resigned The colonies were now for a time his seat in Congress to aid in organizing the government of Virginia. in the A event of the success of the Revolution. Jefferson opened not his less sway. Silence pervaded the chuckle. the implacable hate of the mightiest power upon the globe. are all ever blended in this world. weighing something like a third of a ton. JeSerson was chosen Governor of Virginia. the debate " John Adams. they intended thence to march resistlessly towards the North. the sublime The comic and the and the ridiculous. " Gerry. and with a power to which a mind masculine and impassioned in its conceptions. colonies fail in the unequal struggle. proclamation was also issued declaring the intention of Great Britain to devastate the colonies as utterly as possible. " was the great champion of the Declaration on the floor. looked down upon Mr. of polished address. Establishing themselves in those thinly populated States. Mr. Gerry. lent resistpassed a fiery ordeal of criticism. a Virginia grandee of immense corpulence. it is all over with me. fighting fearlessly for every word of it. and a patriotism whose burning throb was rather akin to the feeling of a parent fighting over his offspring than to the colder sentiment of tamer minds. of keen powers of reasoning.

. opposite Elk Island. Twenty-seven slaves were also " Had he carried off the slaves. with savage ferocity.THOMAS JEFFERSON. Jefferson. Scarcely five minutes elapsed. A march north from The foe destroyed all his crops. less to 107 France. of the foe . drove off the cattle. As gov- had rendered invaluable service to the common cause. Tarleton. burnt barns and fences. exposure. Jefferson declined the appointment. Jefferson never uttered a complaint. were perpetrating horrid outrages on our frontiers. in June. and left the whole plantation a smouldering. sent a secret expedition to Monticello to capture the governor. and grief. the Carolinas. 1776. Jay. seized the serviceable horses. ere his mansion was in the possession of the British troops. provided with British arms. who had become our ally. as ministers pleniernor. He was now. while Tarleton. In these trying hours. Mr. sustained Gen. Mr." A large number of these slaves died of putrid fever. he would have done right. Jefferson had a plantation at Elk Hill. Jefferson and his family. Of all this. and often led by British oflScers. and Laurens. When Jefferson took the chair of state. British ofiicer. on the detachment of the army of Cornwallis. Washington. . Jefferson. In September. seized his it. after the hurried escape of Mr. commissioners to negotiate treaties of alliance and commerce with France. or to leave her at home separated from her husband. who had suffered terribly from anxiety. and who was so frail that it would have been . blackened waste. the extreme of cruelty to expose her and her two surviving chil- dren to the peril of capture by British ships then covering the ocean. ever ready to sacriAt one time. Congress had chosen Franklin. and Charleston threatened the savages on the Ohio and the Mississippi. Georgia had fallen helpless into the hands South Carolina was invaded. in Europe. directions. carried off. then raging in the British camp. Mr. 1781. in their James River. with all the energies of his mind and heart." says Jefferson with characteristic magnanimity. as he deemed it necessary that he should remain at home to assist in the organization of the State Government of Virginia. Jefferson's health. cut the throats of the colts. "to give them freedom. and Silas Deane. he potentiary to treat for peace but the exceedingly delicate state of Mrs. Franklin. again appointed to co-operate with Adams. rendered it was sweeping the State in all clearly his duty again to decline. tho fice all local interests for the general cause.

this time About he was thrown from his horse. with scarcely any roads. They tried to drive him from his office. ble for Mr. like a felon. He was suffering from severe pen-onal injuries caused by the fall from hia horse. A party rose in Virginia. in those The whole is written in a glowing style of pure and undefiled English. and whose freedom he was laboring to secure. and raise a dictator to occupy his place. from place to place. and a dying wife within. confined him to his secluded forest home for several months. was republished in England and it France. Jefferson. His wife. He was too proud to enter upon a defence of himself. like Washington. ranged by Indians. one of the most lovely and loving of Christian ladies. dissatisfied with the course Jefferson had pursued in his attempt to repel the invaders of the State. The indignity pierced him to the quick. Jefferson." The work attracted much the Continent.108 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. crush his reputation. so affected his spirits. and to whom he was attached with a romance of affection never exceeded. But man is born to mourn." It was now the latter part of the year 1781. the hours in writing his celebrated " Notes on Virginia. and introduced his still name favorably to the philosophers of a perplexing question how was possi- days when Virginia was in many parts almost an unexplored wilderness. It is attention . by the His property had been wantonly and brutally destroyed. to have obtained the vast amount of minute and accurate information which he has presented in these Notes. notwithstanding all the sufferings which calumny could heap upon them. assailed. there come days which are " cold and dark and dreary. that he resolved to retire from public life. and the sickness of his wife. His wife was uymg. This accident. The double calamity of a pitiless storm of vituperation out of doors. was sinking away in lingering death. ^l^any of his slaves whom he loved. him. There was no hope of her recovery. and quite seri. was excessively sensitive to reproach while at the same time both of these illustrious men possessed that noble nature which induced them to persevere in the course which seemed to be right. and to spend the remainder of his days in the quietude of his desolated home. It was indeed a gloomy day which was now settling down around . . which often soars to the eloquent. He improved ously injured. and his gcod name was fiercely He had been pursued British soldiery. had perished miserably. In every life.

Jefferson was a Christian. She died on the 6th of September. and even appeared to be frightened. attract her attention. He fainted entirely away. in thus secluding himself at home. Randall. Who can imagine the anguish which a warmhim. When hearted man must feel in witnessing the death of a wife whom he loved almost to adoration. she lookeil momentarily alarmed and distressed. the customary look upon her. For four months. He seemed unwilhng that any one else should administer to her medicine and drink. 1782. with that yearning which seems to have power to retard even the approaches of death. no other sound could reach her ear or When she waked from slumber.— THOMAS JEFFERSON. Mr. When not at her bedside. Unfeeling letters were sent to him. describing these scenes." For weeks. almost in a state of insensibility. can by faith hear a Saviour's voice whispering to him. " — The violence of his emotion. Mrs. and remained so long insensible. at that bedside. " Let not your heart be faith. to support him. With difficulty they conveyed him into the library. ! scepticism had been early instilled into his nature . and in these no hope. that it was feared he never would recover. 109 Mrs. Jefferson sat lovingly. and unsustained by that hope of re-union in heaven which a belief in Christianity confers ? His distress was so terrible. His eldest daughter. a loving disciple of the Re« But there were no cheering Christian hopes to sustain for he had many doubts respecting the truth of Christianity. Happy is he. No woman could have proved a more tender nurse. if the customary form was not bending over her." said. " Oh that I could believe " The poison of deemer. He must often have exclaimed in anguish of spirit. of unfaithfulness to duty. and urging him again to come forth to life's great battle. after he spoke. he was writing in a closet which opened at the head of her bed. Her eyes were rested on him. hours of earthly gloom he had no traubled. when almost by stealth I entered . faithful daughter of the Church had no dread of the herebut she yearned to remain with her husband. Ran- dolph. writes. but with a crushed heart. ever followed " The . Mr. accusing him of weakness. that his friends were compelled to lead him from the room. in such seasons of sorrow. who. in Beautifully has Jefferson's biographer. before the scene was closed. Jefferson was never beyond the call of his dying wife. the sinking heart of her husband .

the further prosecution of offensive war try. The English ministry were now getting tired of the war. with words of endearment upon the envelopes. The lines are thus freely translated by Pope : remembrance of scenes of that lost home beyond — " If. He never married traits This tenderness of affection in this resolve is man of imperial mind of his and inflexible one of the most marked character. uncheered by Christian faith. again. Mr. at last. He walked almost incessantly night and day. shall sacred last The flames of friends and lovers cease to glow. "That all those who should advise. one cannot but read with sadness. Jefferson was re-appointed on the 12th of November by Congress. and animate my shade. undecayed. and I was never a moment from his side. and the grave retains its victory. from the " Iliad. by any means attempt. unanimously. Forty-four years after the death of Mrs. locks of hair. he rode out and from that time he was incessantly on horseback. ." America. : tary witness to many violent bursts of grief." of the apostrophe of Achilles over the dead body of Hector. Jefferson. In thos*^ melancholy rambles. and without a single adverse remark. in the melancholy shades below. in the least-frequented roads. kept his room three weeks. death is. Burn on through death. . 1782. It was a quotation. in Greek. at night. to this day I dare not trust myself to describe. I was his constant companion a soli." The inscription which the philosopher. and various other little souvenirs of his wife. to which he frequently resorted. there were found in a secret drawer in a private cabinet. placed upon the gravestone of his companion.110 his LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. the king of terrors. the which has consecrated particular the power of time to obliterate. rambling about the mountain. on a pallet which had been brought in during his long fainting-fit. and he was compelled to make overtures for peace. only lying down occasionally. The or in opposition in Parliament had succeeded in carrying a resolution on the 4th of March. room He When. Yet mine mine. should be considered as enemies to their king and coun- This popular decision overcame the obstinacy of the king." Without the light which Christianity gives. he left his room. and just as often through the woods. indeed. when nature was completely exhausted. minister plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty.

when you feel your own unworthiness. letters reveal the heart of a watchful and loving father. Those who had assailed him had withdrawn their accusations. and He was legislative enactment had done justice to his career." In March. if you always obey it. he writes to a friend. pray night and morning to your heavenly Father that he will help j^ou to do right. who was at school at Annapolis. you will always be prepared for the end of the world. The draught is still preserved ia . the treaty of peace and it became unnecessary for him to go upon that mission. Alluding to little IH me this. and ought not to be said or done. had been disturbed by some predictions respecting the speedy end of the world. he wrote many affecagain elected to Congress.objects. my self in the arms of retirement." There were various and complicated obstacles departure ed. in the way was of hia effect- while. . we can be forgiven if we repent. He has given his Son to die for us and. or You will feel someto do any thing wrong. an appointment from Congress found me. Jefferson was appointed on a committee to draught a plan for the government of that immense region called the North-western Territory. thing within you which will tell you it is wrong. " Your letter found emerging from the stupor of mind which had rendered me a Before that as dead to the world as she whose loss occasioned it. and trust in him. . who were then at school. and be sure to obey. God is a loving Father. do not be disheartened. the best way for you is to be always prepared for it. which is death. In this stats of mind. Mr. And. my dear child. These tionate letters to his daughters. He writes to her. The only way to be so is never to do or say a bad thing. and to resist temptation to do wrong. Oar Maker has given us all this faithful internal monitor and. consider beforehand. I had folded myevent. This is your conscience. . in the mean time. This must happen to all." Her sainted Christian mother would have added to this most excellent advice. scheme of life had been determined. " As to preparations for that event. sinners as we all are. or for a much more certain event. At this period. and rested all prospects of future happiness on domestic and literarj'. If ever you are about to say any thing amiss.— THOMAS JEFFERSON. requiring me to crosB the Atlantic. It puts an end to the world as to us and the way to be ready for it is never to do a wrong act. 1784. — . Martha. ''And.

After a delightful voyage." This clause was stricken out by motion of Mr. Conviction is the effect of our own dispassionate rea- soning. plenipotentiary with Mr. Congress appointed Mr. Franklin the most amiable of men in society. and. Jefferson had wonderful power of winning opinions. above all others. standing uncommitted in argument ourselves. never gave or received a challenge. made Dr. Leaving two daughone six years of age. Mr. Franklin in negotiating ters with their maternal aunt. courteous. " That. and sailed for Europe on the 5th of July from Boston. I have seen many of them getting warm. and was never known to encounter a per' — sonal insult. who soon died. otherwise than in punisliment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted to have been personally guilty. The following extract from a letter to his grandson brings clearly to light this trait in his character : — " In stating prudential rules for our government in society. engaged vigorously with them in accomplishing the object of his mission. meeting his colleagues at Passy. I must not omit the important one of never entering into dispute or argument with another. Jefferson to act as minister Adams and Dr. Thus he was a great favorite with all who knew him. there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude any of the said States. Dr.112 his LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. or weighing within ourselves dispassionately what we hear from others. 1784. handwriting in Washington. nations. Spaight of North Carolina. and the other a frail babe of two years. and shooting one another. genial. never to contradict anybody. considerate to the poor. he took his eldest daughter Martha with him. which. either in solitude. Franklin. treaties of In May. he never got into a personal altercation w^ith any one. It was one of the rules. after the year 1800 of the Christian era. becoming rude. seconded by Mr. Here he placed his daughter at school. Read of South in Carolina. he reached Paris on the 6th of August. he inscribed in the ordinance the provision. True to his unwavering princi- ple of devotion to the rights of humanity. I never yet saw an instance of one of two disputants convincing the other by argument. Stormy as were the times in which he lived.' " affable. while he scrupulously avoided all men to his controversy. Jefferson was by nature a gentleman. now aged commerce with foreign .

and who was a keen judge of character. indeed. any distinguished stranger came to the gay metropolis." was the prompt reply " no man can replace him." If His saloon was ever crowded with the choicest society of Paris. Adams. No foreign minister. was ever so caressed before. Franklin. had : written a graphic account of his elegant mountain-home. and the profound statesman. the Count Chastellux. I hear. had won the love of the French people unboundedly popular with both peasant and prince. the Count de Vergennes. obtained permission to return 113 home from his embassy His genial character." 16 .THOMAS JEFFERSON. matter to step into the position which had been occupied by oae Few men could have done this so Bo enthusiastically admired. Jefferson. was charmed with Mr. and wrote to her sister that he was " the chosen frank. a delicate coast. " as man with had ever done business. " I found the Count de Vergennes. " it seems that a man might pass his nature. from his veranda. life without encountering a single rudeness. that it was almost an ovation. where. Mrs.ny of the earth. to France." whom I Even Mr." he wrote. with the exception of Franklin. and where the republican senator administered the rites of hospitality with grace which would have adorned the saloons of Versailles. as easy of access to reason. combined with his illustrious and he was merit. Jefferson. . Jefferson. he was sure to find his way to the hotel of the American ambassador." writes Mr. amidst the sublime solitudes of the Alleghanies. as a. Such attentions were lavished upon him in his journey from Paris to the It was. The gentleness and refinement of French manners possessed great charms for one of his delicate and sensitive " Here. the brilliant scholar and philosopher. They were both on the most friendly terms with the French minister. be looked down upon countless leagues of the primeval forest. gracefully as did Jefferson." said the celebrated French minister. One of his noble visitors. and the most sincere attachment existed between them. " I succeed him." The French officers who had served in America had carried back glowing reports of Mr. as honorable. " You replace M. who stood upon the highest platform of moral excellence. Adams's dogmatic spirit was mollified by the urbanity of his colleague. and infirm. Jefferson and Franklin were kindred spirits. as the accomplished gentleman.

then/' he says. He said that they were in danger of acquiring a fondness for European luxury and dissipation. he found universally kind and respectful feelinga towards our country. and in his happiness." fine Mr. the most the ages. was ever ready to greet with words of most cordial welcome the representatives of the United States. There never has been a story more falsely told. The combined despotic courts — the made of Europe endeavored to crush the people in their despairing struggle to shake off the fetters which had eaten through tho . aud bury himself for a time in the unbroken solitude of this retreat. on Mount Calvary. that our liberties could never be safe unless they were placed in the hands of the masses of the people. He was deeply impressed with the degradation and . retire. never a perversion of history more thorough. in his health. and even the court. " It appears to me. " that an American coming to Europe for edu. he was very much opposed to Americans going to Europe an education. and power of the realm in the hands of a few noble families. As he pondered the misery into which twenty millions of people were plunged through that terrible despotism which had been the slow growth of ages. In France. in his morals. which was ever after the first article in his political creed. wimderful tragedy. and would look with contempt upon the simplicity of their own country that they would be fascinated by the privileges enjoyed by the arisfor . honor. cation loses in his knowledge. and which placed all the wealth.114 Still LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. oppression of the great mass detestation of the execrable and his of the French people government under which France groaned increased every day. The philosophers and all the thinkers were charmed with the new era of republican liberty which we had introduced . than the usual representations which have been of the French Revolution. gratified that we had been the instrument of humbling the intolerable arrogance of Great Britain. he would tery. he often expressed the conviction. tocracy that they would lose that perfect command of their own language which can never be acquired if neglected during the period between fifteen and twenty years of age. and those people were well educated. Jeflerson occupied in Paris a very Elysees house on the Champs he had also taken some rooms in the Carthusian monasWhen business pressed him. in his habits. of all most sublime conflict.

In March.THOMAS JEFFERSON. Soon after." he writes. have given is me opportunities of studying and a bad calculator of the force and probable effect of the motives which govern men. " should no more heed the clamors of the people than the moon heeds the barking of dogs. irritable. at Versailles. Adams and myself" Speaking of the delicacy of his mental organization. ested as the Being who made him. His sensitive nature . Coles of Philadelphia. In the despairing hours of this conflict. 1787. except where knowledge of the world is necessary to found judgment. "Kings and queens. A He seven-months' intimacy with him here. on the 22d of February. a great man in Congress. but for the aid which we derived from that country. he went to London with Mr. the hireling advocates of these despt tisms gave their own base version of the story to the world. " possible for was any thing to be more ungracious than their notice of Mr. He would be. John Adams: " — You know in the opinion I formerly entertained of my friend Mr. the French people weie The at times driven to such frenzy as to lose all self-control. " On my it presim- entation as usual to the king and queen. the Hon. he wrote to Lafayette. having fastened tlie fetters on again and riveted them anew. " He not only could never enter on any freedom in manners or conversation himself. we never could have gained our independence." His sympathies with France were increased by the conviction. Adams to negotiate a treaty of commerce. Adams." The sympathies of Jefferson were always with the people struggling for popular rights never Avith those struggling to crush those rights. " Keeping the good model of your neighborvain. that. Mr. but any approach to a broad one in his presence made him literally blush like a boy. keenly felt the insulting coldness of his reception. a life-long friend of Jefferson." wrote an Austrian princess. This He is as disinteris all the ill which can possibly be said of him. which he never hesitated to avow. that I pronounce you will love him if ever you become acquainted with him. as he was. spirit with which they were assailed maddened them. London. 1786. and as many weeks him closely. writes. He is so amiable." Jefferson was present at the opening of the Assembly of Nota* bles. and accurate in his judgment. In a letter written about this time. He is profound in his views. . : 115 flesh to the bone and then. he gives the fol- lowing as his estimate of the character of his illustrious colleague.

never did I witness a particle of injustice in my father. writes. of the British Constitution. If every advance is to be purchased by filh'ng the royal coffers with gold. you may yet get on. he wrote to his daughters. any more than we did com. it towards a good constitution. or seen him do an act. which I. that. even the thoughts of our minds. He was a mother as well as a father tf) them. and all our untold wishes. His letters were filled with affection. While engaged in these matters of national interest. and watched over them with truly feminine tenderness. regretted. Be assured that it gives much more pain to the mind to bf» in debt. Never was there to a more beautiful exhibition of the parental All the honors tie. who wished to of the practical rules of life. His daughter M^^vtha. He seemed to know every thing. Though that model is not perfect. He had great influence with all the patriot leaders. the friends of his early years he wrote at this time. than to do without any article whatever which we may se^ra to want." It is the concurrent testimony of his childr^u and grandchildren. in all their griefs. Jefferson received seemed produce of no change in the simplicity of his republican tastes." This was the plan of Lafayette and his coadjutors to establish popular rights in France under a monarchy framed on the model will Jefferson agreed with these men in wish to maintain the monarchical form of government. step by step. he wrote.116 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. incur some slight debt. We venerated him as something wiser and better than other men. as the best for them. of nev^r buying any thing which you have not money in your pocket to p^y for.afterwards. would unite more suffrages than any new one which could be proposed." In all their joys. — To one . Never have I hP5>-rd him say a word. and entered into the most minute details To his daughter. n'"ver manifesting sullenness or anger or irritation. " This is a departure from that rule which I wish to see you governed by through your whole life. never speaking a harsh word. one of the most accomplished of ladies. "Never. We wondered that we did not fear him and yet we did not. panions of our own age. these motherless girls ran to their father. their — — — . he was rme of the most amiable of men. and was frequently consulted by them in their most important measures. ing country before yonr eyes. as it be gold well emploj^ed. at the time o*. in all his domestic relations. But he would surround it w?th republican institutions. which Mr. it is better to make that the object.

chanced to witness the first coHision between the royal troops and the people in the Place of Louis allowed. and their to the imprisonment. starving. No reform was to be permitted. the National Assembly conferred the unprecedented compliment upon Mr. as his sense of delicacy would not allow him to take such a part in the internal transactions of a country to whose court he was a recognizocl ambassador. omit them all. and letting the world books.'* And now the king's troops. and seven of the leading patriots. Jefferson. XV. It is ments but I see only necessary to possess them to know how little they contribute to happiness. One day he received a note from Lafayette. with clattering cavalry and lumbering artiller}^. the musket. after dinner. ? weak but kind-hearted king have been fa^ith him- he would in good have accepted and carried out the contemplated reforms. — where . It is difficult to turn away from . " I was a silent witness to a coolness and — — : ." writes Jefferson. the capture of the king and queen. cloth being removed. from four in the afternoon until ten at night "During which time. 11'? which can be pleased by honors and prefernothing in them but envy and enmity. than to occupy the most splendid post which any human power can give. Jefferson of inviting him to attend and assist in their deliberations.THOMAS JEFFERSOm " There are minds . and roll on as it liked. but he felt constrained to decline the honor. upon Versailles transportation trial. was to be answered with the sword. day. in his carriage. Amidst these stormy scenes. left to another such drama in the annals of time that. or all was lost. the attempted is flight. informing him that he should bring a party of six or eight friends to ask a dinner of him the next Lafayette. They came. or rather how hostile they are to it. ragged. and the cannon. I a shut up in a very modest cottage with my few old friends. remarking that it was necessary to combine their energies. could the self. execution. The the representatives of different parties in the Assembly. my had rather be family. there to be found Jefferson thought. no constitution to be The cry of perishing millions. came pouring into the streets of Paris to crush the patriots. Mr. Lafayette introduced the object of the meeting. dining on simple bacon. The conference continued for six hours. demolition of the Bastille Tuileries the rush of Paris arrest. but this brief sketch compels us to . the sublime and tremendous scenes which now ensued The .

and devoutly took part in the responses. advanced to meet him. Mr. In France. and dreaming of finding freedom in the cell of the nun from the frivolities. Soon after this. trem- and with palpitating heart. that he already knew every thing that had passed instead of taking umbrage at the use thus made of his house. The carriage rolled from the door. and there was no answer. and chaste eloquence.118 LIVES OF TOE PRESIDENTS. it had happened. reverential girl. Jefi"erson returned to America. thoughtful. and to dedicate herself to (he duties of a religious life. would tend to moderate the warmer promote only salutary reform. to a logical reasoning candor of argument unusual in the conflicts of political opinion. With his characteristic frankness. disfigured by no gaudy tinsel of rhetoric or declamation. and informed his daughters that he had come to take them away. Her eldest daughter. and truly worthy of being placed in parallel with the finest dialogues of antiquity as handed They agreed upon a to us by Xenophon. He greeted her with almost more than his wonted cordiality and affection. Then her fa- ther's carriage rolled bling. held a short private interview with the abbess. Martha. he . Jefferson had placed his daughters at school in a convent. to being sure that his influence have Mr. Mr. and explained to him just The minister very courteously replied. by Plato and Cicero. the serene life. considering his relation to the court. of Panthemont. his departed wife had been a member of the Episcopal Church. uttered a word to lead his children to suppose that he had any doubts respecting Christianity. he waited on Count in a how Montmoiin. Jefferson. and their days in the convent wero . Martha. would be glad spirits. Martha. As Ave have mentioned. A few days passed." single legislature. turmoil. and that. the deHaving one of those votion. the minister of the king. Jefierson assist at all such conferences. of fine mind and heart. she wrote to her father for permission to remain in the convent. Mr. and temptations of life. had all her moral and reHer father never ligious feelings educated in that direction. became very deeply impressed with the seclusion. giving the king a veto. up to the door of the convent. he promptly decided what to do. a serious. sensitive natures peculiarly susceptible to such influences. He attended the Episcopal Church and to with them. The next morning. was placed very embarrassing situation in having such a conference thus held at his house.

that. and received us for almost on the footing of her own in citizens . friends gathered His numerous around him on his departure. has spent her blood and money to save us. " It is impossible to desire better dispositions toward us than prevail in this Assembly. ties then rising in the United States. on the 23d of September. libelled us in foreign nations endeavored to poison them against the reception of to place these two nations on a our most precious commodities. quantities equal. if the maxim be make unequal you must add more one than to the other. John Adams was a distinguished represen- tative of the English party. sulted us in earth. This was in April. and hell. In after-years. to her desire to enter the convent. Martha. terms he expresses his views upon this subject. 1789. he says. to to more to one than to the other.— . to re- Having obtained leave of absence. Jefferson turn to America. . When. in a letter to Mr. JefIn the following ferson was prominently of the French party. a model Our proceedings have been viewed as them on every occasion. she spoke. any thing should come from us to check TIjc placing them on a mere footing with the English will it. THOMAS JEFFERSON. I am sorry. Speaking of the National Assembly in France. and became the ornament of her father's saloons and never was there the slightest allusion made." left Paris. shut her doors to us in every port \vhere her interests would permit it. one of which would rather the other favor England in commercial and legislative policy He was now We : would favor France. RO long in Europe. have this effect. He scouted the idea that we owed any gratitude to France for her intervention in our behalf. has in- all her councils peace . beautiful. James Madison. of her father's judicious course on the occasion. has opened her bosom to us in peace. graceful. while the other haa moved heaven. It was supposed that he . 119 ended. was introduced to society. that. in the moment of such a disposition. with the warmest demonstrations of admiration and love. of two nations. — footing is to give a great deal true. the one has engaged herself in a ruinous war for us. by word or letter. 1789. Her wish was not a deep : waa uierely the transient emotion of a romantic girl. to exterminate us in war . accomplished. tall. with religious conviction it a heart full of gratitude. Jefferson had not expected to remain anxious to return with bis have spoken of the two pardaughters to his own country.

ing home. Mr. The slaves miles from the mansion. . reached on the 23d of December.120 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. The whole number. . was leaving but for a short visit home. They set out in a private carriage. men. Mr. stages there in those days. and children. Two or three days before rea?h. women. at an early hour. wildfire through the negro-huts. making several friendly visits. dressed in their best. borrowing horses of their friends. Jefferson and There were no his daugliters landed at Norfolk in December. for Monticello which they They loitered on the way. J! JEFFERSON S RCTUHN TO MONTICELLO. clustered at several points over begged for a holiday to receive their master. his unbounded popularity would have conferred upon him no less imposing demonstrations than those which had been lavished upon Benjamin Franklin. Had it been known that his departure was to be final. Jefferson sent an express to his overseer to have The news spread like his house made ready for his reception. were straggling along towards the foot of the mountain to meet the carriage about two the immense plantation." After the usual vicissitudes of a sea-voyage.

but in resisting the oppresBions The American Revolution which that government was Consequently. drawn by four horses. who were most . In spite of the entreaties of their they detached the probably not very earnestly given. then in his last illness. Jefferson set out for New York. advanced between the dark lines. having forgotten her disposi- tion to be a nun. some pushing. on the 1st of March. and the little fairy-like Maria. Jefferson borne up the steps and into liis home. which was then the seat of government. Thomas M. sinewy arms grasped him. a network of black. with resounding triumph. some dragging. and many a curly-headed urchin was held aloft to catch a look at what their mothers and sisters were already firmly persuaded could not be paralleled in the Ancient apart for the With instinctive delicacy. and. Jefferson relieved tho monotony of the dreary ride by mounting his led saddle-horse.THOMAS JEFFERSON. was married on the 23d of February. Col. Washington wrote to him in the most flattering terms. whirled the coach along until they reached the lawn in front of the house. he was Mr. Martha. to a very splendid young man. urging upon him a seat in his . cabinet as Secretary of State. stepped from the carriage. a coach. Randolph. Mr. 1790. The roads were horrible. he ac- cepted the appointment. sending his carriage round by water. At Philadelphia he called upon his friend Benjamin Franldin. A few days after the wedding. did not originate in hostility to a monarchical form of government. and one mile an hour by night. an ardent admirer and warm supporter of Washington and the esteem was reciprocal. Immediately upon his return from France. Jefferson was. After some conference. and in a moment were surrounding the carriage. and leading his horses. from beginning to end. horses. shouts rent the sk}^. A fortnight. and all shouting at Been approaching. and. 121 After waiting several hours. Through snow and mud. As. crowd then respectfully broke and as the stately. Dominion. " the young ladies . master. Occasionally. 16 inflicting upon the American active \u people. graceful Martha. wa8 consumed in the journey. in the midst of the wild uproar. At the latter place he took a stage. of great fatigue. waa The negroes raised a shout. their speed seldom exceeded three or four miles an hour by day. He went — by way of Richmond and Alexandria. — — the top of their lungs. many persons." Mr.

The government. would have been very willing to see an inde. are truly beautiful as developments of paand love. be denied. and. to claim him. during his six-mouths' absence in New rental solicitude York. His letters to his daughters. alists. To Maria he writes. Jefferson set out for his liome in his private carriage. not. the Revolution. But Mr. Thev stopped at Mount Vernon. It cannot. with the Feder- more strength in the National Government to meet the emergencies which the growing wealth. constitutionally. only advocate on the republican side of the question. who was then but twelve years of age. In the great conflict which has ensued. far you are . Upon his arrival in New York." Washington was life. he was much surprised at the freedom with which many persons advocated a monarchical government. '•'I — He cannot describe the wonder and mortification with which Politics were the chief topic. He took Mr. for the most part. population. An apostate I could not be. Mr. evidently the favorite sentiment. that he had become an intense republican. struggling for very existence. writes. " Tell — me whether you see the sun rise every day ' . He was a sincere republican. Madison with him. however. and power of the nation would eventually introduce. neither party has ventured very loudly thoroughly national . and a preference of a kingly over a republican government was the table-conversation filled me.122 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. little that. and spent a few days with President Washington.' — how how many ad. unless among the guests there chanced to be some member of that party from the legislative houses. nor tlie yet a hypocrite . and by all the habits of his averse to extremes. On the 1st of September. pages a day you read in Don Quixote. instinctively grasped those powers vhich were found to be essential to its preservation scarcely stopping to ask whether the act were authorized by the Constitution or he felt the need of a . kept as far as possible aloof from parties sacredly administering the government in accordance with the Constitution which he revered. The great pressure which Adams and his friends had foreseen came when our civil war was ushered in. and I found myself. pendent monarchy established here. being in his affections. Jefferson had seen so much of the pernicious influence of kings and courts in Europe.

. what else you read. to cut out a beef-steak. Jefferson states. after a moment's pause. speaking of the British Constitution. and tell her how much I love her also. . Adams had been originally a republican. in a delighted re-union with his loved and loving children. Jefferson remained at Monticello. whether you have an opportunity of continuing your music whether you know how to make a pudding yet. " was assuredly the exact existed. 123 vanced in him. with a house of lords and commons corrupted to his will. Adams said. and I more than all the world. both Adams and Hamilton being present." life. and it will be the most perfect constitution ever devised by the wit of man. and it will become an impracticable government. Hamilton. it is the most perfect government which ever " This. Mr. If your sister is with you. Mr." line which separated the political creeds of these two gentlemen. Jefferson gave it as his opinthough Mr. until the 8th of November." says Mr. as I have always found you never be angry with anybody. As it stands at present. . people.THOMAS JEFFERSON. the glare of royalty and nobility which he had witnessed in England had made him believe their fascination a necessar}^ ingredient in government. Jefferson. how many hours a day you sew. and give to its popular branch equality of representation. whether you repeat a grammar-lesson every day. Be good. Secretary of the Treasury. said. — ." Mr. that at a small dinner-party which he gave early in 1791. and standing between him and the . my dear. " Purge that constitution of its corruption. The one was for two hereditary branches. us you would wish yours take more pleasure in giving what is best to another than to be in having it yourself. for an hereditary king. when his official duties called him back to New York. with all its supposed defects. To throw light upon the political rupture whicu In the later years of his ion. tjy to let everybody's faults be forgotten. and an honest elective one the other." Mr. Madison again took a seat in his carriage. and then all the world will love you. " Purge it of its corruption. John Adams was then Vice-President Alexander Hamilton. The favorable opinion which both these illustrious men entertained of the English Constitution was well known. and give to its popular branch equality of representation. . or to set a hen. to sow spinach. Mr. nor speak hard of them. kiss her. that. and again they paid the President a short visit at Mount Vernon. Mr.

in to them. that he wished to have an English f amphlet.— 124 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. either into the government of the United States or that of any individual State. form of government well known to us both. and remembering that the slight estrangement which had now arisen originated in the fact that Mr. even since his apostasy to hereditary monarchy and ." In pondering this remarkable statement. nobility. we differ as friends should do. Adams. Jefferson deemed so erroneous. lords. knowing that they were most intimately acquainted with privately. will be read with interest " I am afraid the indiscretion of a printer has : — comm tted me with iny friend Mr. or. discussing publicly and and in committees. You and have never had a serious conversation together. under date of May 8. Jefferson wrote a very friendly let- Adams. every con- ceivable point of national polity. or ever had. ' You observe. Assuming that both of these illustrious men Avere perfectly frank and honest. Adams. republished as an answer surprise Mr. in other words. Adams considered the British Constitution. he had still no idea . after this. if purged as he had proposed. concerning the nature of government. without ever coming to an explanation. there is a possible solution of its apparent difBculty in the supposition. on the floor of Congress each other. that I can recollect. written by Thomas little Paine." Two months ter to Mr. The very transient hints that have ever passed between us have been jocular and sq- not what your idea perficial. as one of the most honest and disinterested men alive. 1791. and commons. for whom. a design or desire of attempting to intro- duce a government of king. Adams had published a pamphlet expressing political views which Mr. you I will give me leave to say that I do not know this. Adams's reply. that while Mr. we read with no which he " says. you are wholly mistaken. Jefferson's letters. in which he alludes to the difference which he supposed existed between them in reference to government. That you and is I differ in our ideas of the best But. and had been so for years. the best that had ever existed. the following extract from one of Mr. If you suppose that I have. know is of the best form of government. subsequently took place between Mr. Mr.' my dear I sir. I have a cordial esteem. Jefferson and Mr. increased by long habits of concurrence of opinion in the days of his republicanism and. an hereditary executive or an hereditary senate.

he had not been aware. Mr. which May Heaven favor your cause. who declare that they espoused our new Constitution. a contrary tendency is discovered in some here. Jefferson makes the following rect»rd in his note-book of this interview. of which. . was then at the head of the patriot States. was leader of the Republican party. 1792. that. was leader ster aristocracy. come. with the hope. Adams's mind. he stopped. and make you While you are it may pour its favors ! and pulling out the teeth and fangs of its associate monarchy. good and sufficient in itself in their eyes. he did not regard any thing in the light of political disquisition which did not embrace at least a folio or two. His cabinet was divided. daily becoming more faint. he said. and commons. Gen. " expressed his concern at the dif- ferences which he found to subsist between the Secretary of the Treasury and myself. my dear friend. — of the so-called Federal party." he writes. not as a good and suflScient thing in itself. You will wonder to be told that it is from the eastward chiefly that these champions for a king." President Washington watched with great anxiety the rising storm. at Mount Vernon. Mr. which shows conclusively that President Washington did not agree with Mr. 125 whatever of attempting to make our Constitution give plat e to it. and that our people are firm and constant in their republican purity. the channel through extirpating the mon- establishing the liberties of your country against a foreign enemy. 1792. then. of establishing popular rights in his Mr. Hamilton. Jefferson in his belief that there was a strong monarchical party in this coun-* try: — " The President. Jefl'erson. from the peculiarity of Mr. in France. It is happy for us that these are preachers without followers. The flame of partisan feeling began now to burn more and more intensely throughout the whole length and breadth of the United Lafayette.— " Behold you.THOMAS JEFFERSON. It has also been suggested. and spent a night with President Washington. A sect has shown itself among us. the only thing but only as a step to an English Constitution. On the 30th of September. as usual. Jefferson wrote to him under date of June 16 native land. Secretary of the Treasury. and did all he could to quell its fury. as he was going from Montlcello to the seat of government. Ermy struggling against the despotisms of Europe. Secretary of State. lords. at the head of a great army.

that there He cal was a marked difference in our poh'ti. deeply regret. who entertained such a measures which were proposed by Mr. tvhose opinions thought. or your disposition to promote the general welfare of this country but I regret. : . The President replied. like an angel of peace. but he had never suspected preserve the check of to my keep things . This accusation Avas so seriously made. and divided you and another principal officer of the Government and I wish devoutly there could be an accommodation of them by mutual yieldings. a sincere esteem and regard for you both. and he wished he coi Jd be the mediator to put an end to it. the difference in opinions which has arisen. and approved by the President. I will frankly and solemnly declare. We now and then catch a glimpse of Washington in this bitter strife. Hamilton accused Jefferson of lauding the Constitution in public while in private he had admitted that it contained those imperfections of want of power which Hamilton laid to its charge." financial Some important Hamilton.''^ were worth attention. under date of Oct. in their opinions in the administration. . Mr. son now pressed him with the charge of indelicacy in holding office under a government whose leading measures he opposed. containing numerous extracts from his private and confidential correspondence. adopted by both houses of the legislaThe enemies of Mr. Jefferson violently opposed. 18. Jefferture. indeed. They were.— i26 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. that Mr. that I believe the views of both of you to be pure and well meant. in order proper channel. a monarchy. and that experience only will decide with respect to the salutariness of the measures which are the subjects of dispute. Bitter was the warfare waged between the two hostile secretaries. it had gone so far in producing a personal difference. however. endeavoring. 1792. he did not as to the idea of transforming this government believe there were ten men in the United States. and ardently wish that some line could be marked out by which both of you could walk. kn'^w. and prevent them from going too far info that. to lay the storm. I have a great. sustained by the cabinet. Jefierson sent a document to the President to disprove it. " I did not require the evidence of the extracts which you enclosed to me to convince me of your attachment to the Constitution of the United States. I am persuaded that there is no discordance in your views. that he thought it important to sentiments .

of the President. in an interest every breath that blows affairs. of motion.'. knowing them as fruitless to others as they are vexatious to myself. in the wholesome occupation of or affection in every my farm and my bud that opens.THOMAS JEFFERSON. The President. Jefferson's policy. but France." said he. he consented to continue in In the following extracts from a letter to James Madison. . office until very reluctantly. me seek happiness in the lap and love of my family in the society of my neighbors and my books . Jefferson wished to Dissatisfaction with the measures of the retire from the cabinet. : — . until the last of Jul}^ when he again sent in his resignation. in around me. on the 27th of Decemin his The President seems urged the necessity of making sure of the alliance with France in the event of a rupture with either of these powers. owing account to myself alone of my hours and actions. he consented to remain in his position. who are systematically undermining the public liberty and prosperity. it will be seen how irksome the duties of his office had become to him " I have now been in the public service four and twenty years one-half of which has been spent in total occupation with their to remain. Jefferson. in an entire freedom of rest. that. But him still again President Washington so earnestly entreated the close of the year. committed singly in desperate and eternal contest against a host. The motion of the world. then. " What must be the principle of that calculation which should — worn down with labors from morning balance against these the circumstances of my present existence 1 and day to day. Government was doubtless a leading tation. cause. which was daily becoming more uncomfortable. At the earnest solici- however. even in those moments of conviviality when the heart to night. " There is no nation. affairs. of whose hatred I am conscious. and absence from my to own. ber. in a conversation with Mr. my blood no longer keeps time with the tumult of It leads . 127 to have been in accord with Mr. of thought. Washington to his second term of office. even the rare hours of relaxation sacrificed to the society of persons in the same intentions. I have served my tour. Mr. croachments upon us. JelFerson views of the importance of maintaining cordial relations Both England and Spain were then making enwith France.This had long been one of the fundamental princiUpon the election of President ples of Mr. 1792. " on whom we can rely at all times. very menacing in their aspect.

in present enjoyment or future wish. your resignation of the office of Secre- tary of State. Jefferson's final resignation: "I received yesterday. confirmed by the fullest experience. . on the 1st of January. has beer. Jefferson. Jefferson wrote to the Secretary of State through whom the application came. he reached home. he wrote to John Adams. So utterly weary was he cello. in May. with sincere regret. giving every thing 1 love in to chaos and derangement . with his fragile. In reply. From the lawn at Monticello he could look down upon six thousand of his broad acres. exchange for every thing I hate . " I do not take a single newspaper. five mules. to forego Since it has been impossible to prevail upon you any longer the indulgence of your desire for private life. and which dictated your original nomination. talents." On ful the 5th of January. "No circumstances. two hundred and forty-nine cattle. accepted Mr. and he found. that he endeavored to forget them entirely. and that both have been eminently displayed in the discharge of your duty. beauti- daughter Maria. then Vice-President. my dear sir. however anxious I am to avert it. Nine months his fields exhausted. He had sold a considerable portion to pay off some debts with which his wife's patrimony was encumbered." In the following terms. President Washington then made another endeavor to call him back to the cabinet. nor read one a month. 1794. He had thirtyfour horses. wishes most to open itself to the effusions of friendship and confidence cut off from my family and friends my affairs abandoned in short. must be submitted but I cannot suffer you to leave your station without assurto ing you that the opinion which I had formed of 3^our integrity and . His slaves amounted to one hundred and fifty-four. Mr. I feel myself infinitely the happier for it. Four months after this. three hundred and ninety hogs. the President. left Philadelphia for his loved retreat at MontiOn the 16th. the event. Such an estate as this will not take care of itself. Mr. . passed away in entire devotion to the cares of the farm. through his long absence from home. spread out magnificently before him." His landed estate at this time consisted of ten thousand six hundred and forty-seven acres. and his affairs in confusion. and in enjoying the endearments of his children and his grandchildren. and all this without a single gratification in possession or prospect.— 128 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. will ever more tempt me to . of public affairs.

17 . was straining every nerve to crush the Frencli Revolution. thought myself perfectly tixed in but every day and me hour since has added to its inflexibility." Alluding to the possibility that " the rep- makes the remarkable declarawho knows the man can doubt. A new presidential election came on. the most p-owerful monarchy on the globe. The haughty course which the British Government pursued towards the United States had exasperated even the plaHe wrote to Gen. he wrote. "I am glad of affirn: it. Adams. know under pretended contempt. " There is nothing I so anxiously hope as that my name may come out either second or third as . It is both my duty and inclination. wrote fiery letters. had received have ousy." Every day the political horizon was growing more stormy. Adams may be preferred. England." Even John Adams became roused. Jefi"erson was at all solicitous of being elected. and authorize you fully. for I reference to the cool treatment which his son. Thomas Jefierson. to relieve the embarrassment. the last would leave me at home the whole of the year. and the officers. I this determination when 1 left Philadelphia.THOMAS JEFFERSON. in Two years after." he may be of the sincerity of which no one . and this forms the only ground of any reluctance at being unable to comply with every wish of his. to solicit on my behalf that Mr. therefore. Hamilton on the 31st of cid Washington. and the friendly dispoI sition of that country to this. covered : Federal candidate. and revenge. should it happen and. moved all who approached him. he wrote to Mr. engage in 129 any thing public. " This is a difficulty from which the Constitution has provided no issue. All Europe was in the blaze of war. it outrageous and insulting conduct ®f would seem next to impossible to keep peace between the United States and Great Britain. John Adams was the envy. by his conversational eloquence. August. I pray you. It does not appear that Mr. " 1794. It is a great pleasure to to retain the esteem and approbation of the President. John Quincy in England. would not their jeal- my son go as far as Mr. Madison. and the other two-thirds of resentatives tion. Jay. in that case. the Republican. He has always been my senior from the divided.— its By these high-handed measures of that government. Indeed." Jefferson's slumbering energies were electrified he subscribed for a newspaper. and. hatred. I know better. it.

workmen derness. where envy. in putting up the public buildings. and who only differed." It is a melancholy reflection that such enmities should have sprung up between men. to receive your letters. This rendered it necessary for him to leave Monticello for a few months each year to attend the His numerous letters to his children show sessions of Congress. they serve like gleams of light to cheer a dreary scene. literally hewn out of the wilton. Jefferson. from Philadelphia." with literally a mud-road between. with what reluctance he home. . 1800. strife. and merits all your love. who were alike true patriots. Here. 1797. this circumstance ought to give him the pref erence." As the result of the election. and especially when they express your affection for me for though I cannot doubt. " Without an object here which is not alien to me. Congress moved from Philadelphia to Washing The new seat of government. was a dreary place. Though. respecting the best measures to be adopted for the national welfare. I turn to your situation with pleasure. and all the worst passions of men. for the very great pleasure they give me. malice. No arrangements had been made for lodging or boarding the members of Congress. whero the single evening I passed at it was worth ages here. revenge. for twelve years. His correspondence is full of such expressions as the following " I ought oftener. Vice-President. there was nothing as yet finished and vast piles of stone and brick and mortar were scattered at great distances from each other. and that conscientiously. I turn from this with pleasure to contrast it with your fireside.130 LIV£S OF TBE PRESIDENTS." Again he writes to Maria. The Capitol was built on a large swell of land and a mile and a half from it was the unfinished " President's House. Adams became President and Mr. we love to hear repeated. had been employed in that lonely. the expression of the public being equal. Mr. which. In June. with swamps or forests Transient huts were sprinkled about or sand-banks intervening. commencement of our public will and. yet they are among those truths. . hatred. who were sincerely and earnestly seeking the good of their common country. and imbittered all their intercourse. and barren of every delight. my dear Martha. not doubted. on the 1st of January. with what joy he returned to it. in the midst of a good family which loves you. out-of-the-way spot. . uninhabited. for the tvorkmen. are marshalled to make one another as miserable as possible. left his : how weary he had become of party . life . . too.

I design to be pleased. Mrs. and let me have wood enough to keep fires. I could content myself almost anywhere three months but. and perform the necessary business of the house and stables. There was a split in the FedVersailles." In trying to find Washington from Baltimore. a scofier of all things sacred. tidings reached when the — infidel. they chanced to come upon a black man. they got lost in the woods. became as much alienated from Mr. The lighting the apartments. an atheist. from the kitchen to parlors and chambers. and render less attendance necessary. breath- . The news of the election of Jefferson was received in most paits of the Union with the liveliest demonstrations of joy. . If they will put me up some bells. Jefierson's Vice-Presidency passed joylessly away. He was the leader of the successful and rapidly increasing party. rope. bewildered in forest paths. not a single one being hung through the whole house and promises are all you can obtain. John Adams." she writes. . to seTo cure us from daily agues. Hamilton. assist us in this great castle. Gen. and the fires we are obliged to keep. Adams as from Mr. " The house. who was a great power in those days. a Jacobin. 131 and the Tuileries. surrounded with forests. On the other hand. and keep the apartments in proper order. that I know not what to do or how to do. is another very cheering comfort. whom they hired to guide them through the forest. can you believe that wood is not to be had. had been taught to believe that the triumph of the opposite party would be the triumph of aristocratic privilege and of civil and eral party. After driving for some time. bells are wholly wanting. Mr. Vice-President. This is so great an inconvenience. His They friends were found in every city and village in our land. religious despotism. " is upon a grand and superb scale. Jefferson. because people cannot be found " to cut and cart it ? The four years of Mr.THOMAS JEFFERSON. Jefferson was chosen President and Aaron Burr. A new presidential election came on. gives an amusing account of their entrance upon the splendors of the White House. is a tax indeed. •'• — Buckingham Palace. Both the pulpit and the an press had taught them that he was the incarnation of all evil. many of the Federalists turned pale them that Thomas Jefi'erson was President of the United States. requiring about thirty servants to attend. while the storm of partisan strife between Federalist and Republican was ever growing hotter. who had seen the residences of royalty in Eu- — .

— . on the exercise of duties which comprehend every thing dear and valuable to you. that labor may be lightly burdened the honest payment of our debts. men. freedom of the press freedom of person. Equal and exact justice with all to all . . There is no exaggeration in Vah The following is an extract from Jefferson's inaugural. and sacred preservation of the public faith encouragement of agriculture. which are topped by the sword of revolution where peaceable remedies are unprovided absolute acquiescence in the dethe vital principle of republics. and honest friend. — tion. Nobler words were never uttered by one assuming power. . from which cisions of the majority. : . of whatever state or pernone the support suasion. That he was sincere in the utterance. freedom of religion. iag threatenings and slaughter. commerce. it is proper that you should understand what I deem the essential principles of our government. a well-disciplined militia. — our best reliance and for the first moments of war. as the most compe- and the surest bulwarks against anti-republican tendencies the preservation of the General Government in its whole constitutional vigor. principles form the bright constellation which has gone before us. 132 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS.. and the arraignment of all abuses at the bar of public reason. nearly every man will now admit. not " all its limitations. religious or political shi»p peace. and that the measures of his administration were in conformity with the principles here laid down. and of commerce as its handmaid the diffusion cf information. under the protection of these the habeas corpus. there is no appeal but to force. . rowest compass they will bear." . and guided our steps through an age of revolution and reforma. and safety abroad a jealous care of the right of election by the people. nations. but •' I. fellow-citizens. and trial by juries impartially selected. as the sheetanchor of our peace at home. till regulars may relieve them the supremacy of the civil over the military authority economy in the public expense. a mild and safe corrective of abuses. stating the general principle. About to enter. parent of despotism in peace. the vital principle and immediate tent administrations for our domestic concerns. and consequently those which ought to will compress them within the narshape its administration. — . strong as it is. entangling alliances with all of the State governments in of their rights. otatement. .

By its abolition. : 133 He closes with the following words " And may that Infinite Power which rules the destinies of the universe lead our councils 10 what is best. For some unexplained reason. They met a slave. It may be suggested." as Washington and Adams had given them. Jefferson dislike of all that court etiquette dismounted without assistance. who respectfully took off — . Jefferson and his eldest grandson were one day riding in a carriage together. The invitations to dine were no longer given in the name of the " President of the United States. which. though he did not so' intend it. as one of the greatest and best men this world has ever known. in excuse. in his official character. on the morning of his inauguration. birthdays. and give them a favorable issue for your peace and prosperity ! was exceedingly simple in his taste. that he felt bound. without guard or servant. and to let it come on with as little shock as might be to the public mind. and fastened the bridle of his horse This certainly looks like the affectation of simplicity. to set the example of extreme democratic simplicity. drawn bj'' six cream-colored horses. in Europe." His views upon this subject may be inferred from the following remarks which he made upon the character of Washington. pompous meetings with Congress. he writes." THOMAS JEFFERSON. was a movement in an aristocratic direction for the levee threw the presidential mansion open to the most humble of the people. Washington had not a firm confidence in the durability of our government. having a morbid which had disgusted him so much Washington rode to the halls of Congress in state. and inclined to gloomy apprehensions and I was ever persuaded that a belief that we must at length end in something like a British Constitution had some weight in his adoption of the ceremonies of levees. and other forms of the same character. . but in the name of " Thomas Jefferson. that Mr. He was naturally distrustful of men. Jefferson rode on horseback to the Capitol in a dress of plain cloth. "I do believe that Gen. none could enter the White House to the fence. In this spirit he abolished levees. Jefferson had allowed his mind to become so thoroughly imbued with the conviction that our government was drifting towards monarchy and aristocracy. ." Mr. calculated to prepare us gradually for a change which he believed possible. After speaking of him in the highest terms of eulogy. but those who were specially invited.

do you permit a slave to be more of a gentle* man than yourself?" On another occasion. I reckon a man carries * Yes ' or ' No ' in his face. Soon a party in the rear. but. in the broad patois of his region. his beautiful daughter Maria. " What made you let the young men pass. for fifteen millions of dollars. leaving her babe behind her. with a saddle on his was standing upon the bank. Thomas. He. returned the salutation by raising his hat. pausing a moment. in the year 1803. who had witnessed the operation. that the water was up to the saddle-girths. found Moore's Creek so swollen by a sudden shower. sank into the grave. after a attention to the negro's act of civiHty." said the man." The political principles of the Jeffersonian now swept the was never exceeded by Washington himself Louisiana. accompanied They by two young men. Jefferson swayed an influence which — — . under which name was then included the whole territory Vest of the Mississippi to the ]*acific. turning to Mr.1. " Wal. if you want to know. you don't say that was Tom Jefierson. says. I'll shoulders. who has been he. " that would have asked the President of What. he was riding on horseback. he added. Jefferson. whom he so tenderly loved. " Wal." the other replied. The young Mr. A man. he's a fine old fellow. any way. The President reined his horse up to a stone. BO country.14 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. he asked permission to mount the croup behind him to be carried across." " '' — will Polly say when I tell her I have rid behind Jefferson party ? She'll say I voted for the right man. turned a reproachful eye to him. under his administration. according to his invariablii custom.' the old'un's. One inquired. young chaps' faces said 'No. and said. Martha. was purchased of France. Jetifer- man paid do 3on. from Monticello to Charlottesville. speaking of her father's suffering under this terrible grief. tell you. The President. his hat. His eldest daughter. " few moments' pause. and trudged along the dusty road. He was now smitten by another domestic grief In the year 1804. and ask the old gentleman to carry you over the creek ? " The backwoodsman replied. The countryman then dismounted.'" — "It The every isn't one. What the United States for a ride behind him. in his hour of often and so harshly accused of unbelief. " I found him with the Bible in his hands. He looked at the young and said nothing. 'Yes. and carried the man across. came up. and bowed. and Mr. men as they rode through the stream. do youl " Then.

cated from the British demand of the right to stop any of our ships. The end and to of our journey rise in the to rest midst of the friends We sorrow not. of my want. Mr. however. on the 22d of June. This outrage. created intense excitement. 1807. . but My last great step is to be taken. The hope with which I had looked forward to the moment. when. But. is fearfully blighted. thirty-eight guns. a vessel to England to demand reparation for the insult while. Our relations with England were daily becoming more compli-. the traveller's consolation. British officer from the frigate. the " Chesapeake. 135 intense affliction." which was not in a condition to return a Four men were then taken by the single shot. on the 4th of March. Jefferson writes. I was to retire to that domestic comfort from which the abundance.THOMAS JEFFERSON. The comforter was even though there for his true heart and devout his faith might not be what the world calls orthodox. have lost even the half of all I had. as others who have no hope. surrendered." Mr. evening prospects now hang on the slender thread of a singlo Perhaps I may be destined to see even this last chord of xifo." Another presidential election came in 1804. sought and found consolation in the sacred vol- ume. . wisdom as well as duty dictates that we should acquiesce in the will of Him whose it is to give and take away. Jefferson was sixty-two years of age. and George Clinton. which occurred but a few leagues out from HampThe President despatched ton Roads. in response to a letter of condolence from Others may lose of their a friend. three of whom were Americans. ' we have to go. Barron.' but look forward to the day which joins us to the great majority. and to take from them any sailors whom they felt disposed to claim The United-States frigate " Chesapeake. Every step is shortens the distance in sight. " We have. " My loss is great indeed. — the bed whereon we are we have lost. Jefferson was re-elected President with wonderful unanimity. then. by and after a the British man-of-war " Leopard. I. when. and be content in the enjoyment of those who are still permitted to be with us. Vice-President." of fifty-six guns loss of three men killed and ten wounded. whatever is to be our destiny." of was fired upon. including Com. 1805. spirit. whether belonging to either the commercial or naval marine. he entered upon his second term of office. . at as British subjects. parental affection broken. resigning public cares to younger hands.

who was absent from home at school. who was engaged in not be avoided. your dangers are great. the endeavor to crush Napoleon and re-instate the Bourbons. claiming whoever he pleased as British subjects. would step on board any of our ships. he wrote a letter to his grandson. the measures of government to redress these wrongs were virulently opposed. on the contrary. protected by the guns of a British man-of-war. young and with so little experience of mankind. he issued a proclamation forbidding the waters of all British vessels of war unless in distress or bearing despatches. England. but thrown on a wide world." The course England pursued rendered it certain that war could Mr. Douglass. — " Never. so too. The British. at Avhatever hazard of lieutenant. The Federalists themselves coalesce with us as to the object. On the 24"th of No vember. In a letter to Lafayette upon this subject. would impress them to fight against France. had war with America. wherever she could find them in the marine of the United States. same time. without a friend or guardian to advise. according to the returns. JeflFerson humanely did every thing in his power to prevent the Indians from taking any part in it whatever. paid no attention to this proclamation. the President wrote. were endeavoring to rouse them to deluge the frontiers in blood. he was sustained by the general voice of the nation. saying that the Americans could have peace or war. Jefierson's administration. Amidst all these cares. A determina- .136 the LIVES OF THE PRESIDENT^. and even that did not produce such unanimity. and. among entire strangers. the President manifested the most afiecofficial In this way. and still your safety must rest on yourself. Notwithstanding the strength and influence of the opposition to Mr. but wrote an insolent letter to the just as they desired. Capt. to replenish her navy by seizing any British-born subjects. mayor. since the battle of Lexington. 1808. Any young resolved. who was at that time the United States to in command of a British squadron of three men-of-war at Norfolk. more than twelve hundred Americans were dragged from our ships. although they will return to their old trade of condemning every step we take towards obtaining it. Strange as it may now seem. have I seen this country in such a state of exasperation as at present . tionate interest in the welfare of his family. from which we make the following extract " Your situation at such a distance from us cannot bur give us — all great anxieties for you .

card-players. feel such relief aa off Never did a I shall on shaking the shackles of power. in the enthusiastic moment of the death of a tific fox. scien- and professional men. the victory of a favorite horse. Nature intended me for the tranquil pursuits of science by rendering them my supremo delight but the enormities of the times in which I have lived have forced me to take a part in resisting them. having gained the harbor myself. and to commit myself on the boisterous ocean of political passions. I shall look on still my friends. released from his chains. 18 . Mr. I thank God lor the opportunity of retiring from them without censure. Peyton Randolph. the retiring President expresses office : a friend his feelings upon surrendering the cares of " — Within a few days I retire to my family. with anxiety indeed. What would Dr. prisoner. a fox-hunter. that these ih little returns into ourselves. buffeting the storm. and to feel the incessant wish that I Under temptations and could ever become what they were. to In the following terms.. and become as worthless to society as they were. and of dignified men and many a time have I asked myself. or the honest advocate of my country's rights?' Be assured. " When I recollect that at fourteen years of age the whole care and direction of myself was thrown on myself entirely. my dear Jefferson. fox-hunters. an orator. the issue of a question elo- quently argued at the bar or in the great council of the nation. THOMAS JEFFERSON. will towards securing for you the estimation of the world. Small. and farms and. I would ask myself. Jefierson closed his second term of ftnd office. prudence and good humor. not trifling nor useless. and recollect with some of I had the the various sorts of bad company with which I associated from time to time. but leads to the prudent selection and steady is I'ight. I was often thrown . but not with envy. my books. — that of a horse-jockey. tion 137 to do what is wrong. which of these kinds of reputation should I prefer. do in this situation? What course in it will ' insure " me their approbation ? ' From the circumstances of my position. into the society of horse-racers. Wythe. Mr. this self-catechising habit. ters of good fortune to become acquainted very early with some characvery high standing. difficulties. ' Well." pursuit of what In the year 1808. and . James Madison succeeded him as President of the United States. I am astonished that I did not turn ofi" them. without a never go far relation or friend qualified to advise or guide me.

left for Monticello. Mr. he devoted to recreation and friends from dark to . with a large and costly library. they returned. he owned about ten thousand acres of land. One babies and nurses. His vast plantation. some were mechanics. boys and girls. six A . He was particularly interested in young men. Whole families came in their coaches with their horses. service. either children too 3^oung. and made a visit of ten could be worked. Several came. so that it was necessary for him to sell a large portion of his estate." President Jefferson. a valuable mansion. The value of the whole property was about two hundred thousand dollars. His slaves numbered two hundred. Jefferson became deeply involved in debt. in the year 1809. Their intellectual traits were very similar. A kinder master never lived. .^ gentleman who was often present says. subsequent life at Monticello was very similar to that of son's Washington at Mount Vernon. to be of much Of the one hundred who remained. was well stocked. or the — — months. and took up their residence in the neighboring town of Charlottesville.— 138 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. carrying with rae the most consoling proofs of public approba tion. After a short tour. one hundred were aged too infirm. which was ever open for their use. Between them. cut up into several farms. and a large number were employed as house-servants. On no account would he allow his slaves to be overworked. Every day brought its contingent of guests. richly furnished. His from mornings he devoted to his numerous correspondence breakfast to dinner. . and remained months longer. which we have not space here to record. that they might avail themselves of his library. Jefferson was profuse in his hospitality. Still. he read. His debts wero then but about twenty thousand dollars. But it is to be remembered that this property was productive only so far as the land Of the two hundred slaves. while Jeffertheir tastes and political principles were quite the same. fidential after Mr. From a series of untoward events. a free and con- correspondence was kept up respecting the measures of government. Jefferson's retirement. and remained three or even six months. family of six persons came from Europe. after remaining in Washington to see hia successor and bosom friend inaugurated. Mr. advising them as to their course of reading. . early bedtime. he was in the shops and over the farms from dinner to dark. fathers and mothers.

" all hands to have taken care of your visitors. was the presiding lady The domestic service req'iired of this immense establishment. professional men. some to give or receive advice or instruction. He replied. all that is endearing in domestic life. Jefferson's daughter.THOMAS JEFFERSON. mil- and civil. my Shakmy first handsome writing-desk. drawn by four horses. came. members dian agents. " and the whole farm to feed them. These carriage-houses were for the accommodation of his friends." the gentleman added. Wormley. watched over the interests of his master. my . Mr. the social enjoyments of the drawing-room . Randolph. tree in the vicinity. It is impossible to describe the love with which he children. thirty-seven house-servants." Mr. Jefferson had some little repose from tho crowd of visitors. — degree. Some time after Mr. made ex- place. table : Mr. nfy first writing-table. My Bible came from him. some from curiosity. Life at resembled that at a fashionable wateringleft to amuse themselves as they They walked. who. Randolph. Jefferson always made his appearance at the breakfasthis guests were then pleased until dinner-time." the faithful old slave replied." would speedily consume a larger fortune than He had a favorite servant. Catholic of Congress. sir. "Every night. for years. Mr. Jefferson's death. doctors. some from affection and respect. who came with their loaded coaches. while others retired to the quiet of their stroll own chambers. tomnsts. a gentleman at Monticello asked Wormley how often those carriage-houses were all filled in Mr. upon being asked what was the greatest number of guests she had ever entertained any one night." pointing to a large " It must have taken. Mrs. Mrs. Jefferson's time. Jefferson had three carriage-houses. or to a solitary down the mountain-side. itary 13S men in office. In- priests. travellers." In the winter. each of which would hold a four-horse coach. " People of wealth. in summer. in a letter overflowing with the gushing of a loving heart. foreign ministers. " she believed fifty. fashion. was cherished by his grand- One of them writes. with the utmost fidehty. lawyers. and some from idleness. talked. missionaries. friends. or hunted in the woods: some sought the retirement of the splendid library. Jefferson possessed. cursions with the ladies. Protestant clergymen." " Yes. artists. in the highest possible Such hospitality Mr. JMonticello. to visit him. replied. others. He then enjoyed. and we commonly had two or three carriages besides under that tree. strangers. read. " speare.

"Perhaps. This friendship. Not one of I us. ever placed a foot on . with you. in our for wildest moods. this hour. that. which. on the whole principle of benevolence and that more pleasure than pain is dealt " You ask if I ' . to be our good genius. 1817. that existed in my heart towards him. . were equally thought of. and love. he says. some of the that childish sports I delighted in. one of the garden-beds. to see our individual wishes. we find the remark. we When we . Adams and Mr. he wrote to Mr.140 first LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. " Say nothing of my religion it is known to my God and mi 'self alone." Adams. one of the elements of future felicity is to be a constant and nnimpassioned view of what is passing here. or use a threat. that that it has been framed on a it is a good world. this year. on the same day. or speak in a raised tone of voice." In 1812. admiration. it is when reasonable room for another growth. out to us. " I cannot describe the feelings of veneration. in short. — After Mr." In the same letter. a perfect reconciliation took place between Mr. leaves us in the dark in reference to his religious faith : — years over again. would live my seventy. in reply to the question of one respecting his religious faith. which was kept up by a constant interchange of letters.' I think. or rather seventy-three. according to their wants and tastes. my first silk dress: what. : : . health I am happy in what is around me yet I assure you I am In a letter to Mr. the latter very handsomely and magnanimously making the first advances. Leghorn hat. and be taught by him . and make have lived our generation I enjoy good out. however. and almost at the same hour. I looked on him as a being too great and good for my comprehensiuu and yet I felt no fear to approach him. as usual. dated January. ripe to leave all this day. Adams in the following pIiilosopMc strain. continued unabated until their death. would violate one of his rules and yet never heard him utter a harsh word to one of us. to wave the fairy wand to brighten our young lives by his goodness and his gifts. he answered. " There is a ripeness of time for death. we should not wish to encroach on another. equally provided for. of all my come from him ? My sisters. Our grandfather seemed to read our hearts." treasures did not Another writes. To which I say. Yea. regarding others as well should drop ofi"." as ourselves. Jefferson had passed his threescore years and ten. Jefferson .

that. rind support you under your heavy affliction In a letter dated March 21. therefore. The same trials have taught immeasurable. and to ascend in essence to an ecstatic meeting with the friends we have loved and lost. John Adams died. and often from dinner to dark. 1819." THOMAS JEFFERSON. : . philosophy. although mingling sincerely my tears with yours. From sunrise to one or tw( o'clock. are and have yet to endure. " Forty-three volumes read in one year. and never lose again. 1818. and he had twenty-five thousand letters on file which he had time are as much as I am allowed. and often from persons whose names I have never before heard yet. I know well and feel what you have lost. me. 14] Mr. what you have suffered. where words are vain. Jefferson was ever ready to express his views frankly upon all subjects of science. but that it is some comfort to us both that the term is not very distant at which we are to deposit in the same cerement our sorrows and suffering bodies." He had the curiosity to count the letters -eceived for one year. John Adams in a strain which throws interesting light upon his occupation at that tune. the eternal wellbeing of man. received. a fair average and they amounted to one thousand two hundred and sixty-seven. how I envy you Half a dozen of octavos in that space of ! — I can read by candle-light only and stealing long hours from my rest. In November. I will not. Tried myself in the school of affliction by the loss of every form of connection which can rive the human heart. I am drudging at the writing-table and all this to answer letters in which neither interest nor inclination on my part enters. it is hard to refuse them civil answers. nor. time and silence are the only medicine. Vine Utley. God bless you. he writes to Dr. will I say a word more. and twelve of them quarto. and politics. and President Jef- ferson wrote the following beautiful letter of condolence to her husband " : — The public papers. suffering. and whom we shall still love. my dear friend. open afresh the sluices of your grief. At his death he had copies of sixteen thousand letters which he had written. Mrs. — . Again he writes to Mr. writing civilly. announce the fatal event of which your letter of October the 20th had given me ominous foreboding. It is certainly remarkable that such a man was : not willing to express his views upon a subject more important than all others. for ills so ! . by useless condolences. Dear sir.

where the relation exist- ing between man and his Maker was entirely ignored. of sleep. '' Morals of Jesus." also He that Mr." in a blank-book. Jefferson writes to a friend. Jefferson. devoted much attention to the establishment of the uniHaving no religious faith which he was willing to avow. in a handsome octavo volume. in a Christian land. The year 1826 opened gloomily upon Mr. members of his family of the books until after his death. This establishment. that It is a is to say. informed that he conferred with some friends upon the expediency of printing them in several Indian dialects for the instruction of the Indians. He versity at Cliarlottesville. Christian people. of an institution for the education of youth." dently with great care. The indorsement for a friend had placed upon him an additional twenty thousand dollars of debt . and which he It is a little remarkable labelled on the back. ity of the university . Jefferson should have that none of the made these collections so secretly. which he had bound in morocco. knew even of the existence One would have supposed that he would have considered these teachings valuable for his children Indeed. " I never go to bed without an hour or half an hour s previous reading of something moral whereon to ruminate in the intervals The book from which he oftenest read was a collection which he had made by cutting such passages from the evangelists These he arranged as came directly from the lips of the Saviour. could attend their religious instructions.142 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. they wished. from which he could see but little hope of extrication. a stigma upon the reputation of Mr. It This book Mr. he was not willing that any religious faith whatever should be taught in the university as a part of itj course of instruction. He was very infirm. Jefferson prepared very full compend of the teachings was entitled " The Philosophy of Jesus of prepared a second volume. and embarrassed by debts. in the vicinif and the students. they wished. of our Saviour. Jefferson. " : A more beautiful it is or precious morsel of ethics I have never seen in proof that a document evi- /am a real Christian. raised a It left general cry of disapproval throughout the whole country. a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus. we are and his grandchildren as well as for himself. which can never be effaced." Nazareth. in the minds of He endeavored to ibate the censure by suggesting that the various denominations if of Christians might establish schools.

age. The university Charlottesville. and bury here. To be old and poor is 143 one of the greatest of earthly calamities." . oppressed with disease. hold up to me nothing but future gloom and I should not care if life were to end with the line I am writing. I may yet bo of some avail to the farvtily. "I duly received your affectionate letter of the 3d. and carry log hut to put my bones if not. . that. where I my head into. 1826. that lotteries were not immoral." a deadly blast of my peace of mind during to You kindly encourage me . — would grant " I can save the house of Monticello and a farm adjoining to end my days in. . Jefferson's institution^ had cost vastly more than had been anticipated. left in a comfortless situation. debility. and nurse of my age. money Mortified and saddened. the cherished companion of my early life. time. and perceive there are greater doubts than I had apprehended whether the Legislature will indulge my request to them. and. keep up my spirits but. rendered as dear to me as if my own. on it with too much all confidence. were it not. and her children. he wrote to a friend. and embarrassed affairs. by a very deci- sive vote.THOMAS JEFFERSON. . For myself. if the Legislature him the indulgence he solicited. in the failure of this hope. this is difficult. he argued. he wrote to his eldest grandson in a strain of dignity and of sorrow which no one can read but with sympa- The letter was dated Feb. The members of the Legislature had become weary. refused an application for an additional grant of for the university. my remaining days. I must my family to Bedford. Though at bitterly opposed to all gambling. that. from their having lived with me from their cradle. 8. which was regarded almost exclusively as Mr. Ho applied to the Legislature for permission to dispose of a large portion of his property cient to pay for his his debts. hoping thus to realize a sum Buffiand to leave enough to give him a competence few remaining days. they had. It is a part of my mortification to perceive that I had so far overvalued myself as to have counted I see. sell house and all have not even a At the same thy. by lottery. in the unhappy state of mind which your father's misfortunes have brought upon him. of making grants. in support of his petition. just as Mr. M}dear and beloved daughter. I should not regard a prostration of fortune but I am overwhelmed at the prospect in which I leave my family. and anxious for the future. Jefferson sent in his petition for a lottery.

But. : that with difficulty he could totter about the house. eight thousand five hundred dollars from Philadelphia. a little better. His steps became so feeble. Henry the Greek philosophers. who had called. like sunshine breaking through the clouds. of Euripides. who appreciated the priceless value of the services which he had rendered our nation. He was exceedingly careful to avoid making any trouble. His very eloquent and truthful biographer. his loving embrace. " Do not imagine for a moment that I feel the smallest solicitude about the result. says that the Bible was one of the principal books. The mayor of New York. three thousand dollars and one or tM'o sent thousand more were sent from other sources. dispelled the gloom which had been so deeply gathering around his declining day. To one who expressed the opinion that he seemed vale of death. I am like an old watch. he said. and base. " I have no objection to see him as a kind and whole demeanor. These testimoniaU'i. " A few hours more. ment did he express oftener than his contempt for all moral systems compared with that of Christ. he said calmly. all over the country. future. to him in more than their pristine grandeur and beauty limity and in the Bible he found flights of submore magnificent than in these. with The majesty of ^schylus. — . " S. and was far more watchful for the comfort of those around His passage was very slow down into the him than for his own. friends. Very rapidly he was now sinking. five thousand dollars were from Baltimore. sent him. the ripe art of Sophocles. narrow.144 LIVES 01 T^E PRESIDENTS. which. To Mr." He manifested no desire to depart. with a pinion worn out here and a wheel there. his and tenderness. often brought tears to the eyes of those whose privilege it was to minister to his wants. and it will all be over. . Jefferson's great gratification. . and no dread. It was evident that he was conscious that the hour of his departure was at hand. collected from a few friends. Randall. began to send to him tokens of their love. he replied." There was something peculiarly gentle and touching in his childlike simplicity His good-night kiss. until it can go no longer. the lottery bill passed. Philip Hone. coupled with a philosophy No sentito which the Grecian was imperfect. the exhaustless invention now came back . no cheerful hope of the Looking up to the doctor." Hearing the name of the minister of the Episcopal Church which he attended. occupied his last reading.

at noon. his life. his mind turned to religion. Soft and femideath. I nine in his aflections to his family. and since. read the burial service of the Episcopal Church. Jefferson highly ber. or the purest Christian charity in the largest sense. and developed by the influence of the all-pervading benevolence of the doctrines uf Christ. who was 4ie companion of and who was thirty-four years of age when Mr." Immediately ho sank away again into slumall saw that he was sinking There was silence in the death-chamber. or sentiment. chastened. His character invited such intimacy. inconsistent with the highest moral standard. In conclusion. The Rev." Hi3 friends inferred from this that he did not wish to see him as a minister of Jesus Christ. Thomas Jefferson Randolph. which he had intensely and admiringly studied. which he studied thoroughly.THOMAS JEFFERSON. that they had created an imaginary being. " This is the 4th of July. as let me give an abstract of a sketch of his charac- given by his grandson. for the last twenty years of his life. that his enemies had never known him. feeling. softened. Hatch. She lived with him from her birth to his — was more intimate with him than with any man I have ever known. Mr. with all their feelings. his only child. 19 He had seen and read much of the . and. His moral character was of the highest order. of July 4. he entered into and sympathized soothing gentleness of his manner. On Monday evening. winning them to paths of virtue by the While he lived. He writes. the 3d of July. At ten minutes before one o'clock. and to whom they bad given his name and that it wa«? this creature of their imagination whom they had so . whom Mr. The mysteI'ious separation of the soul from the body was painlessly taking place. esteemed. when the remains were borne to their burial. in death. " My mother was his eldest. As the night passed slowly away. 145 good neighbor. thinking it morning. the clergyman of the parish. " In his contemplative moments. I have reviewed with severe scrutiny those interviews. whom they had clothed with imaginary attributes. It was a day of darkness and rain the last breath left the body. Jefferson died. founded upon the purest and sternest models of antiquity. Very truly and charitably he said. virulently assailed. in reference to the anathemas which had been hurled upon him. ter. and. and I must say. that I never heard from him the expression of oae thought. he awoke about ten o'clock from troubled sleep. 1826. remarked.

to his rank. and award the prizes. He was . in his last illness. Then. I paid. never drank ardent spirits or strong wines. held. In summer. and his favorite quotation for his young friends. and denounced them without reserve. believed him to be the purest of men. servants. taking his prayer-book with him. and expressing his disbelief in his reply was. the lottery plan was abandoned. He did not permit cards in his house he knew no game with them. The beauty of his character was exhibited in the bosom of his family. to little purpose. you have studied * He was guilty of no profanity himself.146 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. his physician wished him to use brandy as an astringent." After Mr. The lands were sold. In early life. and Washington. Philadelphia. His family. after his two hundred dollars to the erection of (he Presbyterian church in the same village. the proceeds not being suflScient to pay the debts. Jefierson's death. that when. sir. He said in his last lar and systematic. Before he lost his taste for the violin. by whom he was surrounded. was one of the largest contributors its to its erection. : abuses and perversions of Chistianity he abhorred those abuses and their authors. and con- tributed regularly to the support of death. and did not tolerate it in others. table. his and appointments were fastidiously appropriate his his When Paris. A gentleman of some it distinction calling the truths of the Bible. to the position he His habits were reguHe rose always at dawn. and after the disposal of the whole property. furniture. having his grandchildren dancing around him. equipage. give the signal for the start. Such was his aversion to ardent spirits. be the arbiter of the contest. equipage. and who saw him in all the unguarded privacy of private life. He illness that the sun had not caught him in bed for fifty years. he dress. He was regular in his attendance on church. He detested impiety. where he delighted to indulge in all the fervor and delicacy of feminine feeling. he could not induce him to take it strong enough. was the fifteenth : Psalm of David. in winter evenings he would play on it. he would station them for their little races on the lawn.' " upon him. as the basis of their morals. his subscription of minister. and the tout ensemble of establishment. " In his person. was neat at in the extreme. He drew the plan of the Episcopal Church at Charlottesville. the executor were deemed highly appropriate a gentleman everywhere.

THOMAS JEFFERSON. 147 met the balance from his own purse. As soon as it was known that his only child was thus left without any independent provision. occupy one of the most conspicuous niches in the temple of American worthies. . As time dispels the mists of prejudice. the legislatures of South Carolina and Louisiana generously voted her ten thousand dollars each. the fame of Thomas Jefferson will shine with ever-increasing lustre and he must. in all the future. .

— Old Age. Secretary of State. ton. . MenLai Charaotei Stadious Habits. Madison Family were among the earliest emigrants to this after the settlement at 148 The New World. framing the Constitution. — — — — — dent.Anecdote. — Keiirec. landing upon the shores of the Chesapeake but fifteen years Jamestown. CJhildhood. --The White House. Marriage. Mrs. — War with England. Enters Publii Life. — Kight of Search. The name of James Madison is inseparably connected with most of the important events in thrt heroic period of our country dur- i:^?\ r'C^. Ghc^en PresiFriendship with Jefferson. llsli!^- MONTPELIER. istics. ing which the foundations of this great republic were laid. — Treaty of Arrival of the Naws. RESIDEXCK OF JAMES MADISON. Life in WashingAlien and Sedition Laws. In Congress. — Re-elected. and Death. Abrogation of Titles. -. in — — Aid College-life. ent to Montpelier. JAMES MADISON. Madison. — — — — — — Client.— CHAPTER IV.

under a private tutor. that he never recovered any vigor of constitution. from their early youth until death. with a feeble body. Latin. all combined to inspire him with a strong love of liberty. His sobriety. Here he applied himself to study with the most imprudent zeal allowing himself. from early life. . Madison was accustomed to those refinements which subsequently lent such a charm to his character. at the age of eighteen. In the year 1769.JAMES MADISON. ' — — . It was but twenty-five miles from at the foot of the Blue Eidge. French. and dignity of demeanor." in . with a character of the utmost purity. Mr. James Madison was born on the 5th of March. residing James Madison was an opulent Orange County. His early education was conducted mostly at home. were such. and to train him for his life-work of a statesman. The closest personal and the home of Jefi"erson at Monticello. and gave efficiency lo. his subsequent career. at the age of twenty. and. but three hours' sleep out of the twenty-four. four sons and three daughters. he was sent to Princeton College in New Jersey. outof-door sports. He was naturally intellectual in his tastes. all of whom attained maturity. Virginia often visited at their hospitable mansion and thus. His health thus became so seriously impaired. and Spanish languages. and a ci. This educational course. He graduated in 1771. The mansion was situated in the midst of scenery highly picturesque and romantic. The father of 14& planter. Beturning to Virginia. and passed through life esteemed and beloved. Being naturally of a religious turn of mind. political attachment existed between these illustrious men.urse of extensive and systematic reading. for mouths. 1751. with but little fondness for rough. and his frail fine estate called " Montpelier." James was the eldest of a family of seven children. that it has been said of him that " he never was a boy. consecrated himself with unusual vigor to study. on the west side of South-west Mountain. and the society with which he associated. the spirit of the times in which he lived. He was blessed with excellent parents both father and mother being perThe best society of sons of intelligence and of great moral worth. . and with a mind highly disciplined. of which the illustrious Dr. Even when a boy. he commenced the study of law. he had made very considerable proficiency in the Greek. Witherspoon was then president. upon a very V'a. and richly etored with all the learning which embellished.

he acquired a habit of self-possession — which placed at ready command the rich resources . Being one of the youngest members of the house.ion when twenty-six years of age. Like Jef- main strength lay in his conversational influence and in his pen. invested with enjoyed in the father-land. naturally diffident. to frame the Constitu- of the State. ] 780. he was gaining influence and position. in allusion to the study and them. associated with Mr. elected i. he took but ferson. he directed especial attention to theological studies. Real ability and worth cannot long be concealed. There was no religious liberty. and having no ambitious aspirings to push him little forward. and he was appointed a member of the Executive Council. Jefferson. social. and he was immeassigned to one of the most conspicuous positions among Mr. Mr. Madison first appears The Church of England all before the public. Every day. listed themselves in his behalf. entalents. energy. and religious freedom was established in Vir- In the spring of 1776. . The battle was a fierce one. he was a candidate for the General Assembly. he he met the most illustrious diately was elected a member of the Continental Congress. experience through which he had already passed. and with almost unequalled powers of reasoning. but triumphed. until his faith became so established as never to be shaken. Here men in our land. his part in the public debates. and moral worth. as the opponent of this intolerance. conIn the year tributed not a little to his subsequent eminence. almost unconsciously to himself. him to think that his life was not to be long. was then the established church in Virthe prerogatives and immunities which it ginia. " Trained in these successive schools. All were alike taxed to support its clergy. Jefferson says of him. he weighed all the arguments for and against revealed religion. Madison remained member of the council.150 health leading LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and their appreciation of his intellectual. Endowed with a mind singularly free from passion and prejudice. he was member of the Virginia Convention. The next year (1777). tolerance liberty ginia. He refused to treat the whiskey-loving voters. The foes of inwere denounced as the enemies of Christianity. Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were governors of Virginia while Mr. and conbut those who had witnessed the sequently lost his election and public spirit of the modest young man.

unbending will worthless as earth has ever seen. he rose to Ihe eminent station which he held in the great National Convention of 1787 and in that of Virginia. he sustained the . such as no other nation on earth can boast of. Every American citizen must reflect with pride upon the fact now Constitution in that he can point to a series of rulers over these United States — rulers who have attained the supreme power by hereditary descent. — and compare them with the presidents which the elective and even prejudice the most be compelled to admit that popular choice is far more' unerring in the selection of rulers than the chances of birth. His " Memorial and Remonstrance against a general assessment for the support of religion is considered one of the ablest papers which emanated from his pen. Of the power and polish of his pen. Every monarchy in Europe has had upon the throne men as franchise has given to this country. France. and will forever speak. soothing always the feelings of his ad- versaries by civilitievi. bearing off the palm against the George Mason and the fervid declamation of Patrick logic of Henry. He advocated the revision of the old statutes. his term having expired. Never wandering from Ins sub(ormation. of his luminous and discriminating 151 mind and of his extensive inhim the first of every assembly afterwards of which he became a member. which no calumny has ever attempted to sully. Spain. Let any intelligent reader glance at the catalogue of kings of England. and copious . the abrogation of entail and primogeniture. and rendered ject into vain declamation. . for themselves." ing. (. I need say noth They have spoken. and the establishment of perfect religious freedom. which followed. and of the wisdom of hia administration in the highest office of the nation. It settled the question of the entire separation of church and state in Virginia. one of its most active and influential members. Madison continued in Congress. president who has not been a man who was not in heart a true patriot. For three years Mr. but pursuing it closely in language pure. — all its parts. America has not had a single of moral and social excellence. seek the promotion of the best interests of his country. In the year 1784. and softness of expression. classical." JAMES MADISON". With these consummate powers were united a pure and i?potless virtue. and who did not honestly.hough perhaps at times with mistaken policy. he was elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. Here he was the earnest supporter of every wise and liberal measure.

" There was a vein of pleasantry pervading the character of Mr. will always be in the way. with no power to form treaties which would be liinding or to enforce law. in the midst of all these responsibilities. Madison. 20. "Another of my wishes is. and support a little table and household. think of it. Think of it. I beg you to make free use of it. and adieu. 1764. It was never his wish to enter upon the practice of the law and. Madison carried a resolution through the General Assembly of A^irginia. No man felt more deeply than J^Ir. issued another call. Among the most valuable of these is rational society. and Monroe: " I hope you have found access to my library. he says. Madison. cheers our spirits. only requires you to think Life is of no value but as it brings us gratifications. urging all the States to send their delegates to " it so. that an efficient national government must be formed. The steward is living there now. to Mr. . to depend as little as possible on the labor of slaves. of course. inviting the other States to appoint commissioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss this subject. sweetens the temper. and restores health. gives a pleasing pio tureofthe friendship then and ever existing between Jefferson. which grow daily more and more insupprosecute with his legal •.152 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS still He continued. which ever rendered him to his friends one of the most agreeable of companions. It informs the mind. and. from Annapolis. though old. Such a one might be a farm of experiment. t(S and literary studies. To render it practicable. much energy — ! portable. I could once With more venture home. Once more. Five States only were represented. Madison. In January. What would I not give could you fall into the circle such a society. Madison the utter inefficiency of the old confederacy." The following extract from a letter of Mr. all of good land. with a small. The convention. indifferent house upon it the whole worth not more than two hundred and fifty pounds. Randolph in 1785. Madison. drawn «p by Mr. Mr. . 1786. and within two miles. however. and lay myself up for the residue of life. quitting all its contentions. There is a little farm of one hundred and forty acres adjoining me. There was not any State more prominent than Virginia in the declaration. in a letter to Mr. under date of Feb. Jefferson. Monroe is buying land almost adjoining me: Short will do the same. with no national government.

and. 153 Philadelphia. Lafayette took his hand. and not be of that opinion. and with their blood. that I do not know in the world a man of purer integrity. JejEferson pays the following beautiful tribute to his character and ability ^' I have known him from 1779. George Washington was chosen States. who on the field when treason would have trampled it in the dust. when he first came into the public councils. point out an abler head. was driven from France. not only tion." There were two parties to be reconciled in forming the Constitution. 1787. to draught a Constitution for the United League which the must prove a failure. and said. to take the place of that Confederate sagacity of John Adams had foretold president of the convention and the present Constitution of the United States was then and there formed." you do. in May. and devoted to genuine republicanism nor could I. as I have done. and Louis Philippe was invited to take the throne. Every State but Rhode Island was represented. When Charles X. a republican government can be sustained here ? " " No.JAMES MADISON. after three and thirty years' trial. surrounded by republican institutions all must bo repub: : " I think as lican. There was. more dispassionate. stood upon a balcony of the HOtel de Ville in Paris. perhaps. but also to those heroic soldiers of our land." said Lafayette " that which is necessary for France is a throne. in the present state of France. have defended ii. that. . Mr. But do you think. " — You know that I am a republican. disinterested." replied Louis Philippe. I can say conscientiously. while swarm- ing thousands were gathered around. no mind and no pen more active in framing this immortal document than the mind and the pen of James Madison. " It is impossible to pass two years in the United States. and that I regard the Con- stitution of the United States as the most perfect that has ever existed. The delegates met at the time appointed. to the founders of this Constitu- which can never be paid. in the whole scope of America and Europe. of battle. The Federal party were in favor of making the Central : — ^ . we must re- this as the highest . as they . of the United States compliment ever paid to the Constitution and our nation owes a debt of gratitude." When we gard consider the speakers and the occasion.

was a very harmonious blending of these two apNeither party was fully satis. that ni- president shall continue in office more than two terras.t we shonM be a compact and united nation while they still wouh. would be as inexpedient as it is unattainable. we should be left but i . reserving for them all rights excepting those which it was absolutely necessary The Constituto surrender to the central power at Washington. like a Polish king ple . Washington almost invariably was adopted by a vote of eighty-nine to be presented to At length the Constitution was formed. investing it with such powers thf. tion. government strong. and that a consolidation of the whole into one simple republic . Others urged that he should serve but one term. and the members of the Senate for or during good behavior. and be fcr*^ver after ineligible. Madison. "Mr. Madison and Mr. and to seventy-nine. which may at once support a due suprem- acy of the national authority. lican party would make the State governments strong. became a matter of custom only. be rejected. And. Others wished that the president might be re-elected every four years. The Federalists would have given the Cenficd with the results. coincided in opinion. parently antagonistic principles. He therefore pro- poses a middle ground. from that time to this. and not exclude the local authorities whenever they can be subordinately useful. Hamilton was the principal writer. Washington and John Adams strongly inclined to the Federal side. Jay. to the Republican side. It was then the several States for acceptance. " thinks an individual independence of the States utterly irreconcilable with their aggregate sovereignty. Some were in favor of electing the president life. should the peore-elections. that point has been prominent in the conflict of parties. Very great Should it solicitude was felt. by continual It has become a life-long ruler. choose. the views of the Federal party were urged in a series of letters. were signed The Federalist. tral government more power: the Republicans would have given the State governments more power. Madison and Gen. Gen." During the discussion of these great questions." writes George Washington. and that he might thus. as with our judges. as formed. In the convention. which then attained These letters the celebrity which they have ever since held. give the The Repub State governments full authority in all local matters. Mr. Jefferson. though several papers were famished by Mr.154 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS.

so conciliatory in tone. President Washington . Madison was the avowed He sympathized with leader of the Republican party in Congress. and went into effect in 1789. He had gradually become so with the majority of identified with the Republican party in his principles. Mr. the side of the Republican party in nearly all it? and yet so courteous was he in his manners. In ever}^ State. is Mr. Madison to accept that mission firmly declined the appointment. Madison wrote. Jefferson's return from France. at the corner of Wall and Nassau Streets. Madison would not consent. but he and also the office of Secretary of which was urged upon him. Mr. it was the wish of many that Mr. Here he found himself soon after elected a First Congress. and urging its adoption. Jefferson There not another person in the United States. being placed at the helm of our my mind would be so com* pletely at rest for the fortune of our political bark. State. He was member of the House of Representatives in the which then met in the old City Hall in New York. with whom. affairs. Upon Mr.with but little power at home. His terra in Congress had now expired. it encoun- tered very formidable hostility but Mr. In 1792. gratefully cherishing the re- membrance of French intervention in our behalf. there was a battle between the friends and the foes of the new Constitution." But Mr. that he felt that he could not harmoniously co-operate Washington's cabinet. that he retained the affection and confidence of his former measures friends. but at length it triumphed over all opposition. In Virginia. and so undeniably conscientious in his convictions. Madison was selected by the convention to draw up an address to the people of the United States. . expounding the principles of the Constitution. drifting to . notwithstanding it was opposed by the brilliant rhetoric of Patrick Henry and the stern logic of George Mason. *' — be the candidate of the Republican party. When sliould President Washington was about to retire from his second terra of office in 1797. and he returned from New York to his beautiful . Jefferson in his foreign policy. and little respect abroad. Mr. lf^f> conglomeration of independentStates. Madison's brilliant states- manship and persuasive powers secured its unconditional ratification. earnestly solicited Mr. and advocating with all his powers of voice and pen a retaliatory policy towards the conduct of Great Britain.JAMES MADISON.

in Philadelphia. that. the renowned delineator of Indian life. of Quaker parents. life. he Some years queenly. where she was introduced to brilliant scenes of fashionable She speedily laid aside the dress and the address of the Quakeress. As. Madison. Madison had secured at this late hour of life proved invaluable. a young widow of remarkable powers of She was born phia. For some unexplained reason. prepossessing appearance and apologized gracefully for the intrusion. Her maiden name was Dolly Paine. Madison. endeavoring to earn a living by painting He was poor.156 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. she contributed greatly to the popularity and power of her husband in the elevated sphere through which he afterwards moved. and became one of the most fascinating ladies who ha^ In York. he had met. — Mrs. in While in Congress. But soon a lady of wonderfully manners entered the chambei. They were embellished our republican court. and had been educated in the strictest rules of that sect. Their situation was desolate indeed. through Mrs. she was the belle of the season. previously met with a serious disappointment had become ardently attached to Miss Floyd. She was. He was then forty-three years of age. Mr. the accomplished daughter of one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. The companion whom Mr. Madison's home. in the gay York. New married in 1794. When but eighteen years of age. was broken off. and was surrounded with admirers. she married a young lawyer. before. with a heart overflowing with endowed with wonderful powers of conversation. retreat at Montpelier. Madison won the prize. a stranger. young wife was taken sick with the intermittent fever. in hia He had affections. North Carolina. was a true and sympathizing friend of all who were in sorrow. introduced herself as Mrs. Catiin. in the case of Napoleon. was in Virginia. all who wished for special favors felt safe if they could secure the advocacy of Josephine. As graceful as Josephine. suasion. just after his marriage. Mr. . the attachment. so it was found. of New York. which seemed to be mutual. to the great grief of Mr. eociet}'' of New Todd. and moved to Philadelfascination. in a cheerless inn. one could ever obtain the She readiest access to the heart of her distinguished husband. and his portraits. after the death of her husband. kindness. per- and entertainment. in the vicinity of Mr. when a young man. and with a face whose frankness and winning smiles at sight won all hearts. in person and character.

JAMES MADISON. and Mi-s. was naturally reserved and formal. administered the medicines. The Federalists had far more dread of France than of England. sat side of the sick one. tory in France. all social : intercourse between Federalists and Republicans the opposing parties even the children of were not allowed freely to associate with each other. though a vein of of every pleasantry was intertwined with his nature. Mrs. Madison. she was the life of society. A group of tlio young were ever gathered around her. with a sister's tenderness. in many parts of the country. despising our infant navy. which Napoleon afterwards overthrew. social circle in They called the Republicans Jacobins. Madison. distinction. taking off bonnet and shawl. timid young girl just making her appearance. she was sure to find in Mrs. Madison. in this brief season of retirement from the cares of ofSce. The happy and harmonious was truly blessed by the presence of the widowed mothers household of both Mr. Mr. Probably no lady has thus far occupied so prominent a position i. and overthrow our government. and supplied her with comforts and luxuries. and were inclined to combino with England to arrest the progress of the French Revolutinn. Madison was in the enjoyment of almost every blessing earth can confer. Mr. and from that hour.i the very peculiar society which has constituted our republicaa court as Mrs. Madison. that. watched over her. At Montpelier. and his celebrity drew to his mansion distinguished guests from all lands. Madison a supporting and encouraging friend. proud mistress of the seas. all lent their charms to gili the scenes of this favored Virginian home. cheered her with 157 down by the bed- words of hope. In Washington. that the French Jacobins were coming over to co-operate with the Republicans. It is scarcely was broken up . was last sundering the ties of gratitude which bound us to that nation. and two orphan sisters of Mrs. His opulence enabled him to indulge in unbounded hospitality. Madison was the charm and the life which she appeared. the conThe Jacobinical Direcdition of our country was very critical. love. until she was quite recovered. and. Party spirit ran so high. If there were any dilii« dent. was treating us with indignities which America would not now submit to for a single hour. and England. At the time when Mr. Prosperity. Madison. The wildest tales were circulated through the country. Madison retired from Congress.

who should unlawfully conspire to oppose any measure of the UnitedStates Government. supported the acts as both constitutional and needful. any natives or subjects of the hostile power not and also it was decreed. Madison. and adherence to them. however. two acts were passed. "Alien and Sedition By these laws. The Alien and Sedition Laws were John Adams lost his re-election. or place under bonds. To add to the excitement. the President was authorized. should be punished. on legal conviction. which were carried by a large majority through* the Virginia Legislature. declaring the people of France to be enemies of the United States. with death. Mr. that he drew resolutions. punishable at his discretion. in the early days of Mr. or by imprisonment not exceeding five years. Jefierson was so roused by these measures. in case of made or threatened. who were in sympathy with that equality of rights which the French Revolution was struggling to introduce. was chosen President in 1801. possible for the people of the present that delirium. or giving them aid and comfort. up some Mr. They contributed greatly to John Adams's unpopularity. which passed to a second reading by a vote of fourteen to eight. denouncing the acts with great The legislatures of other States. so determined in their character. warmV severity. Mr. they . by line not exceeding five thousand dollars." war. but which were adopted by the Legislature of Kentucky. banish. But the storm passed away. to imprison. that his enemies have charged him with advocating nullification and violent resistance. the administration of our government. and sometimes with measures of doubtful These laws were legality. and who were opposing bitterly. and. and the Republicans came into of the Constitution. though repudiating every thing like nullification. John Adams's adcalled Diinistration. its influence. a bill was introduced into the Senate of the United States by Mr. Madison's writings upon this subject are by all admitted to exhibit " masterly vigor. vehemently denounced. It was generally understood that these acts were aimed at the Republican party. that any one.158 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Lloyd of Maryland. drew up resolutions. in their advocacy of a " strict construction became the text-book of his party. the authorship of which was for many years kept secret. actually naturalized . day to realize the /renzy of Under Laws. Thomas Jefierson repealed.

in allaying . Mr. was affair. and wide-spreading plains. from his happy home in Virginia to Washington. With great ability he discharged This summonovl him the duties of this onerous and responsible office during the whole eight years of Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by the cares of his all office. but half completed. holding his office for two terms. The building. Madison usually presided over the festivities of the White House and as her husband succeeded Mr. far more an abandoned ruin than a rising palace. able woman was. and the simplicity of private life reigned in the presidential to crowd which flocked mansion.JAMES MADISON. But wonderful harmony pervaded Mr. Jefferson's cabinet. X We were. As Mr. looking Hill. The new President immediately appointed his friend. and other accumulations of unsightly materials. in became a great and salutary power the nation. . peculiarities. Jefferson. power. Secretary of State. this very remark . Jefferson's administration. Far away in the distance stood the Capitol surrounded by groves. surrounded by rough masses of It was. Every visitor left her with the impression of having been the object of peculiar attention as an especial favorite. though elegant. forests. the mistress of the presidential mansion for sixteen years. Mrs. and neither of his daughters could be often with him. simple and the influenced this gentle woman. " one family. She never forgot a face or a name. 159 Mr. our republican palace. Never were such responsibilities more ably and delightfully disthe duties of social life charged. The most bitter foes of her husband and of the administration were received with the frankly proffered hand and the cordial smile of welcome. the bitterness of party rancor. indeed. . devolved upon his accomplished wife. Madison. with a few houses or huts scattered here and there at most unsocial distances. The Washington from our widely extended and rapidly increasing country came with all their provincial It was a motley throng. then a very shabby stood ir a The White House." The stately forms of etiquette which were congenial to the tastes of Presidents Washington and Adams were now laid aside." he writes. Jefferson was a widower. pasture of old oaks. solitary stone and piles of lumber. Her house was plainly furnished her dress. in reality. like apd alone. Thib was not policy merely: it was the resistless outfloAving of her own loving nature.

like real gentleas big as your wrist. Strong in honesty which he knew to be unimpeachable. and sir men as they are. and Stockton of New Jersey powdered every day. in accordance like a death-grapple was with her husband's wishes^ continued to exercise the rites of hosThe chiefs of the differpitality without regard to party politics. Washington logue of truly great men. Such men would confor dignity on the station. ! ! . As the term of Mr. or molten brass. sir! Just look at Daggett of ConnectiWhat cues they have got. but a nobility of heroic achievement. What Presidents we might have. cut. : titles we powdered wigs and scarlet coats of Lave laid them aside with the But no other land can exhibit a more brilliant cata other days. Madison's correspondence. of Nature's noblemen. and mouldy parchments. He stood. bility not of hereditary descent. like the peak of Teneriffe in a storm emotional man. ent parties met in her parlor. after Mr. said. while Secretary of State. and all alike shared in the smiles and kindly greetings which made that parlor so attractive. like the untitled stars. Mr. which shall the genius of our country to reject pompous — be recognized through shall shine forever. have a fame more durable than sculptured Theirs is a nomarble. the barbers of Washington judged of the merits of great men by the length of The morning their cues and the amount of powder on their hair. Madison was nominated for President. assaults of the press which would have driven many men frantic. Madison. Jefferson's presidency drew near its close. he contemplated. the Federal and the Republican. or monumental granite. Madison was not an parties. where education was so generally diffused.— 160 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. wltu foreign ambassadors and our ministers at foreign courts. Even in ouf land. undisturbed by the howl of the gale and the dash of the wave. The uninteHigent are easily deceived by tinsel. and unearned laurels. There is not any nation which can exhibit a more able series of state-papers tlian It is came from his pen. Mrs. addressing a senator whom he was shaving. in imperturbable serenity. Jefterson. Adams. " Surely this country is doomed to disgrace and ruin. Madison. and a host of others in the galaxy of American worthies. It strife to elect his between the two great Mr. party rancor was roused to the utmost in the successor. constitute a very important part of the history of President Jefferson's administration. a barber in WashijDgton. all the ages. and.

who was Mr. pleasure. . It makes one's blood boil. But this little sir. The encroachments of England had brought us to the verge of war. and our flag The British minister. approving the conduct of the Executive in requesting his recall. passed a resolution declaring the extreme discommunications its of Mr. was recalled. Jackson. and impressment no efforts of our Government could induce the his tastes. With great nonchalance. even now. — with the latter power in consequence of the Berlin and Napoleon immediately revoked those decrees. and the British GovcDiment was requested to withdraw him. was sent to occupy hia place. by the guns of an English cruiser. that the Secretary of State was directed to hold no further communication with him. and with this handsome majority took his seat as President on the 4th of March. the battles of England. Mr. a man of insolent address. but as a necessary measure of retaliation against the atrocious orders in council which England had Milan decrees. '' the resolution was unanimously That the suffering foreign armed ships to station them21 when . to think of an American ship brought to. 1809. and orders the crew to be paraded before him. to This right of search fight.. JAMES MADISON. with a cue no bigger than a enough to make a man forswear his counti^ Out of one hundred and seventy-five electoral votes. British cabinet to relinquish. . The act of non-intercourse England alone. he selects any number whom he may please to designate as British subjects orders them down the ship's side into his boat and places them on the gun-deck of his man-of-war. in the city of New York ou passed. Scholarly in war had no charms for him. Jackson as having been highly indecorous and insolent. sending word to our Government that they had not been issued out of any unfriendly feeling to us. and passing an act of non-intercourse with both England and France. Congress. retiring in his disposition. Madison received one hundred and twenty-two. Madison was a now remained man of in full force against peace. A young lieutenant steps on board. 161 pipe* " ! stem. in official This was done but no one was seut in his place. There was a popular meeting held the 26th of April. and a skine. Erwas exposed to constant insult. disposed to be conciliatory. — it is Jim Madison. He became so unbearable. British orders in council destroyed our commerce. But the meekest spirit can be roused. upon the ocean. 1806 . by compulsion. Mr. issued. Mr.

when the war between the United States and England was opened. and capture oui a grosi and vessels. . search. No government could be worthy of respect which would not at least attempt to protect its citizens The following case illustrates that of in from such outrages.i(. our harbor. and murder our ok search. administration which patiently permits the same the confidence of a brave and free people." is not entitled to BRITISH j. hundreds. to impress. wound. ducted with unsparing severity. is duties of government and that an criminal neglect of the highest . was born Greenwich. to fight against their own flag. and there to stop. and scourged again on the raw wounds until they succumbed. and were thus forced. placed freely used. the impressment was con. The cudgel and the cutlass were Those who refused to submit were scourged. Where resistance vvas attempted.162 selves ofif LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. It was proved by official records that more than a th(ni sand American citizens were thus torn from home and friends^ many of whom were compelled for years to man British guns. in irons. Conn He was a Hiram Thayer young man of sobriety.

on board " The British blockading squadron off New . Notwithstanding the bitter hostility of the Federal party to the war. In 1805. compelled to fight against his own countrymen. was most afi'ecting. Madison. on the 4th of March. Commodore Decatur sent with the flag a note to Capt. he was compelled to serve the British cannon. Gen. under Still he was held in British slavery all which was then one of the London. and was drowned. 1812. that. For five years. if he were not submissive and obedient. and shot at like a dog. moral worth. high friends. in the war which England was then waging against France. infant navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grappling . On to the 18th of June. he was transferred on board the British frigate " Statira. President Madison gave his approval an act of Congress declaring war against Great Britain. town-clerk." saying " that he felt persuaded that the application of the father." The interview between the father and the son. 1814." In reply to his remonstrances. 163 greatly endeared to his impressed in 1803. Our . industry. he fell overboard. furnished as he was with conclusive evidence of the nativity and identity of his son. mind of a single British officer. Commodore Decatur sent the father. This is not the place to describe the various adventures of this war on the land and on the water.JAMES MADISON. after eleven years of There was not a doubt. would induce an immediate order for his discbarge. and was He was to obtain his release. with barbarity which would have disgraced an Algerine courser. as atrocious as ever disgraced a Cuban plantation. the country in general approved and Mr. Not long after this. through our second war with England. and parish minister of his native town. the American consul at Lon- don." He contrived to get a His friends exerted themselves to the utmost letter to his father. applied to the Lords Commissioners in vain for his discharge. parents. in the separation." a flag of truce. Capel of " The Statira. Certificates of his nativity were exhibited from the selectmen. A trunk containing portions of his clothing were the only memorials of their loved son which were ever returned to his afflicted Statira. On the 14th of March. he was told. The unhappy man was stiU detained in this slavery. " he should be tied to the mast. was re-elected by a largo majority. of Hiram Thayer's being an American citizen but they refused to release him. and entered upon his second term of office. 1813. alleging simply that they had no authority to do so. Lyman.

by way of BladensThere was no sufficient force in the burg. Mr. Gen. the Capitol. The whole population fled from the city. Madison comes not: may God protect him Two messengers. . covered with dust. A ^ew months after this great humiliation. with her carriage drawn up at the door to await his speedy contest commenced . near ! . A British force of five thousand ica accepted men landed on the banks of the Patuxent River. Aug. in Chesapeake Bay. The straggling little city of Washington was thrown into consternation. came to bid me fly but I wait for him. Napoleon was now overpowered. " Three o^clock. meet the officers in a council of war. I have had it filled with the plate and the most valuable portable articles belonging to the house. early in February. the British made an attempt upon New Orleans. firesides. battle. near its entrance into Chesapeake Bay. hurried to — have been turning my spy-glass in every and watching with unwearied anxiety. upon Washington. as if there was a lack of arms. Whether it will reach its destithe Bank of Maryland. hoping to discern the near approach of my dear husband and his friends but. twelve o'clock at noon. Th© .power which ever swept the seas. under date of Wednesday. it. The President. and could not go back without danger of being captured.l64 witli the LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. I direction. and all the public buildings in Washington. Winder was in command of a few vicinity to resist them. Tbn» in earnest by the appearance of a Britisli fleet. Jackson with great slaughter. At this late hour. and marched rapidly. were in flames. within sound of the cannon. or fall into the hands of British nation. my sister? we have had a Bladensburg and I am still here.. — Will you believe . return. They were repulsed by Gen. The Emperor of Russia offered his services as mediator. declaring nearly the whole coast of the United States under blockade. He met our troops utterly routed. leaving Mrs. a wagon has been procured. She writes to her sister. 1813. Madison in the White House. regular troops and some regiments of militia. 1814. AmerEngland refused. or of spirit to fight for their own " Since sunrise. The cannon of the brief conflict at Bladensburg echoed through the streets of the metropolis." But a few hours elapsed ere the Presidential Mansion. — — soldiery. most formidable. events must determine. 12. or skirmish. alas \ I can descry only groups of military wandering in all directions.

England was now prepared to turn her whole immense armament against our country. Gathering strength as it flew. always affable. are fast becoming as dead as those of Westphalia. after came the story. political ardor. it appeared that a private express had rapidly passed through the city. flushed with victory. Never was our country enveloped in deeper gloom. a strange rumor was that a treaty of peace had been signed at Ghent. 1815. Gales. allied 165 despots were triumphant. so utterly subversive of the rights of humanity. his quil and unrufiled. was never more arrogant than then. The British cabinet. " — the opportunity to rise Truthfully does " The British Vienna of 1815. . called upon President Madison. would produce in public affairs. Mr. bearing the important tidings to merchants in the South." England was the leading power in this Congress. so wicked. lie found him sitting alone. Still it found floating through Washington. never excited. though the most desperate have been made by the English diplomatists to embalm them as monuments of political wisdom." anxious to obtain some reliable information upon an event so momentous. In fact. We were sadly divided among ourselves. if true. Quarterly " say.JAMES MADISON. The New-England States were so hostile to the war. The President. if it could possibly be obtained on any reasonable terms. are to be found in the annals of nations. editor of '' The National Intelligencer. apparently pondering the prodigious change which the news. were partitioning out the re-enslaved nations of Europe between them. they should be got under ground with all possible despatch for no compacts so worthless. and. assembled in Congress at Vienna. — was but a rumor. At length. that one not acquainted with his perfect power over himself might have supposed it a matter of much indifferencd to him whether the report were true or false. Commissioners had been sent to Ghent to obtain peace with the British crown. the whole Whence city was soon in a state of the most intense excitement. About noon of the 13th of February. The treaties of efforts . that the people should not again have against the old regimes of tyranny. in the dusk of the evening. was inclined to credit the report. diligent inquiring. no one could satisfactorily tell. Their one great object was so to divide Europe. He knew that mercantile zeal might outrun spirits so tran- His manner was so composed. as seriously to embarrass the Government.

" writes a visitor. The venerable mother of Mr. with official commu What pen can describe the excitenication of the glad tidings. from the elegances. It is safe to say that Great Britain will never again undertake to drag a man from the protecting folds of the stars and stripes.166 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and a spacious lawn in front. It was. radiant with joy. A fine garden behind the house. to use the expressive phrase of John Adams. in his paternal home. as cheers burst from all lips ? The drawing-room at the President's mansion Avas speedily thronged. the President being absent with his cabinet. Mrs. Madison was there. he retired to the leisure and repose of his beautiful retreat at Montpelier. " the observer passed life. in the estimation of a Virginian. In a moment. It had been with the utmost reluctance that he had been forced into a war. as there England did not relinquish her claim of the " right of was peace in Europe. of course. when there were neither railroaJs nor telegraph wires. and gayeties of modern into . Jefferson. there was no longer any motive to continue the practice. Happy in his honorable release from the cares of state. drawn by four foaming horses. his second term of oiSce expired. imbosomed among the hills. Information then. the country had passed from " gloom to glory. Americans of all coming ages will revere the memory of James Madison for resisting such wrongs. that a coach. One wing of the mansion was appropriated to her. Here. refinements. and was thus. a near neighbor of Mr. " By only opening a door. search . On the 4tlj of March. and he resigned the presidential chair to his friend James Monroe. the object of his unceasing and most affectionate attentions. he passed peacefully the remainder of his days The mansion was large and commodious." No one rejoiced more heartily than did President Madison. contributed their embellishments to the rural scene. ment of that hour. " I am an American citizen " will henceforth be an argument which will command the respect of the world. came thundering down Pennsylvania Avenue. inexpedient for the United States to persist in the war for a mere abstraction. 1817. " but. where over countless acres the undulating expanse was covered with the primeval forest. Madison still resided with her son. He was within a day's ride of Monticello. situated at the base of a high and wooded hill. a victor in life's stern battle. travelled slowly. It was not until late in the afternoon of the next day.

Madison sat down. of our great-grandfathers' times. certain sentence in the speech. his accomplished and amiable wife was ever Nineteen years of life to him a source of the greatest happiness. and. pen in hand. . JAMES MADISON: all 167 that was venerable. slender . One of the relates the following anecdote of Mr. he spoke but twice but. much interest in the agricultural prosperity of the country. Though the convention sat for sixteen weeks. with a countenance full of intelligence. to the solid furniture darkened by age. and. — — respectful note. In 1829. Small in and delicate in form. light fancy chairs. French furniture. Madison struck out a word. and watched with unflagging interest the progress of every measure. so that his eye fell on the paper. he sent the manuscript to President Madison for his revision. and wait while he ran his eye over the paper. though he took still remained to him. and requested to come up into Mr. when he did speak. He seldom left his home. . I sent my son with a stature. until that He did so and Mr. and dignified in gone-by days from the airy apartments. my note. the the affairs of the university at Charlottesville. My son was a lad of about sixteen. and was treated with the utmost defierence. but hesitated. Stansbury reporters the last speech he made. he consented to become a at member of the convention Richmond to revise the Constitution of the State. He was much beloved by liis neighbors and friends. prevented his attending to it. and the report had not been returned for publication. as company had. moment. The lad Coming to a stood near him. Having carefully written out the speech.. and very cordially co-operated with President Jefferson in watching over carpets. gay and heavy carved and polished mahogany thick. hung with light silken drapery." comfortable Mr. His voice was feeble. though his union had not been blessed with children. " The next day. . though he always appeared self-possessed. he attracted the attention of all who attended the convention. not feeling quite and substituted another eatisfied with the second word. and expressive alike of mildness and dignity. though the enunciation was very distinct. Madison's chamber. On delivering whom I had taken with me to act as amanuensis. as there was a great call for it. requesting the manuscript. respectable. rich curtains. Mr. and other more adjustments. the whole house paused to listen. to correct the report. Madison's health was delicate. drew his pen through it also. He seldom addressed the assembly. windows opening to the ground. he was received with the utmost politeness.

James Madison is the last who has gone to his reward. and inserted Thank you. obloquy In a glowing that we can scarcely believe that it ever existed. with a compliment on the young critic. that Quincy Adams. Madison survived her husband thirteen years. and died on She the 12th of July. it. the founders of the Constitution of the United States. boy that he was. 1849. His memory Like all is embalmed in a nation's veneration and gratitude. Yes. was one of the most remarkable women our country has produced and it is fitting that her memory should descend to posterity in company with that of the companion of her life. and he mentioned the circumstance. and unconscious of "My plicity. he ventured. liberty. of our duty to transmit the inher" itance unimpaired to our children of the rising age Mrs. instead of regarding such an intrusion with a frown. now May it never cease to entirely a succeeding generation to them. Their glorious work has survived them all. were uttered " Of that band of benefactors of the human race. raised his eyes to the boy's face with a pleased surprise.. ignorant of the world. to suggest to James Madison an improvement in his own speech Probabl}^ no other individual then living would have taken such a I But the sage. son was young. exposed to much obloquy has now so passed away.' and immediately I saw him the next day. then eighty-five years fell of age. 168 LIVES OF THE Ph^SIDEXTS. They have transmitted the precious bond to us. the solecism of which he was about to be guilty. in the eighty-second year of her age. 1836. in all sim he suggested a word. sir it is the very word. * . Madison. eloquent in their truthfulness. : — ! . the following words. be a voice of admonition to us. asleep in death. Mr. uttered by the venerable ex-President John in his political life. public men. when." said. tribute to his memory. On the 28th of June.

Mlis JIONUUE. — Secretary both of War and of State. — Purchase of Spain. The friends of b<4tlj were exhausting their energies to bring every voter to the A very infirm and aged man was transported from a con22 169 . rival candidates for parties some local oflSce. Parentago and Birth. liness of England. — — — — — — — years ago. A Senator. James Madison and Jaraes Monrot^. litical Education. Enters the Army. there was a hotly contested election in Virginia. — Retirement and Death. French Revolution. Many KESIUEXCE UF JA. were polls. Washington's Views of the — — — — — Col. PoViews. Purchase of Louisiana. when two young men. — Elected to the Presidency. JAMES MONROE.CHAPTER V. — The Monroe Doctrine. Bonaparte. — Sympathy with Revolutionary Soldiers. UntriendProspective Greatness of America. Mission to France. — Northern Tour. A Legislator. Monroe Governor.

1758. in the cabin of the slaves. impetuous. the old man exclaimed with emotion.was gathering blackness and young Monroe. But the cloud of the great Revolution which sundered the colonies from the mothei'-countr}'. That same spirit of bestarted up. It was his intention to study law. and inquired if — nevolence which prompted the grandfather to feed and clothe and shelter the child of want descended to his children and his chil- dren's children." Virtues seem to be often hereditary. could not resist his impatience to become an active participator in the scenes which were opening. I do not know James Madison. emigrated to this The Monroe Family were among the first who country. His grandfather befriended me when I first came into the country. siderable distance. waiting for his opportunity to vote. like all his predecessors thus far in the presidential chair. that beautiful expanse of fertile land which is spread out on the western banks of the Potomac. They were the near neighbors of the Washington Family and. At that time. by the friends of Mr. barbarism. when he had been in college but two years. vigorous youth. while near by were clustered the cheerless hovels of the poor and debased laborers. were in comparative opulence. fed me and clothed me. Here and there. in wide dispersion. " Then I shall vote for James Monroe. Madison. I shall vote for James Monroe. an earnest. ia a wagon. debasement. In 1776. Upon being told that he was the grandson of that person. ignorance. the . — ealoons of the master . and at the age of sixteen entered William and Mary College.. Ya. being the owners of a large estate. tion in childhood. James Monroe. Virginia presented an aspect somewhat resembling feudal Europe in the middle ages. were to be seen the aristocratic mansions of the planters. and I lived in his house. name of James Monroe struck his half-paralyzed ear. in the . whose blood . and selected their home in what is now Westmoreland County. who became fifth President of the United States. As he was the sitting in the building. coursed fiercely through his veins. He was early sent to a very fine classical school. There were intelligence. culture. James Monroe. luxury. He James Monroe was the son of the man of that name who some years ago lived and died in the province. was born upon his father's plantation on the 28th of April. enjoyed all the advantages of educa- which the' country could then afford.170 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS.

that the effort proved unsuccessful. tened to Gen. Abounding with kindliness of feeling. Finding no opportunity to enter the army as a commissioned he returned to his original plan of studying law. he took his place in the ranks. sincere. who had formed a high idea of young Monroe's abilities. Gen. and the Tories. that. and accompanied the dispirited army as it fled In four months after the before its foes through New Jersey. and scorning every thing ignoble. Upon recovering from his wound. \^ere sweeping was one of the gloomiest hours in our history. . inspired his pupil with zeal for study. At Trenton. The next year. and in that capacity he took an active part in the Germantown. With courage which never faltered. battles. The British all before them. when but twenty-three years of age. Monroe so distinguished himself. he won the love of all who knew him. he was invited to act as aide to . He. he was chosen delegate to . and entered the office of Thomas Jefferson. received his commission. manly. Lord Sterling ever. He developed a very noble character. and was also appointed a member of the Executive Council. he was elected to the Assembly of Virginia. frank." In 1782. howbattles of Brand}' wine. were struggling against James Monroe left college. and en. of which he was to be colonel but so exhausted was Virginia at that time. Jefferson had a large and admirable library. hasthe trained armies of England. But James Monroe belonged to the class of the indomitable. and officer. the patriots had been beaten in seven land. he stood by the side of Lafayette when the French marquis received his wound. " James Monroe is so perfectly honest. It New York. that he was promoted to a captaincy. favoring the cause of Eng- were daily becoming more boastful and defiant. and our feeble militia. Our disheartened troops were de- serting in great numbers. Firmly yet sadly he shared in the melancholy retreat from Harlaem Heights and White Plains. there would not be found a spot on it. 171 Declaration of Independence was adopted. receiving wound in his shoulder. sent him to Virginia to raise a new regiment. if his soul were turned inside out. Washington. without arms or ammunition or clothing. Jefferson said of him. a Lieut. At Germantown. Washington's headquarters at rolled himself as a cadet in the army. Mr. Declaration of Independence. who was then Governor of Virginia. Mr.— JAMES MONROE. and Monmouth.

Jefferson. For nearly fifty years this hap- At this time. he formed a matrimonial connection with Miss Kortright. and the discussion which rose upon it. and to lay an impost-duty of five The resolution he was chairman. a young lady distinguished alike for her beauty and her accomplishments. and not enough to a seat in the State Legislature to the individual States. mation of a and Madison. he felt deeply the in- efficiency of the old Articles of Confederation. The high esteem in which Col. He was and the next year he was chosen a member of the Virginia Convention. Mrs. with many others of the Republican party. the Continental Congress for a term of three years. as in her piness to both of the parties. notwithstanding his op- position. that it gave too much power to the Central Government. Still he retained the esteem of his In 1789. there Massachusetts in reference py union continued unbroken. Col. and who. the brilliancy of her intellect. was a controversy between New York and to their boundaries. and the amiability of her character. thinking. which was assembled to decide upon the acceptance or rejection of the Constitution which had been drawn up at Philadelphia. Returning to Virginia. Monroe was held is indicated by the fact that he was appointed one of the judges to decide the controversy. led to the convention of five States at Annapolis. and was now submitted to the several States. he proved himCongress a very efficient man of business. Centr^il Government something like national Influenced by these views. secured its adoption. he introduced a resolution that Congress should be empowered per cent. member of . Monroe won admiration and affection by the loveliness of her person. Deeply as he felt the imperfections of the old Confederacy. a source of almost unalloyed hapIn London and in Paris. was referred to a committee of which The report. and urged the for- new witli Constitution. who were its warm supporters. With Wasliington. he was opposed to the new Constitution. Monroe commenced the practice almost immediately elected .172 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. He was pres- ent at Annapolis commander-in-chief. of law at Fredericksburg. which. While in New York attending Congress. Monroe was. draughted the Constitution of the United States. and the subsequent general convention at Philadelphia. own country. he became a friend's. to regulate trade. which should invest the power. self in when Washington surrendered his commission of Young as Col. in 1787.

which is destined to eclipse all Grecian and Assyrian greatness. the line of distinction between the two great parties which divided the nation. Every month. England had espoused the cause of the Bourbons against the principles of the French We were All Europe was drawn into the conflict. France had tion of neutrality between these contending powers. which would give as much power to the Central Government as that document could possibly authorize. Mr. never breathed. The great co-operation with Jefferson and Madison. Revolution. the combination of their antagonisms was needed to create the right equilibrium. *' tion. George Washington was then President. President Washington issued a proclamafeeble. Two more honest men or more pure patriots than John Adams the Federalist. The two promiaent ideas which now separated them were. and with honor to himself. for four years. and far away. was growing more distinct. in favor of a liberal construction of the Constitution. And yet each. and were warrant. allay the biterness of party-strife. Let this considerain his day. and the State Governments as much power. 173 the United-States Senate. sadly yet triumphantly. having opposed the Constitution as not leaving enough power with the States. in cordial the dominant power which ruled the Republican party became But we can imagine the shades of John Adams and Alexland. hereafter. as the Constitution would The Federalists sympathized with England. and exclaiming. In building up this majestic nation. and was also in favor of such a strict construction of the Constitution as to give the Central Government as little power.y to his constituents. was denounced as almost a demon. consecrating all their energies to the good of the nation.JAMES MONROE. and James Monroe the Republican. the Federal and the Republican. . Monroe. which office he held acceptab. that you might save the country from destruction. Did we not tell you so ? Has it not been that very doctrine of State sovereignity which has plunged our land into this conflict? and have you not found it necessary. to arm the Constitution with those very powers which we were so anxious' to stamp upon it?" The leading Federalists and Republicans were alike noble men. that the Republican party was in sympathy with Prance. ander Hamilton rising from their graves in the midst of our awful civil war. of course became more and more Thus he found himself identified with the Republican party.

" In reply to this. He was publicly introduced to that body. charging him with expressing a solicitude for the welfare of the French republic in a style too warm and affectionate. by which we were likely to give offence to other '•' countries. Monroe was welcomed by the National Convention in France witli the most enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and affection. He '• writes. communicating to them corresponding resolves approved by the President. Secretary of State. and received those of France in return. at whatever hazard. " — My instructions to inspire the enjoined it on me to use my utmost endeavors French Government with perfect confidence in the . more magnanimous than prudent. Col. after having been addressed in a speech glowing with congratulations. Monroe was recalled. and to the friends of England in this country. Washington. Pickering. Monroe states in his View " the instructions he received from Washington. Monroe. Mr. and with expressions of desire that harmony might ever exist between the two countries. that.l74 LIFi:S OF THE PRESIDENTS. by appointing that very James Monroe. He was directed by Washington to express to the French people our warmest sympathy. as ungrateful. Avhich are interesting as show ing the personal feelings of Washington towards France. The course which he pursued in Paris was so annoying to England. developed his calm. almost divine greatness. Mr. near the close of Washington's administration. helped us in the struggle for our liberties. It was the impulse of a generous and a noble nature. who was a fanatical hater of France. can colors. particularly to England. was anxious that. Mr. All the despotisms of Europe were now combined to prevent the French from escaping from tyranny a thousand-fold worse than that which we had endured. and proportionably an adulator of England. Government to the republic of France. and wanting in magnanimity. serene. and adopted by both houses as the minister of that of Congress. we should help our old allies in their extrem ity. Monroe. sent an angry despatch to Mr. Mr. who was denouncing the policy of the Government. who could appreciate such a character. Monroe presented the Ameriin the hall of the convention. He violently opposed the President's proclamation. Merlin de Douay. and received the embrace of the president. The flags of the two republics were intertwined Mr.

entitled " A View of the Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Affairs. was trampled in the dust." best wishes are irresistibly excited. In delivering to you these ! an oppressed nation unfurl the the events of the French Revo- sentiments.JAMES MONROE. lution I see all. President Washington addressed the French minister in the following words : " My whensoever. in any country. He was crushed. was not disposed to discriminate in the least in her favor. above have produced the deepest solicitude as well as the highTo call your nation brave. into whose imperial arms. Jay. Monroe was our minister in France. in relation to the commencement. While Mr. in case we embarked in the war. France was plunged into anarchy. he very ably advocated his side of the q lestion but. Jay." which he had so grandly borne aloft.'and subjugated France again bowed her neck to the old feudal tyranny. with other men of his party. after his return. but those of my fellow- citizens. scouting the idea that any thanks were due to France for the aid she had rendered us in the Revolution. and to declare in ex- terms. In 1796." Europe combined against the enfranchised nation. Jay. was our ambassador at the court of St. of the grateful sense which we still retained for the important services that were rendered us in the course of by France (>licit our Revolution . were to pronounce but est admiration. I express not my feelings only. Wonderful people Ages to come will read with astonishment your brilliant exploits. Monroe. In the frenzy of the unequal fight. Monroe and Mr. banner of freedom. and the French Revolution. as the friend and ally of the United States. side. with magnanimity characteristic of the man. in her dire necessity. Hence there was intense antagonism between Col. Bolicitude 175 which the President . but. that although neutrality was the lot we preferred. the progress. be they who they might. from which she was rescued by Napoleon. with strong English proclivities. issue of the All despotic : . common praise. Mr. He was ever ready to enter into a commercial treaty which would favor that country at the expense of our old ally. Mr. The unfurled banner of "Equal Rights. yet. felt for the success of the French all Revolution of his preference of France to other nations." In this work. James. she had cast herself. Col. wrote a book of four hundred pages. And then all despotic Europe turned its arms against that one man. it would be on her and against her enemies.

and land- it countless legions of his triumphant veterans. he would sweep the country from New Orleans to Canada. Jefferson was then President. if we could not obtain this province by would inevitably involve us ere long in war. Egalite. taking possession of this vast territory of Louisiana. . then at the head of the armies of revolutionary France. he recorded a integrity. ability. with " Liberte. which was called Louisiana. in subsequent years. he expressed for warmest terms his perfect veneration George Washington. The writer of this well remembers his terror. He was beloved in France. . Monroe was the period limited by the Constitution. Col. was proclaimed that . in the revolution and in the establishment of the — elected Governor of Virginia. and held that office for three years. it was announced that Spain had ceded to France that vast territory. and spotless John Jay and. Livingston was then our minister to France. of in warm tribute to the patriotism." inscribed on their banners. extending fiom the Mississippi to the Pacific. In the year 1802. It was so manifest must have the control of the mouths of the thruugh which alone the most majestic valley on our globe could have access to the ocean. Most of our knowledge of what was transpiring on the continent of Europe came to us through the English press. of Bonaparte became a terror throughout the United Mothers frightened their disobedient children with the It threat that Bonaparte would get them. Shortly after his the character of return to this country. the struggle of the French people for equal rights. the conqueror of Europe had only reserved us as his last victim that. He drew up a very able memorial to the First Consul. was trampling down those despots who had banded together to force back the execrated old regime of the Bourbons upon the emancipated empire. treaty.176 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. in contemplation of this invasion by that Napoleonic monster whom we had been taught to regard as the embodiment of all evil. arguing that it would be ing upon for the true interest of both countries that France should cede the province of Louisiana to the United States. that our most sagacious statsmen felt it assured. Mr. establish his empire here. Napoleon. that. and trample our liberties in the dust. The name States. that the United States Mississippi. when a child. Fraternite. Never had a story been more falsely told than that press had narrated. Mr. — empire.

It has been truly said that this was probably the largest transfer of real estate which was ever made since the fee-simple of Paradise. He then went to Spain. Adam was presented with The country thus obtained was in exIt is tent equal to the whole previous territory of the Union. if possible. Our relations with England were daily becoming more menacing. The powerful have been repelled by her proud assumptions. savage or civilized. and the weak have been trampled upon in undisguised contempt. But it is the duty of the biographer and the historian to hold up the errors of the past as a warning for the future. that kindly ties sympathies may pervade the whole human brotherhood. Mr. by way of Paris. In Spain. For the last half-century. to endeavor to obtain by treaty. and he ever regarded portant of his public services. and to remonstrate against those odious impressments of our seamen which were fast rousing the indignation of the country to the highest pitch. From France. though a very large one for us in those days. England has been the leading power among the nations. had copied the same words which Spain had used in conveying the territory to France. There is not a nation on this globe. which regards with cordial friendship the British Government. But England was unrelenting. : 23 . which Napothat government had ceded to France. in his cession. Chancellor Livingston. "the entire territory of Orleans. Her demeanor has been arrogant. Their united efforts were successful. and adaptation to it as the most imhave now such a territory in human wants." were added United States. though unavailingly. We would not willingly revive old griefs to perpetuate animosiwe would gladly have past wrongs forgotten. haughty. and overbearing. universally admitted that Mr. magnitude. as no other nation We on this globe ever possessed. where he saw Napoleon crowned.JAMES MONROE. he endeavored. leon. Monroe went to England to obtain from that government some recognition of our rights as neutrals. to the and district of Louisiana. Ill The memory of James Monroe was cherished there with universal He was accordingly sent to co-operate with respect and afiection. For the comparatively small sum of fifteen millions of dollars. this vast possession. and France to us. Monroe's influence was very promi- nent in this measure. to adjust a controversy which had arisen respecting the eastern boundary of the territory.

It is as important that a nation should have the good will of all surrounding powers as that an individual should be loved by his neighbors. Mr. bearing with him a treaty which was so very unsatisfactory. Mr. Jefferson's second term of office expired. The majority were in favor of Mr. enjoyed a few years of domestic repose. obliging. and helping to the weak. and the more likely to carry the votes of the whole party. almost in the character of a suppliant for our Government was extremely averse to adopt any measures which could lead to war. outrage. Monroe. his quiet home and with his wife and children. returned to in Virginia. Mr. Jefferson also favored Mr. England is no longer the leading power in the world.-elfish in our intercourse with the strong. In the year 1809. forbade our trading with France and seized and confiscated mercilessly our merchant-ships bound to any port in France or Spain. The correspondence which he then carried on with the British Government demonstrated that there was no hope of any peaceful adjustment of our difficulties with . Mr. Monroe returned to this country. Mo'. and Let us try to sympathetic. England. wherever her cruisers could arrest them.competence from his paternal estate. offered him by President Madison. Let us be courteous.ioe withdrew his name. despising our feeble navy. Plundered merchants and ruined shipowners poured in upon Congress petitions and remonstrances. and an ample. prove the world's great benefactor. Madison." No redress could be obtained. at the age of forty-eight. Mr. and there are none who mourn to see her shorn of lier strength. Many Madison. of the Republican party were anxious to nominate James Monroe as his successor.178 LIVES OF THE PBESIDEXTS. Let America take warning. The administration was even taunted with the declaration. that the President was not willing to submit it to the Senate. At this time. and there was a cry throughout the land that that government was recreant to its trust which did not protect its citizens from : . and was soob after chosen a second time Governor of Virginia. and un. Mr. as being the more moderate man. the friend and comforter of our brother man everywhere struggling beneath the heavy burden of life. gentle. that it " could not be kicked into a war. He soon resigned that office to accept the position of Secretary of State. Monroe again returned to England.

Ten thousand men. placing the city of that it New Orleans in sixh a posture of defence. at the earnest request of Mr. With the most singular and the most in his all and his polithe advocated every measure which in his judgment would aid in securing the triumph of his country. The happy result of the conference at Glient in securing peace rendered the increase of the army unnecessary but it is not too . he knew would render his name so unpopular. The duties now devolving upon Mr. to New Orleans. . He conversed freeiy with his friends upon the subject. as to preclude the possibility of his being a successful candidate for the presidency. had Col. Our finances were in the most deplorable condition. His energy. assumed the additional duties of the War Department. was enabled successfully to repel the invader. efficient business-man in his cabinet. that. James Monroe. James. were sent. picked from the veteran armies of England. Monroe's energy been in the War Department a few months earlier. Immediately after the sack of Washington. Madison. The treasury was exhausted. and thus succeeded in . Monroe was truly the armor-bearer of President Madicon. while he urged unselfishness. at the same time. Monroe were extremely arduous.JAMES MONROE. with virtue unsurpassed in Greek or Roman story. but which. double capacity of Secretary both of State and War. Monroe. — that conscription which would enter every dwelling in search of a soldier. stepped forward^ and pledged his own individual credit as subsidiary to that of the nation. He proposed to increase the army to a hundred thousand men. In this crisis. that . and our credit gone and yet it was necessary to make the most vigorous preparations to meet the foe. with a powerful fleet. much James Monroe placed in the hands of Andrew Jackson the weapon with which he beat off the foe at New to saj. Mr. regardless both of his private interests ical popularity. a measure which he deemed absolutely necessary to save us from ignominious defeat. to acquire possession of the mouths of the Mississippi. June. the cabinet of 179 "War was consequently declared in St. and calmly decided to renounce all thoughts of the presidential chair. the Secretary of War resigned and Mr. 1812. the Secretary of War. the disaster at Washington would not have occurred. pervaded the departments of the country. without resigning his office of Secretary of State. It has been confidently stated..

dressed in scarlet vests. and perfectly versed in all the duties before him. white sleeves and trousers. buff vest. now taking the name of Democratic Republican. Madison's second terra of office expired in March. had been so reluctant to confer upon the General Government. In forming his cabinet. succeeded to the presidency. and Mr. He was everywhere received with enthusiasm. he now admitted to be nearly perfect. devoting himself exclusively to the duties Department of These he continued to discharge until of the Secretary of State. happy is that nation which has no history. Monroe resigned tbo War. Monroe was a man of ability. Mr. His inaugural was conciliatory. President Monroe took a very extensive journey through the States. There seemed to be for a time Mr. or life. 1817. wishing merely to introduce some amendments before it was adopted. could not have been made. thoroughly acquainted with all the affairs (^f the nation. Monroe. The President Upon v. the return of peace. He was conveyed up the Delaware from Wilmington to the navy-yard in Philadelphia in a barge of the " Franklin " (seventy-four). in his inexperienced days. and pleased all. Mr. The Constitution which he had opposed. and top-boots. It has been said. ]\Ir. Florida was purchased of Spain for five millions of dollars. health. more familiar than peihaps any other person with our internal and foreign relations :" he was a man of unblemished character. during the eight years in which President little to be recorded Monroe was at the head of the administration of our Government. the close of President Madison's administration.o-'e a dark-blue coat. and purity A better choice of patriotism Avhich no man coul i question. He was the candidate of the Hopublican party. The barge was lined and trimmed with crimson velvet. In June of 1817. home in all statesmanlike duties. Monroe. They were years of prosperity and peace.180 Orleans. for There is but history is but a record of revolutions and battles. at a lull in party strife. visiting all the fortifications. with a military cocked-hat of the fashion of the . with zeal which never abated. doe-skin buff-colored breeclies. and with an ardor of self-devotion which made h'm almost forgetful of the claims of fortune. by the exercise of that power which Mr. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Monroe placed the Department of State in the hands of John Quincy Adams. and rowed by sixteen oarsmen. and was chosen by a large majority. of honesty of purpose.

and a black-ribbon cockade. New His route led him througli Haven. Sackett's Harbor. 181 New York. and escorted him through the prin* cipal streets of the city to rooms sumptuously prepared for his citizens reception in the Exchange Coffee House. and Detroit. to Boston. the Common. K*rolution. and the crowd which in the commercial emporium of New England was greater than had ever been seen there since the visit of Wash- New Hampshire and Vermont. York. could now be easily performed in three weeks. THE BAEGE. A cavalcade of met him on the Neck. was gathered ington. and Springfield. His reception in Boston was very imposing. State Street was brilliantly decorated. Hartford. His long and fatiguing tour. From Boston. man of eighteen. . Salutes were fired from Dorchester Heights. and the forts in the barbor. he passed through to Plattsburg in New When wounded President Monroe was a young at the battle of Trenton. which then occupied four months. returning to Washington the latter part of September. he was Passing through Hanover.JAMES MONROE. and thence continued his journey to Ogdensburg.

scholarly. widow of President Whee« when a young lady at her In pensive father's house. Mr. this lightly. Out of 232 electoral votes. One friend he found officer. whom he had known as a young.. Mr. I I. will choose the former. Either side of the alternative not. accomplished and who had contributed iavishiy of his fortune to feed and clothe the soldiers of his regiment. the care-worn statesman and the bereaved widow exchanged their sympathetic greetings. as gentlemen broadly intilnate. he called upon the lock of Dartmouth College. applied for admission to the Union with a slavery constitution. proposed by Henry Clay. There were not a few who foresaw the evils impending. not again to meet on this earth. The President was deeply moved. had with her own hands prepared the bandages with which the surgeon had dressed the wound. Monroe had 231. . The slavery question. 1821 and After the debate of a week. N. All along his route. Sir. on his retiring. which subsequently assumed such formidable dimensions. spoke with great warmth of the neglect of our country in making provision for the wants of those who had shed their blood for our independence. threatening to began to make its appearance. whelm the whole Union in ruins. and. yet despaired of the Reit was decided that Missouri could The question was at length settled by a compromise. and then separated. who. not be admitted into the Union with slavery. now The State of Missouri. public. for one. a dis- solution of the Union. many of whom were impoverished. '* In the long and warm debate which ensued. if the alternative be. in this tour. my mind with horror.— 182 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS.H. fills The choice is a dreadful one. he exerted himself in securing a pension-law to cheer the declining years of these fast- disappearing veterans. Lourie of Maryland said. or the extension of slavery over this whole western country. In 1821. with scarcely any opposition. but whose threadbai*e garments too plainly bespoke the poverty which had come with his gray hairs. President Monroe was re-elected. Missouri was admitted with slavery on the 10th of May. which had been carved out of that immense territory which we had pur- chased of Prance." have however. memory of the past. On his return to Washington. President Monroe met his old companions in arms. . I do not sa}'- am aware I that the idea is a dreadful one.

" The welfire of the country the whole country had ever been the one prominent thought in his mind. and not to allow Europe to interfere with affairs on the American continents . President Monroe wrote to his old friend Thomas Jefferson. we see him. surrendering the presidential chair to his Secretary of State. so entirely consecrated to the country. and Spain. originated in this emergency. then his native State raises him to the highest . In the reply. with the universal respect of the nation. in Loudon County. of his country . for advice in the The famous been said. If we allow the panorama of his life to pass rapidly before us. north latitude. north of thirty-six degrees. " Its object is to introduce and establish the American system of keeping out of our land all foreign powers. to his private residence at Oak Hill. to prevent the establishment of republican liberty in the European colonies in South America. own pecuniary — — ." A few weeks after this. that he and was deeply involved in debt. on the 2d of December. and outwatching ttie vigils of the night. declaring it to be the policy of this broils of — Government not to entangle ourselves with the Europe. Jefferson writes upon the supposition that our attempt to resist this Euro pean movement might lead to war." of which so much has recently way: In the year 1823. Monroe Doctrine. of nations and the doctrine was announced. It is to maintain our own principle. John Quincy Adams. that any attempt on the part of the European powers "to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere would be regarded by the United States as dangerous to our peace and safety. His time had been had neglected his retired. he is seated among the sages of the land. Mr. 24. of never permitting those of Europe to intermeddle with the affairs of our nation. then the sage of Monticello.JAMES MONROE. In devotion to his duties. under date of Oct. just emerging from boyhood. weltering in blood on the field of Trenton then. thirty minutes. he had engaged "in labors outlasting the daily circuit of the sun. 1825. President Monroe sent a message to was rumored that the Holy Alliance was about to interfere." On the 4th of March. Va. Monroe. not to depart from it. France. forming the laws. defending the rights interests. Mr. 1823. still a youth. slavery 183 was prohibited over " all the territory ceded by France. then he moves with power which commands attention and respect in the courts of Britain.

gift. 1831. at the age of seventy-three years. by the almost unanimous voice of his countrymen. Mrs. The citizens of New York conducted his obsequies with pageants more imposing than had ever been witnessed there before. that she In 1830. and frames our foreign policy. Mr. he the Presidency of the United States honor in her . For many years. where he died on the dence with retires to a 4th of July. men who had preceded him in the . placed in the highest post of honor the nation could olTer. Monroe took up his resirarely appeared in public. humble home. and then. and twice places in his hand the sceptre of gubernatorial power. . Monroe was in such feeble health. gratefully enrolling his name in the list of its benefactors. his son-in-law in New York. with jealous and often hostile nations and again we see him.— 184 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. pronouncing him the worthy successor of the illustrious presidential chair. while at the same time he conducts our diplomatic correspondence. but rich in all those excellences which can ennoble humanity. again we behold him successfully forging the thunderbolts of war with which to repel invasion. a poor man in worldly wealth. Our country will ever cherish his memory with pride. with dignity.

— President. 185 . — Alienation of the Federalists. CHAPTER V:. — Signal Services. — Minister to the Netherlands. m a Quincv. — Enters Harvard CoUej^ — Studies Law. — Private Secretary. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. John Adamj. watched over his childhood 24 dmh. the sixth President of the United States. EESIDENCE OF JOHX QUINCY ADAMS. 1767.g . — Unscrupulous Opposition. — Education Europe. — Anecdote of Alexander. la to John Quincy Adams. — Professor of Rhetoric — Mission to Russia. Bii Ih and Childhood. — Death. on the 11th of July. — Treaty of Ghent. was born in the rural home of his honored father. — To the National House of Representatives.His mother the woman of exalted worth. — Return to America. Mass.. — Returned the House of Representatives.. — Commendation of Washington Othei Missions. — Elected to the Massachusetts Senate. — Retirement. — Public Appreciation. Secretary of State.

This k>ng journey he when in his sixteenth year. resumed his studies. he took a tearful adieu of his mother. Denmark. and then returned to Holland through Sweden. of peace with England. travelling leisurely. Ag-tin he under a private tutor. for six months. Hamburg. with but few interruptions. When stood with his mother upon an eminence. through a fleet of hosThe bright. he accompanied his father to Paris. John Adams had scarcely returned to this country in 1779 empowered to negotiate a treaty whenever England should be disposed to end the war. to sail with his father for Europe. Thence. In this school of incessant labor and of ennobling culture he spent fourteen months. took alone. then accompanied his father to Holland. . in the spring of 1782. to Paris. Again John Quincy accompanied his father. he watched the shells thrown day and night by the combatants.186 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. he was selected by ere he was again sent abroad. our minister to the Russian court. where his father was associated with Franklin and Lee as minister plenipotentiary. animated boy spent a year and tile British cruisers. and all renowned works of art. at the Hague. Dana. and he received from them flattering marks of attention. and forming acquaintance with the most distinguished men on the Continent. first a school in Amsterdam. and was rowed out in a small boat to a ship anchored in the bay. and gazing upon the smoke and flame billowing up from the conflagration of Charlestown. On this voyage he commenced a diary. noting down the remarkable events of each day which practice he continued. in 1781. in the winter. a half in Paris. . Mr. Here he apphed himself with great diligence. he journeyed nith his father from Ferrol in Spain. as his private secretary. where the frigate landed. during the siege of Boston. At Paris> galleries of paintings. until his death. Mr. At the village school he commenced his education. Often. and Bremen. the manly boy was but fourteen years of age. to study where he entered. almost constant absence of his father. . he of superior mental endowments. when versity of Leyden. When but eleven years old. and then the UniAbout a year from this time. His intelligence attracted the notice of these distinguished men. giving at an early period iiidications but eight years of age. listening to the booming of the great battle on Bunker's Hill. With his active mind ever alert. examining architectural remains.

American siupport.. attainments. in 1793. an event very rare in this or in any other land. When Great Britain commenced Avar against France. secured and the faculty. Adams wrote some articles. Mr. college. The reward now came. He wished then to study law. who had seen much of the world. in 1786. he again became the associate of the most illustrious 187 meu of all lands in the contemplation of the loftiest temporal themes which can engross the human mind. the loftiness of his principles. After a short visit to England. with an honorable profession. as alike the respect of his classmates . To a brilliant young man of eighteen. a residence with his father in London. Clients began to enter his office and. with judgment very rare in one of his age. that. and his intense application to every study which would aid him to act well his part in life. Many felt. and devotion to study. . he was so crowded with business. before the close of the year. The first year. that. and consecrated his energies to study until May. he preferred to return to America to complete his education in an iar . — . The oration he delivered on this occasion. The second year passed away and still he was dependent upon his parents for supstill no clients Anxiously he entered upon the third year. urging entire neutrality on the part of the United States. leaving his father our ambassador at the court of St. upon the '' Importance of Public Faith to the Wellbeing of a Community. JOHN QUINGY ADAMS. he all returned to Paris. he studied law for three years with the Hon. he might be able to obtain an independent The advancement which he had already made euch. under such circumstances. . He had learned port. that. Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport. to arrest the progress of the French Revolution. Upon leaving college. James. 1785. The view was not a popular one. and who was familwith the etiquette of courts. a reward richly merited by the purity of his character. at the age of twenty. The profession was crowded with able men. In 1790. when he returned to America. he opened a law-office in Boston. and the fees were small. and he graduated with the second honor of his class. to labor and to wait. ^z his eager mind traversed the fields of all knowledge. in education was Harvard Univer- His character. must have been extremely attractive but. he had no clients but not a moment was lost. that all solicitude respecting a support was at an end." was published. he entered the junior class in sity.

being one of the most methodical and laborious of men. Adams. His writings at this time in the Boston journals attracted national attention. he proceeded to the Hague. Adams is the most valuable character which we have abroad and there remains no doubt in my mind that he will prove himself the . he. daughter of Mr. But Presi dent Washington coincided with Mr. and familiarity with our diplomatic relations. we were bound to help France. spection. and issued his proclamation of neutrality. The French gathered around Mr." there was but little that a peaceful ambassador could then accomplish but. and gave him so high a reputation for talent. to the deliberations of Messrs. Every night he reviewed what he had done for the day and. . that in June. at the close of every month and every year. that Mr. had been previously engaged. where he was immediately admitted Jay and Pinckney. himself to oflScid duties. In July. John Adams. American consul in London a — . 1797. in negotiating a commercial After thus spending a fortnight in London. he reached London in October. While waiting. ablest of all our diplomatic corps. France had helped us. he met with despatches directing him to the court of Berlin. he devoted for liberty in . Adams. reading the ancient Europe. as the representative of a nation which had just successfully passed through that struggle which they were then engaged. swept by the great armies struggling for and against "equal rights for all men. Sailing from Boston in July. assisting them treaty with Great Britain. I give it as my decided opinion. . or to censure any others. " Without intending to compliment the father or the mother. On his way upon his arrival in London. he subjected his conduct to rigorous retroclassics. he left the Hague to go to Portugal as minister Washington at this time wrote to his father." to Portugal. where he arrived just after Holland was taken possession of by the French under Pichegru. the claims of society.— 188 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. In the agitated state of Europe. plenipotentiary. 1794. and familiarizing himself with the languages of modern Every hour had its assigned duty. but requesting him to remain in London until he should receive his instructions. he was married to an American lady to whom he Miss Louisa Catharine Johnson. was appointed by Washington resident minister at the Netherlands. being then but twenty-seven years of age. Joshua Johnson.

in 1802. my dear mother. and which scarcely a voice will to condemn.— JOHN qUINCY ADAMS. alienated from him the Federal party dominant in Boston. placed the most prominent and influential him immediately among members of that body. Mr. he embarked. he was in independent stand. he solicited his recall. his ability. It is among the most precious gratifications of my life to reflect upon the pleasure which my conduct has given to my parents. with cordial commendations from them both. John Quincy wrote. But his father wrote to him. he cordially supported Mr. he travelled extensively through the German States. writing a series of letters which were subsequently published. in reply. when. How much. was chosen to the Senate of Massachusetts from Boston. and no one more resolved' to present a firm resistance. he United States for six years from the 4th of March. is required of me to support and justify such a judgment as that which you have copied into your letter " He reached Berlin with his wife in November. informing him of the earnest wish of Washington that the country might not lose the benefit of his familiarity with the European courts. In the mean time. so truly patriotic. who had succeeded Washington in the presidential chair. an admirable position to take an His reputa- and his experience. 1799. In every measure which his judgment approved. and reached the United States in Sep! . To his mother. Adams was very as it was an appointment made by his father. of England. 1804. Jefferson's administration. and subjected him to censure. As soon as permission came for his return. Alike the friend of Washington and Jefierson. "I know with what delight your truly maternal heart has received every testimonial of Washington's favorable voice. destroying our commerce and insulting our in There was no man America more familiar with the arrogance of the British court upon these points. This course. unbiassed by partisan prejudices. tember. and then Avas elected senator of the Soon after his return. she was destined. having fulfilled all the purposes of his mission.1801. 18y lady endowed with that beauty and those accomplishments which eminently fitted her to move in the elevated sphere for which reluctant to accept the mission to Berlin. In 1805. . Especially did he sustain the Government in its measures of resistance to the encroachments flag. tion. ha now be found . 1797 where he lemained until July.

For this they were both denounced as apostates from the Federal This outrage roused general indignation. ures of Mr. Mr. though " The Chesapeake" was in such a condition. and searching the literature of Europe for materials for his lectures." knowing that she was to sail. larly. On the 22d of June. Commohailed her. Mr. One of these soon after . acted with him in this movement. As soon as informed of return of the boat's crew. 1807. the United-States frigate " Chesapeake" proceeded to sea from Norfolk. reviewing his classics. The English capthis The commodore muster the crew that he might select them. and said that he would receive a boat. to act President Jefferson called a special meeting of Congress upon this affair. had preceded her by a few hours keeping advantage of the weather-gauge. refused. " The Leopard" came down upon her. and presented an order from the British admiral.. Adams presented resolutions. The British man-of-war " Leopard. whom but took four men from the he claimed as Englishmen. 1807. 190 LlVJfJS OF THE PRESIDENTS. entered vigor- oug'y upon a course of preparatory studies. and this m m addition to his senatorial duties. and said she had despatches to send on board. and constitute enduring memorials of his genius and his industry. Jefferson's cabinet. in response to . as not to be able to answer by a single gun. As soon as "The Chesapeake " was fairly out to sea. A meeting was called But few Federalists attended. the Ex-President. that — Adams earnestly supported the measwhen it proposed. in was chosen professor of rhetoric defatigable man. at the State House in Boston." and for fifteen minutes continued pouring in her broadsides. "The Leopard" commenced firing tain refused to receive her as a prize. which were unanimously adopted." and ordered Commodore Barron to by the upon "The Chesapeake. A British lieutenant came on board. which stated that he had reason to believe that there were four British subjects among the seamen of " The Chesapeake. and to which it is necessary to allude more particu- On the 7th of June. dore Barron of "The Chesapeake "answered the hail. one he hung as a deserter the two others were eventually returned to " The Chesapeake " as Americans. The lectures he thus prepared were subsequently published. this outrage. His father. an event occurred to which we have referred. died . and Commodore Barron and nine others wounded. Harvard College . crew. " The Chesapeake's " flag was struck. party. thus taken by surprise. Three men were killed.

were really British subjects. and had fraudulently procured their protections. J^mes Lloyd was immediately chosen to fill the place thus Vacated by one whose renown filled two hemispheres. as the Legislature had dis. except when forced in by distress. averring that the course the Administration proposed was the only safe one for the country. not only neglected and avoided by his old friends. 1808. that they might have an opportunity to place in the Senate of the United States a member whose views would be more consonant with those which they entertained. by the dangers of the sea. If it be said that some of these men. From of his this but assailed by them with the bitterest invectives. became upon this point separated from his Federal friends. There was no trial by a court to substantiate a claim. stating that he deemed it his duty to support the Administration in those measures which to him seemed essential to the dignity and safety of the country but. and allied to the Administration." Thus England dragged from our ships fifteen thousand men. and his anticipation of that verdict which own posterity has already rendered. I reply. " 191 No British armed vessel shall be permitted to enter the hc"irbc. Adams. Neither Tripoli nor Algiers ever perpetrated a grosser outrage. " Examine the oflScial returns from the Department of State. weight of obloquy he had no relief but in the approval conscience. or coming as a public packet. approved of his course. and forced into her men-of-war to fight her battles. and his services were recognized with gratitude by Mr. that hazard little in saying more than three-fourths were native Americans. Jefferson. whom she claimed as her subjects. The American consul in London estimates the number of impressments during the war at three times the amount of the names returned. of which I not one-ffth part were British subjects. he resigned his seat. dated 'March. that this number must be far exceeded by the cases of citizens impressed which never reach the Department of State. They give the names of between four and five thousand men impressed since the commencement of the present war.ra and waters under the jurisdiction of the United States. though appearing on the face of the returns American citizens. Adams icturned to his professorship." John Quincy Adams.JOHN qUINCY ADAMS. Adams. The Legislature of Massachusetts gave such unequivocal indication of their displeasure with Mr. or when charged with public despatches. Mr. in a letter to James Otis. . writes. that he addressed to them a letter. Mr.

and we all hate the '' — . They met a party of Russian officers. and he immediately nominated John Quincy Adams minister to St. and. which was a merchantman. " We are. the ship would not have been permitted to continue to its port of destination. now that we are stepping forward to be the leading nation upon the globe. reached St. Resigning his professorship. Petersburg. but for Mr. I have spoken of this as a warning to America. Adams and . their youngest son in August. Adams abandoned the Federal party. he embarked at Boston with Mrs. pardon but we thought you were English. Adams became a great favorite with the imperial family. and inquire.192 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. I have before spoken of the arrogance assumed by the British Government in the days of its power. The Russians gave them very manifestly the cold shoulder. He was received by the Emperor Alexander alone in his cabinet. After thus travelling together for half a day. The following anecdote will . "Washington had declared that Mr. was stopped and searched by British cruisers and. Stung by the treatment he had received from the Federalists in Boston. The Government the emperor. which has alienated from that government the sympathies of all nations. after a stormy passage." may I take the liberty to ask if you are Americans ? " was the response. Petersburg on the 23d of October. so small party of travelling A short time ago. influenced by the kindliness with which he regarded our minister and his family." said one " we beg your dial greetings. Adams was the ablest of the diplomatic corps. : English. Twice their ship. Instantly they weie surrounded with all cor" We beg your pardon. 1809. and allied himself earnestly with Mr. Gentlemen. Adams's firmness and thorough acquaintance with the law of nations. In 1809. one of the Russian officers overheard a remark which led him to step forward. Madison succeeded Jefferson in the presidential chair. illustrate this sentiment : — American military officers were upon the Danube. tendered to the British ." Mrs. Madison in his administration. and a warm attachment immediately sprang up between those illustrious men and thus was laid the foundations of that friendship which binds the two nations together to the present day. and that he must not think of retiring from that service. a repelling the slightest advances as to indicate emphatically that they desired no acquaintance whatever. Mr.

the emperor sent word to that government that it would be gratifying to him if the American property cculd be restored aa soon as possible. : And why ? " . . offer of his 193 mediation in the war which soon after broke out between Great Britain and America. — 25 . . who came up to him. Adams received so small a salary. said." Mr. Though England decHned the mediation. Adams was an intense student. All through life. clasping — ! Why. . and. most rigid economy." inquired the emperor. he inquired. the Bible constituted an important part of his studies. No. he met the emperor. he relieved him from his embarrassment by saying in perfect good humor. his hand. " Do you intend " to take a house in the country this summer? " I had that intention for some time. Thus peace was effected. measures. The foreign ministers at the Russian court were generally living in the greatest magnificence that he : was compelled tc practise the but Mr. Adams. The Danish Government had sequestered much American erty in prop- the ports of Holstein. it is not surprising that he should write to a hesitation in Mr. One morning." While in Russia. Then. With this eagerness in the pursuit of knowledge. Adams " You are right. and with a smile. He was expected to attend the splendid entertainments of others. friend." rejoined the emperor " it is always replied. but could give none in return. cordially as he was out walking. Upon an intimation from Mr. and coins to the climate. a more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. necessary to proportion one's expenses to one's receipts. The request was immediately granted. observing a little Adams's manner. it is a hundred years since I have seen you After some common observations. He also read with great attention the works of the most eminent theologians." Mr. and astronomical observations while he kept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and Latin classics. " Perhaps it is from considerations of finance. Adams. Adams replied " *' : but have given " it up. Mr. It was his rule every day to read five chapters. she felt constrained by the offer to propose to treat directly." " Those considerations are often very important. Mr." JOHN qUINCY ADAMS. In all the universities of Europe. He devoted his attention to the language and histoiy of Russia to the Chinese trade to the European system of weights.

Monroe took the presidential chair. " seemed desirous to make up by an excess of civility for the feelings he had so constantl}'. Mr. he sailed in June. He had an interview with Mr. to conduct the The commissioners met at Ghent. and. Both Mr. Adams's acquaintance. Mr. czid in the British the treaty which of Lords. he again *' . and receiving the attentions which his official station and his renown caused to be lavished upon him. The Marquis v»^as of Welleslsy. The most eminent men of all classes sought Mr. Adams Secretary of State. Canning. Adams. Time is too short for me rather than too long. Adams took the leading part. 1817." From Ghent. whom he found in pe-to-o' don.194 " feel LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. v^ith Adams was appointed. where he chanced to be when the Emperor Napoleon returned from Elba and again took possession of the Tuileries. and Mrs. " In — then entered upon House opinion. 1 could employ them ail. he again crossed the threshold of his home in Quincy. after an absence of eight years. Adams to a seat on Supreme Court of the United States but he . to treat for peace. Mr. in response Ruosian offer of mediation. He arrived in London on the 25th Taking up his residence in the country. if I bad but eyes and hands to read and write. If the day was forty-eight hours. Adams were honored with a private audience with the queen. Mrs. Taking leave of his numerous friends in public and private life in Europe. negotiations. Mr. in commenting into." says Mr. President Madison nominated Mr. about nine miles from Lonresumed his vigorous habits of study." the bench of the to the In 1811. and were present at the marriage of tho Princess Charlotte with Leopold. for the United States. minister to the British court." On the 4th of March. he having been appointed .manifested against us. I sujBTer nothing like ennui. As England had consented. while attending energetically to his diplomatic duties. On the 18th of August. instead of twenty-four. nothing like the tediousness of time. in which the illustrious statesman. Bayard. Adams joined him here and they proceeded together to London. received the embraces oi" his venerable father and mother. 1819. declined the ai^pointment. of May. Mr. 1815. Adams went to Paris. Gallatin and Mr. and immediately appointed Mr. I. the American commiasioue"3 have shown the most astonishing superiority over the English during the whole of my the correopoudence.

the unblemished purity of his character. as cue could During the eight years of Mr. Monroe's administration. Party spirit was never more Two hundred and sixty electoral votes were cast. new candidates began to be presented for the presidency. in one uninterrupted stream. Adams continued Prob- Secretary of State. upright. ably the most important measure which Mr. 195 After a short visit home. education. upon this high-minded. It was an exciting campaign. Adams. Adams brought forward his name. forty-one Henry Clay. . Under for his political opinions. As there was no choice by the people. Monroe's second term of office. The friends of all the disappointed candidates now combined in a venomous and persistent assault upon Mr. Few will now contradict the assertion. that the duties of that office were never more ably discharged.JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. patriotic man. no man suffered If he were a faithful officer. Adams conducted was the purchase of Florida from Spain for five million dollars. and his extraordinary familiarity with ail our foreign and domestic relations. new duties. health. thirty-seven. in be. It throws a shade over one's hopes of humanity thus to see patriotism of the most exalted character hunted down as though it were the vilest treason. There is nothing more disgraceful in the past history of our country than the abuse which was poured. There never was an administration more pure in principles. The friends of Mr. Mr. Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. with a mind enlarged by familiarity with all the governments of Europe. but the presidential chair. resolved only to consult for the interests of the whole republic. Andrew Jackson received ninety-nine John Quincy Adams. more unscrupulously and outrageously assailed. man from office government. that was . bitter. Adams. Crawford. for his political He refused to dismiss any his views. than that of Joliu Quincy Adams and never. . and experience. Mr. Some time before the close of Mr. and entered upon his ability. he repaired to Washington. was there an administration . and he was elected. urging in acquirements. the question went to the House of Representatives. Adams. more conscientiously devoted to the best interests of the countrj'-. as thoroughly prepared for them. took his seat in know any partisanship. his abilities and distinguished services he bad rendered his country. Mr. and with affections glowing with love for his not to own countrj'-. his favor the . eightyfour William H. perhaps.

He shrank from witnessing the shock of his chiefs disappointment. and we must do the best we can with him. it is in his public manners." . Adams. like the rumbling of distant thunder but the old man himself submitted without a change of countenance. was cold and repulsive though . The four years that he occupied the presidential chair must have been years of anguish. externally.address very seriously detracted from his popularity. and he nursed his wrath in secret. one of the warmest partisans of Mr. he appeared unconcerned and cheerful. Cobb. imbittered by the reflection. ''The presidential election is over. and of filling every post at his disposal with those who would pledge themselves intensely to his support. A few days after the event. Should he and our friends wish that he should again go into the Senate. in this world. A few free negroes shouted. Crawford's friends changed not their looks. Every thing here is silent. Gen. I am sick M\di tired of every thing here. The disappointed submit in sullen silence. experienced disappointment amounting to anguish. Adams in the presidential chair was known. Crawford. fn his public receptions and official intercourse. and you Avill have heard the The clouds were black. find that the nation could not appreciate triumph. Mr. Cobb wrote to his friends. Huzza for Mr. Mr. ordiriary character. They broke in one horrid burst. he was at times very genial. such nobihty of character and conduct. the rival candidates. at first." This chilling. The friends of Jackson grumbled. Adams's disappointment to enough. he might perhaps have fought off his enemies. Mr. My ambition is dead. the way shall be open for him. Crawford will return home. was afraid to call upon him with the announcement of his defeat.196 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Virtue does not always. and especially their friends. Adams but they were not joined even by the cringing populace of this place. The victoi's have no cause There was not a single window lighted on the occato rejoice. When the result of the election which placed Mr. Jackson was indignant. and straight dispelled. that could he have stooped to the partisanship of dismissing from office every one who did not vote for him. and have secured a re-election. he often appeared " with a formal coldness. They command universal respect. that froze like the approach to an iceberg. Mr. sion. and wish for nothing so much as said that with his personal friends — ' ! ' . and portentous of storms of no result. private life. Bitter must have been Mr. while.

the self concentration. that these two persons. of the other. the distance. Some . It chanced " I shall pass over. the persons around. hand for the right. Adams the elect. Mr. Mr. that. It was stated publicly that Mr. Mr. Mr. by a sort of instinct stepped aside.' forward. in a struggle for tion. and. Suddenly. seeing what was to happen. involved in the throng. said. reaching out his long arm. Jackson had a large. " though it be as pure as the angels which stand at the right hand of the throne of God. who had written his country's glory in the blood rigid. " other individuals present." which repelled No one can read the impartial record of John Quincy Adams's administration without admitting that a more noble example of uncompromising integrity can scarcely be found.JOHN qUINCY ADAMS. at New all Orleans. as they were almost to^'ethcr. and self : left them face to face. a court while the old courtier and diplomat was It a statue. and with his graphic pen has described the scene levee. as you see. and the latter was the the victor. genial and gracious in the midst of stiff. and said. Adams took the general's lantly and heartily said and done. eager to pay homage to the rising sun. The evening All after the election. I hope you are very well. was hours before. cold as of the enemy . Washington crowded to the : — — in he writes. Jackson is well. the stern soldier. all. How do you do. gallantry. sir. the frankall . hand. Very well. four the former had been defeated. ness. S. more remarkable from the fact. Gen. Adams ? I give you my left . in fact. one of the highest objects of human ambi- The personal character of these two well expressed in that chance-meeting. approached each other from opposite directions. with chilling coldness. of the one. engrossed the thoughts of the visrcors. the Indian fighter. yet without knowing it. 197 Monroe held a presidential White House. most of all others. Goodrich happened to be present. ' : " It was curious to see the Western planter. who. ' Mr. They looked at each other for a moment and then Gen. sir I hope Gen. All this was galMr. which captivated the coldness.hose scenes lived to regret the course they pursued. Adams's administration was to be put down. handsome lady on his arm. — the individuals was. the heartiness." the course of the evening. Jackson moved . Adams was by him- Gen." Not a few of the active participants in <. only incident which respects the two persons in the assemnoting an bly. Jackson the defeated. is devoted to the fair. G.

and was succeeded by Andrew Jackson. — God will forgive me. Mr. sliare I had in those transactions. ever ready to do brave battle for freedom. it t^aid that he was the first man up in the city." Upon taking his seat in the house. He was until his death. he was elected representative to Congress. On the 4th of March. turning to member of the House of Representatives. as Secre- tary of State. Adams retired from the presidency. which he pursued with unabated zeal. Mr. and as President. towering . mated. he announced that he should hold himself bound to no party. services as ambassador. and the ardor and vehemence with which we labored to bring in another. for I never shall forgive myself. accompanied by a single attendant. Adams was. Calhoun plunging. and which can never be over-estihe occupied the post of above all his peers. in his capacity as legislator in the House of Representatives he conferred benefits upon our land which eclipsed all the rest. He sometimes made the journey from Quincy to Washington on horseback. and taking much exorcise. years after. service to his country. and was exceedingly fond of bati::'ng and was in the habit in the summer. He was an expert swimmer. -I hope walk seven miles to Boston before breakfast. But he was not long permitted to remain in retirement. John C. he has been known to ^^ . to a very remarkable degree. Mr. of was • Potomac with all the sportiveness of a boy.into the was elected Vice-President. and winning the title of " the old man eloquent. Davis of South Carolina. every morning. lie to by so doing he can render Deep as John Quincy Adams for his are the obligations of our repub. 1829. In Washington. Mr. "Well do I remember the enthusiastic zeal with which we reproached the administration of that gentleman. abstemious and tamp^^rate in his habits always rising early. and applying himself to work in his library often long before the dawn. In November.— S93 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Adams returned to Quincy and to his studies. said. representative. Adams. lighting his own fire. When at his home in Quincy. then a Warren R. Probably there was never a member of the house more devoted to his duties. The slavery question now began to assume portentous magnitude. Mr. He thus recognized the Roman principle. For the and it was not a small one. that it is honorable for the general of if yesterday to act as corporal to-day. 1880. For seventeen years.

of darts escaping from Porsena ? Has he forgotten Cornelia. against the annexation of Texas for the purpose of cutting it up into slave States. who by her petition saved her people and her country " find ? — To go from sacred it ' history to profane. who swam across the river. does the gentleman there for discreditable ' women ' to take an interest in political afiairs ? Has he forgotten the Spartan mother. their domestic duties to tha " Are women. and his final triumph was complete. against the proslavery party in the Government. to whom the children of Israel came up for judgment? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael. he was threatened with indictment by the grand jury. with expulsion from the house. with assassination but no threats could intimidate him. and of Isabella of Castillo. of the two Catharines of Russia. and the last to leave Not a measure could bo brought forward. or My son. to battle.JOHN QUINCT ADAMS. Mr. Did she bring discredit on her sex by mingling in politics ? " ' ' and her under a shower . thy upon thy shield ? Does he not remember hundred companions. what name io more illustrious than that of Elizabeth ? Or. what says the history of our AngloSaxon ancestors ? To say nothing of Boadicea. almost singly. in one cf the noblest and most sublime songs of triumph that ever met the human eye or ear? Did the gentleman never hear of Deborah. that these women discredited not only themselves. On one occasion. 1S9 usually the first in his place in the morning. " to have no opiniona or actions on subjects relating to the general welfare ? Where did the gentleman get this principle ? Did he find it in sacred history." exclaimed Mr. in the language of Miriam the prophetess. the British heroine in the time of the Cassars. The battle which Mr. and escape his scrutiny. Howard of Maryland said his seat in the evening. but their sec- tion of the country. . ' when going out shield. For persisting in presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery. signed by several women. conflicts of political by turning from life. Adams presented a petition. the wife of Brutus and the daughter of Cato ? " To come to later periods. was sublime in its moral daring and heroism. the patroness of Columbus. Adams. Mr. who slew the dreaded enemy of her country? Has he forgotten Esther. will he not find the names of Maria Theresa of Hungary. Adams fought. who said to her come back to me with Cloelia son. if he vvill go to the Continent. tho mother of the Gracchi ? Does he not remember Portia.

sprang to the floor. " that John Quincy Adams. of Georgia. " I hold a paper. 1837. Adams would dare to present it. without being printed or referred. or to pray for mercy Where is such a ]c. put an end to it." said Mr. to receive the petitio^is of his people." The strange sensitiveness of the house upon this subject may be inferred from the fact. by a word. and that he be instantly brought to the bar to receive the severe censure of the speaker.200 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Where is ? the degree of vico or immorality which shall deprive the citizen of the right to cupplicate for a boon. Never were assailants more thoroughly discomfited. yielding to the proslavery spirit of the South. as if from slaves.w to despotism. Where is your law which says the mean. " that all petitions relating to slavery. when I come to the bar of the house. has been guilty of gross disrespect to the house. shall be deprived of the right of petition ? Petition is supplication. In this glowing strain. shall be laid on the table. I did not present the 2)etition. Haynea roused. who is not compelled. so that. 1837. I intended to take the decision of the speaker before I went one step toward presenting that petition. the 6th of February. Charles E. Lewis of Alabama. presenting resolutions. 1 ask the gentlemen to modify their resolution a little.purporting to come I wish to know if such a paper comes within the order of the house respecting petitions. passed a resolve in January. he silenced and overwhelmed his antago Congress. the fact. Dixon IT. Adams rose with this forged and eaid. nists. entreaty. that all petitions relating to slavery should be laid upon the table. This is '' . I said that I had a pape. and no action shall be had thereon. stantinople cannot walk the streets. Adams. " I adhere to the right of petition. Mr. by attempting to present a petition purporting to be from slaves. be found ? It does not belong to the most abject There is no absolute monarch on earth. The Sultan of Conand refuse to receive petitions . the degraded. I may not. that a storm of indignation was instantly Yti^addy Thompson of South Carolina. the low." Some of the proslavery party forged a petition. slaves. On from petition in his hand. purand I asked the speaker porting to be a petition from slaves whether he considered such a paper as included in the general order of the house. to see if Mr. to prevent the consumption of time. whosoever they may be. prayer. Speaker. by the constitution of his country." " Mr.

after an absence from that court of thirty years. belongs to all . lative halls to his labors to secure a right appropriation fcr the Smithsonian Fund of half a million of dollars. In every encounter. for nearly a score of years. he appeared in the Supreme Court of the United States. each By usage. watching intently for the moment when he could effectually make a movement. in this brief sketch. Adams. and it was found imMr. and the T)oor Africans. on the first assembling. " as these seats are contested " when Mr." 26 . Congress was for a time seriously disorganized in consequence of two delegations appearing from New Jersey. as the five seats of the members from that State were contested. — " I rise to interrupt the clerk. Adams sprang to the Qoor. during all this scene of confusion. There was perhaps never a fiercer bfcttlf^ fought in legisthan Mr. the house. he came off victor. like a sagacious general on the battle field. A violent debate ensued. to refer Adams. On the morning of the fourth day. . cried out. it it might come from those low in the estimation of the would be an additional incentive. We have not space. life. At the age of Geventy-four. were returned to the homes from which they had been so ruthlessly In 1839. had freed themselves from the man-stealers. Adams waged. to plead the cause of a few friendless negroes the Amistad captives. shrill tones. and in clear. which penetrated every portion of possible to organize the house. apparently taking no interest in the debate. the clerk of the preceding Conclaiming the election. from the meanest and vilest in the land. with their own strong arms. the clerk again commenced calling the roll. gress." After a debate of extreme bitterness^ running through four days. who. in calling the roll. 201 The right of petition and. but. the clerk came to New Jersey. he stated. with the partisans of slavery in Congress. that. he again repeated. he should pass over those names. When he reached New Jersey. acts as chairman until a speaker is chosen. only twenty votes could be found to cast any censure upon Mr. abundantly furnished with the implements of civilized torn. effort His was crowned with complete success . When.JOHN qUINCY ADAMS. if such an incentive were wanting. sat quietly engaged in writing. so far from refusing to present a petition because world. For four days there was anarchy.

and genius. v-icegerents of the And what is this clerk of yours ? call it. those tones of intensity which ever arrested the attention of the house. whose years and honors. whom we create. I had hoped that this house would succeed in organ . Adams. in that the fall of a sheet of paper might have been heard. thp. it thea let us imitate the example of the Virginia House of Burgesses. by his mere negative. his voice was drowned. he said. and clerk. Cheer upon cheer As soon as he could again rose. shaking the walls of the Capitol. — izing itself." 202 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and put an end to this Congress. he submitted a motion. Adams was heard risiog above the tumult. v^Lich. Is he to suspend. for a moment. multitude of voices shouted. let him cGsign. not organize in any other way. riveted Every eye was upon that. as he would resign rather than do so. He refuses to call the roll. House of Representa- What a spectacle we here present We do not and cannot orthe mere ganize and why? Because the clerk of this house usurps the throne. ohere was profound silence. requiring the clerk to call the shall the question be put ? " The voice of Mr. '' Kow 1 . who stated that the clerk could not be compelbd to call the roll. whom we employ . " Hear him ! ! A hear him ! — heai Johu Quincy Adams " In an instant. " and possibly discover we may we can- some way by which we can get along without If if this the aid of his all-powerful talent. " I intend to put the question myself hea:. " Well sir. when refased to obey the imperious and insulting mandate. Dinwiddle ordered to disperse. learning. be roil. commanded the respect of the bitterest of his foes. venerable old man.d. — — whole American people." continued Mr. if he will not do it voluntarily. the functions of Government. at defiance. It is in your power to compel him to sets us. and like men ' — Here there was such a burst of applause from the whole house. " It was not my intention to take any part in these extraordinary proceedings. This is : not the time or place to discuss the merits of conthat subject belongs to the ! flicting claimants tivec. that." Here he was interrupted by a member. For a moment he paused and there was such stillness Then. clerk of yours will not con- sent to our discharging the trust confided to us by our constituents. and purity of character. the colonial Gov. as he cried out.

you and if. Mass. praying for the peaceable dissolu- tion of the Union. then plotting The proslavery party in Congress. As tnaaj be ae are agrsed to this will say Ay One universal. I were asked to select the words. were roused to a . (iF lIErilESKNTATI VK8. John Quinc}' Adam^i tako the cbair cf the officiate as presiding omcer till the hcusa organized by the election of its constitutional officers. I would inscribe upon your tomb thia sentence. soon after addressing him. Mr.nother burst of applause followed of South Carolina leaped . I regard . Wise of Virginia. when Mr. are best calculated to give at one© the character of the man. " JOHN QTINCV ADAMS IN IHK TIllUSl'. in my judgment." — JOHN qVINCY ADA'!>t?. wiien it as the proudest hour of your life be gathered to your fathers. and shouted. Adams presented a petition from forty" Sir.e move speaker of the house. Barnwell upci one of the dosks. 205 Rlieti I A. and the house was organized. 1842. shall ' five citizens of Haverhill. which. that tb. thundering " Ay " came back in response. who were the destruction of the GovemmeDt. and ' ! ' 1 Mr. Adams was conducted to the chair. I will put the question myself " In January.. Mr. Hon. said.

se'''e:it3^-five .204 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. read it and see what that says of the right of a people to reform. there It . Adams had pre which was most respectfully worded. was appointed to read the resolutions. shrill tone.. Ad&rrs forever. every eye being fixed upon whose scattered locks were whiyears and casting a withering glance in the said. all preseemed to expand under the inspiration of the occasion. and whose very form man. With aie assumption of a very solemn and magisterial air. Thomas F. would substitute its severest censure. to secure these rights. Adams as they were honor. the words with flashing eye and flushed cheek. ^Do:}. overawing in its sublimity. As him. burlef^ the carefully prepared anathemas at his victim. One of their number. the whole proslavery party madly against him. showing the reasons Avhy the prayer ought not to be dicgrc. Adams of high treason." the venerable old attitude. rcci'Ar:. of having insulted the Government. in defence of whose principles our fathers had pledged their lives. governments are instituted am^ng men. to change. was the 25th of January. which. atrocious charge of high treason. They met in caucus. tened by were read. which accused Mr. pretence of commotion such as even our stormy hall of legislatioD has rarely witnessed. I the reading of the first paragraph of the Declaration of Independence. Mr. deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. he call for — " In reply to this audacious. finding that they probably would not be able to expel Mr. and. pelled to listen to the words. . and It was a proud hour to Mr. the tone. Marshall of Kentucky. and to dissolve their Gov! ernment. their sacred all — com- " That. — silence as that paragraph was read. and of meriting expulsion but for which deserved punishment.cs equivalent to expulsion. the manner. the hou^e. Read it. as the resolutions up xz'Sb thLt bold old man. Marshall Mr. their fortunes. if adopted. sented the -ranted. in its great mercy. and had moved that it be referred to a committee instructed to report an ansv/cr. being breathless silence in the imposing audience. The whole body of the proslavery part}^ came crowding together into the house. tremulous with suppressed emotion. would inflict upon him Mr. Adams ctood alone. direction of his assailants. Adams from the house. in a clear. drew up fi njirico cf r::o:lutions. prepared to crush Mr. There was breathless sented a scene The .

and that. The streets were thronged with the multitude. ing with each other to — Boul-stirring welcome.JOHN qUINCY ADAMS. The heroic old man looked around upon the audience. welcomed him in the following words You see here assembled the people of our infant city. and read in their eager and joy-gladdened couatenances. to institute the right of the people to alter or abolish it. heartfelt. or condition. In all the leading cities. " Read Then. without ciples. to the man whom tbey delight to honor. sex. In the summer of 1848. a thrice-told. to rally. he was received with the highest marks of consideration. all anxious to feast their eyes by a sight of that extraordinary and venerable man. Adams took a tour through Western New York. The whole mass of the people rose to confer honor upon the man who had battled so nobly for human rights. upon whose lips Wisdom has distilled her choicest nectar." That one sentence baffled and routed the foe. Here is reflecting age. that old man eloquent. all. subsequently President of the United States. and ardent youth. His discomfited assailants made sundry attempts After a conflict of eleven days. Mr. and thundered out. — all. received at Buffalo was such as that city had never before conThe national flag was floating from every ferred upon any man. Here are gathered. His journey was a perfect ovation. they gave up vanquished. The Hon. and lisping childhood. in a few fiery. Here you see them all. words. he stated his defence in terms which even prejudiced minds could not resist. age. a welcome. its laying its foundations on such prin- powers in such form. masthead. logical that again " It was again read. Millard Fillmore. thousands whose hearts have vibrated to the chord of sympathy which your speeches have touched. to all of whom your venerated name is dear as household words. anxiously vy- show their respect and esteem for your public and private worth. and whose public and The greeting which he private character was without a stain." . an I new government. in this vast multitude of what must appear to you strange faces. and organizing ! : — '' distinction of party. It is pleasant to see that such heroism is eventually appreciated. and brightly beaming eyes. and their resolution was ignominiously laid upon the table. as shall seem most lik<ily to effect their safety and happiness. who greeted with bursts of applause the renowned patriot and statesman as soon as he appeared. 205 whenever any form of government becomes destructive it is of those ends.

1847. and said. At the close of the session. again stricken by paralysis. bent and his hair silvered by the lapse of fourscore years. Suddenly he fell. so far recovered. he added. on the 17th of November. . There great moral beauty in the aspect the simplicity and sincerity of of the venerable. 1846.^' These were his last words. beneath the dome the theatre of his labors and his triumphs. to address the speaker. yielding to the simple faith of a he was accustomed to repeat every night. which excited great admiration. and an extent and accuracy of acquaintance with the subject. that when his body was little child. displaying intellectual vigor. folding his hands and clos- ing his eyes. then. and one most distinguished statesmen. looked calmly around. as he repeated. a sofa in the rotunda. my soul to keep : If I should die before I wake. world-worn statesman. he had an attack of paralysis while walking in the streets of Boston. he rose on the floor of Congress. he took but little part in the the house on the 16th cf February. for the his illness. childhood. that he soon resumed his official duties in Washington. It has been said of President Adams. ''7 am content. As he entered first time since every member instinctively rose in token of respect and by two members he was formally conducted to his seat. 206 LIVES OF THE PEESIDENTS. all The voices of denunciation were now hushed.. For a time he was senseless. after a moment's pause. as he was conveyed to With reviving consciousness. in i\\Q great debate when seventy-eight years of age. — he of the Capitol. debates. In January. — soon breathed his last. — " in Now I lay I pray the Lord me down to sleep. 1848. " eyes. with a paper in his hand. the prayer which his mother taught is bim in his infant years. His family were summoned to his side and in the apartment of the speaker of the house. I pray the Lord my soul to take. America has produced. though constantly present. before he slept. the words. however. '' . and of the parties united in tributes of honor to one of the purest patriots. he opened his This is the end of earth . He. he took part on the Oregon question." On the 21st of February. After this. and was caught in the arms of those around him.

Birth — A Bad Boy. — Judge. — Keeps School. — Conversion. — Marriage and Romance. from the North . — Senator. — Emigrates. — Shop-keeper. and Education. an Irishman of Scotch descent. — Frontist — Low Tastes. in 1765.— OHAPTES VIL ANDREW JACKSON." said Cromwell to the in the character of young artist.. President of the United States. — Fight with the Bentons. the world wishes to know him as he was. — Studies Law. — Religious Character. One hundred year? ago. 207 emigrated. — War with the Indians. extremel}' poor. with his wife and two infant children. — Defence of New Orleans. — Retirement. RESIDENCE OF ANDREW JACKSON. — Death. — Administration. its " Paint me as I am. — Passion and Violence. — MajorGeneral. — A Representative. There were lights and shades Andrew Jackson. Life. — Quarrels and Duels. and HKItMITAGE.

. . and tliat honor. From the grave. had just ended. she. to Chris s his trmmphant death. and work out for us Mother and a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory. called a church. which gave Canada to England. when the husband and father little sick and died. A few lines tell this which can delineate was the 15th of March. the clotheless babe. his influence. and built their log hut on a branch of the Catawba of Ireland to South Carolina. however. the penury. The corpse was taken in a wagon the widow and her two chiland in a field near by the body was dren sat by its side buried. a hundred and sixty miles. Could some good angel then have opened to that Chi'stian mother (for bho was a true Christian of the Presbyterian faith) the his renown. trated the wild interior'. "These might have light afflictions are indeed but for a moment. . and earthly griefs are gone — — forever. was thus left in Not far becoming a from the cabin of the deceased.208 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. in a north-west direction. witliin a few days. and exclaimed. had then been five French wa. formerly the seat of the Waxhuw They were on the boundary-line between the Carolinas. she drove a few miles to the cabin of Mr. glory. The humble emigrants had no money They. heart-stricken mother.r. mother. and who lived across the border. with her two boys. his conversion future career of her son. Waxhaw Creek. the coarse fare. 17C7. the pain-crushed. and raised one crop." child have long ago met in heaven. and immorshe tal iuy to which we trust ha has attained in the spirit-land. Jackson. years on his throne. called Indians. story. The grief stricken widow did not return to her desolated home. The old River. no one can now tell where. ffave birth to Andrew Jackson. cleared an opening in the fell forest. in North Carolina. there was a room built of logs. The lonely settlers in this wilderness of pines had reared their cabin. in that lonely log hu^. and just on the eve of again utter destitution. peneto purchase land. landing at Charleston. But where is the pencil or the pen true pathos? — the cabin. George III. There was nothing to draw her there. its the child whose fame as a It man has filled the civilized world. Mrs. in the extreme of penury. There. the wild surroundings. and the cheerlessness with which t'-ie dark future opened before the widow and the orphans. smiled through her anguish. with a few friendly women to come to her aid. who had married her sister. McKenney.

McKenney. which was attractive. leaving hei eldest little boy with Mr. When five or six years of age. grew up a very His features were coarse. with bare feet dangling from trousers too short for him.ANDREW JACKSON. turbulent boy. or Andy as he was universally called. as far as possible. boxing. until. the Declaration of Independence was signed. Spelling never attained. Jackson remained with her children for ten years. generous to the younger and weaker boys. very fond of athletic sports." The character of after his mother he revered . Here he learned to read tolerably well. running. skilful in He learned to write in " which he characters which those art was an hieroglyphics could read. receiving the hospitality of her kind brother. by that hard work of washing. he imbibed such a reverence for the character of woman. the widow. Mr. He all also became somewhat This familiar with the four fundamental rules of arithmetic. that in that respect he was without reproach. and cooking. 209 rhree weeks after the birth of Andrew. The billows of war soon swept down into the Carolina^ 27 . he was sent to what was called a school. in her utter penury. seems to be about the substance of ever received. his form ungainly and there was but very little in his character. Through some unknown influence. lank boy." mother's prayers must have been ascending earnestly for him. . which is inseparable from frontier-life. wrestling. made visible. but very irascible and He was all — a vice in which he surpassed other men. for even tlien. rnde. after the age of threescore years. in-law. mending. overbearing with his equals and superiors. When nine years of age. . marvellously profane. and it was not full until her death that his predominant vices gained strength. and repaying it. and which clung to him. A companion said of him. Crawford. in a wretched log pen about twenty feet square. " Andy A is the only bully I ever knew who was not a coward. ministry. Andrew. she was endeavoring to devise some way by which she could educate him for the Christian rough. whose wife was an invalid. the school education he He grew up to be a tall. with coarse hair and freckled cheeks. and such firm principles of purity. weat with the babe and the other child a distance of two miles to the cabin of another brothei-Here Mrs. he learned of Christ to " swear not at all. He was profane.

Terrible was the maddened strife in that neighborhood between whig and tory. which he would swing. between the patriot and the tory. and the in this place for to their tories were repulsed. meet him. in which he behaved gallantly. With three hundred horsemen. Hugh. assisted their mother in these works of mercy. Robert with the same demand. all the rest. Andrew raised his hand. upon Waxhaw. and more bittei the strife." was the reply of the dauntless boy. and thus received two fearful gashes. A '* British officer I am a prisoner ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. 1780. Jackson. This was the first time he took part in active service. and captured or put to flight The old log meeting-house was used as a hospital. Andrew Jackson was there as one of the guard. of war. and died of heat and exhaustion at the battle of Stono. A band of tories made a midnight attack upon the house of a whig. but slender and weak from his rapid growth. Tarleton surprised a detachment i)f militia at the Waxhaw settlement. wounds and his brother's death. wounded one hundred and fifty. tall as a man. expressing the delight would give him thus to beat the British down. Andrew at times expressed the most intense desire to avenge their In August. ravaged home at Waxhaw. and aimed a desperate blow at tho head of the helpless young prisoner. not yet eigiiteen years of age. fled before them. in Charlotte. As Tarleton and his <lra. and his brother. and Mrs. rode with a volunteer company to Waxhaw. The brute drew his sword. not your servant. He and received . Mrs. Jackson was unwearied in nursing the wounded soldiers. Andrew was placed in the family of Mrs. where he paid for his board by being a servant of all Avork. the older brother. and Andrew and his brother were taken prisoners. and then the family returned AndroAv was now fourteen.'^oons came thundering along. and desolation to the humble cabins the More intense was the animosity. routed They surrounded the them with slaughter. than between the armies which were facing each other in the field.210 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. — one upon his hand. the victorious army of Cornwallis rushed Here it his rage against the British found vent in forming various kinds of weapons. blood. a boy of thirteen. oi bringing terror. and the a The officer then turned to his brother also refused. with her two boys. Andrew. Wilson. killed one hundred and thirteen. He remained about six months. other upon his head. patriots. Quite a little battle ensued. Cornwallis sent a body of dragoons to aid the tories.

211 blow from the keen-edged sabre. bareheaded. which quite disabled him. In two days. or any me-ms of dressing their wounds. was attacked by fever. stand. She succeeded obtaining the release of her sons by exchange. medical attendance. sick Andrew. hearing of the sufferings of her beys. died. Robert wa^s dead. among She hastened to their relief. and gazed horror-stricken upon obtained two horses. Before this sad family reached their home. with twenty other prisoners. Camden in South where the British were in strength. The small-pox. Mrs. without father. and which probably soon after caused his death. and would not even permit them to drink from the streams they tbrded. where he was held by some of the returning prisoners. barefooted. was left alone in the world. after months of languor. relief. . one fourteen and the other sixteen. he regained health and strength. they were thrown into a contracted en closure. even then with the small-pox. or brother. and was buried where her grave could never afterwards be found. from the prisoners whom the British held in Charleston. Thus they made their journey through the wilderness for forty miles. or in wan and wasted frames. Their brutal captors allowed them no food or water by the way. whom were the sons of her sisters. The dying and the dead were all together. from Camden back to Waxhaw. and without one dollar which he could call his own. a drenching rainstorm set in. upon one. his mother heard the cry of anguish — . home and to bed. The strength of his constitution triumphed and. without beds. broke out. Days and nights of misery passed aAvay. The two wounded boys. hastened to their There was in resistless energy their in a mother's love. Jackson. Jackson rode the other. Mrs. clothed in rags. Having who was too weak to his seat even to sit in his saddle. sister. As he was getting better.lelirium. forty miles distant. mother. in its most loathsome form. both sick of small-pox. and Andrew apparently dying in the wildest ravings of . Their supply of food was scanty and bad. Thus Andrew Jackson. when fourteen years of age. A small bundle of the clothing which she wore was the only memorial of his mother which was returned to her orphan boy. and so weak that he could scarcely drag one limb after the other. were hurried off to Carolina. toiled painfully behind.ANDREW JACKSON. At Camden. she placed Robert. The mother at length got her sons.

212 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. as he was strolling the streets. as he was a very bold boy. and developing. which traditions say. perhaps the multiplication-table and. on the back of a very fine horse. amidst his loathsome profan- and multiform vices. and was regarded as abott the worst character that could anywhere be found. . mounted him. he entered a shop to learn the trade of a saddler. reckless. a young man. wild riding. who by some means had come into possession of a fine horse. card-playing. a distance of about seventy-five miles. he entered a gambling-house.. an exquisite horseman. He now turned schoolmaster. His temper was fiery in the extreme but it was said of him. he set out for of Mr. professedly studying law. and sion. "Andrew Jackson was the most roaring. mischievous fellow that ever lived in Salisbury. where he entered the Andrew was then eighteen years of law. He was tall the head the rowdies hereabouts. but remarkably dignified and graceful in his manners. as health returned. A school in a log hut in those Andrew Jackson could wilds was a very humble institution. age. very standing six feet and an inch in his stockings. and was challenged to stake He won. reflecting not very pleasantly upon the past. camping ity . horse-racing. He was fond of all rough adventures. N. In December. rollicking. he diligently in this calling. and for six months labored But gradually." at Andrew was now. a vein of rare magnanimity. the age of twenty. and when not. it is not impossible that he might have adventured And now he began to think of a profesto teach handwriting. McCay. gambled. Having no money. teach the alphabet. mounted his horse. fought cocks. and decided to study law. and forming plans for the future. With a very slender purse. He is still vividly remembered in the traditions of Salisbury. lawless boy. and rode home through the solitary pine-barrens. he soon ran up a long bill at the tavern. that no man knew better than Andrew Jackson when to get angry. With this his horse against two hundred dollars. game. He was slender. He drank. 1782. He did not trouble the law-books much. — cocking. money he settled his bill. He was more of all in the stable than in the ofiice. Andrew. One evening. Here he remained for two years.C. and rodo through the wilderness to Charleston. Before Andrew had fully recovered his strength. became more and more a wild. the British having evacuated Charleston.

emigrants. without adventure. to repel attacks to which they were constantly exposed. They were all mounted on horseback. The journey of a few days brought them. waiting for an opportunity open an oflSce^ somewhere.C.avages. on the banks of the Cumberland. after a march of thirty-six hours. The whole of that region which we call Tennessee was then almost an unexplored wilderness called Washington County. loved a horse passionately.ANDREW was bold JACKSON. Martinsville. five hundred miles west of the summit of the Alleghanies. was filled with hostile bands There they waited several weeks for the arrival of of s. which included many women and children. near the present site of NashJonesborough was another ville. Nearly one hundred composed the cavalcade. near the western base of the Alleghanies. they camped in the open air. In double file. he it seems that he spent a year as a clerk in a country store. in fiicing danger. and. The experience through which he had passed in the Revolution had made him a very stanch republican. It was ranged by bands of In dians. other parties of emigrants. and was ceded to Congress There was a small settlement of pioneers. Few men could be found to accept Early in the spring of 1788. rode to to where Again mounting his horse. the long cavalcade crossed the mountains by an Indian trail. It M'as an oflfice of little honor.. small settlement in East Tennessee. They were now to enter the wilderness. N. who rendezvoused at Morgantown. and for a guard from Nashville to escort them. Jackson joined a party of it. He had now got his profession. the last frontier settlement in North Carolina. with only a halt of one short hour. 2i:^ out. The intervening space was a wilderness. though sagacious and prudent. small emolument. for a distance of over two hundred miles. who had been so outraged by vagabonds among the whites Ravaged by Indian wars that they had become bitterly hostile. it became a burden to North Carolina. where there was a small settlement of about sixty log huts. they encamped at a point which_was thought to be the most safe in the midst of the most pefilous part of the now .C. which had widened into a road. and great peril. N. which could onl}'' be traversed by parties well guarded. to Jonesborough. with their baggage on pack-horses. Andrew Jackson was appointed public prosecutor for the remote district of Nashville. which. One night. Each night.

Lost in silent musing. mirth-loving daughter. about five thousand souls. and that president. very near the camp. his attention was arrested by the various notes ef the owls hooting in the forest around him. the Indians sprang from their ambush upon them. of had . Children could not go out to gather berries. so active in their hostilities. and. and occupied the spot.214 journey. "There are Indians all around us! I have heard them in every direction They mean to attack us before daybreak " The experienced woodsmen were aroused. John Donelson. at ten o'clock. with their muskets. and all but one were killed. married a very uncongenial Kentuckian. Andrew Jackson had retired a little apart from the rest. ! ! Late in October. of the first families. and with all his faculties on the alert. was smoking a corn-cob pipe. just as he was beginning to fall asleep. and sitting upon the ground. Silently they broke up their camp. Nashville had its aristocracy. liaustion. and startled him with the announcement. he crept along to where a friend was sleeping. Before the day dawned. a party of hunters came. Donelson belonged to one She was the widow of Col. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS The women and children. there were scattered. were sleeping under the shelter of logs. George Washington would undoubtedly be elected the first It was estimated that then. and were fully confirmed in the same suspicion. and lived in a cabin of hewn logs. in utter exhad crept into their little tents. with his back against a tree. with their feet toward the fire. with their blankets wrapped around them. The men. Grasping his rifle. resumed their march. Instantly suspicion flashed upon his mind. he was startled by a louder hoot than usual. An hour after they had left. 1788. in log huts clustered along the banks The Indians were of the Cumberland. were silently and sleepily standing on the watch. that it was not safe for any one to live Every man took his rifle with him to the far from the stockade. Just then. this long train of emigrants reached Nashville. They listened. at an early hour. Lewis Eobai ds. whu in the place. Andrew Jackson's sagacit}' had saved his party. Mr?. unless accomfield. in this outpost of civilizaticn. They took with them the exciting news that the new Constitution had been accepted by a majority of the States. panied by a guard. the most commodious dwelling She had a beautiful. with the utmost caution. Tiie sentinels.

twenty-two times. not daring to shoot a deer. after dark. door. He then mounted his horse. He seemed to bear a charmed life. the courts were held. and thus. swollen by the rains It was pitch-dark. Mrs. " I can graze danger!" Daily he was making hair-breadth escapes. that she was then the best storj^'-teller. Boldly. Many desperate men knives. Andrew Jackson was just the man for this service. required nerve. He took off the saddle. ho traversed the forests. It It vigorously the practice carried pistols and to adjust. He sometimes camped in the woods for twenty successive nights. He could not ford the stream he dared not light a fire it was not safe to let his horse move about to browse. swam the creek. Long journeys through the wilderness were necessary to reach the distant cabins where During the first seven years of his residence in those wilds. 21b but little that is good can be said. or to kindle a fire. at that time. Robards it is said. Robards and her husband lived unhappily together. consisted of a hut of unhewn logs. daring backwoodsman.— . and listening to the wail of the storm and the rush of the torrent. drenched with rain. rough. lest he should attract the attention of some roving band of savages. a distance of two hundred Hostile Indians were constantly on the miles. without floor. and a man was liable at any moment to be shot down in his own field. the sprightliest companion. the best dancer. in floods. and proceeded on his journey. watch. the most dashing horsewoman. " You see how near. in the Western country. She and her husband hved with her widowed mother. placed it at the foot of a tree. was an important part of his business to collect debts. he traversed the almost pathless forest between Nashville and Jonesborough. And now Andrew Jackson commenced of law." Andrew Jackson once said. alone or with few companions. and triumphing . he came to a creek. and sat upon it wrapped his blanket over his shoulders held his bridle in one hand. Ho . There were some disputed claims A court- house in that country. One night. Of the gay and lively Mrs. It was an attractive homa rbr him. or window. and the rain was falling to a roaring torrent. : . encountering all perils. a wild. and his rifle in the other. waited the dawn. over all. ANDREW whom JACKSON-. and Andrew Jackson was received into the family as a boarder.

subsequently Judge Overton. and took board in another place. Robards with great cruelty. but. he found himself to be the unfortunate cause of the present It was rumored that Capt. from his jealous disposition. fascinating man with ladies. Kentuck}^ was about to return.— 216 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. He did so. and did nothing about it for two years. Jackson's arrival. Influenced by this belief. Two years after this. uneasiness . No one doubted it. to leave the house. Soon after this. Jackson learned. Jackson to be much depressed. " I am the The reply was. and though conscious of innocence. without any cause. The affair caused though he knew that the parties had separated once before. Jackson decided. Robards applied to the Legislature of Virginia for a bill of divorce. As there was great danger from the Indians. offering to meet him in a duel if he desired it. and Mrs. Robards laid aside this act. Robards. and Mr. This was in the spring of 1791. who was then his intimate companion. ho Andrew Jackson great for inquired the cause. ing. that. judgment of Jackson was an exceedingly polite. No one acquainted thoroughly with the parties and the facts doubted of intentionally Mrs. Andrew Jackson and Rachel Robards were married in the fall of 1791. the purity of the connection. Col. Robards separated. Robards. in consequence. Stark entreated Mr. who had gone to scandal. Stark. Capt. Jackson. retired from the family. Mr. gallant. Capt. most unhappy of men. in the the facts. A friend of Andrew Jackson. Mr. separated from her. Robards. Col. she decided to go to Natchez with the family of an elderly gentleman. and returned to Nashville. perceiving Mr. It was granted by an act of the Legislature. and treated Mrs. Virginia was far away. provided that the Supreme Court should adjudge that there was cause for such divorce. but determined first to have a little converse He found the man abusive and unrelenttion with Mr. he had once. writes. lieved. Robards believed it: Andrew Jackson believed it. It was announced in Nashville This was universally bethat Robards had obtained a divorce." To escape from the persecutions of her husband. all acquainted with Before Mr. in having innocently and un been the cause of the loss of peace and happiness ol whom I believe to be a fine woman. The transmission of intelligence was very slow. Robards became jealous of Jackson. and Mrs. Andrew was jealous of her. Jackson to accompany them as a guard. Mrs. to theii .

and you'll drop him. one of the very biggest men I ever saw.ANDREW JACKSON: 217 great surprise. and thousands of emigrants were pouring into the inviting territory. and that the act of the Virginia Legislature reality. which he related when President. He was a man of immense size. pushing against me violently. it doubled him up. Well. Soon after. practising law in Tennessee. Jackson had been guilty of the slightest intentional wrong. No. I'll tell you how I found that out. He was always very sensitive upon the question of his marriage. Sir. I snatched a small rail from the top of the fence. Mr. he treated Mrs. and the marriage ceremony was again performed. Supposing it accidental. He fell at my feet. and gave him the point of it full in the stomach. Thus Mr. and I stamped on him. he was always gentle and tender at home and. but conditional. in been married for two years to another man's wife. I said nothing. was becoming rich. and I began to suspect his object. this affair but at the risk of pistol-shot instantly through his brain. However rough Mr. ten chances to one he You'll aim right for his head. The following anecdote. and evidently meaning fight. No one could breathe a word which reflected a suspicion upon the purity of . that Robards had just obtained a divorce in one of the courts of Kentucky. In a few minutes he came by a third time. As quick as a flash. and so trod on my toes. Soon he got up savage^ and The country was rapidly prospering. was not final. if you do hit him. though neither he nor Mrs. a new license was obtained. you won't bring him down. Jackson. will ward it off. 1 know how you'll fight him with that big black stick of yours. bullying fellow that wanted to pick a quarrel with me. and punch him in the stomach. Probably there Dover was a more affectionate union. Jackson had. A friend in Washington was expecting to be assailed in the streets by a political opponent: "Now. " When I was a young man. "if any man attacks you. purchasing large tracts of land. sir. and selling lots to settlers. It proved to be a marriage of rare felicity. Jackson with the most chivalric attentions." said the general to him. through all the vicissitudes of their lives. To remedy the irregularity as far as possible. there was a big. — : — 28 . The Indians were quelled. and. Jackson might have been abroad. sir " (taking the stick into his own hands) " you hold the slick so. sheds light upon his own character and upon the times. he did it again.

which was regarded as very democratic. that's ask. stand back me room. He kept chickens for that purpose. Andrew Jackson " House : — first appearance of the A tall. They met that evening in a glen. exchanged shots. shook hands. 1796. sir. to fly at was about give me all T like a tiger. * The bystanders made as Says I. his manners and deportment those of a rough backwoodsman. — miles. though they would Gentlemen. Jackson was always ready for a fight. occasion. and handed it to his opponent. So. wrote a tion he had taken. revived. Albert Gallatin thus describes the in the Hon. tied with an eelskm. The members were They voted to receive entitled to two dollars and a half a day. I say tui'ned away a whipped man. such pluck gave a man an enviable reputation." . Mounting his horse. uncouth-looking personage.' With that I He gave me one look. pense of twelve dollars and sixty-two cents. of the eleven counties. if any villain assaults you. lank. and in June. When. one of his chickens. An opposing lawyer ridiculed some posiHe tore a blank leaf from a law-book. that the other dollar might go to the pay- ment of secretary. &c. A constitution waa formed. after being struck down. They met in a shabby building in a grove It was fitted up for the occasion at an exoutside of the city. and feeling like one. and by a lucky stroke killed liis antagonist. Jackson loved cock-fighting. and became friends again. he rode to Philadelphia. exclaimed. interfere. delighted. and stood ready. peremptory challenge.218 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Jackson." In these wild regions. " There is the Bonaparte is not braver !" greatest emblem of bravery on earth In January. Andrew Jackson was chosen that member. where a distance of eight hundred Congress then held its sessions. the Territory of Tennessee then containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants. upon one ! Andrew Jackson was one of the delegates from Davidson County. and among these rough frontiersmen. to you. turning to a companion. 1796. his dress singular. with the rail pointed. door-keeper. but a dollar and a half. Tennessee became the sixteenth State in the Union. and I'll manage him. which did not hit. The new State was entitled to but one member in the national House of Representatives. give him the pint in his belly. with locks of hair hanging over his face. and a cue down his back. printer. the people met in convention Five were sent from each at Knoxville to frame a constitution.

Many years after this. He was not willing to say that Gen. when Mr. He has been much tried but he is a dangerous man. Jefferson had retired from the presidential chair. When Senator Jackson was one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Tennessee. that the National Government should pay the expenses. . know His passions are terrible. Jefferson and was one of twelve Avho voted against it. dress in reply. Washington. on account of the rashness of his feelings. A vacancy chanced soon after to occur in the Senate. ib!. and he could never speak. Jackson returned to Tennessee. much alarmed at the prospect of seeing Gen. He is He fact. and Jackson had chal- lenged Sevier to a duel. As Mr. and as often choke with rage. which Sevier had declined. and patriotic. I have Been him attempt it repeatedly. loved France. They met one day in the streets of Knoxville in a very unfriendly mood. This rendered Mr. He admired Bonaparte. Jackson advocated it." Tennessee had fitted out an expedition against the Indians. This office he held for six years. Jackson President. A resolution was inti'oduced. Jefferson as saying. John Sevier was Governor of the State. he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court of that State. It was carried. Jackson took his seat. was his idol. Vice-President. place. Daniel Webster spent some days at the romantic home of the sage of Monticello. and Andrew Jackson was candidate for the presidency. firm. by the State of Tennessee. Gen. with a salary of six hundred dollars. he was senator. (hough sometimes ungrammatical. whose second term of service was then expiring. delivered his last speech to Congress. Soon after. has very of for such a one of the most unfit men I and little respect for law or constitutions . and hated England. " I feel He represents Mr. in an able military chief. A committee drew up a complimentary adAndrew Jackson did not approve of the address. It is said that his decisions. When I was President of the Senate. There had been some altercation between them . Jackson very popular in Tennessee. Mr.— ANDREW JACKSON. John Adams was then Thomas Jefferson. contrary to the policy of the Government. were generally right. and Andrew Jackson was chosen UnitedStates senator President. 210 Jackson was an earnest advocate of the DBmocratic party. . His passions are no doubt cooler now. Washington's administration had been " wise." since I knew him In 1798. and resigned his seat in the Senate.

it seems that he had decided to try his fortune through trade. mostly uncultivated. The judge immediately drew his pistol. thence by wagons or packhorses to Nashville. Soon after. He lived about thirteen miles from Nashville. frightened animal ran away. Dr. who was a young lawyer just from Virginia. the crowded streets of Knoxville. the general became involved in a quarrel with a young man by the name of Swann. Judge Jackson. Vandyke. He refused to accept the challenge of Swann. : " Services " exclaimed other man's wife. where the most humane and gentle of masters.220 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Judge Jackson did not enjoy his seat upon the bench. The governor returned the shot. met upon the road Gov. where he opened a store. Jackson brought forward his favorite horse Truxton. down the Ohio to Louisville in flat-boats. . born in the midst of it the idea never seemed to enter his mind that could be wrong. tended store. The general it. sent goods. except a trip to Natchez with an! Judge Jackson. he was chosen majorin the summer of 1804. Sevier. general of militia. As to slaver}'^. Gen. and ordered the governor to The governor leaped from his horse. down the Mississippi. " cried out up. sent them to Pittsburg by wagon. Vandyke drew upon Sevier. which and several scenes of claraor and violence not space to record. and the defend himself. The quarrel between tisans on either side ." — " Great God know of none. his office as judge we have did not materially interfere with this is business. The bullets whistled through Bystanders separated them. on a tract of land of several thousand acres. He became eventually an extensive slave-owner but he was one of At a horse-race. with his son. and renounced the dignity About this time. Some chance travellers came Dr. the governor " T Judge Jackson alluded ! to the services which he had rendered the State. and lost the title of judge in that of general. He used a small block-house for his store. it said. " do you mention her sacred name?" He immediately drew a pistol. from a narrow window of which he sold goods to the Indians. As he had an assistant. when travehing with a friend. and stopped the fray. and where the stakes on either side were two thousand dollars. the judge and the governor enlisted par- occurred. and. Young Sevier drew upon Jackson. occasionally negroes. When he retired from the Senate Chamber. and fired. In the conversation which ensued. upon the ground that . He purchased a stock of goods in Philadelphia.

He examined it. saying. The two parties spent the night at houses about two miles from each other. The verdict then was. with pistols down. at the distance of twenty-four feet. leaving a bad but not dangerous wound. he kissed her. Good-by. Dickenson. his frantic wife. stating that he had business which called him to Kentucky. a great favorite in Nashville. determined aim. His aim was unerring. pistol Back to the mark. and fired. they rode off Dickenson was a sure shot. The meeting was appointed at a day's ride from Nashville. As he stole from the side of his wife and child early on Thursday morning. darling! I shall be sure to be at home tomorrow night. and insisted upon an immediate fight. The next day. and even cut a string. Dickenson had a young and beautiful wife and an infant chiM. but the ball broke a rib. JACKSON. The parties were to stand facing each other. and his untimely death excited profound sympathy. and was said to have been a very amiable man. appalled by the certain death a step or two. Dickenson was convivial in his tastes. and in the evening died. The unhappy man took his stand. Charles Dickenson.ANDREW he was not a gentleman This led to another also a lawyer. at seven o'clock in the morning of Friday. The ball had passed through his body. At the word " Fire I" they were to discharge their was pistols as soon as they pleased. took cool aim. twenty-four feet apart. May 30. met a wagon conveying back to Nashville his remains. had stopped at half-cock. and go off. Jackson and his party followed. For a time. Jackson's popularity. Re-adjusting it. 1806. and glanced. and feU. He could in the highest spirits." Meeting a gay party of his friends. recoiled " shouted Jackson's second. strike a dollar with his bullet. Jackson challenged him to a duel. hurrying to his relief. this affair greatly injured Gen. Jackson and his party retired from the field. unrelentingly. " Again Jackson raised his pulled the trigger. and The pistol did not and found that . leaving the dying man in the hands of his friends. It 221 but beat bim with Lis blu Jgeon. The next morning. who and a dealer in country produce. . again.Mr. Jackson then '' took deliberate aim. with. which awaited sir ! tiim. wag a very disgraceful quarrel. it with calm. All day long he suffered agony which extorted shrieks from him. Dickenson got the first fire. difficulty. just above the hips. they met in a grove. he Dickenson reeled. Gen.

satisfied with these accommodations. If he continues to be. '' He desired nothing better. Jackson at this time resided in a very huu ble litmoe cr. I have been lounging at the house of Gen. connected Gen. subsequently lo felt any remorse.e." these two buildings were conThe genei-al was proverbial for his verted into negro cabins. Aaron Burr made the general a visit of five days.222 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. he made another visit l:o the Heimit* age Farm of eight days. Jackson's rustic taste was amply by a covered passage. Jackson was outrageously wrong. hospitality. Subsequently. he never revealed it to any one bui God. and the low as well as the high were equally weloom. On his return from New Orleans. when to gratify his wife he built the comfortable house called The Hermitage. Gen. It consisted of one what was called " The Hermitage Farm." room on the lower floor. " For a week. that Gen. He writes. There was another smaller cabin near by. — . THK DUKL. There was do ceii/ag. and two above. A trap-door in the middle of the floor opened into a hole ibr storage.

when who ordered him travelling alone. is whom he nurtured and educated. 223 fackson. but a [aw sisters. — Now." now a plar ter . Madison occupied the presidential chair. saying. One day. which were his trunk. and became alienated from Jefferson and his ad' ministration. and he then dismissed them with a moral lecture which they probably never forgot. you ! you dance There was death in " danced until the general was satisfied. slippers. and the troops were assembled at Nashville- . ardent souls whom love Gradually Gen. infernal villains. Opening before. Feigning simplicity. but adopted one of the twin sons. he said that he could not dance without his to get out of his carriage. children.u of intelligence. Gen. Jackson offered his services and those of twenty-five hundred volunteers. Jackson's This boy became the life. of which sovereign. and one of the most cheerful and entertaining of companions. much intelligence. but very little culture. and devoted himself to the culture of his plantation. " glaring like They told him to get them. v/hich he had not found very profitable. New Orleans was to be the capital. Andrew Jackson. or servants. that a strong mind. pride. and with such oaths as few men ever heard approached them. Just at that time. Jackson now withdrew from commercial pursuits. and Aaron Burr tho He communicated his suspicions to the Govornmout. to meet. Gen. His home was a very happy one. Jackson began to suspect Burr of designs of dismembering the Union. once a lawyer. Mrs. his eye and in his tone. They shall When the war of 1812 with Great Britain commenced.ANDREW JACKSON. Mdio would do credit to a commission ferred if one were conoffer upon him. She had and offered his services. It is said (and the assertion well substantiated) that this wonderfully irascible man was never impatient even with wife. and earnestly defended him. and one of those frank.was innocent of any traitorous designs. Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there was an unknown man in the West. and establishing a Southern empire. of one of Mrs. and then. a I tua. of the general's Soon after. Subsequently he formed the opiniou Bun. he took out his pistols. he met two burly wagoners. and dance for them. da>'s old. he re- ceived another little nephew into his family. the joy. His was accepted. in his trunk. afterwards a judge. dance forme! Dan(o. with eyes fireballs. Jackson was an excellent manager. the hope. They had no cliildren.

fired at Jackson. Thomas H. " — Now. went to the City Hotel. But the energy Gen. Jackson heavily and helplessly to the floor. for a pistol. . The general. Andrew Jackson. shattering it it horribly. Thomas H." A young friend of Gen. ing. hearing of these remarks. . bleeding profusely. young Benton quite severely. to a duel. you 1 d d rascal. hall towards the door at the other end. Wilkinson . Learning that Benton was in Nashville. I am going to punish you ! Defend yourself Benton clapped his hand into his breast-pocket as if feeling Jackson instantly drew a pistol. and presented it at Benton stepped back through the the breast of his antagonist. him the nickname of " Old Hickory. Jackson hated the commandant at New Orleans. Col. won him golden opinions and he became the most popular man It was in this expedition that his toughness gave in the State. the men were ordered back to their homes. and expected a " diflScultj. by the name of William Carroll. Both parties were wounded. The ball buried itself in his fell arm. a small sword at his side. Jackson following closely. . he was ordered with fifteen hundred troops to the aid of to descend the river Wilkinson. Jackson advanced upon him with his whip. Jackson. in his rage. Col. swore " by the Eternal " that he would horsewhip Benton. As Gen. where Gen. who had conferred some signal favors upon Gen. exclaim- As the Orleans. with his brother Jesse near. without accomplishing any thing. and his entire devotion to the comfort of his soldiers. he made such remarks as passionate men were accustomed to make in those days and in that region. British were hourly expected to make an attack upon New was in command. a younger brother of Col." 224 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and a whip in his hand. Benton. Benton. This roused the indignation of Col. then forty-six years of age. seeing his brother's peril. he rode into the city. somewhat reluctantly acted as second to Carroll." he took with him his duelling pistols and powder. Benton was at the front-door. Jackson had displayed. Jackson and. His friend. accompanied by a friend. left shoulder. challenged Jesse Benton. The The slug struck his pistol was loaded with two balls and a slug. Jesse Benton. The expedition reached Natchez and after a delay of several weeks there. where remained for twenty years. and with pistols in his pocket.

a starving their achievements. war which ensued cannof i. their sufferings and On one occasion. giving him the name of Lincoyer. on the 4th of October. one after another. gave his amazing energies to the raising of an army to rendezvous at Fayetteville. were committing the Gen. Blood flowed freely. saying. But another actor immediately appeared. " All his relations are dead kill him too. who had combined under Tecumseh. He grew up a finely formed young man. an Indian babe was found clinging to the bosom of its dead mother. " I will divido soldier approached the general. fight. who were captives. almost by his 29 own single energies. from Florida to the Lakes. own Jackson. and. with you my own food. sent it to the Hermitage. Decisive action became necessary. begging for food. Stokely Hays. Iren. and unable to mount his horse without assistance. *' This is all the faro I have. presented them to the man. drawing a few acorns from his pocket. He and was just about to strike the colonel over the head. Jackson's wounds were very severe. Coffee now turned his attention to his wounded friend. his arm in a sling. and a man of gigantic strength and stature. Jackson urged some of the Indian women. but died of consumption at the age of seventeen. would fill pages. Bystanders int -.ere bo where the whole of a band of one hundred and eighty Indian warriors met with their death. 225 pistol. on the borders of Alabama. most awful ravages. Jackson. fired his then clubbed his pistol. bottom. upon a bed of suffering. rushed upon Jesse Benton.ANDREW Coffee. vanquished. A narrative of the heroism of the troops. news came that the Indians. to exterminate the white settlers. .r- and separated them. and missed. JACKSON. 1818." said he. With gleaming knives." Mutinies arose in the camp. On the bloody field of Talluschatches. They refused. and brought the child up as a son. the field. when Benton tripped." The general took the The varied incidents of the described. saying. Jackson was carried to the Nashville Inn. and rolled to the rushed upon Col. lingering. which child to his tent. and fell back over some stairs behind him which he had not observed. a nephew of Gen. While he was haggard and wan. Benton. they had a rough-and-tumble fered. and the Bentons remained in possession of Faint with loss of blood. a short distance . to give it nourishment. : nursed it with sugar and water. Jackson. with his fractured bones just beginning to heal.

He marched them to within a short distance of Fort Strother. The . rainy morning in February. They were now marched to Fort elder brother in the company. entirely dependent upon their crops for the support of their families. Indians at Enotochopco. on a cold. to pick up the John replied. John Wood. and reproved him sharply for the bones and officer came other litter which were strewn about. an left his breakfast for him along. not quite eighteen years of age. Thus assured. and then halted them. Roberts had enlisted these men. John Wood was on guard.. that. if they would come back. Awful were the oaths of the enraged general. Absence in seedtime or harvest exposed wives and children to It was exceedingly difficult to hire men even for six starvation. probably not very respect . Strother. Gen. and rode forward to get a promise from Gen. he obtained permission to go to his tent to get a blanket. while he was hastily eating it. Two hundred young men volunteered for a three-months' campaign. they again rendezvoused at Fayetteville. to serve as his subJohn the more readily assented to this as he had an stitute. in the cairse. The battles were The settlers in that remote wilderness were fierce and bloody. while he swore that he would shoot them as deserters if they did not return. officer. Jackson to receive them for the short service for which they had enlisted. insulting language of the camp. He would not hea-r of The men heard of it. A few days after this. Here a man who was anxious to retire engaged another young man. months' military service. wei«i The discouragement and embarrassments he encountered terrible. and received into service on the terms upon which they had enlisted. 226 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and their serving for less than six months. The Indians were numerous and desperate. He needed the men so much. immediately started for their homes. ordered him bones. culminating in the routing of the . Wet. Every available man was sent after them to arrest them as deserters. In the severe chastisement of the Indians at Talladega struggle with his own starving troops at Fort Strother in in the his twelve-days' excursion. John went on eating. ever been recorded. chilled. and hungr}'-. The wrath of the general was roused. he assured them that they should be pardoned. — there was as high a display of energy and sagacity as has. perhaps. The contract was written and signed. His comrades had and.

irons. or Horseshoe. The carnage was awful and revolting. Some threw themselves into the . that JACKSON. assembled. The officer ordered the bystanders to arrest Wood. A general order was read. The bend of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres of tangled forest and wild ravine. were was not. From ten in the morning until dark. and its rendezvous at Fayetteville. and had permission to leave his post but for a few moments. in which it was asserted that Wood had neer. 1814. to was con- pardon him. to which he must immediately return. A loud altercation ensued.ANDREW fully. or. No one has ever read this story without a deep feeling of sympathy for John Wood. He seized his gun. knowing nothing of military life. about fifty miles below Fort Strother. Not an Indian would accept of quarter. near the centre of Alabama. at mitigate the sentence. to to die. that whom he was the main-stay. and swore that he would shoot the man who should attempt to touch him. Gen. a mere boy. the Indians had constructed a formidable breastwork of logs and brush. been a deserter as well as a mutineer. on the 27th of March. The whole army was drawn up to witness the execution. A deserter he certainly for he did not join the company until after the flight. The Creek Indians had established a strong fort on one of the bends of the Tallapoosa River. The general he was sorry for his parents but the boy was a muti- and must die. . and came first rush- ing from his tent like an enraged maniac. He reached their fort. having been but a month Gen. thought it time to make an example. and his patience was exhausted. When bleeding and dying. The fort was stormed. John. of replied. The fight was utterly desperate. Jackson heard that a man was mutinying. Jackson was urged in service. they would fight those who endeavored to spare their lives. Wood was put in Gen. Gen. in consideration of his youth. and of his aged parents. sitting upon a log in the forest. He entarprise. He had been struggling against mutiny for three months. called Tohopeka. the battle raged. With an army of two thousand men. with an ample supply of arms and ammunition. Jackson was about to start upon a very important There was but little subordination in the army. demned least. Here nine hundred warliors. Jackson traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven days. 227 he was on guard. Across the narrow neck.

. Jackson could have conducted man of less Immediately. swara the river. and every tongue court-house. on this Indian campaign to so successful an issue. and a still more splendid navy of more than a thousand vessels. Not many men. with its terrific slaughter. This gave him an income of between six and seven thousand dollars a year. All past enmities were forgotten. and made him. The power of the Creeks was broken forever. resolute will than Gen. Napoleon had now fallen. so appalled the savages. he suftimes. were free to — — .228 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. The were glad that Napoleon was overthrown the RepubAndrew Jackson was a Republican. fered terribly from the wounds and debility occasioned by his He was pale and haggard and senseless feud with Col. the 31st of May. tnat the haggard remnants of the bands came to the camp. concentrate Federalists licans all their energies against this infant republic. flushed with victory. a rich man. Gen. This ended the war. the British cabinet decided to gather up its strength to strike America a crushing . in the night. A few probably. . the tomahawk. Jackson returned a conqueror. the Creeks were compelled to cede to the United-States Government nearly the whole of the territory now embraced in the State of Alabama. Benton. pain-worn. for those Through the whole Indian campaign. This closing of the Creek War enabled us to concentrate our No militia upon the British. often enduring the extreme of agony. Jackson was appointed major-general in the army of the United States. As one of the results of the Creek War. the Bourbons were restored and the English. spoke his praise. would have been out of the sick-chamber. who were the allies of the Indians. with a splendid army. the torch. Immediately upon the fall of Napoleon. A cavalcade of the citizens of Nashville flocked to With loudest acclaim. begging for peace. This bold plunge into the wilderness. river but the unerring bullet struck their heads as they swam Nearly every one of the nine hundred warriors was killed. the can appreciate the gratitude with which carnage. and escaped. No one but those who know from experience what are the horrors of Indian warfare the midnight yell of the savage. the torture this deliverer of the frontiers was received as he journeyed homewards. and a great admirer of Napoleon. suffering as he did. generally mourned. they conducted him to the meet him.

flying from the tremendous blows which Gen. stormed the town. New Orleans. and took possession of a dilapidated rampart. Gen. Late in August. and the rest of the force retir-^d in utter discomfiture. to imprison us in our forests. anchored near the little fort. an ally of England. at that hundred miles. was left He decided to take the to a^^t almost without instructions. he advanced upon Pensacola. landed a force upon the beach. with an army of two thousand men. and. rhe Mississippi. Jackson traversed the wilderness from which he had driven out the Creeks. His wrath against the Spaniards had no limits and he resolved to march upon PensaTlie repel the foe. Most of the hostile Indians. had also taken refuge in Florida. lay all our seaport towns in ashes. and. and the British cabinet doubted not its ability to wrest from us Louisiana. by holding the Atlantic. one of the ships was blown up. he put his force asked On the 3d of November. as he expressed " rout out the English. dispensing arms to the Indians in that region. called Fort Bowyer. and from both ship and shore commenced a furious assault. then an insignificant hamlet of one hundred and fifty houses. and reached Mobile. Fearing for Mobile. at Mobile Point. verdict has been clearly in his favor. having marched nearly two Many. cola. and on the 11th got back again. where the Spaniards were sheltering our it. which we had purchased of France. Jackson himself . Jackson. and achieved a great victory. and the Lakes. The battle was long and doubtful. 229 blow. Florida then belonged to Spain." Regardless of the rights of Spain. gone? This question Gen. a dis- Gen. and assumed the independence of a sovereign. It was their plan to take New Orleans. foes.ANDREW JACKSON. But where had the fleet . responsibility. and preparing for their grand naval and land expedition to New Orleans. he left Moin rapid motion to return. At length. he moved his troops to tance of a hundred and seventy miles. took and drove the British fleet out to sea. far away in the wilderness. Jackson with great anxiety. whole South and West were fully aroused to meet and By the 1st of November. Jackson had in Mobile an army of four thousand men. Jackson had dealt out to them. annihilate our navy. The British were at Pensacola and Appalachicola. condemned him for the invasion of Florida possession of every fort. . Gen. Garrisoning Mobile. on a rushing march. but the final time. A British fleet came from Pensacola. bile.

and his body thin and emaciated. in the was something saloon as well as in the camp. — . threadbare. which was composed of five or six persons. make the expevery profitable. was. that he could ride but seventeen miles a day. cased in high dragoon-boots. if successful. umall cutters in the lake. long ignorant of polish or blacking. It was the 10th of December. united with affability. Every available man in New Orleans was immediately brought The battle of New Orleans. which were soon overpowered by the many of them class. was He reached New Orleans the 1st of December. In age. and transported a land force of ten thousand veteran soldiers. and which had obtained renown in the naval conflicts of Trafalgar and the Nile. was assembled in a spacious bay on the western end of the Island of Jamaica. accompanied by his he entered the city " The chief of the party. hawk-like eye betrayed a soul and spirit which triumphed over His dress was simple. . and nearly all the infirmities of the body. of very erect carriage. 1814. gaunt man. of the first A British fleet of fifty ships. The fleet entered Lake and flushed with victory over Napoleon. which soon ensued. his hair was iron gray. he appeared to have passed about forty-five winters. A small leather cap protected his head. New Orleans con- tained then twenty thousand inhabitants. which would have rendered him conspicuous as a gentleman. into service. in his presence which charmed every one. was a tall. a very arduous cam. There was plunder enough of cotton and sugar stored in the city to dition of the British.230 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. as. Jackson. There were five Borgne. even in the court of Louis XIV. there were dignity and courtliness. The following : description has been given of Gen. which carried a thousand cannon. His complexion was sallow and unhealthy. was manned by nearly nine thousand soldiers and marines. Jackson had acquired the manThere ners of the most polished and accomplished gentleman. but furrowed with care and anxiety. This fleet. which reached to the knees.paign. in his address. "fresh from the wars of Europe. Hke that of one who had just recovered from a lingering But the fierce glare of his bright and and painful sickness. Always self-possessed. in reality." In some mysterious way. and a short whilst his feet and legs were inSpanish blue cloak his body staflf alone. Gen. 80 feeble. with a countenance full of stern decision and fearless energy.

which came up in large numbers during the night. he adcess . with that indomitable energy.ANDREW immense force of the foe. The prowas very slow and tedious and it was not until the 22d that Thus far. from ascending the river. Jackson. to prevent the British fleet. mule. vanced to meet them. Unaware how feeble the force Gen. it had been they were prepared to move forward. surprised by the fury of the assault. ox. to the impassable swamp. for five days and four nights. provisions. that. while they were laboriously bringing up their re-enforcements of men. he was withabout a mile in width. and throwing up a breastworks from the river across the plain. waited for re-enforcements. This delay probably saved New Orleans. In the mean time. of that fiery impetuosity. He fell upon them impetuously in a night attack. horse. but sixteen hundred troops were speedily put on shore by the boats but eight miles from New Orleans. He had placed the city under martial law. they did not deem it prudent to move upon the city until they had greatly increased their numbers. boy in the city out sleep. Gen. and marched to meet them. As soon as Gen. Gen. Two precious days the British allowed him. uncertain by what direction they would advance upon the city. were within nine miles of the city. . It is said. checked their progress. which was impelled by wind alone. and drove them bac-k towards their landing-place. At two o'clock in the afternoon of the 23d. Philip was strengthened. ships to approach near the land The British troops commenced landing on the 16th. Fort St. and guns. Jackson heard of their line of approach. ammu' nition. He seemed neither to eat nor sleep. JACKSON. Every man and The general was everywhere. He immediately collected his motley force young farmers and mechanics. in which he surpassed all living men. The British. Jackson learned that the foe. 231 The fleet now ran along to the western the large extremity of the lake. The shallow water would not allow . had been called into requisition. His zeal inspired all. which was was put to the work. about two thousand in number. and line of commenced cutting a ditch. marching from Lake Borgne. Jackson had at his disposal. Two armed schooners were stationed in the river. and landed the troops at the mouth of the Bayou Bienvenue. fell back with his men to a point about four miles down the river from New Orleans. Every available man.

which annoyed It is but a narrow strip of land which lines the the foe terribly. but every one had imbibed the spirit of his chieftain. On their right. It was absurd the morning sun. alone prevented the inundation of the collecting. over Gen. and shell. and to sweep. to fight with desperation . the swamp shut them in while the deep river was on their left. if defeated. fire it. on the 28th. Both parties exerted almost human energy in preparing for the renewal of the strife. was on the watch. Gen. to the and. in military array as beauThe artillery led. the morning. For a few hours. Gen. He was the nephew Duke himself. turbid Mississippi. he could scoop up the earth only to the depth of three feet before he came to the water. again they retreated. British camp. fire in He planted him a powernear the levee in the night. There were eight thousand veteran soldiers marching upon them. there were the tumult. bleeding. But Andrew Jackson was them. The levee. with an old borrowed telescope in his hand. Panting. with a shower of Congreve-rockets. turbid. the carnage. On the 2oth. Sir E. duke expanded and intensified. fifteen feet They were on fire the eastern banks. opened air. Jackson had not quite three thousand men behind his breastwork. The muskets of the infantry flashed like mirrors in the light of The Britons were in high glee. blew one of the vessels into the and drove of the the other out of range of his guns. with shattered ranks. like a Mississippi In flood. to retire city. Another week passed away. ground where the British forces were as they looked swift. of a battle and then the British host seemed to have melted away. to suppose that a few thousand raw militia could resist the veterans who had conquered the armies of Napoleon. up the stream. Jackson. if possible. round shot. pushed his veteran battalions forward on a reconnoissance. . rising some from the plain. and were exposed unsheltered to the of these vessels. Jackson's frail and unfinished breastwork. It was only along this strip that the foe could advance. Jackson had two sloops of war in the river. bringing with it Packenham reached the ful battery. in spirit the . Packenham. amidst its flames.232 LIVES i)F THE PRESIDENTS. super- Gen. the horror. the construction of his ditch and earthworks. slowly . leaving their dead behind of Wellington. The solid columns of red-coats came on. Jackson had made his arrangements. the 28th of December. It was a brilliant morning. heralding the advance tiful as awe-inspiring.



the first day of the new year. the and the whole plain. Annoyed by the terrible fire which was opened upon them by our artillerists and sharpshooters. the plain was soon so covered with smoke. and were thrown . one hundred balls struck the house which The reply from G-en. As the smoke rolled away. the British batteries were seen total- ly destroyed: the soldiers to the rear . This was the third battle. In its gloom. like the uprolling of a curtain at a theatre. Thus passed the three last days of the year.ANDREW falling JACKSON. and ten twenty-fours. that they could no longer be loaded. as there was not a breath of air. they remained in their encampment two miles below our breastworks. 30 They were found valueless. Within ten minutes. 23b some strong position on the river-banks. who had manned them were running and the British army. bv him to depart. batteries Instantly the British upon the American lines. blazing and bellowing with volcanic flash and roar. they were compelled to fall back to their former position. After an hour and a half of such work. and such a storm of war was opened Fifty as never before had been witnessed upon this continent. o'clock. The banks of the river were lined with sentinels. the American lines was prompt. but in open view. It dawned through a tog so dense. were hiding behind the ramparts which they had thrown up. was open to view. hot. glittering with all the pageantry of war. that no man could be seen at a distance of twenty back to cutting off the supplies of the foe. of the campaign. For three days. and. The British had brought forward twenty eighteen-pounders. and. each from two to three times a minute and. not including the gunboat fight. the guns became so commenced their fire . and watch-boats patroled tlie majestic stream. Jackson had occupied as his headquarters. under cover of a heavy cannonade on their right. that nothing could be seen but an impenetrable cloud. pieces of cannon were discharged. The British now decided to advance upon the American lines by regular approaches. which had been drawn up to advance upon our works. one-half of the British army advanced within three hundred yards of our front. and other needful supplies. It was on this occasion only that cotton- bales were used. They brought from their ships heavy cannon. <!ommenced throwing up a chain of works. Suddenly at ten fog lifted . compel yards. The night of the 31st of December was very dark. Again the British were defeated. The next morning was Sunday.

The British were. and shells. the British marched upon the embankment. aside. him on both sides of the river. and On saying. No words can describe the efforts made by our army to prepare for the next movement of the foe. however. Jackson had now collected an army of about for the attack. or set them on enemy would next attempt was now the great question. the whole proud array had disappeared. On both sides of the river. all inspired with the zeal of their commander. Four days passed away with no decisive movements on either side. the blood-red billows of battle rolled and broke. a rocket from the hostile In two solid columns. and poured into the head of a column at the distance of but a few yards. Regiments vanished.— " Stand to your guns Don't waste your ammunition See that Let us finish the business to-day " every shot tells Two hours passed. the retreating lines of the foe were to be ground was so . seen. and behind which Gen. balls. The ! ! I ! — covered with the dying and the dead. Our men were well protected. the 6th. spending its force in the bodies of those who were inTwo hundred men sanely driven forward to inevitable death. cannot here describe the preparations made for the attack At half an hour before dawn. as the cannon-balls fire. the enemy was repulsed. Gen. a British officer said. the British advanced upon our ramparts. four thousand men. On Friday. for a quarter of a mile in front. Jackson became assured that to attack enemy was preparing for the repulse. cheering his men.234 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. efiectually done. Gen. which were bristling with infantry and artillery. 8. far away in the distance. gave the signal 1815. Jackson walked slowly along his ranks. which no flesh and blood could stand. It was one of the most awful scenes of slaughter which was ever witnessed. one discharge of a thirty-two-pounder. lines Sunday morning. . With bare bosoms. that. "as if the earth had opened. loaded were cut down by to the muzzle with musket-balls. from which there was poured forth an incessant storm of bullets. Every bullet accomplished its mission. evidently preparing for another advance." The American line looked like a row of fiery furnaces. As the smoke lifted. We and Jan. and swallowed them up. whatever it the What might the be. both sides of the river. knocked them about. one might walk upon their bodies and. and the work was done.

He still retained his command of the southdollars. on the 21st. Their loss in killed and wounded was two thousand six hundred. and sent him out of his corpus. and honors were poured in upon him without number. regardless of treaties. marched into Flor'da. until at length. Inexorable in discipline. and. Judge Hall. and wished to pay the fine for him. deeming such an announcement injudicious. . without anguish at . and. they effected their escape to their ships. It is a sad story. ordered the editox* He refused. and hung an ern division of the army. Ten days after this. The general refused their offer. Gen. cate the supremacy of the civil authority. and they supposed that their term of service had really expired. and we but about four thousand. through great difficulties. soon aftei this. lines. at Mobile. The whole country blazed with illuminations. continually annoyed by our artillerists and sharpshooters. that until tho it was not 4th of February that tidings of the victory reached Washington. The judge returned. the British remained in their encampment. intelligence travelled so slowly. he ordered six militia-men to be They were honest. while ours was but thirteen. adoring their deliverer. fined the general a thousand The people of New Orleans. ing men. were indignant. battle of New Orleans. He now returned to Nashville. Jackson gathered an army of over two thousand men. Some of them were true Christians. and paid it himself. shot by court-martial a Scotchman.ANDREW JACKSON. by virtue of his office. and rang with rejoicings. Gen. 235 The British had about nine thousand in the engagement. Gen. issued a writ of habeas The general arrested the judge. news of the Treaty of Ghent was received. well-mean shot for mutiny. attacked a Spanish post. which treaty had bee a signed before the bloody battle of New Orleans took place. The Seminole Indians in Florida were committing outrages upon our frontiers. For ten days after the battle. who probably had no intention of doing wrong. No one it can read the story of their all death. Jackson was not a man of tender sympathies. to vindito retract. and was arrested. Rumors Ghent reached New Orleans in March. and were published by one of the New-Orleans editors. Soon intelligence of peace was received. punished the Indians severely. Thus ended the great In those days. Jax^ksou. and required the glory of the victory New Orleans to obliterate the of the Treaty of memory of the execution at Mobile.

United-States 1823. It is said that every night afterwards. just before he assumed the reins of government. From the shock of her death he never recovered. and his hope and intention to become a Christian before he should die. In 1829. His administration was one of the most memorable in the annals of our country applauded by one party. and. and disregard of treaties and the forms of law. elected. he read a prayer from his wife's prayer-book." For some reason. Jackson was appointed governor The powers with which he was of the newly acquired territory. In the campaign of 1828. upon assuming the cominvested were so great. His energy. he was triumphantly elected President of the United States. he had loved with devotion which has perhaps never been surpassed. Every year the judgment of the whole community . were denounced by one party. he met with the most terrible afiliction of his life in the death of his wife. His name soon began to be brought forward as that of a candidate for the presidency of the United States. that he mand. he soon became tired of his office. He was. Gen. he expressed his deep conviction of the necessity of vital godliness. I trust. were at the time most unsparingly denounced. Gen. and. either of his competitors. seldom used profane language. and commended by another. and. again retired to his farm and his extremely humble home in Tennessee. whom He ever afterwards appeared like a changed man. which . however. undeniable. Jackson received a larger number of electoral votes than The Democratic party now with great unanimity fixed upon him to succeed Mr. In the stormy electoral canvass of 1824. will never again be given to any man. In the autumn of by the Tennessee Legislature. No man had more bitter enemies or warmer friends. condemned by the other. He became Bubdued in spirit. except when his terrible temper had been greatly aroused. are now generally commended. and which. said. resigning it. It is. sustained by Congress and the President. which resulted in the choice of John Quincy Adams by the House of Representatives. " I — am clothed with powers that no one under a republic ought to possess. however. Adams.236 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. with her miniature likeness before him. that many of the acts of his administration. until his own death. Englishman accused of inciting the Indians to insurrection. With frankness characteristic of his nature. he was senator. after the purchase of Florida from Spain.

The household servants were all called in to partake in the devotions. intensely impressed with a He passed the night walking the sense of ingratitude and sin. he announced to his family his full conviction that he had repented of his sins. in acceptance of pardon through an atoning Saviour. with possibly the exceptions of Washington and Lincoln. At one of the meetings of the church. Martin Van Buren. but who is conscious. was a true patriot. resigning his office at Washington to his warm friend anrl able supporter. Gen. Jackson was nominated a " ruling elder. however numerous might be his guests. Jackson went home. who ever occupied the presidential chair. he country. There was a series of rehgious meetings of several days' continuance. he sent for the elders of the church. Jackson devoutlv. through faith in Christ. upon God's interposition among the affairs of men. The prayers of his Christian mother were now answered. His subsequent life was that of the Christian who is conscious that his sins are forgiven. in 1837. It was a solemn scene which was that morning witnessed in that rural church. knelt with tho humility of a little child before the altar. and of the Son. 237 settling into the conviction.attended them all. and expressed the desire that very day to make a profession of his faith in Christ." . Scott's Family Bible he read through twice before he died. )\e retired. and of the Holy Ghost. with all his glaring faults of character. that he has yet many remaining infirmities. that. had obtained forgiveness. and to partake of the emblems of his body broken for us. At the expiration of his two terms of office. That day the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was to be administered. also. with bronzed face and frosted hair. The sublimities of the world beyond the grave had ever overawed his soul. and his blood shed for our ssins. In the morning. The warworn veteran. The last sermon was on Saturday afternoon. Gen. Andrew Jackson was the most popular president. Hours of reflection were forced upon him.ANDREW is JACKSON. Jackson himself conducted. floor of his chamber in anguish and in prayer. almost buried in the forests of Tennessee. and. honestly seeking the good of his With the masses of the people. informed them of the new life upon which he believed he had entered. Gen. The remains of his much-loved wife were reposing in the humble graveyard near his house. Family prayer was immediately established in his dwelling. and was baptized in the name of the Father. to the Hermitage. With his customary decision of character. which Gen. The evening of his stormy life had come.

" want to The slaves." and trust turning his eyes tenderly towards the last words he repeated. In conclu- dear children and friends and servants. both white and black. I Marian? God will take care of you me.' church for such an office. June the 8th. and with flashing eye. said. he remained apparently At length. " Yes. but what are my compared with those of the blessed Saviour who died on sufferings the accursed tree for me? Mine are nothing. he partook of the communion. hour had come. Edgar one day. " I know you. in a state of stupor. white and black. his adopted son took his hand. May 24. who crowded the piazza. The old general half rose from his bed. never I The Bible am too young " says. the gleams of his would flash forth." His sufferings frgm sickness during the last years of his life were dreadful but he bore them with the greatest fortitude. took leave of each one. and. " I would have hung them." he replied. on of hands. in heaven. For some time. When I have suffered Lord will take me to himself. am my and I belong to him. of my life. He assembled all his family around him." he replied. women. He spoke for nearly half an hour. it was seen that his last ing. and God's. he said." On Sunday. and posterity would have pronounced it the best act for all time . " My slaves clustered around. " has no terrors for me. They should have been a terror to traitors sir. in sufficiently." writes. uttering a complaining word. I hope The to meet you all in heaven. " Death. " Father. " No. men." sion. " He then. My countrymen have given me high honors but I should esteem the office of ruling elder in the Church of Christ a far higher honor than any I have received. and great vehemence of manner. The servants had all been called in. " delivered one of the most impres- sive lectures on the subject of religion that I have ever heard. at times." said he. ' Be not hasty . the the most affecting manner. I go but a short time before you meet you all. and children. and apparently with the power of inspiration. one who was present. Where for is my I . do you know me ? " and said. as high as Haman. ." Still he lingered in the extreme of weakness and of sufferOn Sunday morning. 1845. if they had kept on ? " asked Dr. " What would you have done impetuous with Calhoun and the other nullifiers. in the laying in the .238 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. daughter. soul Still.

he suddenly. and fear to die ? I timorous worms we mortals are sermon was preached from the text. and of experienced statesmanship.D. He was imprisoned in his ignorance. " These are they which came out of great tribulation. and sincerely patriotic. was extreme. dying master " said. when he was elected President of the United States. He had often said. and without a struggle. he had never read a book through except " The Vicar of Wakefield. of culture. that. the people docked to the burial. He was the first president America had chosen who was not a man of intelligence. says very truly. and have washed their robes. 239 to them." For miles around. of every thing which he who governs a country ought to know." It is said. Mr. science. at the time of his death. "His ignorance of law. sobbed loudly. was conferred upon him in 1833 by Harvard University. " Why What sbould we start." A The brief sketch which we have given of this remarkable man must leave the impression upon every mind that he possessed great virtues and great defects. — Turning What is ! the matter with my dear children ? Have I alarmed you ? Oh do not cry. of his wife. and we will all meet in heaven." The honorary degree of LL. — — Chief Justice Taney. he was placed in a grave by the side breathe. Parton. It was estimated that three thousand were assembled upon the lawn in front of the house. in his admirable Life of Jackson. paid the following beautiful tribute to his memory : — . Jackson did not believe the world was round. few will now deny that he was honest in his purposes. history. and slow to listen to the voice of reason. high and impenetrable. ceased to Two days after. their looking in at the windows. " Heaven will be no heaven to me if I do not meet my wife there. and though many of his actions were fearfully unjust. Mr. Trist remembers hearing a member of the general's family say that Gen. A favorite psalm of the departed was sung. politics.— " ANDREW JACKSON. and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Though intense in his prejudices. and sometimes raged around his little dim enclosure like a tiger in his den. His ignorance was as a wall round about him." Soon after this.

when great and mighty interests were at stake. both as a soldier and as a statesman. The whole civilized world already knows how bountifully he was endowed by Providence with those high gifts which qualified him to lead. his hatred of oppression in every shape it could assume." .240 " LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. can fully appreciate his innate love of justice. his magnanimity. and his constant and unvarying kindness and gentleness to his friends. his entire freedom from any feeling of personal hostility to his political opponents. But those only who were around him in hours of anxious deliberation. in the midst of his family and friends. and who were also with him in the retired scenes of domestic life.

HE-SIDKNCK OV JIAKTIX VAN BUREN. State. Resigns his Secretaryship. days passed uneventful biography. — Retirement and Declining Years.i political and he gained many in those incidents Si signal victories. is — There interest. engaged no wild adventures. Chosen Attains the Vice-Presidency. — — — — — — — — — — President. Eaton. MARTIN VAN BUREN nin'a Political Principles. Secretary of Aids in the Election of Jackson.CHAPTER VUl.— Patronage of Gen. but little in the life of Martin Van Buren in of romantic He fought no battles. Mrs. the Senate. Success as a Lawyer and Politician.-Talents and Industry. Rejected bj Minister to England. Though his life was stormy i. his to which give KC^t and intellectual conflicts. 241 . Jackson. and Childhood. His ancestors. Studies Law.

and cotjscious of his powers. residing in the old town of Kiuderhook. Martin farmer . s. that. Mr. he pursued his studies with indefatigable ii>After spending six years in an office in his native village.eveii years of study in a law-office were required of him before he cou. At the age of fourteen. developing unusual activity. Washington and John Adams considered our great danger to consist in the Demonot giving the Cetitral Government sufficient power . then a young man of them twenty. His His father was a farmer. and prosecuted his studies for the seventh year under the tuition of William P. and a very decided His son inherited from him both It is said of the his Democrat. He was decidedly a precocious boy. his political principles. indeed. commenced the practice of law in his native village. who subsequently obtained celebrity as the second of Burr. Inspired with a lofty ambition. a Van Buren's father was a tavern-keeper. Martin. 1782.V^ be admitted to the bar. in his duel with Hamilton.ig abiliand one can apparently see in his after-life the influence ties which the seductive and commanding mind of Burr exerted upon In one respect. he went to the city of New York. Mr. : cratic party. allude to the principles which separated the two parties. mother. their eldest son.mong the from Holland to the banks of the Hudson. and strength of mind. the study of the law. Van Buren was ever a man of irreproachable morality. and were ?. .242 as his LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. bonhomie and all through he was ever ready to greet open hand and a friendly smile. he had vigor. also of Dutch lineage. were of Dutch origin. as well as a man of imperturbable good nature. The great conflict between the ^''ederal and Republican party was then at its It has often been necessary in the previous sketches to height. life. period of his career acquaintance. dustry. Van Buren. was very handsome. son. under the leadership of Jefierson. they were difierent: his youthful nature. was a woman of superior intelligence and of exemplary piety. finished his academic studies in his native village. In 1803. then twenty-one years of age. Van Ness. earliest emigrants on the 5th of December. his most bitter opponent with an Burr was in the most brilliant first when the young law-student made his There was a certain congeniality of spirit between which promoted friendship. and was endowed with shinii. on the contrary. Martin. was born name indicates. As he had not a collegiate education. and com::2encGC.

The heroic example of John Quincy every faithful man. Mr. His success and increasing reputation led him. assiduous lawyer. in his profession. 243 thought that our danger cousisted in not giving the State governraents suflScient power. after six years of practice. After twelve short years. and earnestly and eloquently espoused the cause of State Rights though. 1786. I offend his disappointed competitors and their in retaining in office Adams. Though ever taking an active part in politics. that " to the victors belong the spoils. constantly gaining strength by contending in the courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned the bar of his State. Jackson. Van Buren gave his adherence. she sank into the grave. tho victim of consumption. he attained power which placed vast patronage in his hands. "We have probably had too good an opinion of human nature in forming our confederacy. /Larried a lady alike Van Buren distinguished for beauty and accomplish- ments. The record of those years . he devoted himself with great assiduity to the duties of a village lawyer. the Federal party held the supremacy both in his town and state." Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson. For twenty-five years. perhaps. to remove to Hudson. George Washington wrote to Jay. his political preferences." Still this principle. Nor am I certain of gaining a friend in the man I appoint for. When. — friends. He had. was not devoid of inconveniences. leaving her husband and four sons to weep over her loss. subsequently. to which Mr. I do not conceive that we can long exist as a nation. " I prefer an office which has no patronage. in all probability. from the beginning. He was in sympathy with Jefferson." Van Buren was. imbibed that spirit while listening to the cordial many discussions which had been carried on in his father's bar-room. without regard to had been thoroughly repudiated under the administration of Gen. at that time. a politician. Van Buren was an earnest.. When I give a man an office. the shire-town of his county. MARTIN VAN BUREN. and rose rapidly . he expected something better. without having centralized somewhere a power which will per- vade the whole Union Mr. The unfortunate principle was now fully established. Here he spent seven years. successful. he was heard to say. In August. in as energetic a manner as the authority of the State governments extends over the several States. Mr.

to the right of governing the State. virtue. with which he was constantly intermingled^ were in an entangled condition which no mortal would now undertake to unravel. and. '' tion secured the approval of men of all parties. the capital of the State. Van Buren took the lead in organizing that portion Albany Regency. now in another. perhaps. tumult. second election. In true consistency with his democratic principles." 244 is LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. he had the moral courage to that true avow democracy did not require that '^ universal suffrage which admits the vile. and uproar of the field of battle. we again find him the unrelent- While he was acknowledged as one of the most prominent leaders of the Democratic party. Here he cordially supported the administration of Mr. he contended. the degraded. he was appointed Attorney-General and. son's administration. The political affairs of the York. one is reminded of the attempt to follow with the eye the mounted aide of a general amidst the Mr." which is said to of the i)artv called the have swayed the destinies of the State for a quarter of a century. New and gave his strenuous support to Mr. His course in this conven. and would drive all respectable people from the polls. when thirty years of age. his political life smoke. the next year. In 1818. Madi- In 1815. now moving in one direction. unless he were in some degree qualified for it by intelligence. in the same year. Van Buren . he took a seat in the convention to revise the constitution of his native State. that. . he was chosen State of to the State Senate. and some property-interest in the welfare of the State. In 1821. this. while the path leading to the privilege of voting should be open to every man without distinction. the ignorant. in opposition to Madison. and yet ever in accordance with some well-established plan. cannot. no one should be invested with that sacred prerogative. in endeavoring to trace out his careei amidst the mazes of party politics. He contended that "universal suffrage " with the motley mass who crowd the garrets and cellars of New York would render the elections a curse rather than a blessing. be accused of inconsistency in and yet. at his . moved to Albany. No one could . there was a great split in the Democratic party in New York and Mr. Madison and yet he voted for Clinton. Soon after ing opponent of Clinton. he was elected a member of the United-States Senate. In 1812. barren in items of public interest.

Clay. Adams's adm" i. Missouri. accomplish the most gigantic results. in accordance with h's character as a " strict constructionist. survey of the whole ground leads me to believe conMr. I set down New England. or Democratic party. he was chosen Governor of the State New York. Wiether entitled to the reputation or not. Adams's re-election. fail of this. the greater part of Maryland." . He wrote to Jeremiah of Mason. to restore those of which they have been divested by construction. Mr. in sympathy with the Republi. MARTIN VAN BUREN. thiiik.'- Soon after this. and secured results which few thought then could be accomplished. sagacious. as did Martin Van Buren.::Tig of 1827.strajion would be sustained. In the sp. In the Senate of the United States. It was supposed that no one knew so well as he how to touch the secret springs of action how to pull all the wires to put his machinery in motion. however. and to promote the interest and honor of our common all — country. " A fidently in i.— . Ohio. Webster. he certainly was regarded throughout the United States as one of the most skilful. in 1828. Mr. for him. acting always. " It shall be my constant and zealous endeavor to protect the remaining rights reserved to the States by the Federal Constitution. 245 doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the interests of classes in the community. Mr. Probably no one in the United States contributed so much towards ejecting John Quincy Adams from the presidential chair. and cunning of manoeuvrers. In 1827." he said. secretly and stealthily.'. By these powers. and perhaps all Delawars. New Jersey. Adams. Wo must then get votes enough in New York to choose him. lie had been from the beginning a determined opposer of the Administration. Mr. adopting the " State-Rights " view in opposition co what was deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. and placing in it Andrew Jackson. and. John Quincy Adams being then in the presidential chair. Adams. Van Buren was re-elected to the Senate. Kentucky. can. In his letter accepting the senatorship. Webster had no doubt that Mr. he rose at once to a conspicuous position as an active and useful legislator. caniio!. and Louisiana. and accordingly resigned his seat in the Senate. it is said that he o^'itwitted Mr. Indiana. and how to organize a political army which would.

name of Peg O'Neil. as he said. in a fit of melancholy. Jackson.: 246 LIVES OF THE PRESTDENTts. a senator from Tennesboard at O'Neil's tavern. of course. which Andrew Jackson had cast. and became very much fasciE. Gen. each a demon. acquired a very unenviable reputatior. no democratic atrocity of not been guilty. There was not an aristocratic crime which John Quincy Adams had not committed." Scarcely had Gen. took Major John H. become acquainted with the daughter. much of the time absent from home. ana had his pretty. Her husband one day. eighty-three. had boarded with the old man. and the lady. How could they receive Peg O'Neil (now Mrs. " to his acknowledged talents and public services. He was. Jackson re- ceived one hundred and seventy-eight. At each was represented as an angel. the electoral votes were Gen. Adams. This event took place soon after Gen. and was appointed by him Secretary of War. Gen. At length. Mr. with her sullied reputation. Timberlaks. Van Buren opened his masked Mines were sprung all over the United States. into theii social circles ? They conferred together. Mr. that her reputation was not unblemished. the appointed hour. Jackson taken his seat in the presidential chair.ej)cvt nated by the beautiful and witty Mrs. Major Eaton was a friend of Gen. Jackson. Eaton. Miss O'Neil. committed suicide. Eaton). eventually married a purser in the United-States navy. Peg may have been a verv but she was so intimate with all her father's guests. by name of Timberlake. when senator in 1823. There was a taveriikeeper in Washington who had a pretty. daughter. The battle raged with fury which had scarcely ever been eqaalled. how- ever. Jackson immediately offered the post of Secretary of State to Mr. Van Buren a tribute. and Major Eaton immediately after married her. while in the Mediterranean. and withal so fascinating. ere there arose one of the most singular difficulties which ever distracted the government of a nation. by the virtuous girl . The names of Adams and Jackson rang out upon every breeze batteries. see. and in accordance with the wishes of the Republican party throughout the Union. and resolved that they . free-and-eaty . vivacious. was fame of them both. Jackson's election to the fair busy with the presidency. The ladies of the other members of the cabinet were in great trouble. so unreserved in conversation and manners. wbether justly or unjustly.

Eaton was a traduced and virtuous woman. A. Several of the members of the cabinet were married. energies of Gen. with all the force of his impetuous nature. expressive of his wishes. Foreign the people. alike to saint to appear to notice an injury. he called upon Mrs. would not do that line. I could desire Van Buren. it. Jackson. this Mrs. and manly. Jackson. politic. republican in his prinand one of the most pleasant men to do business with I ever saw. 247 Gen. carefully worded. About this time. resolved that she should be received as an honored member of the republican court. and treated her with the most marked His great abilities had already secured the confidence respect. the President was taken very sick.S a counsellor. made parties for her. candid. he oays. of the President." For two years. aim every thing him to bo. ere he avowed to his friends bis intention to do every thing in his power to secure the presidency for Mr. Van Buren. and sinner. i3 be published ^q case he should die. Jackson had assumed the rciric3 of government. open.MARTIN VAN BUR EN. who . Jackson's soul. that I have found and believe him not only deserving my confidence. is able and prudent. that Mrs. i)f He is well qualified to in fill the highest office in the gift him will find a true friend. and safe depositary of their rights and liberty. which thiy policy tended only to increase. " — Permit me here to say of Mr. He was one of It was one of tho the most pliant. The boundless popularity of Gen. in In this letter. and courteous of men. to friend and enen^y. Eaton conflict raged bitterly. principles of his life. as has been represented by his opponents. I have ever found him frank. Eaton. Mr. and these gentlemen sympathized with their wives. Not one year had elapsed after Gen. The The conflict roused all the tremendous cabinet was divided. never to give offence. Not unconscious of the gratification it would afford Gen. but the confidence of the nation. he ciples. and that he was on the high road to any degree of elevation he might desire. Yan Buren had neither wife nor daughter. Instead of his being selfish and intriguing. Jackson rendered it probable that any one whom he might suggest as his successor would obtain the election. mindful of his own past troubles and assuming. and never fundamental lie was ever polite. He therefore wrote a letter. Those familiar with the state of things at Washington soon perceived that Martin Van Buren had become a great power.

accusing him of such a spirit of narrow partisanship as to unfit him to be the representative of our v. and receive rich offices elsewhere. of whom so much has been said. The President so loved him.— 248 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS.rded as the gieat magician. however able and faithful. and organizing the cabinet anew. and Webster appeared prominently as his opponents. actions. Messrs. sailed for London." In the division of the cabinet.hole country. Van Buren sent in his resignation. however. and. that he wa': accustomed to address him with endearing epithets speaking of him to others as Van. Congress again met. Mr. He was accused of being the originator of the system of removing from office every incumbent. Calhoun. they were to be dismissed. who did not advuoat^ the principles of the in influence * — . there were. Soon after nic arrival thera. Van Buren. whoso wand possessed almost supernatural power. Mr. Mr. At length. Matty. Branch. the President resolved to introduce harmony into his cabinet by the unprecedented measure of dismissing them all. This latter personage now hated Van Buren with perfect hatred. ministers and their wives were drawn in into tLe tioubled arena. Ingham. . Major Eaton. It was necessary that tho Senate should ratify his appointment. Van Buren and more and more he was regp. succeeded so governing bis own be ever increasing in strength. . and calling him. as to Daniel Webster " Mr. that the consequence of this dispute in the social and fashionable world is producing great political effects. well and good if not. and may very probably determine who shall be successor to the present Chief Magistrate. early in the year 1831. Mr. Eaton. and the Vice-President. he met with a triumphant reception. Mr. Van Buren. Calhoun. Clay. Mr. for Mrs. but too evident to be doubted. Van Buren has evidently. a settled purpose of making out the ladv. Upon returning to New York. and flatters what seems at present the Aaron's serpent among the President's desires. All this redounded to the reputation of Mr. Mr. and resigned also. a person of reputatioE. It is odd enough. Berrien. against her. at this moment. He controls all tha pages on the back atairs. Barry. wrote. and the President. early in the autumn of 1831. If the others took the hint. to his face. This was to be accomplished by having those who were in sympathy with him resign. and immediately was appointed minister to the court of St. Jamoc. quite the lead and importance. .

smiling as Mr. the artifices of intrigue." In this hour. palliation. in defending the system of party removals. Van Buren which requires concealment. that the politicians of New York are not so some gentlemen are as to disclosing the principles on which they act. apparently . as calm. to wliich only he has resorted in his eventful life. the advantages of success. nor disappuintir. sir. He called an artful man. — these are the sources of unexampled success. honor a witness of his and a man acting together when we had lost all but our movements when elevated to power. That evening. the French minister. Marcy of New may be. never any thing to lessen his character as a patriot or a man. uttered the memorable words. it the city. the happiest temper. social. that to the victor belong the spoils of the enemy. If they are defeated.urposes of his adversaries. — I and of the have never witnessed aught in Mr. that Gov. the magic arts. nothing which he might not desire to see exposed to the scrutiny of every member of this body. They boldly preach what they practise. in possession of the confidence of the Chief Magistrate great majority cf the people.ant vigilance . with the calm confidence of unsulis lied integrity. when Mr.. fastidious as they are contending for victory. result of those simple causes. which success cannot corrupt. Van Buren's rejection by the Senate must have been to him a great mortification. a giant of artifice. seeing his rapid advance to power and jfublic confidence. Van on if floating He returned to America.— MARTIN VAN BUR EN party in power. they expect tc retire from oiEce if they are successful. They see nothing wrong in of enjoying the fruits of . impute to art what is the natural wily magician. a Those ignorant of his unrivalled knowledge of human character. his power of penetrating into the designs and defeating the y. untiring in- dustry Lis . inceF. Gov. to his Forsyth of Georgia paid the following beautiful tribute character " in the : — Long known hour of . as a matter of right. and the fuU tide of prosperity. When the rule. and .ent sour." Mr. Extraordinary talent. Van Buren was so bitterly assailed. or coloring. When the was proclaimed in all the journals of Prince Talleyrand. " It It 249 this question was during the discussion upon York. to me as a politician political adversity. they avow their intention it. they claim. 32 news reached London. gave a party. Those who envy his success may learn ^\isdom from his example. Buren was present.

As they alighted from the carriage at the fojt . and is repcrted to have said triunphantly. Mr. to the great delight of the retiring President. m ta-^ p. Jackson as though the ConstJtutic n had coiifetre. Gen. and to his ei> . that there was no call for tbt> introduction of any new acts. and attracted every eye. Van Buren delivered his inaugural address.' upon him the power to appoint a successor. by four grays.250 LIVES OF THE PRESIDE-^'T. Twenty thousand people wero there asse_ibled. when a financial panic. Mr. Mr. As Mr.!• and frowns for none.on. tiwereJ.-. A s:'a?. He and will This rejection rors3d the zea tliis of President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favorite probably more than any other cause. Jackson accompanied his frien. above all the rest. procession which accompanied Mr. <vas elected Van Bursn r-ce:ved the Democratic nomination son as Presid'^nt of the United States. Van Buren to his inaugurat"on passed through Pennsylvania Avenue.a--e of Ct . CilLoun supposed that Mr. — never kick. went to take his Senate Trhich had refused to confirm his nozranation as ambas- and with snailes for place at thv^ head of thai . sir. Many attributed this to the war which Gen. all ." says llr. and ascended through the dense and raoving raass. Van Buren had scarcely taken his seat in the presidentrU chair." — kill him (>. Van Baren's rejection bv the Senate would prove his political death. by a handsome majority. Jackson. in its distinct articulation. " It will kill him. On the 20th of May. sir. with his bristlirc^ hair.?.and both rode uncovered. never kic:i. Van Buren har. or for any change in the administration. Tlv:. T'hen the . was nominated for Vice-Presider bouD^ at the re-election of President JaczRon all. and Mr. swept the land.on'. untroubled. of the steps.sps of his illus- trious predecessor. 1836. and the air elastic.z ^i. to succeed Gen. almost unprecedented in its disastrous results.. Van Buren to the presidency was as m' -^b the act of Gen. his clear voice. so distinctly the avowed his attention of following m the fooicu. ihe election of Mr.all volunteer '•' corps escorted the President elect as he rode in a phaetor: draw^-. reached every ear. " Leaving New York out of the" It was one of the most brilliant days of spring. The policy of the Government had been so distinc-jly markc' out by Gen. secured his elevation to the chair of the Chisf Executive. tall head of the old chieftain. JackU-t. Part. fc. Jackson had waged upon the bo-nks. sador.

/A~olir:3.-.. sent an armed force acrcss the rv i. w&& mrored . 251 deavor to secure an almost exclusive specie cur.. Nearlj every bank in the country was compelled to suspend specie payNot less than two ment.V::r.]] steamboat. which came near involving us in a "wr.\9 insurge' k'. in ahriDst every city and village of the Hnd. which re fleeted no honor upon our arms. and ruin pervaded all our great cities. introducing agitation.g carried ammunition and to the supplies American shore. Th3 slavery question was rising 1 portentous magnitude.r with tna-^ nation. on tlu^ Am*M-I('..'' whv->'. and there was a general state of dismay. in the Niagara River. and mob violence..^t-^' . hlosser. hundred and fifty houses failed in New York in three weeks. we were involved in an inglorious war with the Seminole Indians ia Florida. There was an insurrection in Canada against the British Government. killed several iAj -. ra^-e. regardless of territorial rights. \iZ sus^. A party of Canadian insurgents had rendezvoused on Navy [island. works were brought to a stand. .MARTIN VAN BUR EN. The Briti&h cvmuanler. opposite the village called Fort All public ' ''. called "The .in <]At\ A ^Trn. At the same time.'ency. attacked the steamer.

the Whig With all these troub]3s on his hands. living ••Vurotence for his within his income. but the rcsoect of the whole community.ntry. the Free-soil Democrats brought forward his name for the presidency. and Mr. a gentleman of leisure. in the exasperations of the hour. however. Three hundred thousand votes were cast in his favor..252 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS.of tiis party. The proslavery portion of the Democratic party. between Maine and Great Britain respecting boundary-lines and there was the angry mustering of bests. Gen. in 18-5. the four years which Mr. Again. bad ever been a prudent man. and no one will question his right to a high pcsitivu among these who have been the successors of Washington in the occupancy of Ibe . and sent in The circumstance called forth a long and angry correspondence with the British Government. he was anrAous for a re-election. -. every thing in his pcvror to aid him. and tb° distinguished positions which he had occupied in the government of the cy. Van Buren was permitted to retire to the seclusion of Kinderhook. was the choice of the people. vigorous old age. his unquestioned patriotism. he exerted a powerful influence upon the In 1844. in preparation for battle. applied the torch to the boat. Polk of Tennessee received the nomination. 1841. it of her defenders. Jackson did Still. presidential chair. on the 24th of July. Van Buren spent in the White House must have been years of anxiety and Gen. But public sentiment was now setting so strongly ag'iinst the Administration. and Ins o vn cheerful disposition gilded every hour. Martin Van Buren was a gis. not only the homag.-rs-ry Gooiies of his active life.. however. probaby l. carried the day. From this time until his death. still From his fine estate at poli- Lindenwald. and. It was on t. and James tics of the country. and of wealth enjoying. abilities. of frug-al habits.CLmanding declining years.i. 4th of March. was chosen President. his friends made strenuous efiorts to have him renominated for the presidency. and. that the Whig candidate. in a healthy. K. he resided at Lindenwald. we barely escaped war. at the age of eighty years. Taylor.wore happiness than he had before expeHe was rienced amidst the ^'/. flames over the Falls of Niagara. toil. William Henry Harrison. had now fovlrialrly a His unblemished characl". and good njan. there also arose a contest . . secured to him.r. About the same time. 1862. '. surrounded by friends. of culture. hic. that He Van Buren retired from the presidency.

His ScruGovernor of Indiana Territory. and Ancestry. Elected President. Commission. His father. was in comparatively opulent circumstances.r. Sent to Congress. Tecumseh slain.CHAPTER IX.IAM IIKNKY IIAnP. The British reiiulsed. and was one of the most distinguished men of . WILLIAM HENHY HAKRISON. on of the James River. Letter to President Bolivar. at a place called Berkeley. February 1773. dolph. pulous Integrity. Benjamin Harrison. ing Slavery. Governor Harrison's Perplexities and Labors. — — — — — — — — — Views respectthe banks 9.ISOX. — — — — — ^ — — — — — Temperance Principles. False Accusations. Hirth — Resigns his Is promoted. Reply to RanSpeech in Congress. William Henry Harrison was born in Virginia. RESIDKNCK 111' WIl. Battle of Tippecanoe. Enters United-States Army. Duelling. Death. Britain. War with Great Indian Troubles.

and carried him. Mr. Having received a thorough Gentlemen. and was con- \h He was spicuous among the patriots of Virginia in resisting the encroach- ments of the British crown. Then turning around. on the far-away waters of the then almost unexplored Ohio. " his honest. Harrison at once yielded to the illusthe office of speaker. Harrison. signers of the Declaration of Independence. Rush and the guardianship of Robert Morris. and. abandoned his meiical Ttudir?3. and was twice re-elected. now spread Young Harrison. and. waa early elected a member of the Continental Congress. day. enjoyed in childhood all the advantages which wealth and intellectual and cultivated society could give. Hancock trious patriot from the Bay State modestly hesitated to take the chair.endence and he it was who made the ludicrous remark about hanging " to Elbridge Gerry. '' common-school education. beaming face. with a considerable military force. near the spot where the thronged streets of Cincinnati are out. Mr. with his father.— 254 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. The Indians were committing fearful ravages on our north-western frontier. seeing that Mr. to the seat of honor. and never liked to lose an opportunity for a joke. Mr. Tn the celebrated Congress of 1775. Benjamin Harrison and John Hancock were both candidates for Mr. who was a very portly man. notwithstanding the . He was one of the signers of the Declaration of Indts. Hancock in his athletic arms. as though he Avere a child. for her .w Mother Britain how little we care by making a Micsachusetts man our President whom she has excluded from pardon by a public proclamation. an intimate friend of George Washington." Like most men of '/^. where he graduated with honor soon after the death of his father. St. at Fort Washington.trages. to which we have referred in the life of Jefferson. He then repaired to Philadelphia to study medicine under the instruction of Dr. either lured by the love of adventure. His son William Henry. Gen. with characteristic good . For the protection of the settlers. exposed to th(3 most horrible ou. nature and playfulness seized Mr.rge stature. Harrison was full of fun. he said to we will sh'-. with his amused associates. Clair was stationed. of course. and of gigantic strength. or moved by the sufferings of families. he entered Hampden Sidney College. Harrison was subsequently chosen Governor of Virginia. George Washington was then President of the United States. both of whom were.

the bane of •-he army but young Harrison. on the Miami River. and Illinois. Just young Harrison received his commission. frontiersman said of the " I young soldier. having obtained a commission of ensign from President Washington. thinking he would be unable to endure the hardships of a winter campaign. crossing the co^v-try on foot to Pittsburg. in form and strength. urged him to resign his cOiVXi""'!ssion. . adopted the principles of a thorough temperance man. Soon he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. The first duty assigned him was to take comman ] of a train of pack-horses bound to Fort Hamilton. and find those smooth cheeks are on a wise head. with a loss of five hundred and thirty killed. to which he adhered throughout his whole life. descended the Ohio to Fort vVashington. and joined the army which Washington had placed under the command of Gen. early grave. Indiana. It was a very arduous and perilous service but it was so well performed as to command the especial commendation of Gen. The hostile Indians. was attacked by the Indians near the head waters of the Wabash. This enabled him to bear hardships and endure privations under which others sank to an . and utterly routed. He was thtn nineteen years of age.— WTLLIA3I HENRY HARRISON. He. Wayne to prosecute more vigorously the war with the Indians. Wiutar was setting in. The new general who succeeded St. and that slight frame is almost as tough as my own weather-beaten carcass. however. Clair had acquired. was fi'ail and many of his friends. Young Harrison. Clair. rejected this advice. St. 255 remoustrances of his friends. Clair. were spread over that vast wilderness now occupied by the States of Ohio. who had originally been roused against us during the war of the Revolution by the Government of Great Britain. about forty miles from Fort Washington. A veteran ". inspired by some good impulse. by iiia . advancing into the wilderness with fourteen hundred men. . who had been munition and arms by the British authorities in Canada. Gen. They could bring many supplied with am- thousand warriors into the before field. St. would as soon have thought of putting my wife into the service as this boy but I have been out with him. entered the army." Intemperance was at that time. and. as it ever has been. . -ree hundred and sixty wounded. and This awful defeat had spread consternation throughout the whole frontier.

attacked the fort with the greatest determination. Here Lieut. Wherever duty called. they advanced to a post which they called Greenville. Harrison sig their spirit. Gen. he encountered the Indians in great force. by his efibrts and example." On the 28th of November. This signal discomfiture broke Again Lieut. Harrison was in the foremost front of the hottest battle. about eighty miles for the winter. diately attracted the attention His soldierly qualities immeand secured the confidence of his commander-in-chief. and they implored peace. and obtained from his commanding officer the following commendation " Lieut." . and. Here the army A strong detachment was sent some twenty miles farther north." as Wayne's army was called. he conveyed his troops in boats down the river to Fort Washington. the title of " gion. On the 20th of August. regardless of danger. to occupy the ground where St. contributed as much to secure the fortunes of the day as any other officer subordinate : — to the commander-in-chief. Mad Anthony. miles north to the junction of the and their cornfields destroyed. Wayne. to bury the remains of the dead. nalized himself. Wayne Au Glaize and Maumee Rivers. in which both parties fought with the utmost desperation. Harrison joined the " Lereckless daring. with an army of about three thousand non-commissioned officers and privates. His person was exposed from the commencement to the close of the action. their villages were burned. having lost a large portion of then advanced with his whole army some sixt/ their band. enterprise.256 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. where he constructed a strong fort. The savages were driven howling into the woods. and encamped for the winter. Cla'r was defeated. encamped In October. Their numbers were estimated at two thousand. Several months were lost in waiting for supplies before the army could move. Harrison is mentioned as having rendered conspicuous service. Lieut. in the early spring. as he was continuing his march down the Maumee. a distance of twenty-two miles. repulsed in repeat jd and at length retired. descended the Ohio from Pittsburg. due north. Gen. The Indians. and to establish Ii this there a strong post. which they named Fort Recovery. In the spring. They were. 1792. he hastened. A bloody battle ensued. lying in ambush. assaults. however.

Harrison was employed in occu- pying them. and. resigned commission in the army. and was placed command at Fort Washington.WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. he married a daughter of John stores." The western cluded what called now called Indiana. being then Governor of the territory. and Capt. 257 Harrison was promoted in to the rank of captain. Harrison. Mr. Gen. then twenty-seven years of age. was then entitled to one delegate was chosen to fill that office. the region and Capt. At that time. and afterwards by President Madison. When he commenced his administration. succeeded inured to the benefit of the rich speculator . and ex St. twice by Thomas Jefferson. comprising now embraced is in the State of Ohio. Clair Lieutenant-Governor. This and the poor settler purchase at second-hand. Lieut. the law in reference to the disposal of the public lands was such. "The Indiana Territory. Illinois. there were but three white settlements in that almost boundless region. — was four times appointed to this by John Adams. and The North-western Territory in Congress. which inand Wisconsin. also Governor of Upper Louisiana. was appointed by John Adams Governor of the Indiana Territory. and at a greatly advanced could only price. and was invested with powers nearly dictatorial over now rapidly-increasing white population. He was thus the ruler over almost as extensive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. one of the frontiersmen who had established a thriving settlement on the banks of the Maumee. the >lorth-western Territory was divided The eastern portion. then twenty-four years of age. his In 1797. was called " The Territory north-west of the Ohio. immediately after. that the fort}'' land was sold in alternate tracts of six hundred and three hundred and twenty acres. Capt. and in supplying them with provisions and militarj' While thus employed. in obtaining so much of a modification of this unjust law. and was appointed Secretary of the officio North-western Territory. Harrison In the spring of 1800. that no one could purchase in tracts less than four thousand acres. Harrison. the He was Superintendent of The ability Indian Affairs. Cleves Symmes. The British military posts in the north-west were about this time surrendered to the National Government. in the face of violent opposition. 33 now crowded ." William Henry Harrison. fidelity with which he discharged these responsible duties first may and bo inferred from the fact that he /office. by Congress into two portions. was portion.

should the United States be at war with any European nations who are known to the Indians. nearly opposite Louisville. July. He had ample opportunities to enrich himself. French settlement. he had much kindness heart. courtesy. humanely made great them to abandon to the cultiva- and to devote themselves In 1804. and his tact in meeting varieties of human character. By nature. on the Wabash. Harrison obtained a cession from the Indians of all the land between the Illinois River and the Mississippi. one at Vincennes. am confident that most of the tribes would eagerly seize any favorable opportunity for that purpose and. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. The frontiers of civilization are always occupied by a lawless class of vagabonds. Gov. by which the United States acquired sixty millions of acres of land. Gov. tion of the land." Mr. His . Gov. he effected thirteen treaties with the Indians. and to induce their wild hunting-life. " All these injuries the Indians have hitherto borne with aston- ishing patience. unless some means are made use of to conciliate them. and his affability of manners. Harrison was sole commissioner. A territorial legislature was soon organized unswerving for the rapidly- increasing population. for he could confirm grants of land to individuals. Harrison says. But. 1801. Gov. that formed received the sanction of the President and Senate of the United States. I make war upon the United . and every treaty ho justice. and resounding with all the tumult of wealth and One of these settlements was on the Ohio. and exertions to protect the Indians. and the third a traffic. rendered him greatly beloved. which secured of all him universal respect. though they discover no disposition to States. who shrink from no outrages these men abused the : : Indians in every way whicli passion or interest could dictate. Jefferson was now President.— 258 with cities. During his administration. Harrison discharged his arductus duties with such manifest no one ventured to question his integrity. there would probably be a combination of more than nine-tenths of the Northern tribes against us. his sole signabut he never ture giving a title which could not be questioned held a single acre by a title emanating from himself. and to integrity. over which the governor presided with that dignity. In a communication to the Government.

Harrison and another individual. So nice was his sense of honor. A if nominal sum large tract of land near Cincinnati had been sold. Harriat-law.WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. it proprietor. These incidents surely reveal a character of very unusual magnanimity. two extraordinary men. sum to the orphan children of those who had died and restored the remainder to M'Intosh himself. with many tribes of Indians. distributed onethird of the battle. and the legal title was vested in Mrs. as we have mentioned. twin-brothers. One of these was called Te« become immensely valuable. It has been said that no man ever disbursed so large an amount of public treasure with so little dilKthe public drafts culty in adjusting his accounts. that. the sale was not valid. magnanimous devotion trust to tlie 259 public interest was such. disinterestedness. after the property had was found. rose up among them. The vast wilderness over which Gov. having thus ob. in the early set- tlement of the country. He obtained the consent of the co-heir. as heirsThe lofty spirit of integrity which animated Gen. About the year 1806. under an execution against the original At length. several times appointed decided political opponents to offices of which he deemed them eminently fitted to He was so cautious to avoid the appearance of evil. and not only Avas he triumphantly acquitted. and generosity. son led him instantly to discriminate between a legal and an equitable title. In a few years. Harrison reigned was filled. of the Shawnese tribe. that he would not keep money on hand. but always made his payments by upon Washington. by some defective proceedings in the court. Louis i-u The proprietor of the land now stands offered him nearly half of the whole town for a merely he would assist in building up the place. Harrison. . that property was worth millions. that he declined the offer. tained the perfect vindication of his character. loudly accused the governor of having defrauded the Indians in the treaty of The governor demanded investigation in a court Fort Wayne. but the of justice jury brought in a verdict against M'Intosh for damages to the amount of four thousand dollars. A wealthy foreigner. lest it might be said that he had used his official station to promote his private interests. upon which the city of St. he was Governor of the Territory of Indiana. and immediately relinquished the whole property to the purchasers. For twelve years. that he fill. Gov. by the name of M'Intosh. for a very small sum.

in which. assuming that he was specially sent dignity of a medicine-man. invested with the superhuman the hunting-grounds of his fathers. but a man of great sagacity. had been conducted as secretiy as possible but the suspicions of the Government began to be In the summer . To . through successive days. in an exceedingly insidious and plausible speech. or "The Crouching Panther. his heroic brother Tecumseh traversed thousands of miles of the forest.260 UVE8 OF THE PRESIDENTS tlie cumseh. he went from tribe to tribe. and indomitable perseverance in any enterprise in which he might engage. orator. Two years were thus employed by these two brothers. to return to the customs of their fathers. He often aroused. and to combine together for the extermination of the pale-faces. a tributary of the Upper Wabash. of 1808. In co-operation with him. was an who could sway the feelings of : With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter the Hermit rousing Europe to the crusades. by the Great Spirit. No discouragements chilled the zeal of these extraordinary and determined men. Prophet visited Gov. in organizing this formidable conspiracy. he commanded them to abandon all those innovations which had been introduced through the white man. and. A large number of the Indians accompanied him. The Prophet had tion occasionally protracted meetings for exhorta- and pra3^er. oi The Prophet. Olllwacheca. the . In the name of his divine Master. in tlie superstitious minds of the Indians." Tecumseh was not only an Indian warrior. allay these suspicions. he plied all fol- the arts of devotion and persuasion to fire the hearts of his lowers. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm." " other. Harrison. far-reaching foresight. the Prophet established his encamp ment on the banks of the Tippecanoe. The}'' probably wrought themselves up to the full conviction that they were commissioned by the Great Spirit. and seeking to enlist their co-operation. or a magician. and had long regarded with dread and with hatred the encroachment of the whites upon His brother. the Prophet. The measures of Tecumseh and the Prophet. announcing to them the divine mission of his brother. stated that he had nc designs whatever of rousing his people to hostilities that he sought only their moral and religious improvement. But the Prophet was not merely an orator he Avas. visiting the remoter tribes. tlie untutored Indian as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath which they dwelt.

Tecumseh interrupted him. he told him that he should hold no more . with four hundred plumed warriors completely armed. that the Indians were making extensive j)reparations for hostilities.. 1809. and such other weapons as they could lay their hands on and the guard came rushing forwai-d. his intention and endeavor all to combine all the tribes for the purpose of putting a stop to further encroachments by the whites. This statement led to indignant remonstrance on the part of Gov. declared that he had cheated the Indians. The army officers gathered around him. The citizens seized brickbats. to deliberate upon the state of affairs. Immediately his warriors. and that those chiefs made treaties Indians. and in angry tones. Harrison. without the who had recently by which they had disposed of lands to the United States should all be put to death. ready to open fire upon the consent of all the tribes. Harrison. His power over them had become so great. 261 preached to them in the presence of the governor and his two gieat topics were the evils of war and of whiskey-drinking. Gov. As he was speaking. The governor was quito unprepared for the appearance of a host so formidable. he met the proud chieftain. consisting merely of a sergeant and twelve men. Assuming. that not another acre of land should be ceded to them. But Gov. whom we call a savage. he sen! for both Tecumseh and the Prophet to visil Tecumseh at length came to Vincennes in proud array. ing Still rumors were continually reachGov. WILLIAM HENRY HARBISON: . a few army officers. A small bodyguard. and with violent gesticulations. In his earnest solicitude to learn the facts in the case. turning to Tecumseh. Harrison calmly ordered them not to fire. sprang to their feet. and drew his sword. that by no persuasions of the whites could one of his followers be induced to take a drop of intoxicating drink. Then. however. and a number of" citizens. in a very dignified speech which he made to the governor. that all was friendly. that he had no intention of making war: but he very boldly declared that it was urgent invitations him. Tecumseh still aflSrmed. Harrison rose from his arm-chair. A council was lioldeu on the 12th of August. and began o brandish their war-clubs in the most threatening manner. were drawn up at a'little distance. The governor was attended by the judges of the Supreme Court. who were squatted upon the grass around.

In the morning. in language courieouc. void. Tecumseb HARRISON'S INTERVIEW WITH TECUMSEH. but was still firm in his position that no more land should be ceded to the whites without the consent of the chiefs of all the tribes and that the treaty which a few of the chiefs had recently entered into with the governor at Fort Wayne.Harrison.. some two hundred miles above Vincennes. Soon 11 after this. a branch of the pper Wabash. he might depart unharmed. passed without any alarm. but that. though the Indians were . and reiterated his declaration that he had no hostile intentions. he and his confederate tribes would regard as null and . out decided. Tecumseh called upon the governor.262 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. however. anxious to conciliate. communication with him. and his companions retired to their encampment. The night. but he was informed. Gov. He was politely received by the Indian chieftain. as ho had come under protec '-. every moment expecting an attack. expressed re gret for his conduct the day before.Ion of the council-fire. That night the mu'litia of Vincennes were under arms. that. visitea Tecumseh at his camp on the Tippecanoe River.

But Gov. After a short conference. he took every pre- . Months rolled on. or thrown into a hollow square.WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. Horses were stolen. and that no other treaty should ever be made without the consent This was ridiculously assuming that all the of all the tribes. but to avoid hostilities if possible. about sixty miles above Vincennes. houses plundered. Nearly a thousand troops were collected for this enterprise at Fort Harrison. the 5th. on the Wabash. arrangements were made for a meeting the next day. in such order that they could instantly be formed into line of battle. through an open prairie countr}''. Harrison was too well acquainted with the Indian Selecting a character to be deceived by such protestations. Early in November. Harrison was approach ing them in so hostile an attitude. The posture of affairs became so threatening. three Indians of rank their appearance. several parties of Indians were seen prowling about but they evaded all attempts at communication. 1812. they moved in two bands. made and inquired why Gov. were perpetrating innumerable annoyances. while Tecumseh and the Prophet were busy in their hostile preparations. . that it was decided that the governor should visit the Prophet's town with an armed force. arrived within three miles of the town. on each side of the Indian trail. which had now become quite numerous. 263 very unwilling to go to war with the United States. favorable spot for his night's encampment. The army commenced its march on the 28th of October. to observe what was going on. and encamped within ten miles of the Prophet's town. and the frontier settlements. Conscious of the bravery and sagacity of their enemies. The next morning. to agree upon terms of peace. and Lawrence could not enter into a treaty without the consent of tribes upon the Gulf. Marauding bands of Indians. they approached the Valley of the Tippecanoe. as they resumed their march. replying only to such enWhen they had deavors with defiant and insulting gestures. and to overawe by an exhibition of laud on the continent belonged to the Indians in that tribes on the St. common. Tecumseh set out on a journey to enlist the Southern Indians in his confederacy. power. were thrown into a state of great alarm. over the prairies. Their route led them along the east bank of the Wabash. whom they professed to be unable to control. they were determined that the land recently ceded should not be given up.

a third severely wounded the h> tse on which he . and were directed. they left sixty -one dead upon the field. glancing. Gen. with a drizzling rain. should there be any alarm. between side. hit his thigh. with a savage yell. to maintain relieved. : . his loaded musket by his The wakeful governor. The troops threw themselves upon the ground for rest but every man had his accoutrements on. and his bayonet fixed. even when most reckless. dis- mounted. not doubting a speedy and an entire victory. . immediately to parade. It was a chill. His troops were posted in a hollow caution against surprise. and slept upon their arms. were careful to conceal themselves as much as possible behind trees and rocks consequently. Though the victory was entire. rushed. the Indian bands the Indians in their aim. The savages had been amply provided with Their war-whoop was guns and ammunition by the English. the loss of the Americans was . rushed on. they lost but few in killed and wounded: but in this case. cloudy morning. Each corps was ordered. Harrison was exposed like all his men. In the darkness. in most of their battles. and swept every thing before them. Indians found the predictions of their Prophet iitterly false for the bullets and the bayonets of the white man pierced their bodies with appalling slaughter. when they fled to the swamp. and was sitting in conversation with his aides by the embers of a waning fire. three and four o'clock in the morning.264 LIVES OF TEE PRESIDENTS. But Gen. another struck his saddle. fully equal to that of the Indians. One bullet passed through the rim of his hat. and. and hold themselves in readiness to relieve the point The most minute arrangements were given to meet assailed. The Prophet was present to witness this terrible defeat of his picked braves. until The dragoons were placed centre. its position at every hazard. with all the desperation which superstition and passion most highly inflamed could give. The Indians. every conceivable contingency. Harrison's troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them until the day dawned they then made a simultaneous charge with The wretched the bayonet. had risen. the Indians had crept as near as possible. upon the left flank of the little army. accompanied with an incessant shower of bullets. and one hundred and twenty bleeding and helpless. The camp-fires were instantly extinguished. in the in case of an attack. and just then. square. as the light aided With hideous yells.

At Detroit. plundering. were of themselves a very formidable force but with tlieir savage allies. Gov. Soon. with orders to retake Detroit. The horizon was illuminated with the conflagration of the cabins of Gen. endeavoring to rouse But the tribes in the North-west. began to send deputies to Vincennes to secure peace. . rushing like wolves from the forest. burning. disappointed the Indians there. To meet authority. by the false predictions of the Prophet. and destroyed every thing which could aid the savages in their future hostihties. Gov. Avithout roads and the wilderness was ranged by the prowling Indian. . the emergency. Under these despairing circumstances. 34 . and were animated to renew hostilities with more desperation than ever before. There was then neither railroad nor steamboat and almost every thing for the supply of the army . Harrison was appointed by President Madison commander-inchief of the North-western army. the wide frontier was plunged into a state of consternation which even the most The war-whoop was vivid imagination can but faintly conceive. Tecumseh returned our second war with Great Britain commenced and the savages were drawn into an alliance with the English. scalping. it was necessary for him to traverse a swampy forest. His men were entirely ignorant of discipline. ever liable to burst upon him from his ambush. cabins. To reach Detroit. he . from the Atlantic States. His officers were inexperienced. they burned the Indian town. however. and to protect the frontiers. 265 His coolness and good generalship were so conspicuous as add greatly to his reputation and subsequently the battle of Tippecanoe became a watchword to inspire the zeal of those who were elevathig him to the presidency of the United States. and disheartened by their defeat. rode. searching out every remote farm-house. descending from the Canadas. The British. Hull had made the ignominious surrender the settlers. had to be transported over the wildest. After burying the dead and taking care of the wounded. Harrison had now all his energies tasked to the utmost. . roughest roads. torturing. and returned to Vincennes. Tecumsehwas then far away in the South. of his forces at Detroit. resounding everywhere through the solitudes of the forest. to .WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. he was invested with almost unlimited His army was to be collected from widely dispersed where the women and the children would thus be left unprotected. two hundred miles in extent.

and nobly and triumphantly did he moot all the responsibilities. destitution. Some took their saddles. . flood. exposure. from famine. invested him with almost absolute power but. It would be difficult to place a man in a situation demanding more energy. on the banks of the Au Glaise. and sat upon them others found logs others stood in the water. . as they had got ahead of their baggage. Thus they passed the miserable night. He soon became satisfied that Detroit could be joined in the refrain . Night came on. sickness. dark. The English had also quite a fleet which commanded the waters of Lake Erie. could build no fires. IJarrison was found equal to the position. his bloody conflicts. The low ground was soon flooded. of a gentle and aff'ectionate spirit. amply supplied with the most deadly weapons of war." The troops storm and and thus. The renown of such a man as Gen. Gen. his sufierings I'rora storms of sleet and snow. would encounter the trained soldiers of England. when the vast morasses. he called upon one of his officers. . with all his tireless energy. veterans of a hundred battles. It is purchased at a great price. They had no axes. Harrison shared all these discomforts wnth his men. and aided by fcro( ious bands of savages. and possessed native powers of persuasive eloquence which were very rare. The Government. A scene is described at one of their encampments which will illustrate many others. in that black night of echoed with sounds of merriment. the chorus. and leaned against the trunks of trees. and courage but Gen. Harrison is not cheaply gained. under loaders of renown. stormy. and with sheets of rain. being frozen. to sing a humorous Irish song. His right wing was ren- . Gen. A minute account of his adventures. the forest taken only in a winter-campaign. Harrison had succeeded in raising a force of about six thousand men. who had a fine voice. as we have mentioned. As he sat in the pouring rain. would fill volumes.: 266 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. The little army was groping through the forest. sagacity. his midnight marches. with his staff around him. could be traversed by the army. with . the}'' had no food. and. He was a man of winning address. wrapped in his cloak. never did ho in the slightest degree abuse that trust. — " Now's the time for mirth and glee Sing and laugh and dance with rae.

found it necessary to go into winter-quarters though he fitted out three expeditions against . prepared command the waters of the Lake. was along time before it could who had fallen beneath the This unfortunate expedition had been undertaken without the knowledge of Gen. All the wounded were massacred by ing that tLis disaster caused . with their appeared before Sandusky. Harrison's labors were his almost to raise superhuman exertions Britisli. Commodoro and. Harrison. with a land force. Gen. and compelled to surrender. length. Winchester. pursued by the Americans. 267 dezvoused at Sandusky. the Indians. followed by They were. The most arduous for the construction of a fleet to . handsomely repulsed. an army.WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. however. to avert the disastrous results. They approached by their vessels along the lake. strait. but in Nine hundred of the most vain. close of an heroic struggle. In August of 1814. Harrison was now prepared to carry the war home to the enemy. through the forest. Harrison. and also. Dreadful was the suffer- and it bo known wlio were prisoners. The battle wxs short and decisive. urged by Gen. who had now received the appointment of majorgeneral in the United-States army. where they were attacked. Gen. and compelled an almost instantaneous sur render. Harrison had an unstable body of men at Fort Meigs the enlistments being for short periods. The Indians continued the fight a little longer. which was protected by Fort Stephenson. and it being impossible to hold the men after the term of service iiad expired. the Indians. 1813. under Gen. but were brigade across the . promising young men of the North-west were lost in this melancholy adventure. the savage allies. of Gen. The British retreated up the Thames. marched to the mouth of the River Raisin. with his gallant squadron. took possession . Proc tor led the British forces. one only of The Government at which proved successful. and bloody knives of the savages. at the Perr}'. routed. their howling allies. the British retreating before him and then sent a which seized Detroit. after a stern battle. This was the latter part of January. of Sandwich. He crossed the lake. About eight hundred men. Our dragoons rode impetuously over the ranks of the British. On the 10th of September. met the British fleet. Harrison. he did every thing in his power. and Tecumseh led his savage allies The foe made a stand on the banks of the Thames. Having heard of the movement. had the pleasure of announcing that they were ours. Gen.

thanks of Congress. All the stores of the British Tecumseh. Gen. he called for an of the army. his vininvestigation of the charge. however. who had often thwarted the at- tempted frauds of Government contractors. as to secure the approbation both of the Indians and of the In 1816. Harrison resigned his commission. In Congress he proved an active member . was carried in a valise ding consisted of a single blanket lashed over his saddle. A committee was appointed dication was triumphant and a high compliment was paid to his patriotism. and his bedthe foe up the Thames. a member of the National House of Representatives to represent It was not possible that a man who had the District of Ohio. and power of eloquence. and who had defended the weak against the powerful. before the without bread or and Gen. . leaving tlieir chief. : . whenever he spoke. The only fire. occupied posts so responsible. with the : . Fifteen hundred men were transported by the fleet to This great victory gave peace to the North-western frontier which they reached on the 24th of October. ariested the attention of was with a force of reason.he battle. When the celebrated debate came up respecting the conduct cf Gen. supped with him after . He was appointed to treat with the Indian tribes and he conducted the negotiations so skilfully. For these services. which all the members. Bufl'alo. Jackson during the Seminole war. Harrison decided to send a large portion of his force to Niagara. In consequence of some want of harmony with the Secretary of War. his prisoners of war. to assist in repelling the foe. at length dispersed. while pursuing with them their fatigue. Harrison won the love of his soldiers by always sharing His whole baggage. Gen. Gen. a gold medal was presented to him.268 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Harrison was chosen United-States Government. dead upon the army fell into the hatds of the victors. disinterestedness. and devotion to the public service. TliirtySve British officers. should not have some bitter enemies. . he eloquently supported the resolutions of it . still continued to of Pi'esident Madison ployed in the service of his country. and. 1814. who were concentrating ther(3. fare he could give them was beef roasted salt. field. In the contest which preceded his election toCongresSj he had been accused of corruption in respect to the commissariat Immediately upon taking his seat. much to the regret be emlie.

in 1824. less to wound his feelings. Jackson of a single ray of glory much . he never forgot or forgave. I have also associated with such men as John Marshall and James tionary services of President . while he paid a noble tribute to the patriotism and good intentions of the reckless and law-defying general. under the full conviction. made upon patriotism. bow with reverence to the civil institutions of his that he has admitted as his creed. have done it hero who has guarded her rights in the field will countr}' . that upon this floor to rob it is not the intention of any gentleman Gen. gallant chief. Clay. I would address him thus ' In the performance of a sacred duty. she has nothing more dear to her than her laws. The half-crazed — "I am seriously charged with the heinous ofience of associating I plead guilty. that. I with Federal gentlemen. It will teach posterity that the Government which could disapprove the the soldier can to the character of the citizen. tions pass. his voto same year was chosen to the Senate John Randolph made one of his characteristic attacks. accusing him of being a black-cockade Federalist. Harrison. that the brilliant career. In 1819. the representatives of the people have found it necessary to disapThe}'^ prove of a single act of your in the full conviction. imposed by their construction of the Constitution. sir. Mr. virulent and senseless. 2G9 censure." WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. In the splen- which was alike replete with eloquence. Harrison rose. with that dignified and attractive eloquence which he had at his command. as her glory is identified with yours. Harrison was elected to the Senate of Ohio as one of the presidential electors of that State. true philosophy. he said. nothing more sacred than her Constitution. and. and bear with you the gratitude of your country go. Jackson was not a man to bear the slightest opposition. and have paid him that courtesy which was due to him as a man and as Chief Magistrate. These noble sentiments. " I — am sure. and of associating with gentlemen of that party. and the most exalted did speech which he this occasion. Even an unintentional error shall be sanctified to her service. that the character of never be complete without eternal reverence Go. he for and gave . : If the resolu. conduct of a Marcellus will have the fortitude to crush the vices of a Marius.' Gen. . said. respected the Revolu- John Adams. as uttered by Gen. or injure his reputation. and in the Henry of the United States.

the highest grade of military talents. in gentleman who is now my have often met the accuser. Jackson. . it is necessary is no longer seen. but I have given a firm support to the Republican administrations of Jefferson. are scarcely thought of. brilliant to be as they were. field. as well aa every class of politicians is to be found in his undeviating and exclusive the republican — — .270 A." In the latter part of the year 1828. and York. vncxy. would the common consent of the world allow him the pre-eminence he possesses? The victories at Trenton. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. attract attention but it is such as will be bestowed upon the passing meteor. Jefferson Mr. If the fame of our Washington depended upon his military achievements. entreating him not with so to accede to this arrangement. Gen. as they certainly did. I some of the happiest hours of my It is not in my nature to be a violent or prescriptive partisan. President John Quincy Adams appointed Gen. exhibiting. and with whom I have spent whose mess life. and investing Bolivar with the dictatorship. The qualities of the hero and the general must be devoted to the advantage of mankind before he will be permitted to assume the title of their benefactor. The source of the veneration and esteem which are entertained for his character by the monarchist and aristocrat. such glowing eloquence. These were my principal associates in Philadelphia. implacably recalled him. and such enlightened statesmanship. as to secure the admiration of every one who read it. In this enlightened age. among whom I have many kinsmen and dear friends. who was his personal friend. Madison. the hero of the and the successful leader of armies. Bayard. Is the acknowledgment of such guilt to throw me out of the pale of political salvation? "On the other hand. Harrison minister plenipotentiary to the Republic of Colombia. dressed a letter to Bolivar. A few sentences only can we quote as specimens of the whole: "A successful warrior is no longer regarded as entitled to the first — place in the temple of fame. lombia. but Gen. whose blaze is no longer remembered when it To be esteemed eminently great. Harrison ad. eminently good. I hope the senator from Virginia is answered. and the Avhole Virginia delegation. and Monroe. for the moment. Monmouth. the proposition auguration in 1829. Gallatin. immediately after his in- While he was in Cowas agitated of laying aside the Constitution. I am on intimate terms with Mr. This document was written much elegance of diction.

" said he.. General. — and to the present moment. on the Ohio. : . In his very admirable address. devotedness to liis 271 country. 1 have been the ardent friend of human liberty." Again the high Christian integrity of this noble man is developed in the reply to a letter from a gentleman wishing to know " From my earliest youth. the object of which was to ameliorate the condition of The slaves. lie With true Roman dignity." The subject of slavery was land. No selfish consideration wa? ever suftered to intrude itself into his mind. I became a member of an abolition society established at Richmond. he promptly abandoned the business. because. at this time fearfully agitating our Gen. devoted himself to the peaceful pursuits of agriculture. accepted the office of clerk to the court of Hamilton County^as In 1831. Harrison. that all the country above Missouri should never have slavery admitted into it. to give the annual discourse before the agricultural society of Gen. the course which he pursued is open to you and it depends upon yourself to attain the eminence which he has reached before you. perceiving the sad efiects of whiskey upon the surrounding population.WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. he was chosef< a means of adding to his limited income. though very decidedly opposed to any interference on the part of the General as it Government with slavery existed in the States. obligations which I then came under I have faithfully I have been the means of liberating many slaves. entreats his brother-farmers not to convert their corn into that was found so deadly both to the body and to the speak more freely. he retired to his farm at North Bend. at a very considerable pecuniary sacrifice. but. he. in the enjoyment of a humble competency." Upon Gen. In replying to the accusation of being friendly to he said. have sinned myself. was still the warm friend of universal freedom. and procure their freedom by every legal means. . but never placed one in bondage. with great fervor and eloquence. but in that way I shall sin no more. and. in that way. Harrison's return from Colombia to the United States. I was the first person to introduce into Congress the proposition. At the age of eighteen. slaver}'. Va. " of the practice of converting the material of the stafi" of life into an article which is 80 destructive of health and happiness. that county. 1 poison which " I soul. performed. Harrison had once owned a distillery .

The contest. Jackson. Harrison. " In relation to tions than my present sentiments. Van Buren's four years of service. Harrison brought him forward as a Mr. Gen. . Van Buren was the Adminis- of Gen. views upon the subject of duelling. three out of the twenty-six States were represented. and vast concourse attended his inauguration. in ability. His passage from his plain home to the Capitol presented a constant succession of brilliant pageants and enthusiastic greetings. A declaring his intention of exercising the powers intrusted to him with great moderation. and four but the canvass disclosed the candidates were brought forward popularity of Gen. At the close of Mr. presidential chair better prepared for its responsibilities. and immaculate integrity. to prevent Gen. by a resort to the laws which compose the code of honor." candidate for the presidency. His address on the occasion was in accordance with his antecedents. leaving but sixty for Mr. Democratic party triumphed over their disorganized opponents. The opposition party could not . or seek redress for a personal injury. . and Mr. Van Buren. experience. In conclusion. as he received seventy-three electo- The votes without any general concert among his friends. mirable. and gave great satisfaction expressing the fear that we were in danger of placing too much power in the haads of the President. tration candidate. was nominated for the vice-presidency. education. than liam was Wil- Henry Harrison. He was then sixty-seven years of It may be doubted if any of his predecessors had taken the age. a sense of higher obligaor human laws human opinions can impose has deter- mined me never on any occasion to accept a challenge. he was renominated by his party. Van Buren was chosen president.— 272 his LIVES OF THE PhESIDENTS. as usual. supported In 1836. of Virginia. Jackson gave all his influence but his triumph was signal. and William Henry Harrison was unanimously nominated by the Whigs. he says. The whole letter was adand was one of the most effective attacks upon that absurd and barbarous system that has ever been made. was very animated. Harrison's election He received two hundred and thirty-four electoral voios. by a convention in which twentyral John Tyler. . the friends of Gen. by the almost omnipotent influence unite.

In the midst of these bright and joyous prospects. such demonstrations of sorrow.WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. Americans will pronounce and reverence the name of William Henry Harrison. Gen. Not one . as if aware after his inauguration. died on the 4th of April just one short month In the delirium of his sickness. A careful scrutiny of his character and life must give him a high position in the affection and the esteem of every intelligent with unfeigned grief. single spot can be found to sully the brightness of his fame witJi love all the ages. 273 at its head was one of the most brilliant with which any President had ever been surrounded. that death was approaching. : " Sir. and. I ask nothing more. — you to understand the principles of the Government I wish them carriod out. The cabinet which he formed. through 86 . vvere there. and fancying that he was addressing as Secretary of State. and. . throughout our land. since the death of Washington. Harrison was seized by a pleurisy-fever. he said. after a few days of violent sickness. with Daniel Webster his successor. mind. His death was universally regarded The nation mourned as one of the greatest of national calamities." These were his last words. then. Never were the prospects of an administration more flattering. I wish Never. or the hopes of the country more sanguine.

^ir at^ Vioe- and Embarrassment*.rae born in He enjoyed. the 29th of March. — False Position. Charles-oity County. . — Elected tiio ..CHAPTER oflBces of Speaker of the House of Delegates. Va. Political President. JOHN TYLER. in Senate. Jadge . child of affluence and high social His father possessed large landed estates in Virp-inia ItESIDENCE OF JOHN TYLEI!. — Accession — Democratic to the — Course the Presidency. Principles. and was one of the most distinguished men of his day.>£ ih. John .. — Joins in the Rebellion. and Governor of the State.Supreme Court. — Early Distinctioa. — Retirement from Office. 1790.-. — Suocesa ai Life. 274 . filhr^. His Parentage.Death. -. in — Education and Scholarship. JoBN Tyler was the favored position.

internal improvements by the General Government. before the cloce of his second term. he was almost unanimously elected to a . all the advantages which ivealth and |. governor of his native State. partly with his father. With a reputation thus constantly incie-iising. a high honor for Virginia had many able men to be competitors for the prize.ire to his estate in Charles County to recruit his health. upon " Female Education. Here he acted earnestly and ably with the Democratic party. three months had not elapsed ere there was scarcely a case on When but the do'jket of the court in which he was not retained. His labors in Congress were f:o arduous. tered William and . and of the most distinguished law- Edmund Randolph. in his U\\ 275 youthful vears. and warmly advocated the measures of JefferFor five successive years. receiving nearly the unanimous vote of his county. that. At nineteen years of age. he devoted himself with great Q. When but twenty-six years of age. in 1825. and the most careful vigilance over State rights. He connected himself with the Democratic party. partly with After graduating. strove to remove sec.. to the Legislature.aren' At the early age of twelve. Sympathizing cordially with the Administration :^. and rsi. formance. He urged forward internal improvements. he commenced the practice of the It is said that His success was rapid and astonishing. with much honor. however.psiduity to the study of the law. He. he was chosen by a very large majority of votes. a protective tariff." was pronounced to be a very masterly perdistinction coald confer. soon after consented to take n:s seat in the State Legislature. . His commencement address. opposing a national bank. and powers of eloquence of a high order. in the second war with Englar when the British were ravaging the shores of Chesapeake Bay he szerted himself strenuously to raise a military force to resis!. where his influence was powerful in promoting public works of great utility. Many of his speeches developed statesmanlike views. twenty-one years of age. seat in the State Legislature.— JOHN TYLEE. he enMary College and graduated. His administration was signally a successful one. '^ when but seventeen years old. he found it necessary to resign. and advocating a strict construction of the Constitution. one yers of Tirginia. he was elected son and Madison. he was elected a member of Congress.

Tyler. " I saw an almost total disregard of the federative principle. . Calhoun and Andrew Jackson regarded each other. to rouse the people to an appre- ciation of their own interests. his uncompromising hostility to the principles of Mr. a more latitudinarian construction of the Constitution than has ever before been From the moment of seeing that message. had abandoned the principles of the Democratic party. a record in perfect accordance with the principles which he had always avowed. immediately upon his election." In accordance with these professions. in a public letter. will be the principles by which his " I shall regulate my future political life. and avowed his sympathy with Mr. Mr. and brought forward John Tyler as his opponent considering him the only man in Virginia of sufficient popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of Roanoke. UVES OF THE and did much PRESIDENTS. office by the Whigs. Mr. without abandonment in any one instance. ho spoke against and voted against the bank. he said to Democratic constituents. as unconstitutional he strenuously opposed all restrictions upon slavery. he joined the ranks of the opposition. by his opposition to the nulUfiers. His popularity secured his re-election. and. . Calhoun's views of nullification he declared that Gen. Tyler. and in the legislative hall of this State. erratic. upon taking his seat in the Senate. He opposed the tariff. Adams's administrahaving been placed in that tion. 276 tional jealousies. for the last sixteen years. half-crazed man. Tyler's record in Congress. . — Perhaps there was never hate more unrelenting than that with which John C. in taking his seat in the Senate. Jackson.. all who have known any thing of me have known that I stood distinctly opposed to this administration." John Quincy Adams was then President of the United States. declared.— . Mr. Such was Mr. Randolph's way- ward course. in Congress." wrote Mr. John Randolph. then repre- sented Virginia in the Senate of the United States. a brilliant. resisted all projects of internal improvements by the General Government. The principles on which I have acted. Calhoun voted with him . insisted on. Tyler was the victor. Tyler was in sympathy with Mr. " In his message to Congress. A portion of the Democratic party was displeased with Mr.

term. His friends sion. He had now attained the age of forty-six. avowing his convictions that Gen. and advocating. he removed to Williamsburg. caUing upon their senators in Congress to vote to expunge from the journal of a vote censuring Gen. to the fullest extent. Tyler the Senate had cordially approved of this censure. that one need not be surprise viewc.JOHN TYLER. a true Jeffersonian. and devoted himself to the . who wished for Henry Clay. The complicatiojis of party in There have been so many diverse "his country ar3 inexplicable. and to secure their vote. without name of a Southern Whig. Mr. the bank. In consequence of his devotion to public business. Jackson for his usurpation of power in removing the deposits of public money from the United-States Bank. It ty of votes . Tyler. he directions of his constituents. gave him a public dinner. taking the tariff. STid it ITi Jackson's administration. Tyler was found in opposition to This hostility to Jackson caused Mr. State call He was still what ihe North would By th. 1 to find Mr. To conciliate the Southern Whigs. still any change of opposing the righted. rtdll regarded i^im ar. and showered compliments upon him. the convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice-President. Calboun or Stated-rights party. much to the disappointment of the South. and clashing mterosts. he resumed the practice of his profesThere was r^ split in the Democratic party. a genuine Whig.". His career had been very brilliant. he was tion at a Democrat. felt constrained to resign bis seat. after his election to a second The Legislature of Virginia passed resolutions. Soon after :. sent to the national conven- Harrisburg to nominate a President in 1839. his private affairs had and it was not without satisfaction that fallen rnto some disorder he resumed the practice of the law. thus happened that Mr. Returning to Virginia. He had also very emphatically expressed lis belief that it was the duty of the representative to obey the Under these circumstances. Tyler's retirement from the Senate. the same name being often used in different sections to rspro^ent almost antagonistic principles. for the better eduand again took his seat in the Legislature He had thus far belonged very decidedly to the . Jackson had usurped powers which the Constitution did not confer upon him.f this. The majoriwas given to Gen. iulture of his plantation. Harrison. and placing them in State banks. Southern Whigs. lation of hia children Virginia.

and privately submitted to him. plan as he proposed. as it was the first time in the history of our country that such m event had occurred. with an unblemished record. He gave it his approval. Mr. a Democratic Vice-President. ten days' delay. Williamsburg Avhen he received the unexpected tidings of the death of President Harrison. He was placed in a position of exceeding delicacy and difficulty. The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the incorporation The President. to his own surprise and that of the whole nation. views were antagonistic to his . and he sent it back with his It veto. shoulc. He invited the cabinet which President Harrison had selected to retain their seats. and. honest man. was inaugurated into his high and responsible oflSce. President United States. Tyler was at his home ir. President Tyler deserves more charity than he has received. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. were chosen. he had been opposed to the main He principles of the party which had brought him into power. and select rcabinet in harmony with himself. Should he and thus surround himself with counsellors whose own? or. He issued an address to the people. retain them. He hastened to Washington. an occupant of the presidential chair. that he would approve of a bill drawn up upon such a Such a bill was accordingly prepared. his main and almost only duty being to Thus it happened that preside over the meetings of the Senate. after of the fiscal bank of the United States. in reality. This was a new test of the stability of our institutions. that God would guide and bless us. was passed without alteration. It is said that Mi.278 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. in was well known that he was not parly in the North : sympathy with the Whig but the Yice-President has but very little power in the Government. and. Tyler thus found himself. on the 6th of April. whi3h gave general satisfaction. carefully worded. Tn 1841. returned it with his veto. All his life long. Harrison died. and which would oppose all those views which the Whigs deemed essential to the public welfare ? This was his fearful dilemma. Gen. on the other hand. he turn against the party which had elected him. He recommended a day of fasting and prayer. however. Tyler was inaugurated Vice-President of the In one short month from that time. had ever been a consistent. Here commenced the open rupture. He suggested. a Whig President. Mr. and Mr.

strong party men. and to which no stock will be subscribed. however. The land was Whigs and Democrats . that he could claim the The Democrats had a majority in the House the Whigs. Tyler was provoked to the 279 this measure by a published letter from Hon. a protec- which paiised Conwhich he found i^upport of neither party. and. he gave his sanction to a Thus he placed himself . him. Thus the four years of Mr. Polk. in a position in of hip Whig TYLER. Still the President attempted to conciliate. Webster soon found ii necesGary to resign. with murmurs and vituperation. in a care* . Though opposed to tariff-bill. when he finds out that he is not wiser in banking than all the end badly — for l. The Whigs of Congress. which severely touched the pride of the President: '' — Capt. in the Senate. Mr. for signing a worse one but he is hardly You'll get a bank bill. in ner . for his successor. important measures were adopted Situated as he was. He will . he brought himself Democrats into sympathy Avith his old friends the until. a distinguished Virginia Whig. and issued an address to the people of the United States. excepting Mr. resigned. opposition we may get a better. he gave his whole influence to the support of Mr. Whigs and Conservatives. which was bad both parties. but one that will entitled to sympathy. the Democratic candidate. Webster. John M. it during his is more than can be expected of human all cases. The aT-ms. : rest of the world. at the close of his term. filled alike More and more. and I regret to say that will be an object of execration with with the one. hs'll be headed yet. forced out by the pressure gress. Tyler la nahing a desperate effort to set himself up with it the Locofocos: bu. proclaiming that all political alliance between the Whigs and President Tyler was at an end. held a meeting. Tyler's unfortunate administration parsed sadly away. nature that he sliould. containing the following sentences." now exultingly received the President into their The party which elected him denounced him bitterly. Several very administration. He appointed a carefully new tive cabinet of distinguished all leaving out tariff. All the members of his cabinet. enough with the other. Efisailpd No one was satisfied. for vetoing our bill. Botts. but it will probably have acted in the wisest manbe the verdict of all candid men. both the Senate and the House. serve only to far:t?3 him.

That country of the New World has prospered most which has attracted the greatest number of the best emigrants by affording them the best chance to attaii^ the sole object of emigration. progenitor of an endless lino of such. They take Wesley's characterization of it in the most literal acceptation of the words. these fifty years. partly because from infancy they learn to loathe the very name of slavery. virtuous. that the North was bounding forward in the most brilliant career of prosperity. That is the simple secret. For a mak. A stalwart. that solely possible crime which includes in its single : — — ." said Mr. and diminishes the demands for our products abroad by diminishing the power of foreign nations to buy them. " The protective tariff. We buy dear. Tyler. and that portion of that country has outstripped the rest which offered to emigrants the most promising field of labor. while the South presented a general aspect of paralysis and desolation. the great interest ol America has been emigration. in an abounding flood. in his " Life of Andrew Jackson " " The Southern sysbe it wrong or be it right. that John Tyler was placed in a position of such exceeding difficulty. levinw of his career. upon these Western shores.. a thousand times his weight in Kohinor. is wore-:.! 280 ful LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. They sicken at the thought of it. skilful. view him in what light you may. The tariff raises the price of all we buy. and esteem it the sum of all villanies. Tyler earnestly and eloquently opposed any protective tariff. Parton. planted in our Western wilds to hew out home and fDrtune with his own glorious and beautiful right hand and heart. The fact no one could deny. Such have poured into the Northern States. thoughtful man. " is the cause of our calamities and our decay." The reply to this cannot be better given than in the words of Mr. that he could not pursue any course which would not expose him to the most severe denunciation. From the hour when Columbus sprang. In glowing periods he depicted the abounding prosperity of the North. exulting. be it wise or be it unwise is tem one that does not attract emigrants and the Northern system does. Behold what they have wrought " Such emigrants go to the South in inconsiderable aumber s. — : — . Mr. to the State that wins him. That is the great cause. and the dilapidation and decay of the South. and sell cheap. They shrink from contact with it. is the most precious thing in the world he is wealth in its most concentrated form. the improvement of their condiiion.

This was the political vice of JohL Tyler and his associates. that true democracy rest content until this shall be attained. and contrasted it with the beauty and wealth and power of those States in the North where every man was encouraged to feel himself a man. millions of their fellow-countrymen in the 36 . and degradation and then. this is certain. is not a question here. impoverishment. and those defrauded of their rights will not acquiesce unresistingly. They think so . and. that nothing it is ever settled in this world until settled right. antecedents. — t^iorefore. does but perpetuate conflict. prospects. They strained every nerve to keep It is not slavery alone : South in a state of the most abject servility. they would not go in it does not afford to a man with sis children and a hundred dollars the immediate opportunities for profitable and congenial labor which the North affords. by virtue of his There is manhood It alone. 281 the wrong that man can wreak on man. they refused to admit the true cause for the difference. and to educate to the highest possible degree his children. that. and degradation in the South. Whoever. Whether they wrong if are or whether they are in so thinking. and postpone the long-looked-for hour cease. ignorance. he stands on a level with the best. There is no slave with whom he has to compete. The masses cannot long be thus deceived. great uumbers to the South. no great proprietor to overtop him. prosperity. . and feels. the struggling emigrant finds himself surrounded by neighbors whose condition. are all similar to his own.JOHN TYLER. because they did not. and to surround his home with every embellishment which taste and industry could create. in the forests of the North. if any will never There can be no peace. social standing. which saps the foundations of public prosperity it is any attempt to keep any portion of the people ignorant and degraded. places himself in opposition to this fundamental princi- ple of true democracy. thing be certain." is has been well said. as they looked around upon the general aspect of rags. True demands impartial suffrage and equal rights for all. and deprived of privileges conferred upon others no more deserving. and sacred name. and no abiding until the brotherhood of man is recognized. He forgets that there is any such thing as a graduated social scale. It is in vain for when the bitter strife of parties shall the demon of aristocracy and of exclusive assume its privilege to clothe itself in the garb of democracy. democracy and. On thi) prairies. 5elf all rigb/".

which vivify and accelerate elsewhere. inaccessible to such encouraging and elastically invigorating aids. instantly understood and at once exercised.' he hiiaself admits the defect in the condition of Southern labor by wliiob the progress of his favorite section must be retarded. delicate attention. Everywhere a poor. — of its perpetuation and extension. degraded family is an element of weakBut Mr. among the operatives They are merely instinctive and passive. While the intellectual industry of other parts of this country springs forward at every fresh impulse. and manual labor is propelled and redoubled by countless inventions. the end of his career. cannot penetrat'. " The lights of science and the improvements of art. Nor is it possible to be blind to the moral effects of this species of labor exists. now that slavery is dead. without a single exception. ployments allotted tion. in a debate upon this subject in 1862. A disrelish for upon those freemen among whom it humble and hardy occupaticr^ a pride a dread that to partake in the emalso adverse to drudgery and toil. penetrate with dilatory inefficiency. On the 4th of March. and contrivances.282 LIVES OF TEE PRESIDENTS. the senator slaves are too improvident. the South remains stationary. He admits an inability to keep pace with the rest of the world. . too incapable of that minute. he retired from the harassments of . — a weakness neither engendered nor aggra- vated by the tant as ever tariff. devise. machineo. or. from South Carolina asserts that " * When. are as practically imporfor they do conclusively show that it is one of the first principles of political economy that there should not be fosthat it tered in any community a servile and degraded class should be the first endeavor of the State to inspire every individ. Mr. inherent weakness. of the South. ual. to promote this elevation of the whole community. In a beautiful strain of philosophic truth. from the beginning to ness and impoverishment. which wisdom can sibl}" can. in fact." These views. the Hon. con- and that persevering industry. 1845. ignorant. T3der. He admits an stant. Avas the earnest advocate of slavery. which are essential to the success of manufacturing establishments. and morally. that he posEvery facility should be presented. if they do. with the ambition to make the most of himself. physically. DaLas said in the Senate of the United States. are natural to color may be accompanied by its degra- and inevitable. intellectually.

to 283 the regret of neither party. United States. A polished gentleman in his manners. Calhoun had inaugurated. were it war which his own principles and policy had helped to introduce. by force of arms. which the State-rights and nullito the fying doctrines of Mr. to Miss Julia Gardiner. the Government over which he had once presided. and. died in Washington in 1842. Sherwood Forest. 1844. for he could not conceal from him- which he had advocated were imperilling Unfortunately for his memor}'. to whom he was much He was chosen a member . own un- His first wife. the John Tyler must forever be associated with all the misery and crime of that terrible Rebellion whose cause he openly of name espoused. and the limited circle of his personal friends. . after a short illness. President Tyler was again married. John C. the very existence of the nation. he might have enjoyed a serene not for the storms of civil few friends who gathered around him. and probably to his relief. Ya. he was taken sick. Miss Letitia Christian. richly furnished with information from books and experience in the world. and possessing brilliant powers of conversation. Tyler passed mainly in retirement at his beautiful home. endeared. It is with sorrow that history records that a President of the United States died while defending the flag of rebellion. a young lady of many personal and intellectual accomplishments.JOHN TYLER. President Tyler renounced his allegiance the Confederates. The remainder of his days Mr. There were but few to weep over his grave. When the Great Rebellion rose. self that the doctrines His last hours must have been gloomy. at New York. his family circle was speakable — the scene of unusual attractions. office. and in June. excepting his own family. Charles-city County. died. and joined of their Congress and while engaged in active measures to destroy. which was arrayed in deadly warfare against that national banner which he had so often sworn to protect. old age with the With sufficient means for the exercise of a generous hospitality.



AiiMstry of Mr. Polk.

- His Early Distinction. - His Success as a Lawyer

~ PoUticiil LL's.

Tonl Service

in Congress.

- Speaker

-Mexican War.-Its

Governor of . enn....Dce. House. CancUdate for ^h. .r.s.l.noyAnnexation.




Object and Results.

- Retirement. - Sickness. - ...oto.




North Carolina, or tha east^ the south-we stern frontier of region now C9.lltji the banks of the Catawba, there is a





County of Mecklenburg.
wilderness, a small Irish in the year 1735.





settlement was commenced by the

Among thes3 settlers, t- ore were two Both of them were nen of much brothers by the name of Polk.



excellence of character and of extensive influence. Early in the spring of 1775, news reached those distant settlers beneath the primeval forest of the atrocities which the crown of Great Britain

was perpetrating against the liberties of this country, in Massachusetts. There were several public meetings held to discuss
these wrongs.

At length, Col. Thomas Polk, the elder of these brothers, " well known and well acquainted in the surrounding counties, a man of great excellence and merited popularity," was empowered to

a convention of the representatives of the people.



and there was a convention in Charlotte, the shire-town of the county, held on the 19th of May, 1775. About forty of the principal citizens of the county of Mecklenburg were present as delegates. At this meeting, the announcement was made, that the first blood of the Revolution had been shed in Lexington, Mass. The excitement was intense. Anxious deliberations were protracted late into the night, and resumed the
issvsd his


next morning.
in large

People were, in the mean time, rapidly gathering Resolutions were at length adopted unaniwhich were read from the court-house steps by Col.


Mecklenburg County, which have connected us to the mother-country, and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance to the British crown and that we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent people." This heroic and extraordinary declaration of independence was unquestionably the first that was made. Col. Thomas Polk, and
citizens of

Polk, declaring that

"we, the

do hereby dissolve the political bands


his brother Ezekiel,


resided then across the border, in South

were among the most prominent, men in this movement. In the course of the war which ensued, Lord Cornwallis established his headquarters at Charlotte, which he called the hot-bed But little more is knowii reof rebellion, and the hornet's nest. specting Ezekiel Polk, who was the grandfather of James Knox Polk, the eleventh President of the United States. He left a son, Samuel, who married Jane Knox. Samuel Polk was a plain, unpretending farmer. James was the eldest son of a family of six sons and four daughters. He was born in Mecklenburg County, N.C., on the 2d of November, 1795. In the yaar 1806, with his wife and children, and soon after followed by most of the members of the Polk family, Samuel Polk



emigrated some two or three hundred miles farther west to the Here in the midst of the wilderrich valley of the Duck River.
ness, in a region

which was subsequently called Maury County,

they reared their log huts, and established their new home. In the hard toil of a new farm in the wilderness, James K. Polk spent the early years of his childhood and his youth. His father,

adding the pursuits of a surveyor to that of a farmer, gradually increased in wealth until he became one of the leading men of the

His mother was a superior woman, of strong common sense and earnest piety. Young James often accompanied his father on his surveying tours, and was frequently absent from

weeks together, climbing the mountains, threading the exposed to all the vicissitudes of the weather, and not a To a boy of reflective spirit, little in peril from hostile Indians. there is much in such a life to bring out all there is noble in his




early in


James developed a

taste for reading,


expressed the strongest desire to obtain a liberal education. His mother's training had rendered him methodical in his habits, had taught him punctuality and industry, and had inspired him with


of morality.



a proficient in all the

James, in the common schools, common branches of an Eng;


His health was



his father, fearing that

he might not be able to endure a sedentary

got a situation

him behind the counter, hoping






This was to James a bitter disappointment. He had no taste these duties, and his daily tasks were irksome in the extreme.


remained in this uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when, at his earnest solicitation, his father removed him, and made arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. Soon after, he sent him to Murfreesborough Academy. This was in 1813. With ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, hs pressed forward in his studies, and in less than two and a half years, in the autumn of 1815, entered the sophomore class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of scholars, so punctual in every exercise, never allowing himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious service, that one of the wags of college, when he wished to aver the absolute certainty of any thing, was in the habit of saying, "It is as certain
as that Polk will get


at the first call."



of a solid and an accomplished education he devoted his energies. He graduated in 1818 with the highalike est honors, being deemed the best scholar of his class, both in He was then twenty-three years liiathematics and the classics. of age. Mr. Polk's health was at that time much impaired by the After a assiduity with which he had prosecuted his studies. short season of relaxation, he went to Nashville, and entered the Mr. G-rundy was a man of office of Felix Grundy to study law.

To every branch

national fame, not only standing at the head of the bar in Nashville,


but having also distinguished himself on the floor of ConHere Mi. Polk renewed his acquaintance with Andrew




sided on his plantation, the Hermitage, but a

i&w miles


They had probably been

slightly ac-

quainted before.
fled before the


Mrs. Jackson, with her two orphan boys,

burg County, and
Mr. Polk's father.

army of Cornwallis, she took refuge in Mecklenfor some time resided with the neighbor^ of
had finished
his legal studies,

As soon

as he

and been admitted

to the bar,

he returned to Columbia, the shire-town of Maury County, and opened an office. His success was rapid. Very selhas any


young man commenced the

practice of the

thoroughly prepared to meet
stores of information,


its responsibilities.

lav."- more With rich


his faculties well disciplined,

and with

habits of close and accurate reasoning, he rapidly gained business,

and won fame.
Mr. Polk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican, and James K.

Polk ever adhered to the same
public speaker, and

political faith.

He was

a popular

was constantly
called the



to address the

was such, Napoleon of the stump. He was a man of unblemished morals, genial and courteous in his bearing, and with that sj'^mpathetic nature in the joys and griefs of others which ever gave him troops of friends. There is scarcely any investment which a man can make in this world so profitable as pleasant words and friendly smiles, provided always that those words and smiles come honestly from the heart. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. Here he gave his strong influence towards the election of his friend, Andrew Jackson, to the presidency of the United States. He also pro* cured the passage of a law designed to prevent duelling. From
meetings of
that he
his party friends.

as a speaker

was popularly


he was utterly opposed to the practice




no little moral courage for one, in those rude times and regions, to attempt the abrogation of that so-called " code of honor," obedience to which was deemed essential to the character of a chivalric

gentleman. Mr. Polk, as a "

strict constructionist," did not

think that the

to carry on a but, with Mr. system of internal improvements in the States Monroe, he deemed it important that the Government should have that power, and wished to have the Constitution amended that it might be conferred. Subsequently, however, with most of the Southern gentlemen, he became alarmed lest the General Government should become so strong as to undertake to interfere with slavery. He therefore gave all his influence to strengthen the State governments, and to check the growth of the central



the General


In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah Childress of

Rutherford County, Tenn.
of him,

— a lady of beauty and of culture.


bride was altogether worthy

Had some one


whispered to him ihat he was destined to become President of the United States, and that he should select for his companion one who would adorn that distinguished station, he could not have made a more fitting choice. The following anecdote is related of Mrs. It should Polk, when, in 1848, she was lady of the White House. be remembered that Mr. Polk was a Democrat, and Mr. Clay a

Whig, and that they had been rival candidates for the presidency. There was quite a brilliant dinner-party at the Presidents. Henry Cla^ as one of the most distinguished guests, was honored with a seat near Mrs. Polk, who as usual, by her courteous and

manner, won the admiration of


her guests.
to her,

During the entertainment, Mr. Clay turned
those winning tones so peculiar to him,


said, in

I must say, that in my travels, wherever I have been, companies and among all parties, I have heard but one opinAll agree in commending, in the highest terms, your ion of you. excellent administration of the domestic affairs of the White House. But," continued he, looking towards her husband, " as There is for that young gentleman there, I cannot say as much.


in all



difference of opinion in regard to the policy of his


" Indeed," said Mrs. Polk,


"I am glad


hear that





and, in return for your compliment,


say, that, if the country should elect a

no one whose elevation would please

Whig next fall, I know of me more than that of Henry

sion to

I will assure you of one thing if you do have occaoccupy the White House on the 4th of March next, it be surrendered to you in perfect order from garret to



"Thank you, thank you



exclaimed Mr. Clay
In the


" I



No more

could be heard, such a burst of laughter

lowed Mrs. Polk's happy repartee.

of 1825, Mr. Polk

was chosen a member of Congress.



which he

to his constituents

may be

inferred from the fact, that for

was continued in that then voluntarily withdrew, only that he might accept the gubernatorial chair of his native State. In Congress he was
fourteen successive years, until 1839, he


a laborious member, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was always in his seat, always courteous and, whenever he spoke, it was always to the point, and without any ambitious rhetorical display. Mr. Polk was the warm friend of Gen. Jackson, who had been defeated in the electoral contest by John Quincy Adams. This latter gentleman had just taken his seat in the presidential chair when Mr. Polk took his seat in the House of

immediately united himself with the opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon regarded as the leader of the Jackson party in the House.


The four years of Mr. Adams's administration passed away, and Gen. Jackson took the presidential chair. Mr. Polk had now bea man of great influence in Congress, and ^yas chairman of most important committee, that of Ways and Means. Eloquently he sustained Gen. Jackson in all of his measures, in his hostility to internal improvements, to the bank, to the tariff. The eight years of Gen. Jackson's administration ended, and the powers he had wielded passed into the hands of Martin Van Buren and still Mr. Polk remained in the House, the advocate of .that type of Democracy which those distinguished men upheld. During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was Speaker of the House. Strong passions were roused, and stormy scenes were witnessed but Mr. Polk performed his arduous duties to very general satisfaction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him wae







passed by the House as he withdrew on the 4th of March, 1839.
In his closiug address, he said,

I look back to the period when I first took my seat in House, and then look around me for those who were at that time my associates here, I find but few, very few, remaining. But five members who were here with me fourteen years ago continue to be members of this body. My service here has been I can perhaps say what few others, if constant and laborious.



any, can,

have not failed to attend the daily sittings of this House a single day since I have been a member of it, save on a pingle occasion, when prevented for a short time by indispoI

— that



intercourse with the


of this body,



though occasionally engaged in debates upon interesting public questions and of an exciting character, it is a source of unmingled gratification to me to recur to the fact, that on no occasion was there the slightest personal or unpleasant collision with any of its members." In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, as candidate for
occupied a place upon the
governor, canvassed the State.

He was


by a large 'mawas again
time, a

jority, and on the 14th of October, 1839, took the oath of office at

In 1841, his terra of

expired, and he

the candidate of the Democratic party.

But, in the


wonderful poHtical revolution had swept over the whole country. Martin Van Buren had lost his re-election, and Gen. Harrison had

been called triumphantly to the presidential chair. In Tennessee, Whig ticket had been carried by over tweJve thousand maUnder these circumstances, the success of Mr. Polk was jority.

he canvassed the State with his
it is



Mr. Jones, travelling in the most friendly
in the

manner together, often

one time sleeping in the Mr. Jones obtained the election by three thousand same bed. Again, in 1843, the same gentlemen were competitors majority.

same carriage, and,

said, at

for the

governorship, and again Mr. Polk was defeated.
the question of the annexation of Texas to our country

And now

agitated fearfully the whole land.

was a plan which originated

with the advocates of slavery, that they might get territory to cut
into slave States, to counterbalance the free States which were being formed in the North-west. Texas was a province of Mexico. We were on friendly terms with that puny and distracted republic, and could find no plausible occasion to pick a quarrel with it. The




we coveted was

in extent equal to the

whole empire of

France, and could be divided into six first-class States.

lowing plan was adopted to gain the prize




There was a

wild, eccentric frontiersman, by the



Houston, who had abandoned civilization, and

for six years


the Indians, adopting their habits.

He was


of very considerable native abiHty.

In his character, there

man was a

singular blending of good and bad qualities.

He had

so far com-


himself to the Cherokee Indians, that they had chosen him

This man gatiiered a pretty numerous band of lawless adventurers, and entered Texas to wrest it from Mexico as a private speculation. The plan was distinctly announced and from all parts of the country there was a very extensive emigration to those wide and fertile plains of those who were in sympathy with the movement. They went strongly armed, and with abundant supplies furnished them from the South. These men, settlers in Texas, in 1836 called a convention, issued a declaration of independence^ formed a constitution establishing perpetual slavery, and chose their intrepid leader, Sam Houston, their governor. A short, bloody, merciless war ensued. The Mexicans were utterly repulsed. Population from the United It was manifest to every one that States rapidly flowed in. Mexico could never regain her lost province. The first step was triumphantly accomplished. A few months after this, the second step was taken, and Congress acknowledged the independence of Texas. The Texans then sent an envoy to Washington, proposing the annexation of Texas to the American Union. The friends of slavery generally were in favor of the movement. Mr. Benton said that nine slave States could be carved out of the majestic domain, each nearly equal to the State of New York. ]\Iost of the foes of slavery extension were opposed to the measure of annexation. Mr. Webster said, " Slavery in this country stands where tlie Constitution left it. I have taken an oath to support the Constitution, and I mean to abide by it. I shall do nothing to carry the power of the General Grovernment within the just bounds of the States. I shall do
as one of their chiefs.

nothing to interfere with the domestic institutions of the South, and the Government of the United States have no right to interfere

But that is a very different thing from not interfering prevent the extension of slavery by adding a large slave



be a slaveholding country and I fi-ankly avow my unwillingness to do any thing that shall extend the slavery of the African race on this continent, or add
country to



likely to


another slaveholding State to this Union." Thus the question of the annexation of Texas became national.

Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of annexation, became the presidential candidate of the proslavery wing of the Democratic He party, and Dallas their candidate for the vice-presidency. a majority, in the popular vote, of about forty was elected by

In January, 1845, he

left his





Washington, having first had a long private interview with Gen. Jackson at the Hermitage. As he was ascending the Ohio River
in a


steamboat at one of the landings, a plain, farmer-like looking in his working-dross, pressed through the crowd, and, taking

Mr. Polk's hand, said,


do you do, colonel?
all I



glad to see you.




strong Democrat, and did
twenty-six children,

could for you.
all for


the father of

who were

Polk^ Dallas,

and Texas."

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. was inaugurated President The verdict of the country in favor of anof the United States. nexation exerted its influence upon Congress and the last act of

the administration of President Tyler


to affix his signature to

a joint resolution of Congress, passed on the 3d of March, approvins:

of the annexation of Texas to the American Union.



claimed Texas as one of her provinces, the Mexican

minister, Almonte, immediately


his passports,


the country, declaring the act of annexation to be an act hostile
to Mexico.

But Mexico was

poor, feeble, and distracted,

feeble foe for this great republic to encounter.


folly for

her to attempt to strike a blow.

a very would have She could only


In his first message, President Polk urged that Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be received into the Union on the same footing with the other States. In the mean time, Gen.

Taylor was sent with an army into Texas to hold the country.


Nueces, which the Mexicans said was the western boundary of Texas". Then he was sent nearly two hundred miles farther west, to the Rio Grande, where he erected batteries which commanded the Mexican city of Matamoras, which

was sent


to the

was situated on the western banks.

The anticipated


soon took place.


ward our army nearly two hundred
frontier of the disputed territory;

miles, to the

had pushed for* extreme western

had erected our batteries



the Mexican city of Matamoras, on the opposite banks


placed our troops in such a position, that lawless violence was

sure to provoke retaliation

and then, as soon as the Mexican

troops crossed the river, and a conflict ensued, President Polk


to the

country that war with Mexico existed.

has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory, and shed American blood on American soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have com-

Now, Mexico," he

menced, and that the two nations are at war. As war exists, notwithstanding our efforts to avoid it, exists by the act of Mexico herself, we are called upon by every consideration of duty and patriotism to vindicate with decision the honor, rights, and inter-

ests of our country."

great vigor.

The war was pushed forward by Mr. Polk's administration with Gen. Taylor, whose army was first called one of The
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter,

"observation," then of " occupation," then of " invasion," was sent

forward to Monterey.

were hopelessly and awfully slaughtered. The day of judgment alone can reveal the misery which was caused. It was by the ingenuity of Mr. Polk's administration that the war was brought on. Mr. Webster said, "I believe, that, if the question had been put to Congress before the march of the armies and their actual conflict, not ten votes could have been obtained in either House for the war with Mexico under the existing state of things." " To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico was prosti'ate before us. Her capital was in our hands. We now consented to peace upon the condition that Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower California. This new demand embraced, exclusive of Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. This was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen majestic States to be added to the Union. There were some Americans who thought this all right: there were others who thought it all wrong.
Mr. Polk's administration called for a grant of three millions of
dollars, to

be judiciously expended


the Mexicans to induce



them voluDtarily to make this surrender. There was a split in the Democratic party and some of the Northern Democrats succeeded in attaching to this appropriation what was called the " Wihnot Proviso," in these words

" Provided always that there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in any territory on the continent of America which shall hereafter be acquired or annexed to the United States by virtue of this appropriation, or in any other manner whatso-

ever, except for crimes whereof the party shall have been duly


This was called also the Thomas Jefferson Proviso, as its language was copied from the ordinance originally draughted by him for the government of the North-western Territory. This restriction struck Mr. Polk


his friends with consternation.


did not wish to annex one single acre more of land, unless

add to the area of slavery. The excitement which pervaded the Southern mind was violent in the extreme. Passionate speeches were made. Fiery resolutions were draughted by legislatures of the slaveholding States. The " dissolution of the Union " was

Under the

influence of the threat, the proviso


reconsidered and rejected. At last, peace wa.< made. We had wrested from Mexico territory equal, it has been estimated, to four times the empire of France, and five times that of Spain. In the prosecution of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives, and more than a hundred Of this money, fifteen millions were paid to million of dollars.

" God moves

a mysterious


His wonders to perform."

Scarcely twenty years elapsed ere the whole of this vast region was consecrated to freedom. Gold was discovered in California.

Northern emigrants rushed to gather it, carrying with them Northern love of liberty and California bei^ame a free State. Mr. for he had no doubt that Polk, highly gratified with his success, presented the the whole region was to be consecrated to slavery, treaty to the Senate for its ratification on the 10th of Mai'ch, 1848. Justice to Mr. Polk's memory requires that his view of the

righteousness and expediency of the war with Mexico should be

While no one


dissent from the facts which have

already been presented, there are

many who

will assert that the



reasons which Mr. Polk urges in the following sentences were

In his second Annual Message. not the true causes of the war. December, 1846, he says, " The existing war with Mexico was neither provoked nor desired by the United States on the contrar}^, all honorable means were resorted to to avoid it. After years of endurance of aggravated and unredressed wrongs on our part, Mexico, in violation of solemn treaty stipulations, and of every principle of justice recognized by civilized nations, commenced hostilities, and thus, by her own act, forced the war upon us. Long before the ad ^nce of our army to the left bank of the Rio Grande, we had ample cause of war against Mexico. The war has been represented as unjust and unnecessary; as one of aggression, on our part, on a weak and injured enemy. Such erroneous views, though entertained but by a few, have been widely and extensively circulated, not only at home, but have been spread throughout Mexico and the whole world. The wrongs which we have suffered from Mexico almost ever since she became an independent power, and the patient endur:


ance with Avhich

we have borne them,

are without a parallel in

the history of modern civilized nations.

Scarcely had Mexico achieved her independence, when she commenced the system of insult and spoliation which she has ever since pursued. Oui*

engaged in lawful commerce, were imprisoned, their and our flag insulted in her ports. If money was wanted, the lawless seizure and confiscation of our merchantvessels and their cargoes was a ready resource; and if, to accomplish their purposes, it became necessary to imprison the owueis, captain, and crew, it was done. Rulers superseded rulers in Mexico in rapid succession; but still tliere was no change in this system of depredation. The Government of the United States made repeated reclamations on behalf of its citizens but these were answered by the perpetration of new outrages." In this general strain of remark he continues through several closely printed pages, and then says, " Such is the history of the wrongs which we have suffered and patiently endured from Mexico

vessels seized,


through a long seiies of years."

"The annexation

of Texas," he continues, "constituted no just

cause of offence to Mexico."

After giving a brief description of

the previous history of Texas, and the nature of

union with



confederate States, he says, "Emigrants from were invited by the colonization-laws of the foreign countries This State and of the Federal Government to settle in Texas. invitation was accepted by many of our citizens, in the full faith, that, in their new home, they would be governed by laws enacted by representatives elected by themselves; and that their lives, liberty, and property would be protected by constitutional guaranties similar to those which existed in the republic they had left. Under a government thus organized, they continued until

Mexico, as one of

the year 1835,

when a

military revolution broke out in the city

of Mexico, which entirely subverted the Federal and State constitutions,

and placed a military dictator at the head of the govof Texas


were unwilling to submit to this usurpation. Resistance to such tyranny became a high duty. The people of Texas flew to arras. They elected members to a convention, who, in the month of March, 1836, issued a formal declaration, that their political connection with the Mexican nation has forever ended, and that the people of Texas do now constitute a free, sovereign, and independent republic'

The people




then gives an account of the unsuccessful attempts of
this plain statement of facts,"

Mexico, by her armies, to conquer and reclaim her lost territory.


he continues, "it




to allege that


is still

a part of her territory."
all this

to be assume the ground, that the true western boundary of Texas and that, therefore, in is the Nueces, instead of the Rio Grande marching our army to the east bank of the latter river, we passed the Texan line, and invaded the territory of Mexico." His explaThe nation of this is too long and labored to be inserted here. substance is, that the' Texans claimed the Rio Grande as their boundary; that they had conquered it by the sword; that, as conquerors, they had a right to it; and that the United-States Government, having annexed Texas to the Union, was under every moral obligation to defend the boundaries which the Texana


there are those," he adds, "who, conceding




This defence of the policy of the Government in the
relative to


Texas and Mexico gives one a very just idea of the character of Mr. Polk's mind, and of the peculiarity of his abilities. The arguments he presents are plausible, rather than convincing.

At Wilmington. which.JAMES KNOX POLK. and domestic seemed as though long years of tranand happiness were before him. President Polk steamed up the river from New Orleans. and was seen every day about his dwelling. having served one term. he commenced his return to Tennessee. With an ample fortune. his system was much debilitated. he remained within. Hay. which gave promise of long life. aiding and directing the workmen he had employed. with Mrs. On the 5th. brought on fatigue and slight fever. He was strictly then but fifty-four years of age. and began to arrange his large library. his brother-i&It is not a fortnight since I 38 element of every improvement. A personal friend gives the following account of his last hours ''Having reached Nashville. and New Orleans. he was honored with splendid ovations. He had previously purchased a beautiful mansion in the heart of the city of Nashville. a cultivated mind. The labor of reaching books from the floor. through the Southern States. the next day. On the 3d of March. directing some men who were removing decaying cedars. Polk rode to the Capitol in the same carriage with Gen. The next day was Sunday. but. the disease baffling the skill of his physicians. Taylor was inaugurated as his successor. 297 Oae can scarcely conceive of such a document. The next day being rainy. Taylor and the same even. Very enthusiastic demonstrations of regard met him as he journeyed ing. He seemed in full health. Gen. . "For the first three days. He had ever been temperate in his habits. But the cholera that fearful scourge was then sweeping up the Valley of the Mississippi. a choice library. whose exquisite taste constituted the saw him on the lawn. now gi\ ing instructions to a gardener. His flowing gra}^ locks alone made him appear beyond the middle age of life. he gave himself up to the improvement of his grounds. On board the boat. often attended by Mrs. Charleston. Sa« vaunah. and placing them on the shelves. Polk. coming from the pen of Jefferson or of Webster. assumed the character of disease in the form of chronic diarrhoea. and his health was good. Dr. now overties of the dearest nature. Polk. and the active energy of his manner. it quillity — — : — — looking a carpenter. Polk retired from office. 1849. Mr. I was struck with his erect and healthful bearing. Mr. his friends felt no alarm. he perceived the premonitory symptoms of the dread disease. When he reached his home.

as thousands of others have done. in He left no chilNashville. and family physician for twenty years. lumbia. and. his venerable upon a weary man. aided by the highest medical talent. mother en- tered the room. His death occurred on the 15th of June. the need of the supports of Christianity. in that eleventh hour. insensibly. that there did not remain recuperative energy enough He sank away so slowly and in the system for healthy re-action. Polk contuiued gradually to sink from day to day. . law. As death drew near. committing the soul of her son to his holy keeping. he felt. dren. The disease was checked upon him four days before his death.298 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Mr. received the rite of baptism at tho hands of a Methodist clergyman. was sent for from Co« and experience of this gentleman." year of his age. but his constitution was so weakened. that the heavy death-respirations commenced eight But the skill hours before he died. in the fifty-fourth His funeral was attended the following day. with every demonstration of respect. 1849. as He died without a struggle. to breathe. simply ceasing sleep falls when deep and quiet About half an hour preceding his death. and offered up a beautiful prayer to the King of kings and Lord of lords. proved of no avail.

When Zachary with his wife and two other children. — Monterey. — Emigration to Kentucky. was an infant. — Resaca de Palma. — Campaign Florida. was a Virginian of note. on the 24th of November.CHAPTER Birth. in Orange County. twelfth President of the United States. — Life Frontier.ii — Palo Alto. 1784. — Buena Vista. his father. and a dia tinguished patriot and soldier of the Revolution. — The Mexican W. — Death. Fas born Zachary Taylor. — Battles with the Indians. — Sufferings. the RESIDENCE OF ZACHARY TAYLOR. Col. XII. ZACHARY TAYLOR. where he settled in the pathless wilder299 . Va. Richard Taylor. emigrated to Kentucky. — Enters the Army. His father. — Nominated Presidency. tlie oj in la for thf. — Neglected Education.

Ta3'lor (for he had then been promoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort Harrison. we were upon the eve of our second war The English officials in Canada were doing us. on This fort had the Wabash. numbering fifty men. He was strong. Its garrison consisted of a broken company of infantry. becoming very with their threatening. his childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. Capt. Wilkinson. that. many of whom were sick. Our relations with England were. flag.300 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. at this time. of log-huts for soldiers' barracks. a young lady from one . Soon he married Miss Margaret Smith. and in large numbers. and he joined the troops which Gen. stealthily. and self reliant. led by Tecumsch. Early in the autumn of 1812. would come to have a talk with him. rather remarkable for bluntness. a few miles out from the present city of Louisville. young Zachary could enjoy but few social or eduWhen six years of age. Harrison. he attended a comcational advantages. been built in the wilderness by Gen. Their approach was first indicated by the murder of two soldiers just outside of the stockade. the other three sides of which were composed of rows of high pickets. and informed Capt. and that power. the Indians. fearless. moved upon the fort. on his march to Tippecanoe. It was one of the first points of attack by the The works consisted simply of a row Indians. their chief It was evident that their . far away from civilization and all its refinements. at New Orleans under of the first families in Maryland. and manifested an eager desire to enter the army to fight the Indians who were ravaging the fron- be recorded of the uneventful years of In 1808. in the morning. and was then regarded as a bright. was honored with many responsible trusts. He was ness. Taylor. and decision of character. waiving a white each end. one of the first settlers of that region and as such. utmost to rouse the Indians against declaration of Immediately after the war in 1812. In this rude frontier-home. when the i)opulatim increased. . a band of about forty ticipated assault. Taylor made every possible prepiiration to meet the anOn the 4th of September. Capt. mon school. painted and plumed savages came to the fort. about fifty miles above Vincennes. There is little to tenant in the United-States army were stationed after this. with a strong block-house at These buildings occupied one side of a square. active boy. his father succeeded in obtaining for him the commission of lieutiers.

the shouts of command. sprang to his post. death by the most agonizing and prolonged torture. no intellectual stimulus. Gradually he ross to the rank of colonel. and the rush of the almost frantic with terror. Every man knew that defeat was not merely death. the military' board retained him. on Pox Eiver. Major Taylor was placed in such situations. the yelping of the dogs. the crackling and glare of the fire. When the army was reduced this at the close of the war. Until the termination of the war. the influence of friends regained rank of major. There was a large amount of whiskey stored in the building. Not relishing on for far arrangement. the shrieks of the women (for there were several in the fort). One hour before midnight. was far better to perish by the bullet or the fire than to fall into the hands of the Until six o'clock in the morning. in case of capture. returning to the army. kept them at a distance. course. and the sheets of flame. no society. and Capt. him his Soon. No pen can describe. Every man. Thus with him the uneventful years rolled on. the scene which ensued. no one thought of surrender. In the Black-Hawk War. The sun went down slept . It Of foe. Here there was but little to be done but to wear away the tedious hours as one best There were no books. the yells of the assailants. the dancing savages. and. this gallant defence. but assigned to him only the rank of captain. the garrison upon their arms. flashing to the clouds.ZACHARY TAYLOR. point. which empties into Green Bay. retired. the war-whoop burst from a thousand lips in the forest around. lit up the whole landscape with lurid brilliancy. he was sent away into the depths of the wilderness. Taylor. Capt. 301 object was merely to ascertain the state of things at the fort. and returned to the peaceful pursuits of agricultural his plantation. which resulted could. The forest. to Fort Crawford. however. Taylor. who had become discharge of musketry. this awful conflict continued. no imagination can conceive. that he saw but little more of active service. — all created a scene of terror which caused the stoutest heart to quail. the incessant rattle of musketry. but. sick and well. the savages disappeared . followed by the foe. Major Taylor resigned his comlife mission. The savages succeeded in setting fire to one of the block-houses. was promoted to the rank of major by brevet. for The savages then. . well versed in the wiles of the savages. baffled at every and gnashing their teeth with rage.

appearing at this moment like a pack of howling wolves grate : ." There was no resisting this argument. wherever they might be found. in hot pursuit of the foe. as their chiefs. shore here are Uncle Sam's men drawn up behind you on the zens. cunning. ento camped upon the banks of the stream. Col. in scenes so remote. Indian country. to deliberate respecting what they should He was a man of few do. and in employments so obscure. Taylor was seJit to capture or destroy them. prairie. command a pretty large force of volunteers and a few regulars. The volunteers openly declared that they would not -cross the river. But. refused to emi- hence the war. he was at one time pursuing Black Hawk with his Indian band. had promised they should The great mass of the Indians. For twentyfour years. inclining to the same opinion. that his name was unknown beyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. denying the right of a few do. In a few hours. It is related of Col. when they came to Rock River. Col. There are the flat-boats drawn up on the I mean to do both. " the ington to follow Black . by treaty. and retire beyond tiie Mississippi. chiefs to sell the hunting-grounds of their fathers. and to take you with me as soldiers. but had already attained some celebrity for his decisive actions.S02 in LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. while engaged in this war. Taylor was engaged in the defence of the frontiers. in a sort of town-meeting. Col. as they had enlisted only for the defence of the State . he was sent to Florida to compel the Seminole Indians to vacate that region. for a time. that. it At came his turn to speak. Taylor. during the night. which was then understood to be the He had under his north-west boundary of the State of Illinois. Taylor took a sub- ordinate but a brave and efficient part. " Gentlemen and fellow-citi- word has been passed on to me from WashHawk. and that they were not bound Col. they were all across the river. march beyond the frontier into the Taylor. words. he listened to their proceedings. quietly. hearing of this. In the year 1836. Yery length. orders came for him to follow up Black Hawk to the last extremity. Col." said he. the capture of that renowned chieftain. The soldiers. Taylor was invited to attend. assembled on the prairie. But little lasting fame can be acquired in fighting undisciplined And still the American Indians were so brave and so savages.

coarse. "is the science of barbarians. Taylor. and the next moment dispersed. but fell instantly and impetuously upon them. Upon the northern shore of this lake there midst of whose recesses a small island was a swamp. had stationed themselves to give They were well armed with rifles. it was considered as. and weeks and months might elapse before they could again be found. Col. wiry grass. with a small army of about one thousand men." Indian warfare has ever been found a very good school in which to acquire the rudiments of that prompt action. that one spot. 1837. no one couli tell it required military qualities of a very high char" "War. of one hundred and fifty miles. versatility of talent. vast forests of oak and pine. the Indians poured in upon them such a deadly fire. meet every emergency. intersected by rivers. and no food could be gathered on science. in 303 where. very urjust. impeded by brush and weeds. having learned through their runners of the advance of the white man. Okeechobee. with almost impenetrable underbrush. through mud and water knee-deep. It requires constant vigilance. It was necessary to cross the swamp. three-quarters of a mile in breadth. in the was found. before they could reach the island or hummock where the foe was stationed. and. Every man of them stood behind his protecting tree. There was no path through these vast solitudes. acter successfully to contend with them. and tall. bloody.ZACHARY TAYLOR. their aim. As soon as Taylor's advance came within musket-shot. could vanish in an hour. on Early in the winter of the part of our Government. The war with the Seminoles was long. and were unerring in battle. The Indians. commenced a march into the interior to assail a large body of Seminole warriors who were encamped upon the banks of the great inland lake. and immense morasses of gloomy cypress-trees. Here seven hundred Seminole warriors. patience. A second line advanced more . and rarely has warfare presented greater peril than the men were exposed to in wading through that swamp in the face of such a foe. that the troops broke. Taylor made no reconnoissance. Their path. and fled in a panic which nothing could check. Under these circumstances. with many of the American people. Col. and interlacings of vines and pendent moss. and courage of the liighest order to face death in its most appalling form. led through an unexplored wilderness. nimble as deer. and ingloriou3. to the Avay for either man or beast." says Napoleon.

that they never ventured to give battle : . in a high state of exasperation. In the mean time. and employ every individual whom he might find there. pointed to the chief Florida. These unhappy men were carried across the country. when all the dead and wounded were carried over in litters made for that purpose. For three hours. directed Capt. all things considered. doubtless. to Tampa Bay. was completed in a short time after dark. they hav- ing " left ten on the ground. surrendered. Their forces were ufterwards divided into marauding bands. The hostiles probably suffered. command of the United-States troops in were for Broken bands of Indians. had gained the hummock and the Indians broke and fled. " official account of the battle of Okeechobee. from their thicket. seeking such protection as the ground could afford. where I ordered an encampment to be formed. about thirty. who gradually. Taylor the high appreciation of the Government and. besides. this battle was fought with the utmost desperation on both sides but the rout was complete. a part of the time. but four men were left untouched. with great exertions. 304 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. in a few minutes. Taylor lost. again. very close and severe. The action was a severe one. every officer was struck down and. equally with ourselves . in constructing a small footway across the swamp. in one company. The Seminoles lost so large a number of their warriors. Taylor to protect the scattered inhabitants. and continued from half-past twelve until after three in the afternoon. I turned my attention to taking care^of the wounded. in May. This. that. Taylor. ixen. as As soon . and soon after. cautiously. to facilitate their removal ] to my baggage. This signal victory secured for Col. crushed in spirit. carrying off is many customary with them when practicable. but the and keeping up a constant discharge of musketry Indians. We suffered much. he was elevated to the rank of brigadier-general by brevet. including many of his most valuable officers.. on litters roughly constructed of poles and hides. as the enemy were completely broken. Gen. and were removed to the lands allotted to them beyond the Mississippi. by other approaches. in his says. in killed. with more. a long time wandering through the country. other parties. One hundred and twelve were wounded. 1838. was ap. concentrated upon them such wellaimed shot. Taylor to cross over to the spot. requiring the most strenuous exertions on the part of Col. . as a reward.

who was may be permitted to say. ne exception. could have looked on . 89 . without any apparent means of doing so. . upwards of one hundred head of horses. on the greater portion of the route established two depots. . with more ease and comfort than I could have supposed.ZACHART TAYLOR. most of the way through an unexplored wilderness. at his own request. on rude litters constructed with the axe and knife alone. Mississippi. with poles and dry hides the latter being found in great abundance at the encampment of the hostiles. Alabama. in his strongest position. was encountered and overcome and they have been conveyed thus far. . and the necessary defences for the same and. I trust. six hundred head of cattle. and driving out of the country. without guides who had so gallantly beaten the enemy. . including the chiefs. a greater portion of which was entirely unknown except to the enemy. And here. in six weeks. and could not be found. the capturing. Besides the killed. a change of command. his nerves must have been very differently organized from my own. aided by the residue of the command. overtook and beat the enemy in his strongest The results of which movements and battle havo been position. and who had to be conveyed back through swamps and hummocks from whence we set out. I expe- rienced one of the most trying scenes of my And he who it with indifference. and other principal men . and constructed bridges and causeways. that I life. Taylor obtained. The litters were conveyed on the backs of our weak and tottering horses. Tusta- nuggee. under my orders. penetrated one hundred and fifty miles into the enemy's country. however. Gen. Oulatoochee. '* — a private of the Fourth Infantry. " This column. and with as much as they could have been in ambulances of the most improved and modern construction. " This service. mostly of the former. and was stationed over the Department of the South-west." After two years of such wearisome employment amidst the everglades of the peninsula. This field embraced Louisiana. there lay one hundred and twelve wounded officers and soldiers. . finally. when necessary. besides obtaining a thorough knowledge of the country through which we operated. fc 305 killed. the capture of thirty of the hostiles the coming-in and surrendering of more than one hundred and fifty Indians and negroes. opened roads. and proceeded on to Tampa Bay. who had accompanied me one hundred and forty-five miles.

and establish his corps of observation at Corpus Christi. until March. Taylor was It has been said that bayonets must not think. 1845. in and Georgia. was increased by re-enforcements to four thousand. but altogether too feeble Still the Mexican commander to attempt to dispute his passage. was bound. he ?ame to the waters of the Colorado. 1846. buried. his own responsibility.806 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. he was on ground which the Mexicans claimed. Although. near Baton Rouge. to advance to the Rio Grande. as it appeared to be the desire of the Government (James K. Gen. liints which came to him from Washington for a farther advance westward. whith he purchased. when at Corpus Christi. Into the question of wrong of this annexation. though he was directed to cross the Nueces River. with fifteen hundred troops. as the boundary-line to be defended. as he supposed. in his dewestern boundary of Texas spatch to Gen. nearly two hun. He therefore declined acting upon tions. At the distance of about one hundred miles. however. so long as he remained there. of which the Government wished to avoid the responsibility. an officer in the employment of the United-States Government. we have no space to enter. spring of 1845. dred miles farther west. at first. Tn the and. Here he found a Mexican force drawn up upon the western bank. when there came explicit orders for him to advance to the Rio Grande. embarrassing. Louisiana. In August. to obey orders. . Polk having entered upon the presidency) that Gen. silently waiting for implicit instruc- The River Nueces was claimed by Mexico to be the original but Secretary Marcy. as it Here he remained for five years. Gen. Establishing his headquarters at Fort Jessup. Taylor. indicated the Rio Grande. readiness for action on the the right or Texan frontier. not ordered. Congress passed a joint resolution for the annexation of Texas and Gen. or rather south. there was apparently no danger of He disregarded all the collision with the Mexican authorities. as such. yet faithfully discharging every duty imposed upon him. he removed his family to a plantation. from the world. in November. Taylor was directed to hold his troops in . he took his position here. however. Taylor's position was. Taylor should take steps to bring on a collision with Mexico. He was. on the western bank of the river. He accordingly took up his line of march over the boundless prairies which Mexico claimed as her territory. which. were.

This invasion of their country. on tho banks of an inlet opening into the Gulf. paid no attention to the warning. Taylor. and had been fixed upon as the depot for ^applies. The Mexican commander. re- fused to hold any friendly intercourse with the Americans. Gen. issued a summons to Gen. Opposite them. GEN. and commenced throwing up defensive works. upon the western bank. assuming that he was simply bound to obey orders. Taylor to return to the eastern bank of the Nueces. was the Mexican city of Matamoras. invasion of Mexico.on ON THE ItlO GItAXDE. Ampudia. which was easily accessithe liis army The main body of the army soon reached the Rio Grande. TAYI. and declared that the crossing of the Colorado would be regarded as a declaration of war.ZAOHARY TAYLOR. and on the 12th of April. there to await the decision of the two Governments. by orders from his Government. and crossed the river in sight of Mexican detachment. Continuing march. who peaceably withdrew. excited ble b3'' steamers. he sent a detachment to occupy Point Isabel. v^'ho . as the Mexicans deemed it. Gen. 307 Bent a protest against what he regarded as th(. great indignation.

1846. hearing of the vicand Resaca de la Palma. The two armed forces upon the Matamoras remained in the presence of each other for a month. Gen. States." and Germany combined. he seized Monterey. 1846." The whole Italy. Portugal. he accepted it with regret. to-day. if would not allow him to retire to the Nueces and war were the only alternative. Their object cannot be mistaken by the enemy. Commodore Sloat was sent to the Pacific with seven ships of war and nearly three thousajid men. announcing that " henceforth California will be a portion of the United California. "On our side. and the guns placed in battery. without resistance. that. . and the artillery-men on both sides impatient for the order to fire. in and "annexed" California. territory we wrested from Mexico is estimated to be as large as England. and are within good range for demolishing the town. Our Government evidently wished to provoke hostilities." 308 LIVES OF TAE PRESIDENTS. We You fight for the soil we fight for plunder will go with you. that the refusal to do this must inevitably lead to war. as he was acting in a purely military capacity. nia.' This interview between Gen. an old Apache chief You have taken came in. The situation naturally gave rise Santa Fe. were discussing the question of the true boundaries of Texas added. will agree perfectly. Gen. Taylor wrote to the adjutant-general. his instructions that. In Cutt's " Conquest of Califorhe relates the following anecdote " Just as we were leaving camp to-day. Scotland." President Polk did not regard this as a hostile measure which the Mexicans had any right to resist. and harangued the general thus : — : ' Let us go on and take Chihuahua and Sonora. on the 7th of July. For more than two miles along each bank of the river. France. the guns shotted. He Taylor replied. a battery for four eighteen-pounders will be completed. with secret orders to seize and occupy San Francisco and other Mexican ports on the Pacific as soon as he should hear of the existence of war between Mexico and the United States. Spain. These people are bad Christians: so we let us give them a good thrashing. Ireland. These guns bear directly upon the public square at Matamoras. In the mean time. tories of Palo Alto Accordingly. antagonistic batteries were facing each other. : . . April 6. Kearney and the Indian warrior reminds one of the ancient anecdote of Alexander and the pirate.

was threatened by a force of fifteen hundred Mexicans and Gen. in pursuit of fell upon a band of Mexicans. . A small party of United-States soldiers. On their return. Taylor. lu«?s of ten . the . was about twelve miles from Matamoras. who was in command. and endured the terrible bombardment until night again closed the scene. After a spirited bombardment on both sides. left a garrison at Fort Brown. The morning of thr* 8th dawned. Taylor that he was surrounded. as we have mentioned. having learned that the Mexicans had crossed the river with six thousand men. by firing his eighteen-pouuders at stated intervals. was blockaded from camp. Their shells fell with such accuracy into the camp. Hawkins. wounded. Point Isabel. to 309 many cau&es of irritation on both sides. He refused the summons to surrender. Brazos Santiago. hostilities were in- augurated. was captured. he supplies was cut ofi". and that Fort Brown was surrounded and in great peril. commenced vigorously retracing his steps. their A A Mexican force crossed the Rio Grande above Matsquadron of United-States dragoons. the Mexicans resumed the assault. silenced but. In the night. No one could deny that this was a hostile act. Major Brown. Mexicans opened fire upon Fort Brown from a battery on the The hostile battery was soon the western side of the river. sent to watch movements. In the mean time. The Mexi. taking possession of their camp. gradually. . was attacked by the Mexicans. they were fired upon by another Mexican party. The command devolved upon Capt. The next morning. Thus. with the remainder of his army. of their oflScers was killed. another and more formidable assault was made. so as to attack the fort both in front and rear. Taylor's connection with his dep6t of In order to open his communications. Ist of May for Point Isabel. and. and put them to flight. and. and one tho murderers. by order of Gen. amoras. Taylor and two supply-ships for the Mexican army were ordered off the harbor. night closed the conflict. The deputy quartermaster of the American troops was murdered a short distance port of Matamoras. It was the 6th of May. that the garMajor Brown was mortally rison was driven into the bomb-proofs. after the men killed.ZACUARY TAYLOR. signalled Gen. after the lapse of a day. set out on tho Immediately after his departure. as his works opposite Matamoras were called. the Mexicans having crossed the river. Gen. fired upon them. which.

The prairie-grass took fire. Gen. and thirty-two wounded. The thunders of the cannonade floated over the vast prairies. as he had ten guns. Our infantry. with waving banners and gleaming armor — were drawn up on the broad prairie. upon which these hostile armies were thus arrayed. and artillery. neither party knew The Mexicans. gave us the adcan vantage and the loss was far greater on the Mexican side than on ours. two of which were eighteen-pounders. . on the whole. and our heavier weight of metal. grape. gunners. and their left was protected by a swimp. hundred and sixty-two. in a line nearly a mile in length. and fell their comrades. and most of the enemy's shot either fell short. straightforward. and was. confessed to a defeat. Taylor's force encountered the Mexicans. as three thouinfantry. each army being exposed The superior skill of the Amerito every shot of its antagonist. indomitable fighter. about half a mile distant from the Mexicans. under protection of the ever.: 310 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. The field of Palo Alto. and sheets of flame rolled Immense clouds of smoke enveloped the along ten feet high. with nothing to obstruct the view. or passed over their heads. sand men — Their appearance was very imposing. and closed the conflict. they stood for twenty minutes looking at each other. Their right rested upon a dense thicket of chaparral. The combatants kept at quite a distance from each other. cans opened again their bombardment with new vigor and hope. each hesitating to begin the work of At length a white puff of smoke burst from one of the death. howthe efiect of the cannonade upon the other. throwing their shot and shell often more than three-quarters of a mile. Round-shot. Only four Americans were killed. and a cannon-ball whistled over the heads of This opened the battle. When night came. generally. cavalry. Taylor was not a tactician artillery contest on both sides. heavily upon the ears of the host advancing to the rescue of About noon. Taylor had about twenty-two hundred men. and shells tore through contending hos the Mexican ranks with great slaughter. Mexican guns. Thus the battle raged for five hours. threw themselves upon the ground. He drew up his army in battle-array. was a vast plain. by retiring. superior to the Mexicans in artillery. he was simply a stern. The Mexican loss was two . It was mainly an the American troops. When both armies were ready. They had eleven field-pieces in position. Gen.

Taylor. to a little 311 in tlieir rear. hotly pursued. was made upon them. and many be cut of their wounded. There was but The little room for generalship. and The American loss did not exceed a hundred and fifty. listened with intense anxiety to the boomShould Gen. and was followed up with infantry and cavalry. missing. wounded. finding that the enemy had disappeared. and their victory was complete. upon him their honors. " On to the halls of the Montezumas " was the cry and the few and feeble voices of remonstrance were drowned in martial inaugurated. Congressional resolutions complimented him. Taylor. fired with much more rapidit}'' and with surer aim. It was simply hard fighting. new position some few miles The garrison at Fort Brown. It commenced with artilSeveral lery. far more intelligent than their foes. The the tidings of these victories aroused to an astonishing degree spirit War was now thoroughly of the country. and »oon found la Pal ma. formidably posted in a ravine called Resaca de Scat- tered around were dense thickets of dwarf-oaks. them. Arista. The Mexicans fought with great bravery and with disciplined valor. charges of great impetuosity were made. but the Americao forces were not far from equal on both sides soldiers. . Soon the whole Mexican line was seen on the retreat. required desperate valor to break Again there was a battle. moved forward to the ground which the Mexicans had occupied.. Those who had brought it on were well pleased. He pressed on in pursuit. They liad left behind them their dead. Enthusiastic were the cheers of the little band in Fort Brown as they saw the stars and stripes advancing so gloriously to their rescue. The enemy fled across the river. almost impenetrable. "Palo Alto" and "Resaca de la Palma" rang through the land as among the most glorious victories which had ever been achieved. had so advantageously posted his forces. Taylor off or driven back. fifty Congress authorized the President to accept The rank r»f major-general by brevet was conferred on Gen. at the distance of but about three miles from Fort Brown. Here the Mexican it general. Gen. while repelling the assault which ing of the cannon on the field of Palo Alto. The next morning. and the legislatures of several States lavished thousand volunteers. having lost a thousand of their number in killed. darkness. the doom of the garrison was sealed. These flattering testimonials were fe« . ! the exultant shout. that through. ZACHARY TAYLOR.

After the relief of Fort Brown. and. The distinguished representatives . in a very uncomfortable manner. — At the time appointed. Taylor with that unaflFected simplicity which was and which was manifest in all strict disciplinarian. who had been associated with him for years. and surrounded by all the retinue . he one of his chief characteristics. he hastened from some heavy work which he was superintending. Accordingly. from any common farmer. ceived by Gen. As soon as it came was reported to Gen. Without embarrassment." An incident. prepared for his interview with the plain old general. he could have welcomed his guest with a hearty grip of the hand to a seat on the camp-chest. with the good sense of a gallant and accomplished gentleman. commanding in the Gulf. he ashore. command of ceremony. was an anticipation almost The genetoo great for nerves that scarcely trembled in battle. Commodore Conner. seated himself for the reception. but that the most carefully-dressed officer of its finest fleet. ral. Gen. Meanwhile Commodore Conner. life. brought from the bottom of his chest a uniform-coat that for years had been undisturbed. habited in plain white drilling. and to a familiar talk over their plans in the navy. This announcement caused much agitation in the mind of the kind-hearted officer.312 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Taylor that his visitor had landed. should pay him a visit uniform. rushed into his tent. Taylor prepared to follow up his victories by the bombardment of Matamoras. decided to receive the commodore. quite unconscious of the flutter he had caused in the general's bosom. dressed in full uniform. amusingly illustrates these traits in his character. arrayed himself in it. These habits secured for him among his troops the soubriquet of " Old Rough and Ready. in his own personal appearance and dress. whose habits were well known to him. without any parade or any attendants. in full and equipments becoming his rank. The commodore sent word that he would pay the general a visit of ceremony. in . with its standing-collar raised on one side three vacant button-holes above its legitimate height. which occurred soon after the victories just recorded. was as famed for particularity in dress as the general was for negligence in that respect. however. the habits of his Though a went to Point Isabel to arrange for the co-operation of the navy. had never witnessed. he could scarcely be distinguished. a sight that his officers. Commodore Conner quietly entered the tent of the commander-in-chief.

He had not seen his old friend for some time." jogging along towards the camp. of the largest dimensions. A his trousers were tucked under his coarse. It matters little whether this story be accurately true or not: it illustrates the character of the man. he found to be his old friend. both above and below Mata- moras. He had on a very coarse straw hat. For three months. been connected with the army. and was attached to the same had regiment with Taylor. to his surprise. The request from Gen. was posi tively refused. and took possession of the city. fort. neither had recognized the other. attending a court-martial. Gen. spattered boots. Taylor remained at Matamoras. that. and gazing at him after he had passed. fla])ped up and dowa while. while the general was stationed in command at that post. after that interview. long. with more pertinacity than ever. Gen. upon returning to the was cordially greeted by this comical-looking donkey-rider. in the character of Gen. crossed the Rio Grande unopposed. in Louisiana. Taylor took to linen roundabouts. visited Fort Jessup. as he trotted along. and had been intimately acquainted with him. boundary Arista.ZACHAEY TAYLOu of the 313 army and navy shook hands in mutual astonifchment at each other's personal appearance. Another amusing anecdote has been told illustrative of this of extreme simplicity. victories Hia This was with him a period of great anxiety. black cravat was tied loosely round his neck. from beneath. Taylor. the gentleman was walking out from the fort in a morning ramble. for a suspension of hostilities until the terms of could be amicably arranged by the two Governments. They exchanged salutaBut tions. and both govern40 . was so comical. having obtained pontoons. that the gentleman could not refrain from turning round. in the breeze. Taylor. on a donkey. according to the custom in those remote solitudes. On the 18th of May. who. and disregard of the ordinary courteA gentleman who sies of life. The gentleman continued his walk. One day. when he met " an old country codger. had excited unbounded enthusiasm. and was quite disappointed to learn that he was a trait hundred miles distant. on his diminutive beast. whose broad brim. the figure of the donkey-rider. Gen. He was dressed in a The bottoms of coarse bombazine frock-coat and drab trousers. It is said. uncombed hair fluttered . Gen. Taylor In passing. and.

delayed for some time by the non-arrival of re-enforcements. and the brave officers and soldiers under your command. Our army have fully sustained their deservedly high reputation. shall have been received. The country through which they marched had long been infested by banditti. . -and with the advice and consent of the Senate. President Polk. Camargo Monterey. his next point of attack. however. They have won new laurels for themselves and for their country. Sixteen hundred mules had been obtained for the transportation. and of the noble defence of the camp opposite to Matamoras. the gratitude of the country is justly due. and to make prepara- tions for a vigorous resistance. this testimonial of the estimate which your Government places upon your skill and gallantry." It was Gen. his base of invasion of Mexico. in whose narrow defiles a small band could resist a host. and will long be remembered by the American people. some of recent . and added another bright page to the history of American valor and patriotism. and by his want of means of transportation. This delay gave the operations in the now contemplated was nearer to Mexicans time the to recover from their panic. which was one hundred and forty miles farther up the river. immediately upon receipt of official intelli- gence from the scene of your achievements.314 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and Resaca de la Palma rank among our most brilliant victories. and mountain-ranges. and large numbers of crosses were passed. intersected by rivers easily defended. to confer upon ycu. These crosses were of wood. At length. in transmitting to Gen. as it will be my grateful duty. He was. atout four feet high. To yourself. which had been reared by the friends of murdered travellers at the places where they had been slain. the latter part of July. Taylor's intention to make Camargo. to render to the officers and men under your command suitable testimonials for their conduct in the brilliant victories which a superintending Providence has enabled thera to achieve '' The battles of Palo Alto for their country. ment and people seemed to expect that he would sweep hnmodiately and resistlessly on to the city of Mexico but this required a march of more than five hundred miles. army was put in motion. Taylor his commission of major-general by brevet. wrote to him as follows : " It gave me by sincere pleasure. it will be my pleasure. When all the details of those battles.

" he replied asked if there would be much fighting. three miles distant from the city. say three thousand.ZACHARY TAYLOR. On the 19th of September. Taylor was so much deceived. At the village of Ramas. His regular force is small. and attack in that direction. " It is even doubtful whether Gen. in 315 mossy with age. A brief in- At one place." Instead of this. To aid him in this . Mexican cavalry began to appear. eked out. and encamped at the Walnut Springs. he wrote to the War Department. there rose sublimely before them the majestic peaks of the mountains. Sunday the 20th. Taylor had under his command six thousand two hundred and twenty. a very intelligent. Gen. and was surrounded by the lofty ridges of the Sierrt. on a pleasure-party to Matamoras. Soon. the indicabegan to multiply that there was trouble to be encountered The Mexican muleteers shrugged their shoulders ominously. Irreverently our troops tore down these crosses. Early in September. to six thousand by volunteers. quite a skirmish ensued. Gen. and others hoary." It was generally supposed that the Mexicans would not make any stand at Monterey. watching every movement. and carry the works if possible. seven thousand of whom were regular troops. a cluster of these crosses. perhaps. honest-looking Mexican was " Yes. two days before. " there will be much fighting. In the distance. the army reached the outskirts of Monterey. there was quite commemoration of a company of men. Worth was then ordered to make a detour to the west of the city.. the troops again took up their line of march for Monterey. and Gen. " cutting their outlines against the clear sky like huge masses of indigo. Gen. there was found in Monterey a garrison of ten thousand soldiers. the enemy'a works were carefully reconnoitred. which was beautifully situated in the Valley of the San Juan River. Ampudia will attempt to hold Monterey. who. Taylor was of this opinion. construction. and children. women. that. however. Camargo was reached without opposition and here another delay occurred. hovering in front and upon their flanks. and many deaths. . At Marin. and used them for fire-wood. : — forced. and scription generally told the story. of six weeks." very decidedly When they reached Seralvo. Madre. and all slain. were met by a band of savages. The next day after our arrival. sir. many of them tions ahead.

The enemy kept up a vigorous fire upon any of our troops who came within range.316 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. they were opened upon from masked batteries. Gen. the 21st. The troops were thrown into confusion but the indomitable spirit of Gen. erected a battery of two twenty-four-pounder howitzers. that they quailed before it. the assault was not renewed. and burying the dead. and. Gen. having . the 22d. About ten o'clock. Gen. Worth reached the Saltillo Road. As night approached. Promptly they threw out re-enforcements to strengthen their western lines. Worth. succeeded in carrying the Bishop's Palace. and the rest of the One troops were sent back to camp. however. Worth's division. Taylor." The next day. lives Many of the soldiers writes. with such a storm of iron. Taylor and Twiggs were both upon the ground. Garland's brigade held the captured works. Still the scene of confusion was dread- had been lost. and turned its guns upon the fugitive garrison. — — ascertained the fact of this decisive success. At sunset. announcing the success of his movement. Gen. it began to rain. and occupied a position just out of the range of the Mexican guns. a ten-inch mortar. they captured one fort and an endeavor. upon the other side of the city. as these troops were approacliing the eastern walls. and urging a strong assault. In the night. To divert their attention. We had had nothing to eat since the evening before. laboring under the most intense excitement. Early on the morning of Monday. old fortified block-house. and watched every movement. " — That was one of the most miserable nights I ever passed. ful. . in his support. Tuesday. and had been fighting all day nor was it until the making in all about forty-eight hours under next afternoon that we had even a morsel. and four light field-batteries of four guns each. and. felt confident that the Mexicans could not long hold possession of the town. Gens. Taylor displayed a large force on the east. a little order was evolved from the chaos. Taylor was in the midst of the melee. dated nine o'clock the evening before. make a demonstration on the eacL. Gen. Gen. Gen. after very hard fighting. Taylor received a despatch from Gen. except some sugar that had arms been trampled under foot. by an impetuous charge. We had been out all night. Taylor rallied them. Taylor was to The . its hours were mainly devoted to the sad duty of taking care of the wounded. Mexicans were vigilant. under cover of the darkness of the night. upon the eastern portion of the town.

stating that he had penetrated the city almost to the central plaza. I repaired to the abandoned works. and were successfully 'working their way towards the principal plaza. I then ordered up the Second Regiment of Texas mounted volunteers. and supported by the Third Infantry and. to strengthen those points now so seriously menaced on the west by Gen. but with due caution. constructed works were armed with forty-two pieces of cannon. and in good order. dismounted. who entered the city. Gen. " I immediately sent instructions to that officer. . and that a mortar which had been forwarded to his division in the morning was doing great execution. As Quitman's brigade was exceedingly exhausted. 317 During the night. after firing for some time at the cathedral. leaving it to his discretion. American batteries were throwing shot and shell into the city. This was reported He says in his report. the safer position of the evacuated works. the enemy evacuated nearly all his defences on the eastern part of the city. early in the morning to Gen. and night was drawing on. Twiggs. the 24th. although destructive to the enemy. under the orders of Gen. Taylor ordered them to withdraw to This was done slowly. At eleven o'clock at night. Henderson. until the fire endangered our own advancing troops.— ZACHARY TAYLOR. Ampudia. This advance was conducted vigorously. Worth. Early in the morning of Thursday. covering his walls. and from square to square. Capt. Gen. under the immediate orders of Gen. he received a note from Gen. Taylor received a despatch from the Mexican general. until they reached a street but one square in rear of the principal plaza. This led to a cessation of fire until twelve A its personal interview took place between the two gen- Taylor and Ampudia. in and near which the enemy's force was mainly concentrated. " Our troops advanced from house to house. was attended with but small loss upon our part. co-operated with Gen. material of The town and tor. war were placed in possession of the vicIts well- The city was found to be very strongly fortified. Bragg's battery was also ordered up. and to advance as far as men by the houses and he might deem prudent. Quitman's brigade. erals. Worth. Taylor. to enter the city. a portion of it was likewise thrown into the city. which resulted in a capitulation. After or- dering the remainder of the troops as a reserve. and. and discovered had entered the town. to evacuate the town." In the mean time. proposing that a portion of Gen. Quitman's brigade . and. o'clock.

left camp with only two . he learned that Santa Anna was rapidly advancing upon him with twenty thousand men. but it must have been dreadful. and we knew that our gallant troops had carried it. from which he could see the cloudii of dust raised by the . Gen. many of them without any food except raw corn. To meet such a force with but five thou sand. about two hundred and fifty miles south of Monterey. and quite warmed our cold and chilled storming one of the heights : looked like an electric spark. distance. a city of four thousand inhabitants. Thirty-one officers and three hundred and thirty-seven men were wounded." Gen. of Mexico by the way of Vera Cruz. Taylor should have every possiHe found a field such as he desired. Taylor. For five months. Gen. with his stafi". The dark space between the apex of the height and the curling smoke of the musketry grew less and less. Our loss was very severe. tage. Twelve officers and one hundred and eight men were killed. ble advantage of position. it was necessary that Gen. Taylor. Scott was placed in command of all the landAs he was preparing to advance upon the city forces in Mexico. on a plateau. stood upon an eminence at a little forces . Gen. as our troops in the distance " Each flash and the white smoke ascended the hillside as steadily as if worked by machinery. The loss of the enemy is not known. Santa Anna was commander-in-chief of the Mexican armies. He collected twenty thousand men at San Luis Potosi. An were eye-witness thus describes the appearance. with merely sufficient men to garrison his but in February. sent out divisions of his army to occupy important posts in the vicinity. days' ra- and much of this was spoiled by the rain yet they climbed these cliffs and charged these batteries for forty-eight hours. nearly all of Gen. he commenced ments a forward movement.318 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and well supplied with ammunition. It was a glorious sight. until the whole became enveloped in smoke. Worth's division had tions. having received re-enforcedefensive works which raised his army to six thousand men. consolidating his strength at Monterey. a short distance from the small hamlet of Buena Having posted his little band to the best possible advanVista. Taylor's were withdrawn from him. When about fifty miles south of Monterey. Gen. The flashes bodies. as our balls and shells tore through their streets and dwellings. Taylor remained in Monterey.



on our part. It was an anxious night but in the morning." He then returned the modest answer Taylor never surrenders. and.ZACHARY TAYLOR." Gen. Taylor quietly remarked around him. Were to the officers they twice that number. I intend to stand here not only so long as a is left. Taylor's front " and rear. a battle of ten hours' duration." Santa Anna. '' it would make no difference. Anxiously his staff looked into the general's face but no sign of faltering or agitation could pressed. the battle. it American camp. Gen. 319 immense host advancing against him. Just then. "A little more grape. This ended Gen. " Gen. Onward the vast throng numbers which seemed almost countless. Taylor rode up to a battery which was dealing destruction in the ranks of the foe. not merely to the courage and patient endurance of the troops. that the dreadful struggle The day of the battle seemed probable. relief. he said to to his troops. and about two thousand of the Mexicans. the morrow. they found that the Mexicans had fled. But few of them had been with Taylor in his previous victories. in . but also to the military skill of their commander. the result of the conflict was extremely doubtful. be perceived. drenched and chilled. All of the troops were voluntoers. and. It is universally admitted that the victory was owing. 1847. with the exception of about five hundred. seemed Taylor's active participation in the Mexican . " Soldiers. until the band of Americans was nearly surrounded. Capt. with the assurance that twenty thousand Mexicans were in Gen. and many of them had never been in battle. said. As he rode along his ranks. Taylor's army at the battle of Buena Vista. in tones as calm as if he were sitting by his camp-fire. Bragg. to their unspeakable . when night closed the scene. Seldom has a battle been fought in which the troops displayed more gallant conduct than was exhibited by Gen. bivouacked without fires." It was the commenced. The battle soon — the eventful day. over seven hundred of the Americans had been stricken down in killed and wounded." At the close of the day. Our ex- hausted troops. Three several times during the day. In the midst of one of its most terrible scenes of tumult and carnage. Often. War. in the would be renewed on was wet and raw. It was a summons to surrender. a Mexican messenger was seen nearing the outposts i^ith a flag of truce. during man remains. but so long as apiece of a man 22d of February.

The Kentuckians levelled their pieces. The Mexicans were interest. which was slowly giving way before the tre- With most painful in various parts of the mendous pressure of the foe. he said. for a few moments. precision. but shouted. as hill. " Hurrah for old Kentucky distinguished officer in the A army thus describes the appear: ance of the general toward the close of the conflict — . sults so decisive. Crittenden was also so mortified. they. as he despatched re-enforcements. The general. became broken. gullies and obstructions. like the veterans of a hundred batThe general could scarcely restrain his expressions of detles. so superior in numbers. and its reHis face was flushed with excitement. " This will not do. with such regularity. But when the distant report of the and he saw the Mexicans in wild flight. Turning sadly This is to who not the way Kentuckians to behave themselves. shoulder to shoulder. But soon the Kentuckians had crossed the rugged chasm. . Taylor. was bitterly failure of troops dis- appointed at this apparent upon whom he had Mr. of course. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. rushing onward with shouts of exultation. staggered. who was eagerly watching them in the distance. watched this movement so heroic. In hurrying to their relief. the regiment was compelled to pass through a ravine filled with In their eagerness in pressing forward. volleys reached his ear. and rapidity of that the Mexicans recoiled. the Second Kentucky Regiment was despatched to the aid of a column. stood near. Crittenden. light. Gen. to strengthen his exhausted and wavering lines. leaving the ground covered with their dead. now in one direction and now in another. again. and felt so deeply for the honor of his native State. for placed great reliance. that.— 320 hopelessly lost. but in perfect silence. Gen. that they could easily concentrate an overpowering force at any point. with a throbbing heart and a moistened eye. they moved rapidly on until they reached the crest of the Here they encountered a large body of the Mexicans. and surmounting these diflSculties. and presented an aspect of confusion and disorder." Mr. he could make no reply. he could no longer restrain his admiration. and poured in their volleys of bullets again and fire. Taylor watched the movements field. " ! scattered over the plain. and fled. At one time. and were seen ascending the slope to the higher land beyond. and beamed with delight.

for a time. He had given all his orders. as he is not inaptly styled (whom you. relaxed their hold his . The day was won danced in the stirrups. honest soldier as their candidate for the presi- dency. If the day went against him. if for him. The enemy. body was in It was a moment of the most exciting and intense His face was suffused with tears. felt He knew the result would be. but a moment before.— . " in common with his countrymen. his little army saved from defeat and dis- grace. declaring that he was not at all quali- . and his whole the victory complete . unlettered. This was about three. interest. perceiving his perilous situation. . made a fierce charge upon our column. The struggle lasted for some time. and for would not 41 listen to it . upon victory or defeat. and selected his position. took his position on a commanding height overlooking the two armies. fat. approached him. and fought with a desperation that seemed. and he could not refrain from weeping for joy at what had seemed to so many. feet fairly motion. All the while. . a time Gen. Buena Vista spread the The name of Gen. and when he saw the enemy give way. Taylor to take advan- was on every one's lips. to insiire success to their arms. for and despondency. his determination. as an impossible result. ZACHART TAYLOR. where it had remained during the whole of the fierce encounter his arms. His right leg was quickly disengaged from the pommel of the saddle. or perhaps four o'clock in the afternoon. and dumpy in person. who had succeeded in gaining an advantageous position." The tidings of the brilliant victory of wildest enthusiasm over the country. Taylor was a silent spectator his countenance exhibiting the most anxious solicitude. " 321 At a time when the fortunes of the day seemed extremely when many on our side even despaired of success. alternating between hope problematical. implored him to retire. which were calmly folded over his breast. by the by. Such seemed to be his thoughts. G-en. old Rough and Ready. His staff. is short. he was irretrievably lost. he gave free vent to his pent-up feelings. at the trium- phant success of our arms. and he was exposed to the fire of the enemy. He that that he could rejoice. with re markably short legs). His thoughts were — intent not at this moment what engagement was to decide his fate.must know. The Whig party decided tage of this wonderful popularity in bringing forward the unpolished. Taylor was astonished at the announcement. He heeded them not. and retreat in the utmost confusion.

he had been steadily growing in the affections of the people. Martin Van Buren. pronounced by the Hon. Gen. Taylor. laid down his earthly harness ia Gen. years in the public service found their claims set aside in behalf of one whose name had never been heard of." Gen. who was thoroughly acquainted with Gsn. after a brief sickness of but five days. and prepared such few communica- tion not tions as it was needful should be presented to the public. truthfulness of the following eulogy. in his haste. . It is said that Daniel Webster. remarked. Tciylar found the political conflicts in Washington to be far more trying to the nerves than battles with Mexicans or Indians. Though he selected an excellent cabinet. The popularity of the successful warrior swept the land. without fear. and was. M ithout ostentation sincere and honest — the noble old : . It was not without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen who had been long that. cautious. — Gen.322 fied for LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Marshall : — "Great. at last. after he had occupied the presidential chair but little over a year. . the good old man found himself in a very uncongenial position. died on the 9th of His last words were. benevolent. . for forty years. 1850. In the midst of all these troubles. sagacious. So little interest had ho taken in politics he had not cast a vote. . took cold. his task Roman done. '' Mr. at times. He died universally respected and beloved. " It is a nominafit to be made. The proslavery party was pushing its claims with tireless energy expeditions were fitting out to capture Cuba California was pleading for admission to the Union. modest. He was and the Ex-President. without harshness." ready. unpretending man." has. while slavery stood at the door to bar her out. and Buena Vista. such an office. His mental sufferings were very severe. I am not afraid to die. An honest. Avithout flippancy . stern. . and probably tended to hasten his death. and. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker or a fine writer. Cass. I have endeavored to do my duty. save in connection with Palo Alto. Resaca de la Palma. without rashness. Gen. His friends took possession of him. I am July. Scott. without pride. Monterey. triumphantly elected over two opposing candidates. Taylor. without bashfulness apt. and the All assented to the general nation bitterly lamented his death. brave. sorely perplexed and harassed. without cunning as the sun.

His simplicity was child-like. 323 gives the following graphic and truthful description of his character " : — With a good store of common sense. or much with the world. — leave a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an outside pocket. sincere. ' touch with a pair of tongs. Kind-hearted. combined with indomitable courage.' "Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil worth's Spelling- book. was evidence. any such case. Thus. Taylor's mind had converse not been enlarged and refreshed by reading. many friends. he had no vice but prejudice. however respectable. men have ever had a more comfortable. labor-saving contempt for learning of fevery kind. uncorrupted morals. amusing and incorrigible. few enemy in the world. this critic held the offender to be a coxcomb (perhaps something worse). chanced to wear a coat of an unusual or an officer to color. on the part of one wearing a sword. The and small military posts had been his home. whom he would not. Gen. and quite bigoted in his ignorance. of utter unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. well suited to the tender age. to use his oftin repeated phrase. with the same judge. frontiers Rigidity of ideas was the consequence. if a man. and with innumerable j^rejudices. Hence ho was quite ignorant for his rank. Yet this old soldier and neophyte statesman had the true basis of a great character. and left behind him not an In short." . or his hat a little on one side of the head . and hospitable in a plain way.— ZA CHART TAYLOR. pure.

— Eagerness for In^al— A Clothier.Y. — President. £ '. — In Congi'eis. Of his mother. to His father was a farmer. united with 324 . — His Rapid Rise. N. Abiathar Millard of Pittsfield.ri lowly Birth.— CHAPTER XIII. and. lectual — Struggles with Adversity. in humble circumstances. MiLLARD Fillmore. — Limited Education..VKO FILLMORE.. — Commenceine: tof Fikctice. Mass. Cayuga County. IIIIIIIU>UIUIUIIIIIUIIIIIIi|ll| 'S^?^^£' 4 f / RESIDENCE OF MILL. Life. — The Civil War. owing. it has been Raid that she possessed an intellect of verj high order. Improvement. the 7th of Januar}'-. — Political Administration. misfortune. the thirteenth President of the United St". — A Law-student. MILLARD FILLMORE.t«a. — Vice-President.ipii. on . the daughter of Dr. was born at Summer Hill. 1800. — Retirement.

enterprising man had commenced the was occupied with books. where some collection of a village This proved an inestimable blessing to young Fillmore. almost unknown to himself. graceful mar> . and devote himself to the study of the law. it inspired his words. He made his acquaintance. that he had no means of his own. that he advised him to abandon his trade. She died in 1831 having Jived to see her son a young man of distinguished promise. and that his previous education had been very imperfect. 325 much ners. and was of fine personal appearance and of gentlemanly demeanor. — — . were very imperfect institutions and books were scarce and e. When fourteen years of age. His thirst for knowledge became insaand the selections which he made were continually more elevating and instructive. a well informed. biography. which he occasionally attended early years. . it placed its impress of dignity and refinement upon his manners. It so happened that there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ample pecuniary means and of benevolence. The sacred influences of home had taught him to revere the Bible. Soon every leisure moment library. no friends to help him. oratory and thus gradually there was enkindling in his heart a desire to be something more than a mere worker with his hands and he was becoming. though she was not permitted to witness the high dignity which he finally attained. then wilds of Livingston County. He was a plain farmer's boy intelligent. good-looking. to the clothier. But tiate . to learn the trade of a Near the mill there was a small village. had laid the foundations of an upright character. sweetness of disposition. His evenings were spent in reading. Millard In consequence of the secluded home and limited means of his enjoyed but slender advantages for education in hi^ The common schools. He read history. kind-hearted. brilliant career upon which he was about to enter. The young clothier had now attained the age of nineteen years. and was so much impressed with his ability and attainments. . and . educated man. This intellectual culture of necessity pervaded his whole being.x There was nothing then in his character to indicate thu pensive.MILLARD FILLMORE. It beamed forth from his countenance. who was struck with the prepossessing appearance of youn» Fillmore. his father sent him some hundred miles from home. father. Judge Walter Wood. The young man replied. . and exquisite sensibilities. personal loveliness.

these serene. His elevation of and his . peaceful region. he has graduated at some college. he. his untiring industry. But many a boy loiters through university halls. Lemuel Powers. Young Fillmore was now established in the law-oflSce. Here. \n this quiet home of — rural peace and loveliness. at the same time. he married a lady of great moral worth. daughter of Rev. and his native abilities. he pressed onward in his studies with untiring zeal. that he kindly offered him into his own office. That he might not be burdened with debt. all combined to bear him triumphantly forward in his studies. He then went to the beautiful village of Aurora. taught school. helped himself along. the generous offer was accepted. and. banks of Cayuga In this secluded. during which every leisure moment had been devoted to intense mental culture. his legal acquirements. and one capable Miss Abigail of adorning any station she might be called to fill. he was admitted to the little Court of Common Pleas. Powers. an advocate. self to juridical studies. Most gratefully. his practice. and then enters a law-office. the ardor of his zeal. supporting himself mainly by teaching. he went to the city of Buffalo. The purity of his character. during the winter months.326 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. to take Judge Wood had so much confidence in him. skill as character. Fillmore continued to devote him- and to the fundamental principles of law. After spending two years in this retired country village. gradually attracted attention and he was in- . and that he might not bear too heavily On the generosity of his benefxctor. Here. been conscious of the exalted destiny which was beas if he had Probably no portion of his life was more happy than fore him. There is in many minds a strange delusion about a collegiate A young man is supposed to be liberally educated if education. in the year 1826. was limited. of course. and entered a law-office there. In 1823. when twenty-three years of age. his physical health. situated on the eastern Lake. and to loan him such money as ho needed. and there was no opportunity for a sudden rise in fortune or in fame. in various other ways. who is by no means as well prepared to prosecute his legal studies as was Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing-mill at the end of four years of manual labor. But true merit cannot long be concealed. where he could enjoy the highest advantages. untroubled hours. for two years more. Mr. and commenced the practice of the law.

His term of two years closed. He entered that troubled arena in some of the most tumultuous hours of conflict respecting the National our national history. Fillmore more than look on. in 1829. won. could do but which he pursued with increasing reputation and success. The industr}^ and the intensity with which he applied himself to his Congressional duties were characteristic of the man. 327 vited to enter into partnership. led the contending hosts. and he found himself in a helpless minority in the Legislature still tlie testimony comes from all parties. he was. The labors which devolved upon him were more arduous than can well be conceived . as representative from Erie County. He was now prepared for active duty. for abolishing To the important bill debt he gave his earnest and eloquent co-operation. All his energies were brought to bear upon the public good. Experienced leaders. Mr. he took his seat in the House of Assembly of the State of New York. and have. There was but little opportunity for a new-comer to- distinguish himself little In this battle of the giants. His reputation now began to be national. garner wisdom. Tlie State was then Democratic. After discharging. perhaps. never been surpassed. His past experience the lapse of as a representative gave him strength and confidence. Though he had never taken a very active part in politics. and cast his silent vote. was then raging. for imprisonment The State Legislature is not unfrequently the entrance-door to the National Congress. elected to a seat in the United-States Congress. his responsibilities in the House of Assembly for three years. with great accept- ance to his Whig constituents. abil'ty. with an elder member of the bar in Buffalo. and took his seat in 1837. speaking upon the subject with convincing power. veterans in Congressional battles. The great Bank. liis vote and his sympathies were with the Whig party. watch his opportunity. that his courtesy. and the removal of the deposits. under highly advantageous circum' stances. in the autumn of 1832. the respect of his associates. and he returned to his profession. The first term of service in Congress to any man can be but little more Ihan an introduction. he again became a candidate for Congress: was re-elected. Just before removing to Bufialo. study the scene. to a very un: usual degree. and integrity.MILLARD FILLMORE. After two years. Every measure received his impress.

and then to against the most skilful opponents on the floor of the Ilouse. committee-room. and unanimously. he returned to his home. In entering upon the responsible duties which this situation demanded. he adhered to his resolve term for which he was elected. had given him very considerable fame. . it was necessary for him to abandon his profession. The lines between the two parties. his fric^nds met in convention. to remove to the city of Albany. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven years. and affairs. Fillmjre. and. there was a rough old soldier. just this before the close of the session. The canvass was one of the most exciting which had ever agitated the State. faithful I}'- discharged. Fillmore as the strongest candidate whom they could present for the office of governor. Mr. political principles gave him their vote. the Whig and Democratic. Weary with these exhausting labors. rejoicing at his release from the agitating cares of official life. sundering those social ties which bound him to his numerous It was unifriends in Buffalo. pressed by the claims of his private Mr. who in has not been in the same situaticn. at the close of the his labors. by a very great majority. versally admitted that the duties of this office were never more . Though greatly gratified by this proof of their appreciation of and. degree. mental resources. on Mexicans. in the Legislature. and In the year 1847. and his popularity filled the State. wrote a letter to his constituents. elected. the highest. in Congress. declining to be a candidate for re-election. and as comptroller. who had fought which had one or two successful battles with the . The Whig party brought forward Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute. Mr. and by acclamation. The Whigs were tlie casting about to find suitable candidates for President and Vice- President at the approaching election. he was the Whig party was signally defeated. and skill in such as few possess.328 of by one resolutions LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. the To draught defend them debate. Far away. requires readiness of mind. renominated him. His labors at the bar. waters of the Rio Grande. Notwithstanding communication. to the very important office Many who were not with him in of comptroller of the State. from their conviction of his eminent fitness for that olhce. with the most earnest expression of their desire that he would comply with their wishes. were strongly drawn and the issues involved excited the community to.

On the 4th of March. and laborious culture of years. arraying parties in hostile lines in the Senate and in the House. Under of the the influence of these considerations. that he had no power to call a senator to in debate. when President of the Senate. for "Palo Alto" and " Resaca de la Palma " would ring pleasantly upon the popular ear. He was . The stormy days of the Republic were now at hand. and agitating as with cirthIt quake-throcs ever}' city and village in the Union. and in whose intellectual powers and varied experience the community might repose confidence. entirely inexperienced in all statesmanlike accomplishments but he was a man of firmness. arousing fiery debate. when spoken Vice-President Fillmore. and conscientiousness. which marked his character. gentleness. manly form. disciplined His mind. however intemperate. 42 . of uncompromising integrity.MILLARD FILLMORE. Taylor was inaugurated President. shaping the whole legislation of the country. Calhoun. and catch the popular vote. necessary to associate with liim on the same ticket some man of reputation as a statesman. unlettered man. by the His countenance gave expression to those traits of firmness. gave him an The AVliig ticket imposing presence. and the natural dignity and grace of his bearing. The Senate manifested its approval of this decision by unanimously ordering the views thus expressed to be entered upon their journal. He was admirably adapted for this position. the Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore Whigs as their candidates for names of became the rallying-cry President and Vice-President. well-proportioned. The great question of slavery was permeating every subject which was brouglit before Congress. He was an available man. announced to the Senate his determination tion to maintain decorum in that chamber. originally of a high order. and Millard Fill1849. upon taking his chair as presiding otficer over that august body. had taken the position. enabled him promptly and successfully to meet every intellectual emergency. order for words. and of sound common sense and practical wisdom. Gen. caused his 329 all over the an unpolished. more Vice-President. But it was to in name be proclaimed trumpet-tones land. was signally triumphant. His tall. and that he should promptly call senators to order for any offensive words which might be spoken. that the strength of our tried. was evident institutions was soon to be severely John C. of the United States.

Kossuth. ohould reach a free State. 1850. and return him to his master. By the Constitution. One of those laws was understood to be. the 9th of July. He was bound by his oath of office to execute the laws of the United States. loathed this law. On and four months and died. of which the illustrious Daniel Webster was Secretary of State. escaping front THE UNITED-STATES SENATE. . visited our shores. He appointed a very able cabinet. Yicc-President Fillmore ihiu became President of the United States. President Fillmore gave all the influence of hia exalted station against the atrocious enterprise. The agitated condition of the country brought questions of very great delicacy before him. President Taylor. and annex it to the United States. Avas ?:nddenly taken sich. and was cordially received by the President while he frankly informed him that it . that if a slave.330 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. but about ens yoai after his inauguration. as it had invaded Texas. it men to President Fillmore enforced. The illustrious Hungarian. bondage. felt Most Christian bound by his oath rigidly to see Slavery was organizing armies invade Cuba. the United States was bound to help catch him.

under Mr. he was mostly silent. In a speech at Vicksburg. Fillmore During the terrible conflict of civil war. since the opposition had a majority in both Houses. Since then.— MILLARD FILLMORE. Fillmore had very serious diflSculties to contend with. aged seventy-five years and two months. he was nominated for the presidency by the strangely called KnowNothing" party. without saying whether it would be right or wrong. the Democratic candidate. He did every thing in his power to conciliate the Soutli but the-4)roslavery party in the South conciliation. N. : " '' the successful competitor for tlie prize. It was generally supposed that his sympathies were rather with those who were endeavoring to overthrow has lived in retirement.. left no one in doubt respecting his abhorrence of the Rebellion." In 1855. Fillmore's administration. conflict. f)ur institutions. 1853. and Mexico would be glad come in and. Returning to this country in 185G. was to . Canada is knocking for admission. the South. March 1874. He died in Buffalo. Mr. he said. Mr. He then took a long tour througliou*' where he met with quite an enthusiastic reception. Mr. Edward and Everett.Y. who had been a candidate for ihe vice-presidency. retired from office. and the Japan Expedition was sent out. to the one party or the other. his devotion to his country's flag. Fillmore. President Fillmore went to Europe. Buchanan. . He was 8. On the 4th of March. felt the inadequacy of all measures of transient it The popuhition of the free States increasing over that of the slave States. that \\\Q was so rapidly was inevitable that power of the Government should soon pass into the hands of The famous compromise-measures were adopted the free States. . 331 was the policy of our Government to avoid all complicarions in European affairs. Mr. where he wais received with those marked attentions which liis position and character merited. we stand with open arms to receive them for it is the manifest destiny of this Government to embrace the whole NorthAmerican continent. having served one term. witho'^i Presi- dent Fillmore kept aloof from the any cordial thus for- words of cheer gotten by both. alluding to the rapid growth of the country.

Character of his Father. 832 though uncultivated mind. States. who. of strong. — College Life. FRANKLIN PIERCE. — Political Views. — Service in the Mexiciin War. the fourteenth President of the United was born in Hillsborough. . — March through the Country. - — Entrance upon Public Life. --His Promise in Boyhood. — Administration. — AnecLaudii. and an When. Franklin Pierce. — Incidents of the dotes. Hia EESIDENCE OF FRANKLIN PIERCE. — Election..g in Mexico.H. Nov. under the administration of . N. 1804. 23. hewed him out home in the wilderness.— OH APT Ell AlV. with his a own strong arm.r was a Eevolutionary soldier.fatL<. — Retirement. llarcli. Succosb as a Lawyer. lie Avas a man of inflexible integrity. uncompromising Democrat. — Nomination for the Presidency.

and live on roast potatoes. as a boy. large-hearted. in . Pierce was a in those politician. Federalists New-England to the all over the and Democrats were arrayed so fiercely against each other. Major Pierce. When sixteen years of age. he was a good scholar in body. warmhearted. The boys on the play-ground loved him. sonally acquainted with him. dig me a cave. States." His energetic and upright character and commanding abilities gave him great influence in the secluded region where he dwelt. The writer there became perHe was one of the most popular . as to be ready to follow wherever it might lead. was offered a high commission in the army which was proposed to be levied. with a peculiar unstudied tact which taught him what was agreeable. he entered Bow- doin College.FRANKLIN PIERCE. in the State Legislature — children. . doing kind deeds. He won alike the love of old and young. was led to ally himself with the Democratic party so closely. an effort was made to draw onr conn . Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy. generous. and brave. Franklin was the sixth of eight affectionate. ever ready for argument.ry into an alliance with England in her war against the French republic. in the year 1820. when. as his title then was. a generous. " No. Without developing any precocity of genius. Old Gen. His teachers loved him. Franklin. and a general of the militia. in affections." was his reply. always speaking kind words. He was by instinct a gentleman. mind. I would sooner go to yonder mountains. Christian woman. prudent. than be instrumental in promoting the objects for which that army is raised. Pierce was all that a son could desire. a finely-developed boy. enforced by strong and ready It was in this school that he utterance and earnest gestures. or any unnatural devotion to books. The neighbors looked upon him with pride and affection. and he occupied nearly every post of honor and emolument which He was for several years was a member of the governor's council. listened eagerly arguments of his father. He was an independent farmer. Me. hospitable man. The mother of Franklin an intelligent. at Brunswick. 333 John Adams. and there was ample opportunity for the exercise of his powers days of intense political excitement. gentlemen. '' Poor as I am. and acceptable as would be the position under other circumstances. his neighbors could confer upon him.


in college.

young men

The purity

of his moral character, the

u-nvarying courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and hia

There was nature, rendered him a universal favorite. something very peculiarly winning in his address, and it was evidently not in the slightest degree studied: it was the simple outgushing of his own magnanimous and loving nature. Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce commenced the fetudy of law in the office of Judge Woodbury, one of the most distinguished lawyers of the State, and a man of great private worth.
his father's

The eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, prominence as a public man, and the brilliant political career into which Judge Woodbury was entering, all tended to
entice Mr. Pierce into the fascinating yet perilous paths of political life.



the ardor of his nature, he espoused the cause

of Gen. Jackson for the presidency.
tice of

He commenced

the prac-


Hillsborough, and was soon elected to represent the
State Legislature.


in the

Here he served

for four years.

The two

years he was chosen speaker of the house by a

very large vote.
In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was elected a Congress.



Without taking an active part in the debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty, and ever rising in the estimation of those with whom he was associated. Strenuously he supported
the administration of Gen. Jackson, securing not only the confidence, but the personal friendship, of that extraordinary

as to

Pierce sympathized in the fears of the State-rights party, that

the National

Government would consolidate


much power

endanger the liberties of the individual States. In Congress, he warmly allied himself with the Democratic party; being apparently in sympathy with them in all its measures. In 1837, being then but thirt3'-three years of age, he was elected to the Senate of the United States taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced his administration. He was the youngest member in the Senate. The ablest men our country has produced were then among the leaders of the Democracy, Calhoun, Buchanan, Benton. Senator Pierce was a remarkably fluent, graceful speaker, always courteous and good-tempered and his speeches were listened to by both parties with interest. In the year 1834, he married Miss Jane Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accomplishments, and one admirably fitted to adorn every statioD


with which her husband was honored.


Of thres sons who were

born to them,



sleep with their mother in the grave.

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame, and increasing business as a lawyer, took up his residence in Concord, the capital

Hampshire. The citizens of his native town, in token of gave him a parting dinner. He dove ted himself with new zeal to his duties at the bar, and took his rank at once among the ablest lawyers. His tact, his genial spirit, and his unvarying courtesy, gave him extraordinary power with n jury. It is said that he was never known to insult, browbeat, or
their high esteem,


endeavor to

terrify, a witness.






President Polk, upon his accession to

appointed Mr.

but the offei attorney-general of the United States was declined, in consequence of numerous professional engage meuts at home, and the precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. He also, about the same time, declined the nomination for governor by the Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. Pie-ce into the army. Receiving the appointment of brigadior*



general, he embarked, with a portion of his troops, at Newport,

on the 27th of May, 1847. Gen. Pierce landed upon a sand-beach, at a place called Virgara, on the 28th of June. There was already an encampment of about

hundred men, under the command of Major Lally, at that He was ordered to make no delay there, and yet no |)reparations had been made for his departure. About two thousand wild mules had been collected from the prairies; but a staur.pede had taken pUice, in which fifteen hundred had disappeared. He was compelled to remain for spiveral weeks in this encampment, upon sand as smooth as a floor, and so hard, that it would scarcely show For three miles, the waves dashed the footprints of a mule. Though the mornings magnificently on this extensive beach. were close, and the heat excessive, by eleven o'clock a fine seabreeze always set in. There were frequent tropical showers, in which the rain fell in floods and there were peals of thunder such as are rarely heard, and flashes of lightning, such as are, perfive



haps, never seen, in regions farther north.

Every morning, the troops were under
bear the exposure to the mid-day sun.


they could not
not far

Though they were

Gen. Pierce preferred to dwell in his tent upon the beach, rather than to occupy any of the houses. Vigorous measures were adopted to collect mules and mustangs, in preparation
from the

for their advance.

upon the



These animals were generally caught wild unaccustomed to the harness, and even to the Much labor was required in taming them, and in breaking The troops were kept constantly on the alert, harness.

in anticipation of

an attack from the Mexicans.

At ten

o'clock in the evening of the 7th of July, there

was an

Musketry-firing was heard in the direction of the ad-

The long-roll was beaten, and the whole com vanced pickets. mand was instantly formed in line of battle. It proved to be a false alarm, or rather was caused by the approach of a small band of guerillas to the vicinity of the sentinels. The next day, July 9,

Whipple was lured by curiosity

to visit the


near the walls of the

Imprudently, he went unarmed, and

accompanied but by a single private. Six guerillas attacked, overpowered, and seized him while the private escaped, and informed Gen. Pierce. He immediately despatched a troop of cavalry in pursuit; but no trace of Lieut. Whipple could be dis;



In a few days, however, they learned that his life had been spared, but that he was a prisoner about twelve miles from A detachment was sent by night to surprise the banthe camp. They took the village but the guerillas fled, taking their ditti. prisoner with them. At length, on the 13th of July, after a delay of nearly three

to give orders for

weeks, and after great labor and perplexity, Gen. Pierce was able an advance. The beautiful beach was covered

with wagons, mules, horses, and
of war.

the imposing paraphernaHa


the morning of the 14th, eighty wagons started, under Capt.

for San Juan, twelve miles There they were to await the remainder of the brigade. The heat was so intense, that they could not move between the hours of nine in the morning and four in the afternoon. Col. Ransom accompanied the train with two companies of infantry. Every thing being ready, they moved at an early hour, in fine order and spirits. The next day, a detachment of six companies was sent off. It was not until the 16th that Gen. Pierce was


They took the Jalapa Road

able to leave. " After

In his journal he writes,

perplexity and delay, on account of the unbroken and intractable teams, I left the camp this afternoon at five o'clock, with the Fourth Artillery, Watson's marine corps, a detachment of the third dragoons, and about forty wagons. The road was very heavy, the wheels were sinking almost to the hubs in sand, and the untried and untamed teams almost constantly bolting in some part of the train. We were occupied rather in breaking the animals to harness than in performing a march. At ten o'clock at night, we bivouacked in the darkness and sand by the wagons in the road, having made but three miles from camp." The next morning, at four o'clock, they were again on the move. The road was still heavy with sand, leading over short, steep hills. At eight o'clock in the morning, they reached Santa Fe, but eight miles from Vera Cruz. The heat of a blazing, torrid sun was now overpowering; and the army remained in camp until four o'clock in the afternoon. Just before starting, two muleteers came in, greatly agitated, bringing the report that five hundred guerillas, armed to the teeth, were on the Jalapa Road, rushing on to attack the camp. The whole force was immediately called to arms, and two pieces of artillery placed in position to command the road. It




either proved a false alarm, or the guerillas, taking counsel of

changed their course. Resuming their march at four o'clock, the column reached San Juan about nine o'clock in the evening, in a drenching rain. The gu(^rillas had attempted to retard the march by destroying a bridge over one of the branches of the San-Juan River but the New-England men, accustomed to every variety of work, almost

without delay repaired the structure. All night, all the next day, and the next night, the rain poured in such floods as are nowhere
seen, save in the tropics.

along the margin of the stream.

The encampment was on low ground, As there was nothing but mud

was thought best to continue the march. On the 20 th, they reached Telema Nueva, twenty-four miles from Vera Cruz. As they were marching along, several musketshots were fired upon them from an eminence on their left. A few round-shot were thrown in that direction, and a small detachment dashed up the hill but the enemy had fled. After advancing about a mile farther, quite a number of mounted Mexicans were seen hovering about, evidently reconnoitring parties. As it was supposed that a large force was in the vicinity, all precautionary arrangements were made to repel an attack. Three companies of infantrj^, and a detachment of dragoons, were sent to flank our march by advances through a path on the left of the main road. Just as this detachment was returning by the circuitous route to the road along which the main body was passing, the enemy opened a brisk fire upon them. The foe was in ambush, concealed in the dense chaparral on each side of the road. Our troops met this attack from unseen The guns wei-e speedassailants, and promptly returned the fire. ily unlimbered, and a few discharges of canister silenced the fire
and water to rest
in, it

of the enemy.
loss at forty.


fled too rapidly to be caught. shot.


lost six

wounded, and seven horses
" I witnessed," writes


Mexican paper stated their

of that part of


Gen. Pierce, " with pleasure, the conduct command immediately engaged on this occasion.




of the


indicated a pretty formidable force,

the precise strength of which could not be ascertained, as they

were completely covered by the chaparral. It was the first time on the march that any portion of my command had been fairly under fire. I was at the head of the column, on the main road,

and witnessed the whole scene.
courage on the part of both


saw nothing but coolness and and men." On the night of the 20th of July, the brigade encamped at Paso

de Orejas.

after dark.

band of been noticed on the distant hills, watching the advance of our lines. As they approached menacingly within cannon-range, a gun was brought to bear upon them and a few discharges put them to flight. Paso de Orejas is on the west side of a beautiful stream, spanned by a substantial bridge. At four o'clock on the morning of July 21, they again broke camp, and pursued their course towards Puente Nacionale, anticipating an attack at every exposed point. When they reached the summit of a long hill which descended on the west to the Antigua River, Gen. Pierce halted his command, and with his glass carefully examined the country before them. In the distance could be seen the little village of Puente Nacionale, on the western side of the river. This stream is also crossed by a bridge. A few lancers could be seen in the village, in their gay uniforms, riding rapidly from one position to another, and flourishing their red flags as if in defiance. A strong barricade, defended by a breastwork, was thrown across the bridge. A large body of the enemy was posted on a bluff one hundred and fifty feet high, which commanded the structure over which the little army must pass. It was impossi;

The rear-guard did not reach the encampment until As it was descending a slope towards the camp, a guerillas was seen approaching. All the day they had

ble to turn their position.

Gen. Pierce rode forward to reconnoitre the enemy's works closely. He then brought forward his artillery, and, by some deadly discharges, swept the bridge, and dispersed the lancers.


A few

shots were also thrown at the heights, which so distracted

Bonham, with a few compamen, made a rush upon the bridge with a loud battle-cry, leaped the barricade of brush and timber, reached the village, rallied his men under cover of its buildings, and rushed up the steep bluff", to gain its summit just in time to see the bewildered and disorganized foe disappear in the distance. One giand cheer from the victors on the bluff", echoed back by the
the attention of the enemy, that Col.
nies of picked

troops below, greeted this heroic achievement.

The remainder

good order. A companj of dragoons dashed through the village, hoping to cut off" the

command followed





but terror had added such wings to their that they had entirely disappeared in the dense chaparral

retreat of the fugitives

in their rear.


Bonham's horse was


and Gen. Pierce received a musIt is


through the rim of his hat.

indeed wonderful that

so few




the bullets, for a short time, rattled so

thickly around
aim, and

them; but the Mexicans on the bluff took poor most of their balls passed over our heads. Here they encamped for the night, at a distance of thirty miles from Vera Gen. Pierce established his headquarters at a large and Cruz. splendid estate which he found here, belonging to Gen. Santa Anna.

was upon all the surrounding again in motion. heights armed bands of Mexicans were seen watching them. They kept, however, at too great a distance to be reached by At one point of the march, the head of the bullet or ball. column was fired upon by a few guerillas hidden in the chaparbut the skirmishral, who succeeded in wounding three horses ers thrown out in pursuit of them could find no trace even of their ambuscade. At length, on this day's tramp, they came in sight of an old Spanish fort, which commanded both the road, and a bridge that crossed a stream at this point. The bridge was barricaded, with the evident intention of defending it. Here Gen.


four o'clock the next morning, July 22, the brigade

As they moved



Pierce expected a stern conflict


but, to his surprise, he found

both fort and barricade silent and solitary.


the obstruc-

they came by a bridge.

to another stream,


broader, also spanned

" It was," writes Gen. Pierce,


bining great strength and beauty,

— a work of the old Spaniards (so

a magnificent work of




of which are found upon this great avenue from the coast),

fitted to

awaken the admiration and wonder of the


main arch, a span of about sixty feet, had been blown up, first burst upon me as I stood upon the brink of the chasm, with a perpendicular descent of nearly a hundred feet to the bed As far as of a rapid stream much swollen by the recent rains. below, the banks on the west side, the eye could reach, above and of vast height, descended precipitously, almost in a perpendicular
fact that the
line, to

the water's edge.
the confidence with which I had been ani-

This sudden and unexpected barrier, I need not say, was someto

what withering



The news having extended back along the Hne, my
soon crowded around

me and the deep silence that ensued was more significant than any thing which could have been spoken. After a few moments'" pause, this silence was broken by many short epigraramatical remarks, and more questions. We The destruction of this have it before us now,' said Col. Hebert. magnificent and expensive work of a past generation could not iiave been ordered but upon a deliberate and firm purpose of a stern resistance.' 'This people have destroyed,' said another, what they never will rebuild.' " What to do was now the question. In the mean time, a small body of infantry had descended the steep by the aid of trees, rocks, and stumps, and, folding the stream, had taken possession of a stone church on the other side. The line of wagons, brought to a stand, extended back along the road for a distance of a mile and a half For miles around, the growth was dwarfed and scrubby, affording no timber to reconstruct the arch. It was now night and weary, and not a little despondent, all sank to repose. It so happened that there was in the army a Maine lumberman, Capt. Bodfish, who had been accustomed to surmount many difficulties of this kind in the logging-swamps of his native State. Gen. Pierce the next morning, at an early hour, sent for him. With a practised eye, he examined the ground, and said that he could construct a road over which the train could pass. " How much time do you need," inquired Gen. Pierce, " to com* '



plete the road



That depends," said he, " upon the number of men employed. you give me five hundred men, I will furnish you a road over which the train can pass safely in four hours." The detail was immediately ordered, and in three hours the trains were in motion. " Bodfish's road," says Gen. Pierce, " unless

this nation shall

be regenerated,


be the road at that place, for

Mexican diligences, for half a century to come." Before the sun v;ent down on the evening of the 23d, every wagon had passed without the slightest accident. There was great glee that night in the camp. Many were the jokes about Mexican stupidity and Yankee cunning. All were now eager to press on for all felt

new assurance in the final success of their bold enterprise. They were approaching Cerro Gordo. From the heights
vicinity, the

in that

Mexicans could easily embarrass the march by a




Gen. Pierce himself, with a body of cavalry, set

out in the darkness and the rain to occupy the eminences.


darkness was so great, that one's hand could scarcely be seen before him; and it soon became impossible to advance. The detach ment slept upon their arms until the earliest dawn of the morning, when they pressed on, and succeeded in seizing the important position. A few Mexicans were seen upon one of the heights, who discharged a volley of bullets, harmless from the distance, upon a portion of the train. A six-pounder was brought forward, which

threw a few canister-shot into the midst of them; and they
tered in



They soon reached another of the magnificent

estates of Santa

Anna, well stocked with fat cattle. Gen. Pierce, in his journal, says very naively, " As there was no owner of Avhom to purchase, I have sent out detachments to supply our wants. The boys had great fun in playing hunt bufiBlo and, in the excitement of the chase, some of them wandered to an imprudent distance from the camp. One of them got a bullet-shot through the thigh in consequence. All the night, guerillas were prowling about the camp." Upon Santa Anna's estate, or hacienda as it was called, they found delightful encampment upon a green lawn, gently sloping to a fine stream of clear, pure water. They were then but eight
* ;


miles from Jalapa.


the morning of the 24th, they
at Encero.


with regret, their delightthe


The verdant lawn,


stream rippling over
around, reminded

pebbly bed, and the cultivated region of their New-England homes. At noon, they

by a Frenchman, and dined.

Here Gen. Pierce rode to an inn kept At the inn, he met several welldressed, intelligent Mexicans. They were profuse in their commendations of the achievements of the Yankees. The army proceeded about three miles beyond the city, and encamped by another fine stream, " which drives the spindles of Don Garcia, a quarter of a mile below us." He there ascertained, that, beyond
reached Jalapa unopposed.
doubt, the gentlemen with


he had conversed

in the inn at

Jalapa were guerillas in disguise.

They were ever hovering

around the skirts of the army, ready to murder and to rob as they could find opportunity. That very day, a servant, who had been sent to water a horse, not six rods from the road, was killed, and
his horse stolen.



The next day, the 27th, as they made a short tarry in their encampment just out from Jalapa, several soldiers, who had wandered, in violation of orders, from the camp to the vicinity of the surrounding farms, never returned.
either killed or captured.
It is

supposed that they were


the morning of the 29th, at seven o'clock, the march





increasing, and there

was again were over four

Few inexperienced in such matroll. and skill requisite to move a body, even of twenty-four hundred men, hundreds of miles, with four hundred sick men in wagons, so that the wants of all shall be attended to, and that every man shall have his regular and proper meals. Fruits were abundant along the line of march, and the soldiers indulged freely. The rain was also falling in torrents, which kept
hundred on the surgeon's
ters can imagine the care

drenched to the skin, and penetrated the tents, while the flood rushed in torrents through the gullies. The morning of the 30th found them near the Castle of Perote. "I reached the castle," Gen. Pierce writes, "before dark; and Col. Windcoop, who was in command of the castle, with Capt. Walker's elegant company of mounted riflemen, kindly tendered me his quarters. But I adhered to a rule from which I have

to see the rear of the command never deviated on the march, safely in camp and, where they pitched their tents, to pitch my own. The rear-guard, in consequence of the broken condition of the road, did not arrive until nine o'clock when our tents w«re

pitched in darkness, and in the sand which surrounds the castle




Here they made a

halt of

two or three days

to repair damages,

and to refresh the sick and the exhausted. Two hundred of the The next day, Capt. sick were sent to the hospital in the castle. Ruff arrived with a company of cavalry, having been sent by Gen. Scott to ascertain the whereabouts and condition of Gen. Pierce's command, and to afford him assistance if needed. Soon they resumed their march, and, on the 7th of August, reached the main body of the army under the commander-in-chief, at Puebla. Gen. Pierce had conducted twenty-four hundred men on this arduous
n arch,

without the loss of a single wagon. Gen. Scott had been waiting at Puebla for the arrival of the re-enforcement under Gen. Pierce. He was now prepared to move Santa v'igorously forward in his attack upon the city of Mexico.




Anna had an advance-guard of about seven thousand men


Gen. Scott wished to cut


these detached troops from

the main body of the Mexican army, and, by destroying their communications with the city, to have them at his mercy. He therefore sent a division of his army, by a circuitous route, to

occupy the villages and strong positions in their rear. To hide this movement from the foe, and to distract their attention, Gen. Pierce was ordered, with four thousand men, to make an impetuous assault upon their front. It was indeed severe service upon which he was thus detached. The enemy had nearly two to his one. They were in their own chosen positions, and were protected by intrenchments, from which, unexposed, they could hurl a storm of shot and shell into the faces of their assailants. The ground over which the charge was to be
bristling with sharp points of rocks, and broken by ridges and gullies. The Mexicans threw out skirmishers, who were posted in great force among the irregularities of this broken ground. As our troops advanced, they were met with a murderous fire of musketry from these concealed riflemen, while the heavy balls from the Mexican batteries shivered the rocks around them. Had the Mexicans been expert gunners. Gen. Pierce's command would have been annihilated but, fortunately or providentially, most of the shot from the intrenched camp passed over the heads of our troops. " In the midst of this fire, Gen. Pierce," writes Hawthorne, his eloquent biographer, " being the only officer mounted in the brigade, leaped his horse upon an abrupt eminence, and addressed the colonels and captains of the regiments, as they passed, in a few stirring words, reminding them of the honor of their country, of the victory their steady valor would contribute to achieve. Pressing forward to the head of the column, he had nearly reached the practicable ground that lay beyond, when his horse slipped among the rocks, thrust his foot into a crevice, and fell, breaking his own leg, and crushing his rider heavily beneath him." The general was stunned by the fall, and almost insensible. His orderly hastened to his assistance, and found him very severely bruised, and sufiering agonizingly from a sprain of the left knee, upon which the horse had fallen. The bullets and balls

made was exceedingly rough,

of the

enemy were
assist the

flying thickly around.


the orderly


tempted to

wounded general

to reach the shelter of a




projecting rock, a shell buried itself in the earth at their feet, and,

exploding, covered them with stones and sand.


was a

lucky miss," said Gen. Pierce calmly.

Leaving him under shelter of the rock, the orderly went in search Fortunately, he met Dr. Ritchie near by, who was following the advancing column. He rendered such assistance as the circumstances would permit; and soon Gen. Pierce recovered full consciousness, and became anxious to rejoin his troops. Notwithstanding the surgeon's remonstrances, he leaned upon his orderly's shoulder, and, hobbling along, reached a battery, where he found a horse, whose saddle had just been emptied by a Mexican bullet. He was assisted into the saddle. "You will not be able to keep your seat," said one. " Then you must tie me on," replied the general. Thus bruised and sprained, and agonized with pain, he again rode forward into the hottest of the
of a surgeon.
Till nightfall,

the conflict raged unabated.
left his saddle.


was eleven

at his

night before Gen. Pierce

He had withdrawn

troops from their exposed position, and assembled them in a shel-

tered spot, where they were to pass the night.

then falling in torrents.

It is a curious

rains almost immediately after

The rain was phenomenon, that it often a battle. There were no tents

there was no protection for officers or men drenched, exhausted, hungry, they threw themselves upon the flooded sods for sleep. Gen. Pierce lay down upon an ammunition-wagon but the

torture of his inflamed and swollen knee

would not allow him a

moment of repose. But one hour after midnight of that dark and stormy night had passed, when Gen. Pierce received orders from Gen. Scott to put his brigade in a new position in front of the enemy's works, to be prepared for a new assault with the earliest dawn of the morning. In the midst of the gloom and the storm, the movement was

As soon

as a

few glimmers of light were seen in the




of invincible resolution and iron sinews were again on the


Gen. Pierce was again in his saddle, and at the head of his


The Mexican camp was attacked simultaneously

in front



In seventeen minutes, the " stars and stripes " floated

over the ramparts of the foe and the cheers of the victors proclaimed that the conquest was complete. Many prisoners were



Those who escaped

fled in wildest disorder

towards Cho=


Gen. Pierce almost forgot exhaustion, wounds, and agony, in eager pursuit of the fugitives. The roads and fields were strewn with the dead and the dying, and every conceivable form of human mutilation and misery. The pursuit continued until one o'clock. The victors then found themselves checked by the strong fortifications of Cherubusco and San Antonio, where Santa Anna was prepared to make another desperate stand. Gen. Scott feared that Santa Anna might escape, and concentrate all his troops within the walls of the city of Mexico. To prevent this,

he sent an aide, Col. Noah E. Smith, to call Gen. Pierce to his presence, that he might give him directions to take a route by which he could assail the foe in their rear. Col. Smith met the
general at the head of his brigade.



" Gen. Pierce was exceedingly thin, worn down by the fatigue and pain of the day and night before, and then evidently suffering severely. Still there was a glow in his eye, as the cannon boomed, that showed within him a spirit ready for the conflict." Gen. Scott was sitting on horseback beneath a tree, issuing orders to his staff, as Gen. Pierce rode up. The commander-inchief had heard of the accident which had befallen the general, and, as he noticed his aspect of pain and physical exhaustion, said
to him,

" Pierce,


dear fellow, you are badly injured.


are not

to be in the saddle."

"Yes, general," was the reply: "I am, in a case like this." " You cannot touch your foot to the stirrup," said Scott. " One I can," answered Pierce. Gen. Scott looked at him for a moment in silence, and then said we shall lose you, fn decided tones, " You are rash. Gen. Pierce It is my duty to order you back to and we cannot spare you.


so earnestly that he

But Gen. Pierce pleaded

might be


ted to remain, and take part in the great battle then imminent, that

Scott at last reluctantly consented, and ordered




with his brigade. His path led over a marsh, intersected with Over several of these ditches, the genditches filled with water. At last he came to one ten feet wide and eral leaped his horse.

feet deep.

He was

there compelled to leave his horse.


while the tremendous battle of Cherubusco raged around him. He was. Let me lie here. field. exhaustion. pain.FRANKLIN PIERCE. where he was taken so extremely gallant service. succeeded in 347 getting across the ditch. said. on the 8th of September. to his support. on the IStli of September. Worth. mount his horse without assistance. when he returned from these strange scenes whom he had left about nine months before among the peaceful hills of New Hampof violence and blood to the wife and child ehire. At length. Pierce could take no part. attacked fourteen thousand Mexicans. and military operations were soon renewed. " No him from the field. Again the vanquished enemy fled. and almost insensible. Santa Anna sent a flag of truce. and fatigue." There he remained. with his troops under He had now gone to the farthest point of physical endurance. fainting. They could not come to satisfactory terms. city until Mexico now fell into the Gen. and coldly by its opponents. and made another stand under protection of the castle of Chepultepec. Pierce reached his home in his native State. Some soldiers hastened to do not carry me off. was fought. Worth. the cheers of our men announced their victory. resisting. and. Gen. ill. he sank to the ground. bands of the Americans. He resumed the exercise of . and rode to Tacubaya and the conference or to . he was received enthusiastically by the advocates of the Mexican War. In the heroic storming of that castle. in the midst of his strugghng troops. that he was unable to leave his bed for thirty-six hours. though his brigade performed But their general had been conveyed to the headquarters of Gen. however. Not long after. the sanguinary battle of Molino del Rey. Entirely overcome by sleeplessness. Just as he reached the . When Gen. Gen. was held at the house of the British consul from late in the afternoon until four o'clock the next morning. and was there fire. the fiercest conflict of the war. and bear revived. Pierce was ordered a shell burst almost beneath the feet of his horse and he narrowly escaped being thrown over a precipice. He was unable to walk. helped into his saddle. Gen. exposed to the shot of the foe. proposing an armistice. with three thousand men. Pierce remained in the captured The city of December. one of the commissioners to meet him. This was the last great struggle. however. Gen. Pierce was appointed partiall}^ : He lift him.

Pierce constantly gained strength. he was inaugurated President of the United States. and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a two-thirds vote. The conflict every year grew more violent. Not a vote had thus far been thrown for Gen. According to law. very frequently taking an active part in political questions. did every thing which could be done to conciliate the South but it was all in vain. until. west of Missouri. giving his cordial support to the proslavery wing of cordially the Democratic party. It became evident that there was an " irrepressible conflict " between them. Massachusetts. The compromise measures met with his approval . 1852. Gen." The strong partisans of slavery in the South consequently regarded him as a man whom On they could safely trust in office to carry out theii plans. On the 4th of March. he received two hundred and eighty-two votes. Then the Virginia delegation brought forward his name. all slavery. It was certain that they would decide Slavery in Missouri and other Southern States rallied her armed for freedom. Pierce. southern breeze. There were fourteen more ballotings." President Pierce. The controversy between slavery and freedom was then approaching its culminating point. and that this nation could not long exist " half slave and half free. He thus became distinguished as a Northern man with Southern principles. Pierce was chosen with great unanimity. the Democratic convention Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the presidency. was settled by emigrants mainly from the North. and decide whether slavery or freedom should he the law of that realm. and Tennessee the 12th of June. — cast — their electoral votes against him. and threats of the dissolution of the Union were borne to the north on every . Gen.848 his profession. during which Gen. 1853. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Winfield Scott was the Whig candidate. His administration proved one of the most stormy our country had ever experienced. . the Missouri Compromise was re- the Territories of the Union Avere thrown open to The Territory of Kansas. Kentucky. and slavery. they were about to meet. and all other candidates eleven. ment of the " fugitive-slave law. at the fortyninth ballot. Only four States Vermont. during the whole of his administration. met in For four days they continued in session. and he strenuously advocated the enforcewhich so shocked the religious sensibilities of the North. At the demand of pealed.

Neither give nor take quarter. one and all. the great majority of : — . deposited theii own went through the farce of counting them. and rr<ounted horsemen. whom were freemet in convention. . thus frauduNo one could deny lently elected. legions. The armed mob of invasion consisted of nearly seven thousand men. It is enough that the slaveholding interest wills it. and the most sacred rights of American freemen were trampled in the dust. infant Kansas was subjugated. from which there is no appeal. Neither freedom of speech nor of the press was allowed." these facts and yet President Pierce deemed it his duty to recognize this body as the lawful legislature. the " squatter sovereign " of that place said." man will be in the Legislature The " State men. As they commenced their march. and vote at the point of the bowie-knife and revolver. the " Legislature of Kansas. then declared. I advise you. and enacted a code of proslavery laws which would have disgraced savages. and yet Presi- dent Pierce's administration felt bound to respect the decision obtained by such votes. away the citizens. and that. who. where they could be protected from any opposition from the free-soil citizens of the State and called this band. " They report that not a single antislavery of Kansas. 349 marched them in military array into Kansas. drove votes by handfuls. one of their leaders thus addressed them ''To those who have qualms of conscience as to violating laws. took pos- session of the polls. State or National. and adopted the following resolve Resolved.FRANKLIN PIERCE. as our case demands it. music. That the body of men. banners. This bogus legislature met. to enter every election district in Kansas. By such a force. mob from other States then chose a legislature of men convened them in a small town near Misr . as your rights and property are in danger. by an overwhelming majority. nobody denied ." They marched with artillery. and death was the doom of any one who should speak or write against slavery and yet President Pierce assumed that these laws were binding upon the community. for the past two months. . : — Missouri. citizens of Kansas. This armed strong proslavery souri. the time has come when such impositions must be disregarded. slavery was esThese facts tablished in Kansas. When the army returned to the city of Independence in .

counselled. The antislavery sentiment. who that we^ repu- consummation of an act of violence. also. which divided our country into two parties. declaring that the legislature thus created must be recognized as the legitimate legislature of Kansas. Mr. When the terrible Rebellion burst forth. James Buchanan was the successful candidate. usurpation. and perhaps. Fremont was the candidate of the Free-soil party. and ing in consumption. killed before his eyes by a railroad accident and his wife. unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advocated those measures of Government which they approved. have been passing laws for the people of our Territory. and nominated James Buchanan him in the presidency. representing only the lawless invaders elected them. Such was the condition of affairs when President Pierce ap- proached the close of his four-years' term of oflSce. " lowered never an inch. Of 1857. He had pledged himself to stand upon the same platform which bis predecessor had occupied. President Pierce retired to his home in Concord. was rapidly sinkThe hour of dreadful gloom soon came. moved. and his only surviving child had been three children. feeling that he had rendered . imploring its protection. goaded b}^ these outrages." On the 4th of March. unparalleled in the history of the Union. and fraud. and gave his sympathies to that proslavery party with which he had ever been as the Democratic candidate to succeed : . are to us a foreign body. the whole force of the governmental arm would be put forth to . enforce those laws. In reply. and dictated to by the demagogues of Missouri. John C. ungratefully dropped him. two had died. himself so unpopular as no longer to be able acceptably to serve them. and that its laws were binding upon the people and that.H. the President issued a proclamation. and two only.350 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS." The eral free-State people of Kansas also sent a petition to the GenGovernment. N. if necessary. he was left alone in the world. The slaveholders of the South also. Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he had always cherished. The North had become thoroughly alienated from him. without wife or child. had been rapidly increasing and all the intellectual ability and social worth of President Pierce wore forgotten in deep reprehension of these administrative acts. and not the people of the territory diate their action as the monstrous . one of the most estimable and accomplished of ladies.

to strengthen the hands of the National Governmeiit. Generous to a fault. and many of his townspeople were often gladdened by his material bounty. allied. 1869. which occured in October. he contributed liberally of his moderate means for the alleviation of suffering and want. He con- Concord until the time of his death. He was one of the most genial and social of men. 351 He declined to do any thing.FRANKLIN PIERCE. tinued to reside in . either by voice or pen. and one of the kindest of neighbors. an honored communicant of the Episcopal Church.

— The New-Haven Corre- James Buchanan. and Purity of Character. — Elected to the Presidency. of the Alleghanies. Uis Childhood's Home.. with towering summits rising grandly . on the 23d of April. at the foot of the eastern ridge i:esidenck of jajies ijuchanan. — Retirement. — Scholarship. The place stood was called Stony Batter.Tames. — Ostend — Devotion to Study. — Secretary of State. St. JAMES BUCHANAN. the fifteenth President of the United States. was born in a small frontier town. — Disasters of his Administration. .CHAPTER XV. spondence. — Con— Political Views. in a 352 where the humble cabin of his father It was a wild and romantic spot gorge of the mountains. Penn. — Minister to the Court of Manifesto. gressional Career. in Franklin County. 1791.



and enlivened with an exuberant flow of animal diately spirits. and was admitted to the bar in 1812. His mother also was a woman of superior character. and at onco took undisputed stand with the ablest lawyers of the State. he then. the daughter of a respectable farmer.JAMES BUCHANAN. in 1820. and settled down there to perform his obscure part in the drama of life. a poor man. with his ytung bride. He imme- commenced the study of law in the city of Lancaster. his father removed to the where his son was placed at school. he retired . . it was generally admitted that he stood at the head of the bar and there was no lawyer in the State who had a more . he remained for eight years. His father was a native of the north of Ireland. Very rapidly he rose in his profession. at the age of fourteen. all 353' aronnd. . Reluctantly. His progress was rapid and. Here he developed remarkable talent. staked hif claim. Five years after his arrival in this country. He was then eighteen years of age tall and graceful. When James was eight years of age. at Carlisle. In the year 1809. At the age of thirty. when he was but twenty-ono years of age. His application to study was intense. enjoying but few social oi 'ntellectual advantages. vigorous in health. and a keen appreciation of the beautiful in nature and in art. who was tried upon articles of impeachment. he member of the Lower House. for ten years. and Greek. he married Elizabeth Spear. consented to stand a candidate for Congress. he entered Dickinson College. possessing sound judgment. he successfully defended before the State Senate one of the judges of the State. Latin. In 1831. enabled him to master the most abstruse subjects with facility. unaided by counsel. In this secluded home. and prosperous. and took his stand among the first scholars in the institution. but twenty-six years of age. he graduated with the highest honors of bis class. who had emigrated in 1783. an unerring shot. He was elected . and commenced a course of study in English. His father was industrious. When extensive or a more lucrative practice. where James was born. opened a clearing with his axe. and. and. he remained a of Congress. reared his log-hut. fond of athletic sports. and yet his native powers village of Mercersburg. plunged into the wilderness. with little property save his own strong arms. frugal. During the vacations occasionally tried 4& some important cause. and was unusually intelligent for a man in his situation.

Buchanan argued that President Monroe vetoed it. still retained the name of Federalists. Buchanan was faithful to hia He was always in his seat. and the State Governments too But. The who thought that the Constitution gave the Central Government too much power. he said. as to the power of the National Government to promote internal improvements. The great question. " We are all we are all Republicans. and took an active part in duties. Mr. Mr. it gave to the National Government.354 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and voted against any appropriation Cumberland Road. that it was authorized to impose a tariff for revenue only. those who approved of a liberal construction. of the law. Congress was not authorized to establish a protective tariff. and were threatening Baltimore. just after Mr. The bill. brought the party into dispute and the name of Federalist became a reproach. — . who had sacked WashThis term took ington. having acquired an ample fortune. Buchanan. our second In 1812. he sustained the Government. Mr. With all his powers. Buchanan had entered upon the practice war with England occurred. with anti-Federalists. The opposition of the Federal party to the war with England. retained the name of Republicans. In an earnest speech upon this subject. cated great care in their preparation. to repair the pathy with the Republicans. As a member of Congress. Jefferson truly said. eloquently urging tho vigorous prosecution of the war. parties. the powers which was adopted by both Federalists . agitated Congress. Consequently. Buchanan was in sym. began to incline more and more to the policy of the Republicans. passed ConMr. altogether from the toils of his profession. Buchanan was at that time a Federalist. Mr." Still it was subsequently found that the Constitution allowed some latitude of construction. and were distinguished for depth of thought and persuasive eloquence. The speeches which he made indievery important question. however. took the name of Republicans. in favor of the General Government. when the Constitution little. and the alien and sedition laws of John Adams. its rise all from those who approved of the Federal Constitution. almost immediately upon entering Congress. while those who were in favor of a strict construction. not allowing the Central Government one hair's breadth more of power than the letter of the Constitution demanded. and even enlisting as a private soldier to assist in repelling the British. gress.

Buchanan minister to Russia. and a small sword dangling 1 at his side What a ridiculous spectacle would a grave lawyer or judge of sixty years of age present. advocated expunging from the journal of the Senate the vote of censure against Gen. and unrelentingly When our Governopposed the administration of Mr. He also. Webster. Clay. prohibiting the court-costume which most of those monarchs required. of the North nor of the South. ment undertook the singular task of regulating the dress in which our ambassadors should appear in foreign courts. " a grave and venerable statesman. He advocated the measure proposed by President Jackson. arrayed in this military coat. performed with The duties of his mission he which gave satisfaction to all pa 'ties. overwhelmed by this calamity. of making reprisals against France to enforce the payment of our claims against that country and defended the course of the President in his unprecedented and wholesale removals from office of those who were not the supporters of his administration. appointed ability. The merchants. Jackson. forever avoid any expressions. worst and last of Clay. and Calhoun. but who has been elevated to the station of a foreign minister in consequence of his civil attainments. He there met. who never attended a militia-training in his life. . " Imagine. Upon this question. he was elected to a seat in the UnitedStates Senate. Wright. Mr. the direct tendency of which must be to create sectional jealousies. Adams. Mr. in 1833. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen. Earnestly he opposed the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia. appearing at court. all political — that calamities. 1835. In December. Mr. Crawford. in which Jackson. Jackson. with a chapeau under his arm. I am a politician neither of the East nor I therefore shall of the West. there was a fire in New York. Avhich consumed property amounting to eighteen millions of dollars. Upon his return. " If I 365 know myself.JAMES BUCHANAN. and urged the prohibition of the circulation of antislavery documents by the United-States mails. and at length disunion. were candidates. arrayed in such a costume !" Gen. with voice and vote. upon his elevation to the presidency. he was brought into direct collision with Henry Clay." said he. owed the United States . Jackson for removing the deposits. and John Quincy Adams. Buchanan supported the measure." In the stormy presidential election of 1824. as his associates.

great ability . Tyler ought to have signed the party which elected him. the more I am inclined to be what is called man. thus crumbling our republic /nto ruins while the unarrest happy old man folded his arms in despair. Mr. and false to the sacred obligation of his oath to support the Constitution. vetoed their bank Mr. in M. while he invariably treated his opponents in the most courteous manner. excessive disappointment of the Whigs. he said. in his : accordance with his own views of State rights.356 the LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. as false to the whole course of his past life." Many of his speeches developed The older a State-rights . earnestness and deep conviction . In the discussion of the question Buchanan advocated the bill. he advocated that they should be respectfully received and that the reply should be returned. bill. simply asking for an extension of payment." said he. In reply to the bill in fidelity argument. Tyler succeeded President Harrison. and see State after State. Generously and eloquently Mr. Mr." As to petitions on the subject of slavery. He was convinced that the National Government was losing that strength which was essential to its own existence. that Mr. Union. de Tocqueville. declaring that the National Constitution invested him with no power to the destruction. all. " — I grow. breaking from the . Buchanan warmly to the commended his course. Buchanan " defined his position " by saying. respecting the admission of Michigan and Arkansas into the Union." " If he had approved that . A bill was introduced for their relief. When Mr." foresaw the trouble which was inevitable from the doctrine of State sovereignty as held by Calhoun and Buchanan. to the bill. and that the State'? were assuming powers which threatened the perpetuity of the Dnion. that Congress had no power to legislate upon the " Congress. Buchanan reviewed this book in the Senate. fere with slavery under a foreign government as in any of the States where it now exists. — he would have deserved to be denounced as a self-destroyer. sum of three million six hundred thousand dollars. with ample security. " might as well undertake to inter* subject. and declared the fears of De Tocqueville to be groundless and yet he lived to sit in the presidential chair. never allowing himself to exhibit the slightest irritation. . and. false to every principle of honor. renowned work upon " Democracy in America.

No candid man can read with pleasure the account of the course our in Government pursued still that Polk's administration. Mr. movement. Buchanan for the presidency. hw He identified himself thoroughly and warmly with the party devoted to the perpetuation and extension of slavery. human and divine. Buchanan retired to private life but . it will then bo time to consider the question.JAMES BUCHAXAN. met at Ostend. Pierce. Buchanan with the mission to England. Polk assumed that crossing the Nueces by the American troops into the dis- puted territory was not wrong. . It was feared that Spain might abolish slavery in Cuba. our ministers to France and Spain. then by every law. we shall be justified in wresting it from Spain. The plan then arose to purchase Cuba. Buchanan." Upon Mr." This Ostend Manifesto created intense excitement. Mr. Does Cuba. and this shall have been refused. a national Democratic convention nominated Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of State. Polk's accession to the presidency. In whioii included the fugitive-slave law. and great experience as a statesman. affairs. : — ' . in the possession of Spain. upon his election to the presidency. The substance of the result of their deliberations is contained in the foUowins: words " After we shall have offered Spain a price for Cuba far beyond its present value. " to afford that security to the Southern and South- western slave States which they have a right to demand. Mason and Soule. slave States. his cordial approval to the He gave compromise measures of 1850. and brought all the energies of his mind to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. if we possess the power. enabled him to exert a powerful private influence in national intellectual ability.rton Treaty in reference to . Mr. seriously endanger our internal peace and the existence of our cherished Union?' Should this question be answered in the affirmative. honored Mr. but for the Mexicans to cross the Rio Grande into that territory was a declaration of war. as such. Mr. and thus endanger the institution in our Southern States. At the close of Mr. In the year 1856. and Messrs. both in this country and in Europe but our own internal troubles which soon arose caused it to be forgotten. that it might be cut up into bi. Mr. Buchanan opposed the ratification of the 357 Webster-Ashour North-eastern boundary and advocated the annexation of Texas. To consider this important question. took his share of the responsibility in the conduct of the Mexican War. Mr. and.

618 for Fremont. that the foregoing proposition covers the whole subject of slavery agi- Congress that the Democratic party will adhere to a faithful execution of the compromise measures. But four years were wanting to fill up his threescore years and ten. Buchanan was hopelessly bewildered. On the 4th of March. and the enthusiasm with which he was greeted had never been surpassed. or in the District of The political confiict was one of the most severe in country has ever engaged. the agitation of the slavery question. Mr. racy recognize and adopt the principles of non-interference by Congress With slavery Columbia. in connecwhich all parties would assent. and no word had ever been breathed against the purity of his moral charHis long experience as a legislator. . Mr. emergency. by the convention. under whatever shape or and that the American Democcolor the attempt may be made tation in . not. he had filled at home and abroad. the candidate of the enemies of slaver}^ received 114 electoral votes. Mr. it was stated. an accomplished gentleman. that they njight rear upon the ruins of our free institutions In this a nation whose corner-stone should be human slavery. The popular vote stood 1. the act of reclaiming fugitives from service or labor included that the Democratic party will resist all attempts at renewing. Buchan- The crowd which attended wa? immense. administration would probably have been a success. eminently fitted him for the staUnder ordinary circumstances. Buchanan received 174. Buchanan was far advanced in life. his tion he was called to fill. .224. those with whom for years. endowed with superior abilities improved by the most careful culture. an was inaugurated President.340. Fremont. Mr.358 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. with his long-avowed principles. on the other. All the friends of slavery which our were on one side all the advocates of its restriction and final abolition. consistently oppose the State- . and was elected. 1. But such storms arose as the country had never experienced before. Mr. " that Congress has no power under the Constitution to interfere with the platform adopted tion with other principles to or control the domestic institutions of the several States . His own and action he had been allied in political principles were seeking the destruction of the Government. in Congress or out of it. Buchanan was a man of imposing personal appearance.750 for Buchanan. and the exalted offices acter. . He could friends. 1857. Mr." in State and Territory.

Conn. without perjury of the grossest kind.. Impartiality will its be secured by allowing each of the parties to speak in own The circumstances which : ence were as follows — called forth the correspond- After the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. 359 of the United As President bound by his oath faithfully to administer the laws.JAMES BUCHANAN. States. . between the supporters of slavery and the advocates of freedom. unite with those endeavoring to overthrow the republic. rights party in their assumptions. and Presiits having been made become historic. a struggle began. He therefore did nothing. In August. INVASION OV KANSAS. 1857. The more vigorous emigration from the free States. has New dent Buchanan. a correspondence took place between a nuin ber of gentlemen of distinction in public by the President. which. we shall quote freely from it. for the possession of the Territory of Kansas by population and settlement. he could not. in consequence of Haven. language. As this correspondence develops very clearly most of the points at issue between President Buchanan and the great Republican party which elected President Lincoln.

induced by voluntary organizations to favor it. in a public address the citizens of Kansas. this majority their proper control in the legislation and regulation of this Territory. upheld this iniquitously to chosen legislature in its authority and acts. in all far he would be justified in disputing them. Nathaniel W. instances. who succeeded Gov. sent a Memorial to the President upon this sub- About forty of the ject. the territorial with regular forms of election. — "to " mS EXCELLENCY JAMES BUCHANAN. and Leonard Bacon. and electora of the State of Connecticut. Taylor.D. governor of Kansas (Rseder). that the paper has recently appeared. was determined mob elected. LL. In some instances. This announceforced by executive ment created intense excitement with the advocates of liberty all the lawful legislature of Kansas over the Union. Memorial citizens of the United States. PRESIDENT STATES. strongly proslavery in their sympathies. embarrassed by these regular forms. thus . and not knowing how did not. in the published Life of Prowas from the pen of Professor It reads as follows : A. T^vining. lists of fictitious votes were returned under feigned names. C. C. A. They drove away the regularly constituted inspectors of elec- and substituted their own. and representatives of the Missouri mob were thereby furnished by the fraudulent inspectors Unfortunately.360 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. OF THE UNITED The undersigned. who received the votes of the mcb without scruple. Charles L. Twining. embracing such most distinguished gentlemen of New Hanames as Benjamin Silliman. large organized and armed mobs repeatedly passed over from the contiguous State of Missouri. announced that President Buchanan to sustain this legislature. so(n resulted in a To wrest from large excess of population in favor of freedom. particularity in the sketch of President Pierce. and appeared We have described these occurrences with in force at the polls. some tion. Reeder. Theodore Woolsey. The administrations of both Presidents Pierce and Buchanan. as and that its acts would be enauthority and by the army. Walker. and the supporters of those administrations. respectfully offer to your Excellency this — . ven. withhold his certificates from these fraud- ulent claimants to seats in the legislature long enough for the people to bring evidence of the fraud. It fessor Silliman. Gov. English.

and elect their own rulers. to all mankind. by the foregoing. may be assured that we shall Almighty God will make your tice not refrain from the prayer that administration an example of jusand beneficence. purporting to be legislative. that. one purpose of which is to force the people of Kansas to obey laws Qot their own. and established upon evidence. and rulers they never elected. ering seventeen folio pages. We earnestly represent to your Excellency. but which never had the election nor the sanction nor the consent of the people of that Territory. that Gov. which was called the Silliman Letter. States. by employing arms in Kansas to uphold a body of men. that we also have taken the oath to obey the Constitution and your Excellency " . it cannot be doubted that he took counsel in its preparation. therefore. he I said. protect our people and our Constitution. that your Excellency in like ia manner held up to this nation. cov. and to all posterity. if not with astonishment. " We call attention further to the fact. and." To this. as violating in ticular the port the Constitution of this Union. with his terrible majesty. When entered upon the duties of the presidential 46 on . and attract to it national attention. in the attitude of levying war against a portion of the United States. the President returned a very carefully-written reply from his own hand.— JAMES BUCHANAN. nor of the United States. but laws which it ia notorious. As he was well aware that the distinguished character of the memorialists would stamp the Memorial with importance. We see with grief. " 361 The fundamental and of our their principle of the Constitution of the United is. political institutions. to the great derogation its most essential parsolemn oath which the President has taken to sup- of our national character. that the people shall make " own laws. Walk er of Kansas openly represents and proclaims that the President is employing through him an army. liminary remarks. " little After some pre- bearing upon the points office. which had but at issue. your Excelopenly held up and proclaimed. of the United States " We is lency represent. they never made. and a code of enactments. and presented those arguments upon which he and his cabinet wished to rely with posterity in defence of their measures.

you have denounced me as having violated my to lished ' Bolemn oath. was in full A governor. " The delegate elected by the House of Representatives under a territorial law had just completed his term of service on the day previous to my inauguration. and for doing which. and district attorney. and this alone. I found the government of Kansas as well established as that of any other Terri. justices. what was the condition of Kansas in all its branches. secretary of the Territory. . that I ordered a military force to Kansas. which I need not " The portray. to act as a posse comitatus in aiding magistrate to carry the laws into execution. chief justice. It is quite true that a controversy had previously arisen respecting the validity of thf. In fact. and were all A code of laws had been enacted by the territorial and the judiciary were employed in expounding by and with the advice and consent engaged in discharging their respec- and carrying these laws into effect. a marshal. election of members of the territorial legislature. two associate appointed by of the Senate tive duties. had the marshal. left In this I would I not have been justly condemned. had been my . and thus have suffered the government itself to become an object of contempt in the eyes of the people ? And yet this is what you designate as forcing 'the people of Kansas to obey laws not their own. It from being overturned by force? in the language of to take care that the laws be faithfully exe' was for this purpose. or by the territorial legislature under its express authority. at the time I entered upon my official duties. March last. impotent execute the process and judgments of courts of justice estal> by Congress. to sustain Under these circumstances. ? This Territory had been organized under the act of Congress of 30tb May. tory. nor of the United States. condition of the Territory at the time. Congress had recognized the legislature in different forms and by different enactments. 1854. predecessor. what was my duty ? Was it not this government? to protect it from the violence of lawless men who were determined either to rule or ruin? to " it prevent cuted '? t.862 the 4th of LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. state of affairs. operation. and of the laws passed by them but. and the government.-e civil the Constitution. legislature . rendered this precaution absolutely necessary. and other officers of like character.

or ought I to have donel should abandon the territorial government. Had this attempt proved successful. existing government prescribed and recognized by Congress. indeed. " I ask. This point .v the same act. if carried into execution. sanctioned as it had been by Congress. but to leave the people thereof perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way. and to fix a dam uing blot on the character of my administration. Whence did this necessity arise? trust to the ballot-box. The Congress of the United States had most wisel}' declared it to be the true intent and meaning of this act' (the act organizing the Territory) 'not to legislate slavery into any Territory or State. would destroy all lawful authority. 363 have done. requiring the presence of a military force in Kansas.' " As a natural consequence. all redress of — the certain American remedy the grievances. in Kansas. subject only to the Constitution of the United States. for the purpose of redressing any grievance. and produce universal anarchy. " I most cheerfully admit that the necessity for sending a military force to Kansas to aid in the execution of the civil law reflects no credit upon the character of our country. But lef the blame fall upon the heads of the guilty.' Slavery existed at that period. Congress has also prescribed b. unwilling to government it for themselves. it vshall be received into the Union. real or imaginary. and substituted a revolutionary government in " This its was a usurpation of the same character as it would be fur a portion of the people of Connecticut to undertake to establish a separate government within its chartered limits. under the Constitution of the United States. and exists. when the Territory of Kansas shall be admitted as a State. the would. to violate my oath of office. Such a principle.JAMES BUCHANAN. nor to exclude it therefrom. of course. and thus renew the scenes of civil war and bloodshed else could I What Would you have desired that I which every patriot in the country had deplored? This would have been. — undertook create an independent for to A portion of the people of Kansas. " I ought to specify more particularly a condition of affairs which I have embraced only in general terms. with or without ' * slavery. have subverted stead. of which they might have complained against the legitimate State Government. as their Constitution may prescribe at the time of their still admission. to illegal violence. that.

most properly confined this right to those who had resided there three months previous ' to the election. It conferred every bond-fide inhabitant of the Territory and." it was fitting that a United-States army should be sent under the "stars and the stripes" to compel Frederick Douglas to ply the shoebrush and the curry-comb for James Buchanan. or refined. sons in the State. modify. then continue. the right of suffrage on and just in its provisions. . As Mr. unjustifiable. It was " most wisely to be considered as one of the people. has at last been finally decided to by the highest tribunal known is to our laws. And this was called democracy. free cide the important question for themselves.does this question belong. and declared " that James Buchanan.nnA in no respect his inferior. without wages. " equal rights for all " t Colored persons. surely one set of the partners can have no right to exclude the other from its is enjoyment by prohibiting them from taking recognized as property by the into it whatsoever tion. should be the cradle to the grave. either morally. In the opinion of the territorial legislature of Kansas. no matter how intelligent. the time had arrived for entering the Union law to elect delegates This law was tution. Buchanan employs the.^e then ! words with a significance different from that dictionary. and to them all alone. " Here a fair opportunity was presented for all the qualified resident citizens of the Territory. common Constitu^ " But when the people * the bond-fide residents of such Territory. his it is in which they are defined in every English necessary to explain the sense in which he uses them in order to mak4 meaning clear. ' *• for the fair and they accordingly passed a purpose of framing a State consti. compelled to black his boots. intellectually. should be permitted to decide whether Frederick Douglas. to whatever organization they * It is to be observed that President Buchanan limits the term people to If a mean white people only. from foreign interference. it is proceed to frame a State Constitution. he was not If there Avere two lumdrcd thousand colored perone hundred thousand white persons. If a confederation of sovereign States acquire a new Territory at the expense of the common blood and treasure. wealthy. — whether they their right to dewill To them. " illegal. and should Frederick Douglas make any objection to the decision.364 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. for the purpose of preventing fraud and the intrusion ot citizens of near or distant States. man had the slightest tinge of colored blood in his veins. me a mystery. a colored man. How it could ever have been seriously doubtef'. a white man.. in lifelong bondage. from and should James Buchanan thus decide. it was " most wisely declared " that these white persons should be permitted to decide whether these colored persons should work for them. and groom his horse. unconstitutional. or abolish slavery. . were no more considered inhabitants than they were considered people. or physically.

unparalleled in the history of the Union. should this become necessary. which were cordially accepted and indorsed by his party. unless they shall attempt to perform some act which will bring them into actual collision with the Constitution and the laws. President Buchanan caused to be published. and on the question of But numbers of lawless men * still continue to resist They refused either to be registered or to vote. in the state of incipient rebellion f which still exists in Kansas. Madison towards the Hart- ford Convention. will not be disturbed. and not the people of the Territory . also from the its pen of Professor Twining. such as that Topeka Convention. and fraud. " The convention will soon assemble to perform the solemn duty of framing a constitution for themselves and their posterity . substance is It is too long to be quoted : contained in the following extracts — . and it was very widely circulated. with the Memorial." of the The above contains the whole of Mr. to participate in the election. " Following the wise example of Mr. that we repudiate their action as the monstrous consummation of an act of violence. By the friends of his administration.JAMES BUCHANAN. " That the body of men who for the last two months have been passing laws for the people of our Territory. representing only the lawless invaders who elected them. and the members of the convention were slavery the regular territorial government. instrument in the free exercise of the right of suffrage. and. This reply. are to us a foreign body. 365 to express their opinions at the ballot-box might have previously belonged. and passed the resolve. counselled. and dictated to by the demagogues of Missouri. who met in convention. usurpation. . shall when it be submitted to them for their approbation or rejection. moved. The rejoinder on the part of the memorialists consisted of an address to the public." " t These rebels were those who objected to the State being ruled by "border-ruffians from Missouri. it was declared to be triumphant. Buchanan's reply bearing upon the points at issue. justice to Mr. As this question was so all-absorbing during his administration. illegal and dangerous combinations. in defending the convention against violence while framing the constitution bond-fide inhabitants qualified to vote and in protecting the under the provisions of this . should be fully unfolded. and created such intense excitement throughout the whole country. it is m}' imperative duty to employ the troops of the United States. Buchanan seemed to demand that his views. elected legally and properly without their intervention. but These " lawless men " were the free-State men of Kansas.

to hold our liberties at so precarious a tenure. that what is called the Territorial Legislature of Kansas is. emanating from so high a source. just so far. in fact. no more really levying war against a portion of the United States. and write certificates for representatives of their own choosing. stronger neighbor in us.366 •' LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. with the point of the sword. fact. the * President of this Union shall assume to compel our obedience the whole by power of the G-overnment' ? Could it be expected that even such a menace would drive our citizens to recognize any valid authority in a mere banditti. because of their possession of the stolen and empty forms of law and government ? " It has been denied by the apologists of the Missouri invaders. It rests almost upon two grounds. Nay. therefore. But the President puts forward a vindication. by theii Organic Act. than if performed in Kansas" Are we. thousands of armed men from our the West shall make an incursion among if. the President justifies the employment of troops to uphold a body of men and a code of enactments which he has tacitly admitted never had the election nor sanction nor consent of the denial people of the Territory. The first ground may be sufl5ciently stated by a single quotation from his document At the time I entered upon my " entirely : * . seize our ballot- boxes. as that act entitles them to it. its it cannot be denied that the Consti* tution extends protection over the elective franchise in that any State of the Union. would. became possessed of the same elective privilege with the people of a State. inhabitants of the comparatively feeble State of ConTerritory as full}'- as in employment of troops to necticut. no such . No man will question that the inhabitants of Kansas. In that document. under the circumstances. it follows that the compel obedience to a notoriously nonelected and therefore usurping body. that reply deny that the body referred to never had the election nor sanction nor consent of the people of the Territory '? Not at ' all. is made. that hereafter. an impressive recogniAnd yet. which we feel called upon briefly to review. at least. deposit their votes. while he does not deny our chief assertion and tion. if performed in a sovereign State. such a non-elected and usurping body as we have just How stands this in the President's reply? Does described. Since. Connecticut for example. we are at liberty to receive it as more even as being. be no more fully an un* constitutional act.

official duties. much is it less to oblige a President to subjuthis that the But on such a knife-edge as is franchise of a whole people made to oscillate ? and tremble? and is this the logic which guides our statesmen . subject (not to invaders. considering that exception. and it is undeniable. you will apprehend that there never was any enactment of Congress from which any thing more could be derived than some of a delegate to the clearly doubtful or imperfect constructive recognition of the territorial body referred to.' " What particuhir forms and enactments are intended. But we go farther. '' And here we might . admission of a delegate sent to the House by the suppoilers of the usurping legislature. That tation of the people.e. is an explicit denial that — : ' ' thereof (i. " Our first answer. And in this we refer especially to its provisions for an elective represenNo man will dispute us on this point. Mere implications cannot be construed to conflict with the unmistakable and express enactments according to which the duly elected legislative assembly shall consist of the persons having the highest number of legal votes. left to our conjecture . 367 differ* Congress had recognized this legislatnre in ent forms and by different enactments. expressly purporting to recognize or make valid the body in question. has not even force to oblige a succeeding Congress not to exclude him. with but by attentively a single exception.' rest for here our answer is complete.JAMES BUCHANAN. any thing approaching in the Organic Act. and with the intent Ho leave the people to the stated. although the admission of a delegate it is final as to his seat for a time. and deny the propriety even of the implicaThe President adduces specifically only the tions claimed. Again we assert that the Organic solemnity Act stands in all the force of an unrepealed national law. but) only to the Constitution of the United States. Now. that. which amounts only to the admission House after two marked rejections. is. gate a Territory. great charter of popular representation in Kansas remains unrevoked. then. of the Territory) free to regulate their domestic insti- tutions in their own way. not to mention the President. it is enough to remark in reply. ground of vindication above any joint action of the House and the Senate. that the fundamental Organic Act ought to and must control all side-issues. can be found among the statutes of this nation.

it is obvious. does the fact stand in the instance before you ? " So far from such sanction or consent of the majority being in evidence.' if We assent to the proposition. to do this by ignoring the procedures of that same branch. that his obligation to the laws binds him to subvert the organic law. as a body. the President offers his oath the laws faithfully executed. must have been the clear. they had formally voted to abrogate the body for it. then. which. whom their sanction is now claimed I " The Organic Act. in union with the Federal Government and other officers. of the repeated adverse action of even that single branch . a had been appointed by my predemarshal. and. district attorney. explicit. and his obligation to seo therefore. : ' secretary of the Territory. a valid republican government. When. stand late. a body of men are assuming to legiswho were never elected or sanctioned by the people. A governor. acting as the grand inquest of the nation. as contained in the report of their investigating committee. in full force in Kansas. that the boiidfide settlers of Kansas have. given their sanction and consent to the representative authority of the territorial legislature above referred to. " The President's other ground of vindication is embraced in I found the government of Kansas as the following extracts well established as that of any other Territory. and that his oath to pre- serve and protect the Constitution binds him to contravene tlie very fundamental element of the Constitution. or even presumable. But. two associate justices. " To adduce a meagre vote of a single branch cf the Goverii ment as an act of Congress to adduce it as such in the faco . it constitutes de facto. How. as a plea for supporting that illegal body. and if that authority is of force to execute its enactments in the Territory. under the fundamental principle of our Constitution. and the judiciary were employed in carrying those laws into " effect. on the strength of which. contrary to that act and that principle. had sent forth the details of frauds and the evidence of invalidity. the President's reply itself sup* . chief justice. code of laws had been enacted by the territorial legislature (mark our Italics). but then that sanction. and A cessor. lie proposes the solecism.368 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. even without having given it their election. by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. unmistakable act of the majority.

the President should have " Fellow-citizens. we know why . How large a portion.' you read in the reply. aware. occupied every council district. they November. or to recognize the pretended But were they indeed unwilling to trust the ballotlegislature. of the entire population.' continued to resist the regular territorial government. 1854. undertook to create an independent government for themselves. every one of which has been controlled by voters from Missouri? Under these circumstances. excluded the reproachful charge of being ' unwilling to trust to the it is ballot- box ' cannot reach those at 47 whom not aimed." After showing the conclusive evidence upon which this fact is established. " — The emphatic protest of the majority in Kansas. but you are and perhaps foior-Ji/ths. music. who. be it observed. evidence which no one now calls in question. is imputed to them by the President as a political and public wrong. in part. the reply does not state it .' " A 'portion of the people^ have always acted out a strong pro- test. obtaining violent possesbion of tha cast in the following March. about six-tenths the entire vote of the Territory ? when thousands of armed men from Missouri. to the ballot-box. unwilling the certain American remedy for the to trust — grievances. polls. the memorialists continue. was merely a steady refusal to vote. which was expressed by their afore-mentioned refusal to vote.' and even refused either to be ' registered or vote.' " The resistance of these lawless men. rial Numbers of lawless legislature. 'A portion of the people of Kansas. provision-wagons. to the reverse to . which are all open to the light of day. at were overpowered by par- of armed intruders. box? the ties When and how? Was it in first election for a delegate. with tents. from good authorities. — undertook to redress create an independent govern- ment. 369 and facts notorioua common information supply the rest. that is two-thirds at least. His language of all is. and the entire Was it appointments of an invading army. when. and able 10 all rightful voters whose sentiments were not agreethem? Has it been at any subsequent election. plies distinct proof.JAMES BUCHANAN. poured into Kansas. took possession of the ballot-boxes. ' ' A portion ' of the people of Kansas. men continued to resist the territoThey refused either to be registered or to vote.

as they retired. I shall be assailed bv South. perhaps. taking with them. and in It was upon this very their response to the President's letter. the National Capitol at Washington. Buchanan's sympathy with the proslavery party was such. which was presented to the nation in the next presidenthe issue tial election. Davis in 1850. the opponents of Mr. the which the Government was pursuing. Buchanan had been ready to ofi'er them the active co-operaIn tion of the Government to defend and extend the institution. and take higher ground for the South than they have taken for themselves. This would be to out-Herod Herod. platform that the Hon. of the North was non-intervention upon the subject of slavery. and the control of the Government were thus taken from their hands. he wrote. it would be madness in me to publish my letter. that he had been willing to offer them far more than they had All that the South liad professed to ask ventured to claim. introduced to us and to you the exciting subject of slavery. they would secede from the Union. is clear that non-intervention is all that will be required by the Under these circumstances. Buchanan's administration nominated Abraham Lincoln as their standard-bearer in the next presidential canvass. Douglass planted his feet so firmly. without any other comment than that our silence is not to be construed into any assent. and which resulted in the choice of Abraham Lincoln by an overwhelming majority of votes. respecting which our Memorial was silent.870 U7ES OF THE PRESIDENTa. The proslavery party declared. In the great excitement which this state of things created in the United States. administration. that if he were elected. opponents of the administration accepted and adopted the views contained in the Memorial of the New-Haven gentlemen. North and South." The friends of Mr." addressed to Jefi". Buchanan's his letter. nod to be mora Southern than the South. a " private and confidential letter. were satisfied with the views They accepted and adopted it expressed as a triumphant defence of the policy On the other hand. Steplien A. and the lion's share of the territory of t tie United States. in reference to a letter which he was urged to have published. " it — From a careful examination of the proceedings in Congress. the most heThis was essentially roic battle ever waged in senatorial halls. Mr. . and in defence of which he fought. Mr. We leave his startling assertions on that subject.

" its He declared that Congress had no power to enforce its laws in any State which had withdrawn. " The Union must and shall be preserved It was an alarming state of things when the supreme Executive ! declared that he had no power " to take care that the laws be faithfully executed. 1860 nearly three months . This was not the doctrines of Andrew Jackson. or which was attempting to withdraw. from the Union. navy-yards. with his hand upon his swordhilt." Innumerable plans of concession were proposed but the secesavow their utter contempt for the Government of the United States. and Mr. ton . rebel flag was raised " The Star of the West. and to accomplish all their disorganizing measures before his successor should come into power." in enFort Sumter was besieged deavoring to carry food to its famishing garrison. drilled to the movement. before the inauguration of President Lincoln. Buchanan sat in the White House. They hastened to avail themselves of his weakness. it. South Carolina seceded in December. by the rebels: and all that President Buchanan could do was Bend a secret messenger to Charleston to implore the rebels to to . began to withdraw. . All his rebukes were addressed to those who had wished to prevent the extension of slavery. the slaveholders claiming Buchanan avowing that Congress had one of the most pitiable exhibitions of governmental imbecility was exhibited the world has ever seen. no power to prevent Mr. " The long-continued and intemperate in« terference. The . Buchanan in Charles- looked on in listless despair. the slaveholding States. he exclaimed." ." As the storm increased in violence. was fired upon and still Mr." he said. Our forts. Buchanan had not a word of censure for them. Buchanan approached the rebels on his knees. and to spurn its advances. As soon as it was known that Mr. and arsenals were seized our depots of military stores were plundered and our custom-houses and post-offices were appropriated . Mr. the right to secede. sionists did not hesitate to . and bemoaning his helplessness. " of the Northern people with the question of slavery in the Southern States. when. wringing his hands. JAMES BUCHANAN. fanatics in 371 and free-soilers as long as I live for having gone farther support of the rights of the South than Southern senators and representatives. has at length produced natural effects. Lincoln was elected. Mr.

Many of these forts had no garrisons at all. Caleb Gushing. The American Conjiict. It would have saved the country four thousand millions of money." — spatched to Charleston by President . had occupied and fortified many of the most important strategic points. The nation looked on in agony. 409. Probably history may be searched in vain for a parallel case. and the secretary of the navy. Gen. all seemed * " By the middle of December. Scott's plan been adopted. appropriated by the rebels. that the rebels would scarcely have ventured to attack them. it would have prevented the uprising. and organized their government while President Buchanan had not lifted a hand to check them.'" began to retire. that he would not attempt to re-enforce Major Anderson. of Massachusetts. and robbed the arsenals and the pubof his cabinet lic Members treasure. by Horace Greeley. and join the rebels. in view of the threatening aspect of affairs. the secretary of war. the rebels had plundered the nation of millions of property. provided they would evince a like pacific spirit by respecting the Federal authorities down to the close of his administration. vol. p. in which the chief ruler of a great country. Buchanan. no one can be blind as to the result of his conduct. and urging them to be on the alert. Mr. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Had Gen. and nearly a million of lives. aftei they had scattered the fleet. Before the close of January. i. Buchanan would not permit thom to be strengthened. and the imbecility of our Executive. Hon. His errand was a secret one but. was deBuchanan as a commissioner or confidential agent of the Executive. he was understood to be the bearer of a proffer from Mr. Buchanan. giving them warning of their peril. and urged that strong garrisons should be sent to all the imperilled forts. called repeatedly upon President Buchanan. and coald at any time be seized and \\eYQ alike marvellous. waiting for the slow weeks to glide away. The energy of the rebels. His request was not granted until it was too late to be of avail. so terrible in its weakness. Gen. rendering their reconquest costly in both blood and treasure. little until hold back their hand a the close of his administratiou. now but a few weeks distant. so far as its object was allowed Jo transpire. had chosen their flag.• . . nor initiate any hostilities against the secessionists. Scott. Whatever may have been the motives which influenced Mr. .172 . In all probability. Scott entreated that at least a circular might be sent to the forts where there were garrisons. it would have placed all the arsenals and forts commanding the Southern rivers and strategic points so firmly in the hands of the National Government. and close this administration.

JAMES BUCHANAN. Castle Pinckney. In December. and I mean . Buchanan. L. to 373 combine to leave the as defenceless a condition as possible." South Carolina. and all involve the States in a common ruin. who would wield it with more of the sceptre . nullification and secession soon came There surely was as great a difierence in the treatment to grief. is bound to go out of this accursed Union. when was to fall from the powerless hands of Mr. receiving the curses of posterity. Scott received an order from the War Department to hasten to Washington. " and execute those views. When Gen. He also the materiel of war. Take your destinies in your own hands. and to be grasped by another. Buchanan alone. Jackson. in which he : have said as follows — is South Carolina cannot take one step backwards now without South Carolina. 1860. and for the arsenal at Augusta." persuasives. urged that " a sloop-of-war and several armed revenue-cutters should be immediately sent to Charleston Harbor." said Gen. Jackson. shall give you carte blanche in respect to troops. single and Mr. if she cannot. and written instructions shall follow you.C. The vessels be there. Buchanan as there was in the At length the long-looked-for hour of deliverance came. Keitt was serenaded in Columbia. under the leadership of John C. Scott his views as to the best military measures to be adopted. was threatening nullification and secession. Proceed I at once. Scott suggested strong garrisons for Port Moultrie. is pledged to secession." said Gen. He arrived in the evening. Under these of the disease by Jackson and by results of that treatment. 'east South Carolina can do it alone but. M. he made a speech. reported to " In response. in the days of Andrew Jackson's presidency. rebellion was threatening ? Was this treachery? Was it imbecility It is very evident that for some reason the secessionists had no fear that President Buchanan would place any obstacles in their path. " The Union must and shall be preserved. most important fortresses of the nation in when arrogant and armed their capture. S. as he inquired of Gen. to hold him to it. and immediately had an interview with the President. Hon. Gen. she can at throw her arms around the pillars of the Constitution. Calhoun. which was filled with Port Sumter was not then built. and shatter this accursed Union.

his successor installed. . It was the 4th of March. He might by a few words have rendered the nation the most signal service but He died at his beautiful Wheatthose words were not spoken. that.374 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Attempts had been made by the rebels to assassinate Abraham Lincoln on his journey to Washington. land retreat. . His best friends cannot recall it with pleasure. no word came from the lips of President Buchanan to indicate his wish that our country's banner should triumph over the flag of rebellion. in the dreadful conflict which rolled its billows of flame and blood over our whole land. 1861. and then retired to his home in Wheatthe dignity and energy land. becoming the chief ruler of one of tho most powerful nations on the globe. aged seventy-seven years. Very narrowly he escaped. Buchanan remained in Washington to see his inauguration. The administration of President Buchanan was certainly the most calamitous our country has experienced. And still more deplorable it is for his fame. June 1. It was deemed necessary to adopt the most careful precautions to secure him from assassination on the day of Mr. 1868.

— A Day>i lin(. Even now. or ai. Boatman. — A Political Speaker. In the interior of the State of Kentucky. — His Sentiments. — A Member o^ Congress..— Anecdotes. smooth as a floor. Lincoln. it is but sparsely populated. — Nominated for the Presidency. — A Student. highly picturesque in ha in places..— The Debate with Douglas. — His Assassination. — Habits of Temperance. CHAPTER XVI.— A Legislator. there is the county of Seventy-five Larae.sii>i:m !. The painted Indian here had free range 37J r. its it was quite a wilderness. years ago streams. — Excellence of Character early developed. ABRAHAMLINCOLN. Ljfa in a Log-cabin. forests. and again swelling into gentle undulations like the ocean at the subsidence of a storm. . — A — A Shrpkeeper. — Acts of his Administration. — A Lawyer. i:i.olx.i. and its prairies .. — Eloquence of Mr.

while working one day in his field. About the year 1780. coin. What motive could have induced a civilized man to take such a step. coarsest and the meanest. He was among the poor98t of the poor. It toil and destitution. Kentucky. His widow was left in the extreme of poverty with five little children. and reared their cabins in the most secluded valleys. there have been thousands thus ever crowding into the wilderness. Abraham Lincoln.876 a savage LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTH. no record has been kept of the life of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. the pioneers of civilization. left the beautiful still Val- ley of the Shenandoah. for the sake of peopling this country. their worldly goods they . from the earliest settlement of our country until the present day. unless. and shot dead. Thomas. The Indians were always clustered in villages but these men. leaving all But vestiges of civilization hundreds of miles behind them. it is difficult to imagine and still. brother-man. Only two years after this emigration. was four years of age at the time of his father's death. the youngest of these boys. How she struga gled along through the terrible years of are not informed. who loved hardship and peril and utter loneliness. . possibly. and with the it was an earthly paradise. still young man. we was one of those unwritten tragedies of which earth is full. they might have been enabled to take with them a horse or a mule. the President of the This Thomas was the father of Abraham Lio United States. more ferocious than the wild beasts he pursued. His home was a wretched log-cabin his food. Though Daniel Boone had explored this region. There were three boys and two girls in the family. there were no paths but the trail of the Indian. one of these men. Education he had none • he could never . the annals of our world. for the wilds of His wife and one or two children accompanied him. raging. Providence. There were All no roads . penetrated the recesses of the forest. there were but few who were ready to plunge into the pathless wilderness. and had returned to the other side of the Alleghanies laden with peltry. where they seldom heard the voice or saw the face of their report that . must have carried in packs upon their backs. whose name must hencethe forth forever be enrolled amongst most prominent in the Of course. was stealthily approached by an Indian. seems to have raised up a peculiar class of men. when the war of the Revolution was Abraham Lincoln. in Virginia.

and thus spent the whole of his in the fields of others. when in his seventh year. friendless." Abraham's mother had received some education. and push out into the world. in that time. Three horses took the family and all their household goods a seven-days' journey to their new home. and moved to Indiana. the subject of this sketch. was a generous. or hope to to toil and pine and die in a hovel. 48 . But higher far my The child of parents passed and rulers of the earth proud pretensions rise. and married Nancy Hanks. created to adorn a palace. Good old Parson Elkin gave Abraham his first ideas of public speaking. and was anxious that his children should not suffer in this respect as he had done. " 'Tis not — my boast that I deduce my birth From loins enthroned. either read or write. youth as a laborer When twenty-eight years of age. doomed "All that I am. When he was eight years of age. gentle. and to another for about three. and would often delight her children by reading them some story from the In that remote region. his father sold his cabin and small farm. schools were few. loving. In a home more cheerless and comfortless than the . he learned both to read and write. His zeal was so great. pensive. " I owe to my angel-mother : bless- ings on her memory " ! Both the father and mother of Abraham Lincoln were earnest Christians. — into the skies. Their second child was Abraham Lincoln. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.s compelled to leave the cabin of his starving mother. The mother of Abraham was a noble woman. he built a log-cabin of his own.. Thomas. 377 to do As soon as he was able any thing fol himself. wandering boy. and gathered the scattered famihes under a grove or in a cabin for religious service. be. a work. that. seeking He hired himself out." exclaims the grateful son. Abraham. the daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emigrants. and very humble in their character. who had also come from Virginia. very few books she could command. warm-hearted. Here kind neighbors helped them in putting up another log-cabin. He greatly deplored his want of education. with but little efficiency. Their grateful son could ever say. was sent to one teacher for about two months. he ws. His parents were members of the Baptist Church and occasionally an itinerant preacher came along. good-natured man. his father.

his eyes swimming with tears. Bitterly he wept as his mother was laid in her humble grave beneath the trees near the cabin. beautiful in the light of the sabbath- morning sun. Franklin. he took it back to the owner. with his marked figure and countenance. It was a scene for a painter. All the events of their varied careers were so stored up in his memory. and occasionally working as a day-laborer. school than this to teach He could not have had a better him to put thoughts into words." He had borrowed Ramsay's By accident. He also became an eager reader." were his favorites. and Clay. throughout the whole breadth of the land. and purchased the soiled copy by working for it for three days. produced a deep impression upon his sensitive mind. His father soon married again a very worthy woman." In consternation at the calamity. was exceiedingly genial . the wide-spread prairie. the grave. the grove. who had Abraham remained at home. ress. with the delicate organization. ^sop's " Fables. The books he could obtain were few. of a lady.378 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. through the wilderness. the group seated around upon logs and stumps. Lincoln. Mrs. The high esteem in which this noble woman was held may be inferred from the fact that Parson Elkin rode a hundred miles on horseback. and which subsequently gave him the name. of Life of WashingHonest Abe. He had rethe farm. the mourning family: and Abraham. both of body and mind. the venerable preacher. gazing upon the scene which was thus honoring the memory of his revered mother. but these he read and re-read until they were almost committed to memory. toiling upon also several children. assembled to attend the service. sank and died beneath the burdens which crushed her. ton. He soon became the scribe of the unedu- cated community around him. Abraham had written the letter inviting the pastor to preach the funeral-sermon. An anecdote is related illustrative of that conscientiousness of character which was early developed. to the number of two hundred. who were scattered in that sparsely-settled region over a distance of twenty miles. alone in its soli- tude. readers of the present day can easily comprehend. The Bible." and the " Pilgrim's ProgThe Lives of Washington. . " '* markable muscular strength and agility. to preach her funeral-sermon and the neighbors. that he could recall them at any time. — the log-cabin. Abraham was then ten years of age. the book was seriously injured by a shower.

and secured to an eminent degree the affection and respect of the lowly community with which he was associated. boat. passing headlands and forests." earned a dollar in less than a day. He was ever ready to make any sacrifice of his own comfort to assist others. Avith food and shelter floating the tranquil current of the beautiful Ohio. gage. It was a most important I. when the robbers were put to precipitate flight. landing. — a distance down down the Ohio of more than a A man can scarcely be imagined. With a rifle. time. he could scarcely believe my eyes. west the stream now compressed within narrow banks. and almost to an ocean to be borne along by an insensible motion through such scenes. out to a steamer in the river. and he had obtained almost world-wide renown. had and fairer before me. and the boat disposed of for lumber. huts and villages. north. when tied to the shore. the cargo was sold. east. One morning. Young Lincoln. . 379 and obliging. New Orleans. and a small boat attached to their floating ark. retraced their passage . this story in the was standing by his boat at the and wished to be taken He sculled them out with their lug- dollars said. they could tie their boat to the shore. south. " I — Each of them tossed a silver half-dollar to him. he built a boat to carry the produce of the farm down the Ohio River to a market. and visit the cabins of the remote settlers for supplies. they were attacked by seven robbers eager for plunder. I could scarcely believe that a poor boy. incident in my life. the tortuous river bearing the boat in all directions. Having some considerable mechanical skill. as he two men came down to the shore. Whenever they wished. Quite a little battle ensued. and now expanding to a lake. I The world seemed wider was more hopeful and confident from that When nineteen years of age. with his companions. a neighbor applied to him to take flat-boat to float a charge of a cargo of produce and the Mississippi to thousand miles. In telling day when his income was twenty-five thousand a year.— ABRAHAM LINCOLN. in the bright morning sunshine or in the serene moonlight. must have enkindled emotions in the bosom of young Lincoln never to be forgotten. Having arrived at New Orleans. more exciting trip for an adventurous young Housed safely in his capacious . One night. and swept resistlessly along flood of the by the majestic Father of Waters . they could supply themselves with game. .

Mr. and was intensely earnest to improve He saw the ruin which his mind to the utmost of his power. were dragged by oxen. and fifteen days were occupied in reaching their new home upon the banks of the Sangamon. miles farther north-west. he aided his father in rearing another log-cabin. and emigrated two hundred It was a weary to Macon County. and weary journey. finding his location unhealthy in the almost urbroken wilderness of Spencer County. that one young into ruin man. Thomas Lincoln.380 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. sold out his squatter's claim in 1830. and lured by the accounts which he had heard of the marvellous fertility of Illinois. sinks and that another. to whom died. Youno. Abraham's sister Sarah.. and to go out into the world to seek his fortune. the lot of this lowly family was the usual weddings and funehe was tenderly attached was married when a child of but fourteen years of age. " Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain " and a profane expression he was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. and ten acres of land were fenced in by split Abraham worked diligently at this until he saw the family rails. most of the way on As lot of rals. the years rolled on. and through roads of mire. to Indiana in a long back foot. But the elements of greatness were then being developed. and soon humanity. spring journey over swollen streams The teams. Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age.Abraham worked . comfortably settled. 111. It is difficult to explain the reason for the fact. la. . ardent spirits were causing. and a drawer-knife. and became strictly temperate re- — . a saw. The only tools they had to work It was made of hewn timber. The family was gradually scattered. surrounded by every influence which should elevate. He saw the value of education. . A smoke-house and barn were also built. fusing to allow a drop of intoxicating liquor to pass his . soars to dignity and elevation which render him an honor to his race. with were an axe. With vigorous hands. There were joys and griefs. containing the personal effects of the emigrants. And he had read in God's word. naturally restless. exposed to all the temptations which would naturally tend to degrade. and he was uncontaminated by a single vice. Little did he or his friends imagine how brilliant that fortune was to be. and their small lot of enclosed prairie planted with corn when he announced to his father his intention to leave home. His morals were pure. lips.

he weighed Just as he out half a pound of tea for a woman. if study and thought. in the dark. In 1832. where he was employed in building a large flat-boat. In settling a bill with a as to give great satisfaction to his employers." said Abraham at last. joined a debating-club. Customers were multiplied. they A blessing seemed placed a store and a mill under his care. powerful arms. Lincoln." which he not only read. to follow him. Every leisure moment was devoted ing beyond endurance. but carefully pondered all its leading articles. tor a 381 time as a hired laborer among the farmers. and completely mastered it. rioting. determined honesty secured confidence. River. A bully came into the store one day. his woman. and carried them to her a long walk before . His straightforward. was ascending Rock Volunteers were called for to resist him. that. with " malice towards none. threw him upon the ground as though he had been a child. " I suppose I may as well whip you as an}^ other man. by an accidental defect in the scales. trying to provoke a fight. He borrowed an English grammar. and thence by the Mississippi to New Orleans. breakfast. that. Then he went to Springfield. upon his return. studied it thoroughly. walked to her house. floated them down the Sangamon to the Illinois.ABRAHAM LINCOLN. got some cool water to bathe his burning face. was closing the store one night. insult- you must be whipped. In the morning. Whatever Abraham Lincoln undertook." He seized him with his long. to " Well. to pay it back to her. scant Aveight by four ounces. two miles and a half distant. he found. He found it out reckoning. and cried for mercy. He sought the society of the most intelligent men in that region. the celebrated Indian chief Black Hawk crossed the Mississippi. until the fellow bellowed with pain. shut up the store. and. Who should be their captain ? There were two candi. with a large band of savages. and took "The Louisville Journal. he performed so faithfully In this adventure employers were so well pleased. ho took in his night's six and quarter cents too much. blustering. and immediately. in the dusk. . enlisted. with enough others in his immediate neighborhood to make a company. rubbed it in his face. Abraham. gathering in his hand some "smart weed" which chanced to be near." helped him up. the woman had received He weighed out the four ounces. and. and made him ever after one of his best friends. In this he took a herd of swine.

in that wilderness. he was defeated. routed. oflSce and the recompense small. and each man was told to go to the one whom he preferred. All the letters he received he carried there. His only post- was his hat. and not years of of Gen. Kirkpatrick. and was the political admirer of Henry Clay. Sangamon County. Mr. Lincoln could not live with him. He was still rapidly acquiring information. Burns he could almost repeat by heart. Nearly the whole band was soon found clustered around Lincoln. sonian Democrats : but Mr. The sav. he again became a candidate for the State Legislature. He again tried his lot hand at store-keeping. The duties were goods. Lincoln the proudest hour of his life. This was with Mr. entering upon the practice of this new profession. and advancing in mental culture. Lincoln States. and Black Hawk was taken prisoner. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. 382 datAs. Lincoln's personal popularity was such. and the adventure was a failure. He walked from New Salem surveyor.. purchased a of But his partner proved fickle and dissipated. The two candidates were placed apart. and. advised him to study law offering to lend him such assistance in money as he needed. he was proposed as a He was then twenty-three age. Nothing seemed then more improbable than that either of those men should ever become President of the United influence. but who was so arrogant and overbearing. ages were attacked. Zachary Taylor was colonel. Stuart of Springfield. in this campaign. Jackson. He now received from Andrew Jackson the appointment of postmaster for New Salem. and was triumphantly elected. . a man of extensive and who bad been a former employer of Mr. in the general vote. Lincoln. with a partner. and. The little army of twenty-four hundred ascended Rock River in pursuit of Black Hawk. that he received almost every vote in his own precinct though. Lincoln studied the science. Occasionally he ventured to make a political speech. ready to deliver as he chanced to meet those to addressed. followed it vigorously and successfully for more than a year. . light. In 1834. — Mr. The great majority of the county were Jackhis return to Upon candidate for the State Legislature. The mode of election was very simple. whom they were That new country was constantly demanding the services of a Mr. that Mr. and Abraham Lincoln captain. Shakspeare be read and re-read. an eminent lawyer. and a Mr.

and suddenly he flashed forth an orator. It was during this session of the legislature that Mr.ABRAHAM LINCOLN. soul." He was still poor. He walked home his only baggage. He would never advocate a cause which he did not believe to be a cess with the jury . none of the appliances of literary luxury. At the close of the session. a bundle in his hand. one hundred miles to Vandalia. Lis '' . and was soon recognized as its leading member on the Whig side. The slavery question was beginning to agitate the country. he removed to Springfield. He was a silent but studious member. his study was the shade of an oakentice him. In the practice of the law. These years of thought and study had accomplished their work. Both parties were bowing submissive to that great power. There were but two men who ventured to remonstrate. He walked to Vandalia. Abraham Lincoln was one. Stuart a load of books. Douglas. and resumed the study of the law. to Much of his time. the capital was removed to and Mr. It was at a public meeting in Springfield that he electrified the audience. Major Stuai't. carried them upon his back to New Salem. 1839. . and was at once recognized as one of the most eloquent men in the State. of Springfield. his sucSpringfield was so great. Lincoln said in his protest. He had no pleasant office. supporting himself by surveying. and a prominent man in the State of Illinois. was continued in the legislature. now proposed that Mr. to Springfield. in April. he entered upon his student-life. " Slavery. Lincoln should become his partner in the law and accordingly. Lincoln at once took a very high position at the bar. is founded on both injustice and bad policy. Mr. and commenced his legal With earnestness which absorbed every energy of his studies. Mr. he walked home. gaining strength and wisdom every day. he trudged on foot. 383 borrowed of Mr. Some extreme proslavery resolutions passed the legislature. he was re-elected to the State Legislature. When the legislature assembled. the mean time. by successive elections. Lincoln. who was then but twenty-three years old. Lincoln was now twenty-seven years of age. In . Lincoln first met Stephen A. with pack on his back. no choice library. which was entered upon the journal of the house. then the capital of the State. his new profession. In 1836. and commenced the practice of tree. that he was engaged in almost every important case in the circuit." Mr.

the defence of any one who had helped a fugitive slave on his way A man who was accused of that crime applied to one to Canada. which. and became one of the With ablest reasoners and most impressive speakers at our bar. he was. just one. speaking of him self." Judge Caton said of him. and no amount of odium or unpopularity could dissuade him from espousing a cause where he thought the right was with Few lawyers were at that time willing to undertake his client.384 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. Lin- coln as the finest lawyer I ever knew. and of a professional bear- ing so high-toned and honorable. if collected. " to Mr. " With a voice by no means pleasant." said he. perhaps. and with that sinotten. would form a valuable contribution not afraid of an unpopular cause. in its shrill tones sometimes almost disagreeable any of the personal graces of the orator without much in the outward man indicating superiority of intellect without quickness still his mind was so vigorous. all The lawyer anti- declined. his comprehenof perception. and his judgment so sure. is go for a lawyer to defeml an arrested fugitive slave. a probity of character known to all. and without derogating from the claims of others. When to American literature. other lawyers will refuse me but. " His mode of speaking was generally and yet he was the auof a plain and unimpassioned character thor of some of the most beautiful and eloquent passages in our language. " Go." Judge Breeze. saying that he should imperil his political prospects by undertaking the slavery case. one of the most successful jury-lawyers we have ever had in the State. with an intuitive insight into the human heart. sion so exact and clear. Lincoln is at home. and indeed. it is true. He then applied to an earnest man for advice. cerity and earnestness of manner which carried conviction. Lincoln. regarded Mr. for a quarter of a century." Judge Drummond's testimony is equally full and emphatic. as justly. that he easily mastered the intricacies of his profession. — — . if Mr. of the first lawyers in Springfield as his advocate. He says. I after his death. with uncommon power and felicity of illustration. He always tried a case fairly and honestly. of a plain and homely kind. " For my single have. with a clearness of statement which was itself an argument. he will always take my case. I . said. . when exwithout cited. entitling him to be presented to the profession as a model well worthy the closest imitation. — . He never intentionally misrepresented the evidence of a witness . He .

Lincoln was nominated from the Sangamon District as an efficient speaker. Ky. it noble to escape the responsibility by throwing The demanded the It would seem igupon a lady. Carpenter says. Polk to Mr. In February preceding his death. Mr. President. Lincoln. " Inreply. who was form him. The editor was perplexed. that you once went out to fight a duel for the sake 'I do not deny it." ABRAHAM LINCOLN. In allusion to this event. 4d . Clay. much regret and murtifica- and hoped it might be forgotten. was prevented. During the conversation. of Lexington. daughter of Todd." lawyer. Friends interposed . married Miss Mary Todd. he acquired much celebrity His chagrin was intense that an intelligent people could prefer Mr. For a time. called upon the editor. a distinguished officer of the army called at the White House. you will never mention the but. if you desire my ' — ' . Lincoln for an hour in the parlor. and the silly rencounter. Henry Clay." was the prompt ity.' In 1842. and resolved to have no more to do with politics. exasperated. Mr. Lincoln him. Mr. 'Is it true. Lincoln. who had resided sev- eral years in Springfield. Mr. Linof the lady by your side ? coln friendship. During the great political contest of 1844.' replied Mr. substantially admitted it. Lincoln Hon. had it resulted in the death of Mr. which some mischievous person took from her desk. Lincoln. and was entertained by the President and Mrs. Lincoln earnestly espoused the cause of his political idol. intending to act simply on the defensive. and if he could not explain the one. Mr. he mistrusted the capacity of the people for selfgovernment. turning to Mrs. Mr. " Mr. Mr. o85 He met both squarely. as I have heard. lusion to a A lady wrote a satirical poem in al- young lawyer in Springfield. or the argument of an opponent. the gentleman said. and name of the author. Lincoln chose broad-swords. Robert S. He never misstated the law according to his own intelligent view of it. Lincoln came very near being ilrawn into a duel very foolishly. or answer the other. In the canvass. " that I assume the responsibil- A challenge was given and accepted. In 1846.. would have proved a great national calamity. but at the saule time with a certain kind of characteristic magnanimity. He consulted Mr. and published in " The Journal. regarded the circumstance with self tion." a personal friend of the lady. circumstance again. which." At one time.

as " unnecessarily and unconstitutionally begun by the President of the United States. — ." A speech which he made on this subject was one of a very high order of ability. "I more than suspect that he is deeply conscious of being in the wrong Abel. lakes. He was opposed to the Mexican War. directness. Douglas took his seat in the Senate.' — improved? — 'Just as our rivers and harbors be ' ' — ' ' — •' you please. 1847. Gen. till. Your will. . which now my opinion concerning. rivers. in accepting the nomination. Stephen A. I will not hinder you if you do not desire them. as expressed through their representatives in Congr?ss. Douglas was one of the champions of the Democratic party in the Senate. disapdestroy. Lincoln. Send up your members to Con. " to be respected and carried out by the Executive. that he feels that the blood of this war. like the blood of is crying to Heaven against him . If you are elected. Taylor. and in December. pointed in his calculations of the ease with which Mexico might be subdued. bring on a war I will not stop that originally having to give some strong motive. Taylor had said. shall He answers. that serpent's eye that charms to he plunged into it. took his seat in the thirtieth Congress.386 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. ho says. we have a national bank ? Shall Say yourselves. During the same session. the will of the people. Speaking of President Polk's apologies for the war. internal improvements.' 'What about the tariff?' not mine. I will not attempt to force them on you. gentlemen. Mr. ' Mr. the currency. He was elected by a very great majority." this. Gen. any or all. and harbors. Taylor was nominated — " Upon the subject of the tariif. he now finds himself he knows not where. pithily and approvingly commenting upon The people say to Gen. and oratorical impressiveness. to involve the to escape scrutiny two nations in a war. Mr. If you desire a bank. date for the presidency." — — War and victories were then something new in to the American 1848 as the Whig candipeople. are all remarkable. and swept on and on. Tay- lor into the midst of a peaceful Mexican settlement. that riacs in showers of blood. ought said. His clearness. vigor of style. the impro^'^ement of our great highways. and trusting by the ex- that attractive rainbow treme brightness of military glory. Cass was the Democratic candidate. Gen. Lincoln was the warm advocate of Whig principles in the House. for Congress. purposely to . that he ordered Gen. an alteration in the tariff.

with opinions according to your and if they are for these measures. by have nothing to oppose any appliances whatever. He advocated the Wilmot Proviso. with whom Mr. the President is He is elected things. In 1854. he returned to Springfield. or any of them. He . dignation of Mr. is. the proslavery party secured the abrogation of the Missouri Compromise. " and to a certain a representative of the people.ABRAHAM LINCOLN: 387 gress from the various districts. that the " right of property in a slave is distinctly and expared a bill pressly affirmed in the Constitution. in the nature of other If so. Avas always ready to advocate the cause of the poor and the oppressed. the encroachments of slavery This outrage roused the inhad long and anxiously watched and he now became convinced that there could be no cessation of the conflict until either slavery or freedom should gain the entire victory. Still he afterwards denied. Lincoln ever stood. he still then thought that slaves were recognized as property under the Constitution. Douglas. Lincoln continued. Mr. while his sympathies were strongly against slavery. Taylor was opposed to the Mexican War. and thus threw open the whole of the North-west to the invasion of slavery. It was understood that Gen. the Democratic candidate. attempt to dragoon them into their ac. Lincoln. It was regarded as his bid for Southern votes to secure the presidency. in a controversy with Douglas. At the same time. He pre- which declared that no person hereafter born in the District of Columbia should be held a slave. I shall not. Cass. or great the obloquy incurred. know the wants men coming from of the people as well as three hundred all the various localities of the nation? where is the propriety of having Congress?" This was the platform upon which Mr.' " In a certain sense. there is evidence. . complishment. extent. Lincoln cordially supported him in preference to Gen. and which also encouraged emancipation. by them as Congress But can he. own ." At the close of his two years' term of service in Washington. He certainly advocated an offensive instead of a defensive attitude. was responsible for the bill repealing the Missouri Compromise. however small the remuneration. which excluded slavery from the Territories. I shall if they are not for them. Lincoln had long been more or less intimately associated. Stephen A. He and assiduously devoted himself to the duties of his profession. The fugitive slave never appealed to him in vain. that." Mr.

Douglas went to Mr. in this meeting at Springfield. and addressed a vast assemblage defence of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill as it was called. Mr. Lincoln replied to him. and was generally considered an unanswerable refutation of the positions assumed by Mr. It must be met and answered." The fundamental principle of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill was. " in He all death. I admit that the emigrant to Kansas and Nebraska is competent to govern himself. in Kansas.. Douglas was a man of great intellectual power. each State has two ]\Ir. Lincoln replied. over the Union. Thus pithily Mr." in its report." he said. Douglas was vanquished. length. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS." Mr. an immense crowd. Lincoln's speech upon It was read with admiration all this occasion was fully reported. each has a number of representatives in proportion to . but I deny his right to govern any other person without that person^ s consent. quivered with emotion. intended to blast he could. " whether slavery is voted up. Mr. Benators . Lincoln replied to it : — " to My distinguished friend says it is an insult to the emigrants Kansas and Nebraska to suppose that they are not able to govern themselves. or voted down. We must not slur over an argument of this kind because it happens to tickle the ear. man if . since it has a direct bearing upon one of the ques- tions now deeply exciting the public mind. he attended a State fair in Springfield. by strong and manly He was most successful and the house approved the glorious triumph of truth by long and loud continued huzzas. that. says. of strength Avas its enemy. Mr. " I care not. Douglas. One portion we will quote. 1854. The public excitement drew Peoria." It was the almost universal testimony. and that he efforts. The whole house was still as He attacked the bill with unusual warmth and energy felt and that a it. summate in tact and skill in In October. " By the Constitution. Douglas had assumed that it was a question of no importance whatever to the people of Illinois whether men were enslaved or not in the Territories. The next day. Again these able and illustrious men met in the sternest conflict of argument. Mr. that the white people in the Territories had a right to decide whether or not they would enslave the colored people. 111. Women waved their handkerchiefs in token of woman's silent but heartfelt consent. Lincoln followed him.— 338 . in a speech three hours "The Springfield Republican. Mr. and of con debate.

swell the influence of the white people's vote.' We abhors the oppression of the negroes. then their votes will be thrown for such measures as they approve but they are denied the rights of citizens.984 slaves.567. 1855. to whom South in- Carolina refuses the rights of freemen. electors equal to the whole tatives together. it . "You inquire where I . This is all because South Carolina. This is precise equality so far and of course they are equal in senators." It is now proposed that all these colored people. The They are only counted. All men are created equal. South Carolina has six representaaad so has Maine. being equal to three vsrhites. Maine has twice as many as South Carolina.679 over. their hands. should be counted in the representation. and so used as to slaves do not vote. in ascertaining the five slaves number of the people for the purpose. it more than doubles the political power of if their former masters. and I never heard of any attempt to unwhig me for that. and leaves the freedmen utterly helpless in ho says. we began by declarnow practically read it. When I was in Washington. Our progress in degeneracy ap- now stand. and 32. Thus each white man in South Carolina is more than double any man in Maine.. South Carolina has 274. If they are admitted to the rights of citizenship. tlie 389 nnmber of its people . has 387.' I am not a KnowNothing. Aug. except negroes. How could I be? How can any one. 24. The practical effect of this is are counted as more aptly shown by a comparison of the States of South Carolina and Maine. that's certain. each having two. besides her free people. me As a nation. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Lincoln wrote. . ing that ' ' all men are created equal. thus not only continuing but augmenting this equality. and so has Maine.613. That is a disputed point. "But how are they in the number of their white people? Maine has 581. and each has a number o^ presidential number of its senators and represen- " But. I think I and that voted for the Wilmot Proviso as good as forty times. am a Whig but others say that there are no Whigs. South Carolina has eight presidential electors. I do no more than oppose the extension of slavery. be in favor of degrading classes of white people ? When the Know-Nothings get control. I I am an abolitionist. tives. and are yet counted in the representation. who pears to to be pretty rapid. — In a letter which Mr.

it imposing slavery upon Kansas." Then. Lincoln. is it true that you entered this State barefoot. " Never was an audience morf» completely electrified by human eloquence. he said. during the progress of its delivery. Douglas had thrown open the Northwest to the slave-power. and the wind shall blow. and Mr. any one of whom is more respectable than the questioner. where despotism can be taken pure." The Missouri mob had now formed sanction. for instance. of which it was said. until everywhere on this wide land the sun shall shine. by long-continued shouts and the waving of their hats. except negroes and for- eiguers and Catholics. and the rain shall fall. " Yes. and the President had given his The country was agitated as never before. I should p: efer emigrating to some country where they make no pretence of lov- — to Russia.— S90 will read. how deeply the speaker had wrought upon their minds and hearts. embracing all of every name who were opposed to slavery extension. 'All LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. while there was breathless silence. driving a yoke of oxen ? " Mr. upon no man who goes forth to . unrequited toil. to be placed upon the ticket with John C. Any thoughtful man could . Lincoln cordially connected himself with it. His name was presented to the National Convention for the vice-presidency. Dayton was the successful competitor. was now rising rapidly into power. It was capable of demonstration. " I think that I can prove the fact by at least a dozen men in this crowd. Fremont but Mr. " Mr. and on the occasion made a speech. the Lecompton Constitution. resuming his impassioned strain as if he had not been interrupted. he was rudely interrupted. men are created equal. without the base alloy of hypocrisy. He assisted in organizing the party in Illinois." The new Republican party. we will speak for freedom and against slavery as long aa the Constitution of our country guarantees free speech. by some one crying out from the crowd.' ing liberty. in a glowing speech he was making. they sprang to their feet and upon the benches. Again and again. and then said very deliberately. Mr. During this campaign. and testified. that the Lecompton Constitution was not the act of the people of Kansas. Lincoln paused for nearly a minute. When it comes to that." Abraham Lincoln was now the most prominent man in the Republican party in all the West.

or shall advocates will push forward become alike lawful in all the States. the house to It I'all : but I do expect that all it will cease to be divided.' this latter phrase. to the entrance of slavery. of slavery will arrest the further spread of the public and place it it where till it mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the its course of ultimate extinction. tious men of all parties Avere denouncing the fraud. Doug- In the evening. He still advocated the opening of the Territory. and they rallied around him. "In the notable argument of squatter sovereignty. or another. The Silliman Memorial. Mr. Mr. which had been consecrated to freedom. to which we have referred. he broke away from Mr. sc perverted in this attempted use of it. divided against itself cannot stand. Either the opponents it. chosen a legislature. Douglas had not changed his fundamental position. Upon this point. will become all one thing. old as well as new. to decide whether or not they would perpetuate the enslavement of tlie colored inhabitants. Douglas was the recognized leader of the Democratic party in Illinois. and took upon the platform of the Silliman Memorial. for the Senate in opposition to ]Mr. as to amount to just this. North as well as South. The following : remarkable speech — extracts will give some faint idea of this "'A house this free. Douglas abandoned the base forgery. The Republicans of Illinois were not willing to send back to the Senate one who was the author of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill but Mr. which had invaded Kansas.— . and he still would his stand cratic State allow the white inhabitants of the Territory. Nearly one thousand delegates were present. Buchanan and his administration. The Republican State Convention met at Springfield on the 16th of June. . ABRAHAM LINCOLN: 391 have been assured that it would not secure tne support of the people of the United States. though is expressive of the only rightful basis of any government. But he would not support the doings of an armed mob from Missouri.' I believe that Government cannot endure permanently half-slave and halfI do not expect the Union to be dissolved I do not expect . was exerting a wide influence and conscien. Mr. 1858. in their constitution. Lincoln was unanimously nominated las. Still. Under these circumstances. he addressed the convention at the State House. The DemoConvention of Illinois indorsed his position. and framed a constitution. otherwise called * sacred right of self-government.

but at two speeches. an able debater.392 that. Lincoln was now a man of national fame. dividing the time between them. When who had stubbed — too badly to laugh. friends of Mr. districts. 1858. the Republican party introduced of noble character. He was nized as one of the ablest statesmen and one of the most eloqueni men in the nation. He was a good writer. if LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. felt after his defeat. asked how he repHed characteristically. Mr. Mr." man country as the . Douglas that they should make arrangements to speak at the same meetings. Douglas was to have the closing speech of half an hour. and extensive science. Dougkis and Mr. Lincoln addressed the different meetings. sent a proposition to Mr. Immense crowds attended every meeting. and too big recog- to cry. and they almost literally bore him from the stage upon their shoulders." opened. The whole nation looked on with interest. At the first. and " rail-splitter. Mr. Lincoln for an hour and a half. Lin- was beaten Senate . Twelve thousand citizens The had assembled. The first meeting was at Ottowa. " I felt like his toe. this Unwisely. then Mr. Lincoln's success. and Mr. the time occupied was to be reversed. At the next. a Rian of well-disciplined mind. nation has been. Both speeches were carefully reported. Mr. Thus they were to alternate until the close. Douglas had the opening speech. but. attainments in political 'C Li years long since past. Lincoln were roused to the greatest enthusiasm by his triumphant reply upon this occasion. any one man choose to enslave another. Mr. on the 24th of July." Mr. Lincolr: made about he the boy sixty speeches during the canvass. he had helped to split rails fence in a farm. By coln an unfair apportionment of the legislative in his contest for a seat in the to himself. After one or The campaign was now same audiences. to the statesman and orator. and circuThe verdict of the lated them widely as a campaign document. Lincoln was morally and intellectually the victor. ver} unexpectedly he won a far higher prize. Lincoln. in which Mr. The proposition was agreed to for seven towns. no third man fairly shall be allowed to object. that they published in one pamphlet the speeches on both sides. Douglas was to speak for an hour. that Mr. The Republican party were so well pleased with Mr.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. and lovely character of the man. and Norwich. New Haven. Its illustrations and historic references indicated wide reading. 393 "It took years. Mr. " What was it? " inquired Mr." A profess made or of rhetoric in Yale College took notes of his speech. who was complimenting him upon his speech. Kound after round of applause greeted his telling periods. Meriden. one of the finest specimens of pure Saxon English. It might be called a scholarly In diction. was now such. ham took years for them to comprehend the fact. gentlest. most sagacious President who had occupied it. audiences at Hartford. " which them the subject of a lecture to liis class the interested you so much ? " The reply was. than I could have learned from a whole course of lectures on rhetoric. "For the publication of such words of weight and wisdom as those of Mr. in Mr. Lincoln's address was a signal success. the pages of this journal are inThe speech was published as a campaign definitely elastic. Bryant. The hall was crowded to its utmost capacity by the most distinguished men of that city Mr. that he was invited to address the citiHis renown zens of New York at the Cooper Institute." document. Lincoln's address last evening. and next day. in visited Kansas. were delighted. In New York. in giving a report in " The Evening Post. It was unquestionably greatly through his influence that the State of Connecticut that year gave a Republican majority.braLincoln." says Mr. and widely circulated. in his admirable "Life of A. truest. listening to Mr. Lincoln. that he might hear him again. intelligence. Its logic was faultless. Gulliver." " for the country to learn that Mr." said. Lincoln was not a boor. " 1 learned more of the art of public speaking. Mr. Invita^ He addressed immense tions to speak were crowded upon liim. noblest. Lincoln to his next appointment. All of great names. The ability which he displayed was very remarkable." the chair of state since Wash- ington retired from where he was received with boundless enand crowds thronged to hear him. He visited Ohio. Holland. He also followed Mr. everybody was charmed with the artlessness frankness. He thusiasm. the country had the wisest. It took them years to unlearn what an unwise and loyish It introduction of a great man to the public had taught them. that. it presented performance. A distinguished clergyman said. " It was the clearness 60 . Lincoln of the Rev. Lincoln.

and bounded it south. as to education. . till I have bounded it north. and it has stuck by me for I am never easy now. as I thought. all ries. he said. Mr. A highwayman holds a pistol to my ear. and — What has your education — trying to to " make out what was the exact meaning of some of their. the newspapers are correct. been ? never went to school more than six months in my life. of your reasoning. among my earliest recollections. and fun and which were welded together. until I had caught it and. This was a kind of passion with me. I can say that. could not sleep. Mr. until I had put it in language plain enough. That is cool. me. what the you. a mere child. after hearing the neighbors talk of an evening with my father. I can remember going to my little bedroom. I constantly came upon the word demonMrate. can scarcely that supposed event. and mutters through his teeth. when I got on 1 guch a hunt after an idea. " " I " Well. " But your question reminds me of a bit of education which I am bound in honesty to mention. but soon became satisfied thought I had got it. In the course of my law-readI thought. I used to get irritated when anybody talked to me I don't think I ever got angry in a way I could not understand." Alluding to the threats of the proslavery men that they would break up the Union should slavery be excluded from the Territologic. when I am handling a thought. although I often tried to. that I understood its meaning. Lincoln said. I remember how. but that always disturbed my temper. and I had a robber demands of me clear right to keep it but it was no more my own than my vote And threat of death to me to extort my money.— 39 i LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and especially your illustrations. threat of destruction to the Union to extort my vote. and then you say the great crime of having destroyed it will be upon us. and is my own." In conversation with Rev. romance and pathos. and bounded it east. you say you will destroy the Union. at any thing else in my life. at ing. and spending no small part of the night walking up and down. I was not satisfied until I . in reply to the question. Stand and deliver. for any boy I knew to comprehend. Gulliver at this time. be distinguished in principle. when this. when I : had repeated it over and over. first. ' ! "In — — ' . and has ever since. or I shall kill To be sure. and then you will be a murderer mj money was my own. dark sayings. and bounded it west.

Lincoln. bility of doubt but I could form no sort of idea what sort of proof that was. and staid there until of Euclid at sight. and hushed the room into silence. and would brighten into sunshine as he spoke cheerful words of promise. now touched into softness by the impressions of the moment. began a simple address." and went back to my The superintendent to that city : of the Five-points' Sabbath School relates the following incident in reference to Mr. It is Abraham Linwith fixed attention to our exercises ' . remarkable-lookus. law-studies. ' Wtiat do I mean when I demon' more than when I reason or prove? How does demonstraI consulted Webster's Diction differ from any other proof?' That told of certain proof. and suggested that he might be willing to say something to the children. ! ! ' . that I approached him. I felt an irrepressible curiosity to learn something more about him and. You might ' . He accepted the invitation with evident pleasure. ' extraordinary process of reasoning as I understood demonstration to be. " I consulted all the dictionaries but with no better results. I could give any proposition in the six books I then found out what demonstrate means. At last. do would compel him to resume. which at once fascinated every little hearer. and his tones musical with intense feeling. without recourse to any such ' ' . The little faces would droop into sad conviction as he uttered sentences of warning. His language was exceedingly beautiful. to break up . and marked his powerful head and determined features. ' I left my situation in Springfield. 393 I said to myself. and. at all hazards. and books of reference I could as well have defined blue to a blind man. I saw a . while he was quietly leaving tlie room. As I looked upon the go on gaunt and sinewy frame of the stranger. ' coln.' proof beyond the possitionary. coming forward. you can never make and a lawyer if you do not understand what demonstrate means find. I begged to know his name. and take a seat among He listened and his countenance ex* pressed such a genuine interest.' The secessionists had now resolved. Once or twice he attempted to close his remarks but the imperative shout of Go on oh." ABRAHAM LINCOLN. ing man enter the room. I thought that a great many things were proved beyond the possibility of a doubt. Lincoln during his visit " One Sunday morning. from Illinois. I said. that I did not. tall. sirute. went home to my father's house.

so rap- The idly. The regular Democratic Convention nominated Stephen A. They then did every thing in their power. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. one of the most radical of the proslavery men. should the Republican party nominate. On the first ballot. called " The Wigwam. real reason was. mantled the forts and arsenals in the free States. The great Republican Convention met at Chicago on the 16th The delegates and strangers who crowded the An immense building. that they might have this fancied excuse for their revolt. A National Union Convention met. city amounted to twenty-five thousand. S.396 the Union. was the most prominent. received one hundred and seventy-three and a half votes. Future ages will scarcely credit these assertions . in a treacherous and underhand way. Mr. Seward that he would be the nominee. they would break up the Union. and pressed on in the preparation for Bell. accumulated arms and munitions of war the tional in the slave States. The secession party organized what they called a Constitutional Convention. to secure the election of a Republican President. Seward. that they might the presidency. In the spring of 1860. They succeeded. decisive action. 1860. the Democratic party held its National Convention in Charleston. that. They declared. and . the navy. They at that time had possession of the government. Breckenridge. C. They hoped thus to render the NaGovernment impotent. that the free States were increasing both in number and population. distreasury. and squandered money in the treasury. and nominated John C. The secessionists were jovial. Douglas. that the slave States could no longer retain the direction of the Government. whoever he might be. would be elected. The great object was to find a plausible excuso. and thus secure the election of a Republican candidate. a man whose fame as a statesman had long It was generally supposed filled the land. There were eleven candidates for whom votes were thrown. a man who was opposed to slavery. but no intelligent man at the present time will deny them. break up the party. to nominate its candidate for The proslavery men bolted. William H. and elect to the presidency. the They scattered the navy. of June." was reared to accommodate the Convention. of the army. and nominated John This division rendered it almost certain that the Re publican nominee. dispersed the army.

And now came the third ballot. and transferred the four votes of Ohio to Mr. This gave him the nomination. This the insiders heard. There is a little woman on Eighth Street who has some interest matter. far outnumbered To this man one of the those who were packed into the Wigwam. Mr." The joyful scene which ensued with Mr. putting the telegram into his pocket. like the sudden and breathless stillness that precedes the hurricane. it was moved and it was made that the nomination should be unanimous 80. in his The Springfield Journal. two hundred : — ' ! ! . he said. that even the thundering salute of cannon was unheard by many on the platform." and. would be decisive. and Mr." receiving the teleAt last a messenger came in with a despatch hand. the storm of wild. which. Immediately one of the delegates from Ohio rose. Thus deep called to deep with such a frenzy of sympathetic enthusiasm. miles distant. as the cheering inside died away.' . Abraham Lincoln received two hundred and thirtyone and a half votes. he walked home. and the bloody death. Little did he then dream of the weary years of toil and care. like the voice of many waters. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. it was very evident. to which that telegram doomed him in this . He was in the office of " graphic despatches. the roar began on the outside. Upon the second ballot. We cannot better describe the scene which ensued than in the language of Mr. During all the ballotings. communicating the results to the outsiders. and swelled up from the excited masses. and announced. Seward is — the second man on the list. a man had been standing upon the roof. who." When this burst of enthusiasm had expended itself. descended. Lincoln. and to it they replied. anxiously awaiting the result of the ballotings. secretaries shouted. Lincoln one hundred and eighty-one. After a moment's pause. " Lincoln's friends mtist little When the excitement had a subsided. The scene surpassed description. Mr. Seward received one hundred and eighty-four and a half votes. and almost insane enthusiasm. 397 Nearly all the votes Abraham Lincoln one hundred and two. were now concentred upon these two candidates. lacking but one vote and a half of an election. Fire the salute Abe Lincoln is nominated Then. uncontrollable. and Mr. — " The Convention has made a nominatioc. Lincoln was at this time at Springfield. Holland " The excitement had culminated. in surging masses. be imagined.

As it was known that they were to come. and closed the door. a committee of the Convention waited upon him with the announcement of his nomination. and said. courtesy requires that I should treat the committee with something to Then. In the noon of the day. directly opposite a bureau. In a few moments. drink. and which would give him a place in the affections and and as did he dream that he was to reverence of his countrymen. informed him that he had been unanimously nominated by the Convention to the oflSce of President of the United States. Lincoln then rose. " As a suitable conclusion of an interview so important. Washing-ton. after- stairs I lay down upon a cQich in the room. Lincoln's friends sent in But he was not several hampers of wine for their entertainment. I went up Feeling somewhat tired. Mr. Mary " A He said a few Avords to her in young girl responded to the call. Lincoln received the delegation at the door of his house. bringing a large waiter containing a pitcher ana several tumblers. Resolved only a temperance man. At the close of the ceremony. ale. he called ''Mary. some of Mr. from the spring. " total-abstinence " man. . in substance. It is the only beverage I have ever used or allowed in my family and I cannot It is pure Adara't^ conscientiously depart from it on this occasion. Mr. and all his guests The President subsequently related the : following singular incident as having taken place at that time " A very singular occurrence took place the day I was nominat- — ed at Chicago. Gov. but a him to swerve from his not to allow that new temptation to induce principles. Lincoln's sitting-room." it Taking a tumbler. Lincoln said." ! girl entered. "Gentlemen. returning homo from down town. we must pledge our mutual healths in the most healthy beverage which God has given to man. to Mrs. of which I am reminded to-night. and conducted them into his parlor. — Mi. the a low tone of voice. Morgan of New York. he returned the gift with kindest words of gratitude for the favor intended. which would fix upon him the eyes of the whole civilized world. if second. which she placed upon a centre-table.— 398 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. stepping to the door. second only. upon . to his lips. to that of The following day. he touched followed his example. and asked permission to report his acceptance. in appropriate phrase. little render services to his country.

I arose. he was surprised and greatly grieved to find that most of the ministers were against him. Lincoln was fifty-two years There was then but little doubt that he would be elected. It became necessary that a room should be set apart in the State House for his receptions. accounting for it on some principle unknown to me. Mr. was suddenly reminded of the circumstance and the disagreeable sensation produced by it returned. in and that my oppoand yet with this book the light of which human bondage cannot live and laws will permit . As he closed the book. nrbich 399 was a looking-glass. and place myself in the same position. . As I reclined. as President. From morning till night. exactly alike. She thought it was a My sign that I was to be elected to a second term of oflSce. who. as I said to myself. in their hands. escept that one was a little paler than the other. some time ago. Mr. freedom everywhere of age. showing how each man would vote. if the same effect was produced. : as far as the Constitution nents are for slavery. I determined to go home. and that the paleness of one of the faces was an omen that I should not see life through the second term. and. " Here are twenty-three ministers of different denominations. some friends coming in.ABRAHAM LINCOLN. It made me quite uncomfortable for a few moments but. the matter glass. These men well know that I am for freedom in the Territories. he said sadly. '*' But. and all of them are against me but three. I would make up my mind that it was the natural result of some principle of refraction or optics which I did not understand. I am not a Christian God knows. while walking in the street. Crowds flocked to pay their homage to one." At the time of his nomination. I tried the experiment with a like result. I . and I do not so understand this book. . without wife was somewhat worried about it. would soon have so immense a patronage at his disposal. Bateman. and which contained the result of a careful canvass of the city of Springfield. it ceased to trouble me. passed out of " my mind. — . busy. my eye fell upon the and I saw distinctly two images of myself. and dismiss it. I would be one but I have carefully read the Bible. They know this . I tried *o produce the same effect here by effect. The next day. he was In looking over a book which his friends had prepared. and lay down again with the same result. arranging a glass and couch in the same position. and.

among the people before. Breckenridge. Mr. The result of the election was known early in November. for a leader to conduct determined upon it. 1861. that right speedily. nor a tithe of the zeal upvm any subject.400 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. thirty-nine. fanatical yell for the immediate subjugation of the all whole South going up hourly from the united voices of the . "Doesn't it appear men can ignore the moral aspects of this contest ? A make it plainer to me that slavery or the Government must be destroyed. The fairly spirit manifested by the slaveholders on this occasion is developed in the following article contained in " The Rich- mond Examiner" of April 23. Virginia will only her constituted authorities nor is there a power make the effort by single moment to ose." do not understand strange that Then. Bell. and to claim for it a divine character and sanction. " It is not to be endured that this flight of abolition harpies shall come down from the black North enemies. and are clamorous them to the onslaught. Douglas. they are going to vote against me. 1861: — "The capture of Washington City if . The leader will assuredly arise ay. Nearly four months would transpire before the 4th of March. that is now manifested to take Washington. for their roosts in the heart of the South. Mr. Mr. and the viald of wrath will be poured out. It seems as if God had borne with this slavery until the very teachers of religion have come to revelation could not it from the Bible. twelve. and now the cup of iniquity is full. There never was half The entire population pant for the onset. to defile and brutalize the land. That filthy cage of unclean birds The people are must and will assuredly be purified by fire. is perfectly within the of Virginia and Maryland. when he was to enter upon his term of office. this. he added. They The is act as our most deadly foes. I a moment. . the unanimity there at all one wild shout of fierce resolve to capture Washington Cit}' and every human hazard. and drive from it every black Republican who is a dweller there. and is . seventy-two . after a moment's pause. Lincoln received a hundred and defend eighty electoral votes. Mr." The election-day came. " From the mountain-tops and valleys to the shores of the sea. They come as our They promise us bloodshed and fire and that is the only promise they have ever redeemed.

I One naturally pauses to inquire the cause of all this wrath and no one can refrain from being amused to find that it was simply that a majority of the nation were opposed to the extension of slavery into the Territories. in the case of war. that he had no right to interfere with slavery in the States that the compromises of the Constitution left that question with each State and that he had no power to touch the domestic institutions of the . I will you. as Washington. * ' * ' — . States. so far as I am authorized to speak. so far as he constitutionally could. . and retrace his journey across the border of the free negro States still more rapidly than he came and Scott the traitor will be given the opportunity at the same time to try the difference between Scott's Tactics and the Shanghae Drill for quick movements. 401 North and. . slavery-extension. Lincoln had declared. them " tell in a playful — present. that wallow of Lincoln and Scott. the desecrated city of Washington and many indeed will be the carcasses of dogs and caitiffs that will blacken the air upon the gallows before the great work is accomplished. . and will be given to that festering sink of iniquity. a large who thronged to greet him. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. and way Madison treated you. Lincoln's journey to Washington. . So let it be " it ." . Mr. they have determined to hold Washington City as the point whence to carry on their brutal warfare. combined. who was pledged to oppose. 61 . On Mr. At Cin- number of Kentuckians were way. to save the nation from ruin. and in no to interfere with your institutions to abide by all and every compromise of the Constitution in a word. Again and again. Our people can take they will take it . We mean to leave you alone. coming back to tho . He said to You perhaps want to know what we will do with you. he made numerous addresses to the multitudes cinnati. and Lincoln the beast. for the purpose of making their work sure. " Great cleansing and purification are needed. as near as we possibly can. cannot prevent it. and so had the party which elected him. and that that majority had constitutionally elected as President one of the best and most eminent men in the nation. except as a war-measure. and Scott the archtraitor. The just indignation of an outraged and deeply-injured people will teach the Illinois ape to repeat his race. We mean to treat you. Jefferson.

to the world for all future time. It was that which gave promise. to treat you. but. the weight would be lifted from the shoulders of all men. I shall surely fail. it will be truly awful. " While I he exceedingly gratified to see the manifestation in your streets of the military force here. cannot fail. I shall consider myself one of the happiest men basis ? if it cannot be saved on thai in the world if I can help save it But. there need be no bloodshed or war. if this country cannot be principle. in due time. and Madison. I should say. as far as degenerate men (if we have degenerated) may. and exceedingly gratified at your promise here to use that force upon a proper am . he gave utterance to the following noble sentiments 1 have often inquired of myself what great principle or idea it was It was not the mere that kept this confederacy so long together. Now.. " Your worthy mayor has thought fit to express the hope that I shall be able to relieve the country from the present. it. not alone to the people of this country. but that sentiment in the Declaration of Independence which gave liberty. that there will be no bloodshed unless it be forced upon the Government. I was about to say 1 would rather be assassinated upon this spot than surrender it. 402 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. I am sure that I bring a heart true to the work. where he was received with the greatest enthu'^ : siasm." For the ability to perform that Supreme Being who has never forsaken this faWithout that assistance. twef^n us other than the difference of circumstances. At Harrisburg. Washington. or as good as we claim lo have and treat you accordingly. There is no necessity for it. that. matter of the separation of the colonies from the mother-land. Jefierson. . I At Philadelphia. the threatened difficulties. or. saved without giving up that principle. where there was a remarked. to recognize We mean and bear in mind always that you have as good hearts in your bosoms as other people. can this country be saved on this If it can." large military display. original proposition. I hope. This was a sentiment embodied in the Declaration of Independence. according to the examples of those coblo We mean to rememfathers. will be compelled to act in self-defence. I am not in favor of such a course and I may say in advance. my friends. Now." At Buffalo he said. with it. ber that you are as good as we that there is no difference be. in my view of the present aspect of affairs. and then it . I trust in vored land.

and adapted for a war garrison of 5. Mr.091 guns. Fort Morgan. if so painful a result shall in any wise be brought about. The day before.. The next df^y. The these days of darkness and gloom we have not space here to The air was filled with rumors that President Lincoln . December. Buchanan did not lift a finger to arrest consolidated before Mr. four days after the election. a bill was introduced into the legislature. to preclude 40b any possible misconmost sincerely hope that we shall have no use for them that it will never become their duty to shed blood. it shall be through no fault of mine. and the arsenal at Fayetteville. Three days after. The Star of the West. fell into the hands of the rebels. This act was speedily imitated rapidly-recurring scenes of by several other describe. and the revenue-cutter " William Aikin " taken possession of at Charleston. come into power. Fort M'Rae. I promise. and most especially never to shed fraternal blood. sovereign. and the arsenal at Savannah. and that South Carolina was a free. I desire to repeat." In South Carolina. The next day. at Smithville.430 men. the arsenal was On the 2d of January. The rebels had made preparations for vigorous action. and their object was to get their strength struction.000. without a struggle. was fired upon by a rebel battery. that. and the arsenal at Mobile. lina. N. On the 12th. slave States. St. the 4th. On the 17th of December. . in Florida. I860. were seized by a band of Alabamians. and Jackson. Philip. the convention in South Carolina declared the Union dissolved. were taken possession of by the rebels. the 9th. that I do . Fort Barrancas. Buchanan. Forts Johnson and Caswell. Lincoln should On the 27th of '' or to resent these outrages. On the 3d. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. emergency. Fort Macon in North Caroseized. their They had nothing to fear from Mr. calling out ten thousand volunteers her two senators in congress resigned their seats and a convention was called to pass an act of secession. On the 8th." an unarmed steamer bearing supplies to the garrison in Fort Sumter. Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney were seized. by the rebels. were captured. and the navy-yard at Pensacola. so far as I may have wisdom to direct. These United-States forts had cost the National Government $5. and independent State. 1861. armed gangs in Louisiana seized Forts Pike. C. were pierced for 1. and driven back. an armed mob from Georgia took possession of Forts Pulaski and Jackson. and the arsenal at Baton Rouge.947.

to the train. Mr. A than that which has devolved upon any other man since the days sadness I feel at this parting." certain. he said. to make sure of his death It life. Great anxiety was felt in reference to the Slavery had inauguration-day. Again I bid you all an affec- In every city through which he passed. In taking leave of his friends at the depot in Springfield. Lincoln took a sleeping-car. that the secessionists were seeking his At one time. as soon as the train had started. at an unexpected hour of the The train started at half-past ten and. in the confusion. never would have succeeded except for the I aid of Divine Providence. A detective unravelled the was provided to take him from Harrisburg. was evident. no one not in I my position can appreciate the know not how soon I shall see duty devolves upon me which is perhaps greater you again. without but with which success tionate farewell. It was well known that there were secret and special train . The air was filled with rumors of conspiracies. in a speech of tenderness and pathos. so debauched the conscience in the slaveholding States. for support . a hand-grenade was found concealed upon A gang in Baltimore had arranged. Washington was full of traitors. A .— LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. the telegraph-wires were cut. which I cannot succeed. feel that I cannot succeed without the same divine aid which of Washington. to prevent any posnight. where he arrived at half-past six o'clock His safe arrival was immediately telegraphed in the morning. " get up a row. plot. with revolvers and hand-grenades. The week of the inauguration was one of the greatest peril and anxiety the nation had ever experienced. however. " My friends. over the country. he was greeted with enthusiasm perhaps never before equalled in the United States. that the assassination of a man who did not believe in slavery was scarce deemed a crime. and passed directly through Baltimore to Washington. through Baltimore. He In the same Almighty Being I place I my reliance I and hope that is my friends will all pray that may receive that divine assistance. At Cincinnati. upon which he at all times relied. an attempt was made to throw the train off the track. communication on the part of the secessionists with their sible Confederate gang in Baltimore. to 404 was full be assassinated on his journey to Washington." and. upon his arrival. sustained him.

— . in . arm-in-arm. and others dared to protect the cere- distinctly threatening assassination if I mony by military force. The inauguration of President Lincoln was perhaps the most critical and hazardous event with which I have ever been connected. there would unquestion- ably have been tumult and assassination. draped. Gen. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. armed with bowie-knives and revolvers. magnificently of the Constitution. It was observed that Mr. Pennsylvania Avenue presented such a mass of human beings as had never crowded it before. 405 thousands of desperate men. . At nine It was very o'clock. nestly dissuading many from points distant from each other. Lincoln's face arxxious. from the distance of nearly b mile. as representatives of the several States none bging recognized as having seceded. could throw a bullet into his heart. Buchanan looked pale and Mr. Even at an early hour. Multitudes of strange-looking men thronged the streets of Washington. Scott. regulars. Thirty thousand persons stood before him. emblematic imposing. was his slightly flushed. while the regulars flanked the movement. bore thirty-four very beautiful young girls. Buchanan and Mr. Autobiography. The morning of the 4th of March dawned serene and beautiful. Lincoln rode side by side in the same They ascended the long flight of steps of the Capitol carriage. all The volunteers escorted the President. and then to seize the capital. with detachments of cavalry and infantry." But for the formidable military display. It it under imposing array of cannon and bayonets that necessary to conduct the legally-chosen President of the United States to his inauguration. says. Lincoln took his stand upon the platform of the eastern portico of the Capitol. picturesquely dressed. Scott called out brought from a distance two batthe Washington Volunteers teries of horse-artillery. the procession moved from the White House. Mr. his lips an expression of great firmness and seriousness. I had received more than fifty letters. fine A was was company this of sappers and miners led the advance. Mr. and that he was nervously excited. resolved by tumult and murder to prevent the inauguration. " compressed and his countenance wore Gen. marching in parallel streets. some earme from being present at the event. It is hardly too . There were many sharpshooters. who. In the preceding two months. A triumphal car.

peace. I do but quote from one of those speeches. That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States. for my acceptance. that. as among the clusively. that the nation trembled. read his inaugural. their to property and their peace and personal security are There has never been any reasonable cause for Indeed. by the accession of a Republican administration. in the contemplation of . to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists." said he. consistently with the Constitution and the laws. in doing so. when I declare that I have no purpose. ing administration. I believe I have no lawful right to do so and I have no inclination to do so. as cheerfully to one section as to another. that. its and especially the right of each State to order and control institutions according to its ow^ judgment expower on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depend and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory. and in a clear voice. is essential to that balance of .' " I now reiterate these sentiments and. . ia now formidably attempted. the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed. I hold. DOW read '' ' : — Besolved. no matter under what pretext. It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now addresses you. which seemed to penetrate with its distinct articulation the remotest ear. the clear and emphatic resolution which I be endangered.406 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. heretofore only menaced. . " Apprehension. and security of no section are to be in any wise endangered by the now incom. that the property. that all the protection which. directly or indirectly. and as a law to themselves and to me. We have not space for the whole of this noble document. " seems to exist among the people of the Southern States. I only press upon the public attention the most conclusive evidence of which the case is susceptible. will be cheerfully given to all the States. when lawfully demanded. more than this. too. such apprehension. own domestic gravest of crimes. *' I add. and had never recanted them and. Those who nominated and elected me did so with the full knowledge that I had made this and made many similar declarations. " A disruption of the Federal Union. for whatever cause. Lincoln unrolled a manuscript. to say. can be given. much Mr. they placed in the platform. and been open to their inspection.

in 1774. in 1778 and finally. 407 is universal law and of the Constitution. can it. It was further matured. I shall perfectly so far as is practicable. Union shall be faithfully executed in all the which I deem to be only a simple duty on my perform it. according to . and the faith of all the then thirteen States expressly plighted and engaged that it should be perpetual^ by the Articles of the Confederation. in the funda- mental law of all national governments. but does not require all lawfully rescind it? Descending from these general that. that. to the extent of my ability. it being impossible to destroy if and the Union will endure it. are insurrectionary or revolutionary. as the Constitution itself expressly enjoins upon me. . as a contract. It formed. the Union is unbroken . in 1776. in view of the Constitution and the laws. was was . in 1778. '' I therefore consider. It is safe to assert. " It follows from these views. the American people. contemplation. so to speak. if the destruction of the Union by one or by a part only of the States be lawfully possible. — break it. . Perpetuity is implied. The Union is much older than the Constitution. unless my rightful masters. that no State. against the authority of tho United States. if not expressed. the Union perpetual. shall withhold the . and. forever. that the laws of the States.ABRAHAM LINCOLN. in legal principles. one of the declared objects for ordaining and establishing the Constitution was to form a more perfect union. the Union is less perfect than before the Constitution having lost the vital element of perpetuity. is we find the proposition. Doing this. by the Articles of Association. in fact. can lawfully get out of the Union that resolves and ordinances to that efiect are legally void and that acts of violence within any State or States. "Again: the United States be not a government proper. but an association of States in the nature of a contract merely. part. circumstances. be peaceably unmade by less than all the parties who made it ? One party it to a contract may violate to it. I shall take care. that no government proper ever had a provision in its organic law for its own termination. But. Continue to execute all the express provisions of our National Constitution. it matured and continued in the Declaration of Independence. except by some action not provided for in the instrument itself. the union of these States perpetual. upon its own mere motion. confirmed by the history of the " Union itself.

and . " One section of our country believes slavery is ought to be extended . occupy. in the Constitution. but only as th« it will constitutionally defend " I trust this will not declared purpose of the Union. and collect the duties and imposts but. a year or two All hence. they make a precedent. and we divide upon them into majorities and minorities. LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. arbitrarily secede again. Must Congress protect slavery in the Territories ? The Constitution does not expressly say. beyond what may be necessary for these objects. guaranties and prohibitions. There is no alternative for continuing Government but acquiescence on the one side or the other. '* . " If the minority will not acquiesce. and wrong. Shall fugitives from labor be surrendered by National. will ruin and divide them for a minority of their own will secede from them whenever a majority refuses to be stance. there will be no invasion. in turn. all From questions of this class spring our constitutional controversies. No foresight can anticipate. no using of force against or among the people anywhere. or the the Government must cease. All the vital rights of minorities and of individuals are so plainly assured to them by affirmations and negations. or by State authorities ? The Constitution does not expressly say.. the majority must. and possess the property and places belonging to the Government. that controversies never arise concerning them but no organic law can ever be framed with a provision specifically applicable to every question which may oc. " The power confided to me will be used to hold. controlled by such a minority: for in- why not any portion of a new confederacy. express provisions for all possible questions. Is there essence of anarchy. 408 requisition. cur in practical administration. precisely as portions of the present Union now claim to secede from it? who cherish dis- to the exact temper of such perfect identity of interests among the States to compose a new Union as to produce harmony only. or in some authoritative manner direct the con be regarded as a menace. trary. which. that and maintain itself. nor any document of reasonable length contain. and prevent secession? Plainly the central idea of secession is the union sentiments are now being educated doing this. If a minority in such a case will secede rather than acquiesce. while the other believes it is right.

they can exercise their constitutional right of amenddismember or overthrow it. that intercourse after separation than before? . ought not pute. And this is the only substantial we cannot separate we cannot . Physically speaking. think calmly and well upon this whole subject. Is it possible. to be exin either of the modes prescribed in the instrument and I should. under existing circumstances. " If it were admitted that you who are dissatisfied hold the right side in the dispute. " My countrymen. and. belongs to the people who mliabit Whenever they shall grow weary of the existing government. husband and wife may be divorced. its institutions. either amicable or hostile. that object will be frustrated by taking time but no good object can be frustrated by it. to change either. Nothing valuable can be lost by taking time.. p?*\"iotism. . ABRAHAM LINCOLN. to . and no gain on either. I cannot be ignorant of the fact that many worthy and patriotic citizens are desirous of having the National Constitution amended. the laws of your own framing under it while the new administration will have no immediate power. after much loss on both sides. or their revolutionary right to "W" hile I make no recommendation of amendment. They cannot but remain face to face and intercourse. more advantageous or more satisfactory Can aliens make treaties easier than friends can make laws ? Can treaties be more faithfully enforced between aliens than laws can among friends? Suppose yon go to war. to 40V} be extended. dis- re- respective sections from each other. with it. if it would. you cease fighting. nor build an impassable wall between them. on the sensitive point. Christianity. . 62 . " Such of you as are now dissatisfied still have the old Constitution unimpaired. the identical questions as to terms of intercourse are again upon you. ing. make '' This country. one and all. move our A and go out of the presence and beyond the reach of each other but the different parts of our country cannot do this. and a firm reliance on ercised itself. " If there be an object to hurry any of you in hot haste to a Btep which you would never take deliberately. I fully recognize the full authority of the people over the whole subject. must continue between them. favor rather than oppose a fair opportunity being afibrded the people to act upon it. then. you cannot fight always and when. there is still no single reason for precipitate action. Intelligence.

Seven States were now in revolt. Treason was everywhere. our bonds of affection. and not in The Government will is the momentous issue of civil war. We are not enemies. it not break. are all still Him who compe« tent to adjust. have the most solemn one to ' preserve. and there could be no deliberation." At the close of this solemn and imposing scene. ' oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government while protect. when field The mystic cords again touched. which it was absolutely necessary the secessionists should secure in order to have any chance of my . of memory. which was not immediately reported to the rebels. stretching from every battleand patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land. rather than appeal to the dreadful arbitrament of the sword. Lincoln's conciliatory words had no toil and softening influence upon the hearts of the secessionists. There were seven other slave States. Mr. not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the ag- gressors. to terMr. and I will pledge myself to hold in the hollow hand and to drink every drop of blood i">iat will be shed. " Though passion may have strained. as surely they will be. my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen. has never yet forsaken this favored land. I shall it.410 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. but friends. in the best way. " are a of cowardly race. our present difficulties. will j^et swell the chorus of the Union. No step could be taken. We must must not be enemies. " The Yankees. and defend "I am loath to close. " "In your hands. greater fear in speaking to a dozen Western His reply was. by the better angels of our nature. yield to their demands. that he had often experienced men on the subject his life of care And now commenced minate in a bloody death. and sorrow. Buchanan took leave of him. of temperance. He was asked if he felt alarmed at any time while reading his address. Openly avowed traitors to the Uijion were in every department of the Government. Lincoln was escorted back to the White House. mine." said one of their speakers." The demon of rebellion was unappeased. You have no . They knew was only by violence and revolution that they could so strengthen the institution of slavery as to make it permanent upon this continent and they still believed that the North would that it . where Mr.

I will not conceal my gratification at the incon- trovertible test this vast audience presents. 411 On the 12th of April. and forced every available man into the ranks. will end prophesy that the flag which now flaunts the breeze here will float over the dome of the old Capitol at Washington . the rebels in Charleston opened upon Fort Sumter." May. he said. when the country should be in danger. The rebels were so infatuated as to anticipate an easy victory. of our country. Terrible was her Mr. Walker. commenced this day. " — but can tell where this war. Virginia joined the rebels. I cordially concur in every — word of not that docu- ment. No man I will before the 1st of May. I will not do you or myself the injustice to think that this magnifiI rejoice to know that it excent ovation is personal to myself presses your devotion to the Constitution. I would make it two hundred thousand. Mr. You do know the dis- honest purposes of those men as well as I do." said he.. said. ." With wonderful unanimity. " that the heart of the nation. Senator Douglas addressed an immense Ten thousand persons thronged senator spoke in strains which thrilled the Wigwam. ter. Lincoln. ical differences or all — that whatever polit- party questions that. may have divided us. and test and it may float eventually over Faneuil Hall itself. punishment. proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand men. blockade. yet you had a conviction. " Mr. Elated with the news of the bombardment and capture of Fort Sumter. except that. Let them try Southern chivalry. the rebel Secretary of War. Douglas nobly came forward. LINCOLN. addressing the fire shouting throng. in the call for seventy-five thousand men. three days after the capture of Sum- issued a proclamation cafling for seventy-five thousand troops which the rebels threatened to seize and soon after he declared the ports in the rebellious States under to defend the national capital. The eloquent " I beg you to believe. the extent of Southern resources. As he read the President's In an evil hour. This introduced the war. Lincoln. the Union. and the flag the 1st of On gathering in the city of Chicago. They had already inaugurated their government at Montgomery. the North rallied around the imperThe rebels crushed out all opposition illed flag of the nation. to secession within their borders. ABRAHAM success. Mr. and gave all of his strong influence to Mr. President.

If it be the non-enforcement of the laws. nothing has been done. there is " If they say the territorial question. do disunionists give us for breaking up the best government on which the sun of heaven ever shed its rays ? They are dissatisfied with the result of the presidential Did they never get beaten before ? Are we to resort election. that zen. I have not only tendered those States what was their right. and nothing omitted. " There has never been a time. that. my That the present danger is immiwar must come.' 412 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. " The return we receive is war. for the first time. I have struggled long for a peaceful solution of the difficulty. What good cause have they now. obstruction and danger to our navigation. no man can conceal. expressed in the mode appointed by the Constitution. must command the obedience of every citiThey assume. what excuse. but I have gone to the very extreme of magnanimity. The election of Lincoln is a . letters of marque to invite pirates to prey upon our commerce. no act of Congress prohibiting slaver}^ anywhere. from the day that Washington was inaugurated first President of these United States. I say before God. the only complaints I have heard have been of the too vigorous and faithful fullfilment of Then what reason have they? The the Fugitive-slave Law. so far as the constitutional rights of slaveholders are concerned. threaten to destroy? "What cause. my conscience is clean. ' . of o'lr fathers. any man to show any act on which it is present of this ? I defy based. What act has been omitted to be done ? I appeal to these assembled thousands. slavery question is a mere excuse. armies marched upon our capital. loyalty could be relied on. What evidence do they their rights are not safe in the Union. when the rights of the Southern States stood firmer under the laws of the land than they do now there never was a time when they had not as good cause for disunion as they have to-day. on the election of a particular candidate. to the sword when we get beaten at the ballot-box ? I understand it that the voice of the people. must be used to maintain the Constitution. or allow it to Are we to maintain the country be stricken down by those. who. which has not existed under every adminis- The question is. and a concerted movement to blot out the United States of America from the map If of ihe globe. tration ? now. when they can no longer govern. of which they can complain. if the bayonet nent.

Can you. 413 mere pretext. formed by leaders in the Southern Confederacy more than twelve months ago. war is levied. public and private. How much better for you and your people to take the step which at once shortens the war. The conspiracy is now known. The present secession movement is the result of an enormous conspiracy formed more than a year since. Lincoln's recommendation. If the war " Let the States — continue long. urging Mr. He was his urged to issue a proclamation of emancipation. were soon passed by Congress. There can be no neutrals in this war. Every man must be for the United States or against it. and they cannot much longer maintain the contest. Lincoln invited the representatives of those States to a conference with him.ABRAHAM LINCOLN. and secures substantial compensation for friction and abrasion. and an expenditure of treasure and a destruction of property which cannot be computed. for your States." The rebels were continually cheered by the hope that the border States would join them. On the 6th of March. only^a^Wo^s or traitors" We have no space here to enter into the details of the war which ensued. which cost half a million of lives. It will Much of that which is sure to be wholly lost in any other event ! How much in the better thus to save the money. Lincoln recommended that the United States should co-operate with any State "which may gradually adopt abolishment of slavery. There are only two sides to the question. it. to be used at discretion to compensate for inconveniences. the institution in your States will be extinguished by mere nothing valuable in lieu of be gone. 1862. " But this is no time for the detail of causes. the country was prepared for it. to them. Armies have been raised. before. One confiscated the slaves of masters who were in open rebellion : the other abolished slavery in the District of Columbia. Two acts. Mr. in which he said them to accept emancipation with compensation. and you will have its value is gone already. produced by such changes of all system. to accomplish it. He replied. which are in rebellion see definitely and certainly. in judgment. by Mr. that in no event will the States you represent ever join their proposed confederacy. " I do . by giving to such its State pecuniary aid. do better than take the course I urge ? The incidents of war cannot be avoided. which else we sink forever war !" The border-State men were blind and obdurate.

that. 1862. subject. Lee should be driven back from Peimsylvania. it read. . not called them together to ask their advice. he was enabled to say. " As a£fairs have turned. without consultation with or the knowledge of the cabinet. it is the central act of my administration. and the discussion in the cabinet respecting it: — bad be midsummer. upon a Saturday. and. he said. Chase. 1862. Lincoln issued his renowned proclamation. I now determined upon the adoption of the emancipation policy and. declaring that on the 1st of January. I said to the cabinet that I had resolved upon this step. This was the last of July. or the first part of the month of August." The excitement which this proclamation created was intense many applauding. suggestions as to which would be in order after they had heard "Various suggestions were offered. and the great event of the nineteenth tion. he said to Mr. if Gen. many condemning. I think. net want to issue a document that the whole world will see must necessarily be inoperative. I would crown the result by the declaration of freedom . All who was absent at the opening of the discussion. to the slaves. In a brief address which he Boon made. but to lay the subjectmatter of a proclamation before them. and had " This cabinet-meeting took place. were present. I prepared the original draught of the proclamation. 1863. but came in subsequently. he judged that the hour for decisive action had come and on Monday." President Lincoln gives the following account of the draughting of the proclamation. or lose the game. In cabinet-meeting. like the Pope's bull against the comet. and must change our tactics. Secretary Chase wished the language stronger in reference to the arming of the blacks. I can only trust in God that I have made no mistake.. Things had gone on from we had reached the end of our rope on the plan of operations we had been pursuing that we had about played our last card. "I made a solemn vow before God. Sept. " What I did. until I felt that . the Postmaster-General. I did after a very full deliberaand under a heavy and solemn sense of responsibility. . all the slaves in States then continuing in rebellion should be free. except Mr." Two years after. Mr. 414 LIVES OF TEE PRESIDENTS. Blair. after much anxious thought." At length. century. 1862. 22. called a cabinet-meeting upon the " It had got to to worse.

" Mr. that — recognize. Nothing. viewed — may be ' greatest disasters of the war. nary proclamation together to hear it At this final came up on Saturday called the cabinet and it was published the following Monday. on Wednesday. but I question is the expediency of issue at this juncture. Finally came the week of the battle at Antietam. Things looked darker than ever. that you postpone its issue until you can give it to the country supported by military success. The depression of so It the public mind. however. I suggest. for help instead of Ethiopia stretching forth her hands to the Government. the next news we had was of Pope's disaster at Bull Run. as Mr. great. to time.' continued Mr. after he came that it 41b in." meeting. was offered that I had not already fully anticipated. in that sentence. that I fear the effect of so important a step.— ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Now. until Secretary Seward spoke. " that it would be considered our last shriek on the retreat. Seward. ber. you should insert after the word words and maintain. " I think. President." said Mr. Lincoln. sir. instead of issuing it. consequent upon our repeated reverses. will recognize the freedom of such persons. Lincoln read the words. President. and settled in my own mind. I determined to wait no longer. waiting for a added or changed a line. Here I finished . a cry the Government stretching forth her hands to Ethiopia. which took place on the 20th of Septem. I approve of the proclamation its . saying. deprecated the policy. as would be the case now. I had entirely overlooked. " ' Mr. The result was.''^ that he had already considered the im- . Mr. I From time ington. Seward interrupted him. upon the as the last . that the advantage was on our side. Well. " States. He said in substance. the The President replied. 'while I approve the measure. Mr. And the Executive Govern- ment of the United including the military and naval authority thereof.' " The wisdom of the view of the Secretary of State struck me with great force. touching it up here and there. measure of an exhausted Government. that. that I put the draught of the proclalmation aside.' " Hiis idea was. anxiously watching the progress of events. Blair. on the ground would cost the Administration the fall elections. The news came. I think. It was an aspect of the case. three miles out of Washvictory. I was then staying at the Soldiers' Home. writing the second draught of the prelimi. in all my thought upon the subject.

. free. I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind. publicly proclaimed for the full period of one hundred days from the day first above mentioned. by virtue of the power in me invested as commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. and as a fit and necessary war-measure for suppressing said rebellion. " And by virtue power. on this first day of January." Of this proclamation " The London Spectator " says. Surely none was ever written under a stronger sense of the reality of God's government and read cal . I. order and designate as the States. and should have for the nation. and the words went in. Abraham Lincoln. not sure that he could President. that all persons held as slaves within said designated States. Then of the follows a list of the States in rebellion. and parts of States. President of the United States." . as he did not like to promise that which he was " But Mr.: 416 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and the statesmen he left behind him. and henceforth shall be." said the perform." It so happened hundred days between the preliminary proclamation which was issued on the 22d of September. upon military necessity. I do order and declare. including the and naval authorities thereof. something of a sacred and almost prophetic character. is will recognize and main- tain the freedom of said persons. and the final proclamation which consummated the act of eman that there were just one cipation. and the gracious favor of Almighty God. and that the Executive military Government of the United States. and for the purpose aforesaid. sincerely believed to be an act of justice warranted by the Constitution. port of that expression in that connection. do." The proclamation " concluded with the following words And upon this act. in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States. in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three. and in accordance with my purpose so to do. and parts of States. the final proclamation was issued. In his preamble. are. " Now therefore. the following to wit. 1863. the 1st of January. " We cannot it without a renewed conviction that it is the noblest politidocument known to history. 1862. he alluded to his previous proclamation of prom- and then said. but that he had refrained from inserting it. Seward. wherein the people thereof respectively are this day in rebellion against the United States. On ise. " insisted .

that he released the rebel. ''Mr. with no other motive than that which is furnished by dollars and cents. Lincoln refused to sign the warrants for An officer said to him. however. Sunday desecration. carefully. that he can never receive pardon at my hands. If this man were guilty of the foulest murder that the arm of man could perpetrate. Tell him that but that. court- Mr. came to Mr. she urged that her Mr.— ABRAHAM LINCOLN. . and reverence for tho name of God. great evils in an array. Lincoln replied. too easil}^ moved by appeals to mercy. the wife of a captured rebel officer. if possible." A lady. certainly 417 none written in a period of passionate conflict ever so completely excluded the partiality of victorious faction. and rob her of her children. and pleaded tearfully for the release of her husband. not do it. the writ of habeas corpus was suspended. — it 53 . the religion that sets men to rebel and fight against their government. The President issued a circular letter to the array. in her plea. gushing from a woman's loving heart. as another measure of military necessity. and sell them into interminable bondage. their execution. I could forgive hiai on such an appeal but the man who could go to Africa. that is a very touching appeal to our feelings." The country abounded with spies and informers and. General. Lincoln's feelings were husband was a very religious man. there are already too many weeping widows in the United States. is so much worse than the most depraved murderer. so moved by the grief of the wife. as they think. " My friend. He. At one time. Lincoln. twenty-four deserters were sentenced by martial to be shot. unless men are made an example of. " Mr. the army itself is in danger. are ever two . and profanity. Mercy to the few is cruelty to the many." A petition was brought to him to pardon a man who had been convicted of being engaged in the slave-trade. urging the observance of the Lord's Day. Don't ask me to add to their number for I will these . and breathed so pure a strain of mingled justice and mercy. remarked. President." Mr. He read and then said to the one who brought the petition. that government does not sufficiently help some men to eat their bread in the sweat of . because. in my I say that I am not much of a judge of religion opinion. " You say that your husband is a religious man. You know my weakness is to be.

wishing to converse with him upon some . I In repose. Colfax says. visited Washingand Mr. Mr. seemed insufficient for that day. How willingly would I exchange places to-day with the soldier who sleeps on the ground said of the rebellious States. I found him looking more than He replied. ' in the Army of the Potomac 1 ' ton. My own wisdom. I should be the most presumptuous blockhead upon this footstool.y times to my knees. says of him. he had not closed his eyes. or breakfasted and." The fearful trials of his office developed very rapidly Mr. and ye would not The Hon. with the bad news he had received at a late hour the prethat vious night. and shade of exwas the saddest face — altogether such a picture of the With a sorrow almost ' effects of sorrow. Lincoln. liin- "I have been driven. How often would I ! ' '• . which had not yet been communicated to the press. a distinguished artist who spent six months almost constantly in the society of the President. is other men's faces. his head bent forward upon his ever knew. and that of all about me." he said. he would become unconscious of presence. pacing back and forth a narrow passage leading to one of the windows. could have have gathered you together even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings. and anxiety. care. his hands behind him. and inquired the reason. without the aid and enlightenment of One coir's religious nature. "man. great black rings under his eyes. not the sort of religion upon which men can get to heaven. by the overwhelming conviction that I had nowhere else to go. while I — my intently studied every line pression in that furrowed face. if I for one day thought that I could discharge the duties which have come upon me since I came into this place. I met him. Wilderness. Passing through the main hall of the domestic apartment on one of those days. too. divine. usually pale and careworn. he scarcely slept at all. Carpenter. he exclaimed. clad in a long morning wrapper." Mr. in the autumn of 1864. as would have melted the hearts of the worst of his adversaries. " Absorbed in his papers." " 418 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. breast. he. who is wiser and stronger than all others. it There were days when I could scarcely look into During the first week of the battles of the it without crying. Mr. Frederick Douglas. Calling upon the President one morning in the winter of 1863. with an expression I shall never forget.

of which the like was never before seen at the White House. Some of them were richly and gayly dressed. As I entered the door of the President's House. I have often laughed heartily at these exhibitions. during the summer. as do these simple-minded and grateful people." The following is from a correspondent of " The New. and wept and laughed. until the crowd of white visitors began sensibly to diminish. They laughed and wept. " But the scene yesterday excited far other emotions. the In the great crowds which gather from time to time in front of the White House in honor of the Presi- dent. honored guest in tlie White House. doubting as to their reception. and others in the most fanciful and grotesque costumes. while their eyes are beaming with the intensest joy. Mr. exclaiming through their blinding tears. I noticed groups of colored people gathered here and there. ' . who seemed to be watching earnestly the inpouring throng. some were in tattered garments. Mr. father of the faithful. before the interview terminated.Year's Day. 1865.' and had become excessively weary. with them. ' . Lincoln had been shaking the hands of the sovereigns. When they came into the presence of the President. sent his carriage. approach the Then they summoned courage. none shout so loudly or so wildly. " For two long hours. For nearly two hours the}" hung around. DougThe invitalas to " come up and take a cup of tea with him.ABRAHAM LINCOLN: points on 419 which he desired the opinion and advice of that very remarkable man. " Mr Lincoln is one of the few white men I ever passed an hour with. that I was a negro. His name. and he welcomed the motley crowd with a heartiness that made them wild with exceeding joy.York InOn New. Douglas subsequently remarked." Probably never before was a colored man an tion was accepted. I had noticed at sundry times. seems to be associated with that of his namesake. All pressed eagerly forward. the feelings of the poor creatures overcame them and here the scene baffles my powers of description. God bless you!' 'God bless Abraham Lincoln!' 'God bress Massa Lin. a memorable incident dependent " occurred. and began timidly to door. and an invitation to Mr. and swing their hats with such utter abandon. and his grasp languid but his nerves rallied at the unwonted sight. the wild fervor and strange enthusiasm which our colored friends '• : always manifested over the name of Abraham Lincoln. who failed to remind me in some way.

unable to eat. 1 heard kum ' fast the refrain rang in young men cursing the President for this act bat all the way my ears. He came back to the room he had left. and after much delay. good news " There is nothing like prayer." It is confidently asserted. and generals. did you not promise to let me do all the swearing of the regibut the fact was. ! you a story. God bless Abraham Lincoln " The telegram one day announced a great battle in progress. and fearfully apprehensive of a defeat. Lincoln found an hour every day for prayer. The prayer he in the intensity of entreaty and childlike faith. during the war. was such as seldom ascends from human lips. " Yes. and God is good " hastened to his room. " Wo said he. Mr. and told the man that he would give him The anguish-stricken father looked up his answer the next day. of oaths. Ere long. I did. a peculiarity conspicuous from the cradle to the grave. on my way home.' . the Yes. in driving a mule-team over a boggy road. completely lost his patience.' said he." said the President. Almost by chance. prayer.' he replied ment V swearing had to be done then. and said. and said. Take the following as an illustration: A poor old man from Tennessee went to Washington to plead for the life of his son. For a long distance down the avenue. and burst into a volley John. and. offered . and praise. he succeeded in working his way to the President through the crowd of senators. Mr. his face The vicbeaming with joy. governors. pale and haggard. One of his teamsters. Lincoln paced the floor. ' * — * : ' j to do it. ." tory is ours. or not at all and you weren't there I will tell "and Col. there is." A lady said to him. can at least pray. ' ' I Mr. who were impatiently waiting for an audience. Lincoln looked over his papers. taking his Bible. of Missouri. The colonel called him to account. John Todd. There was a peculiarity in the character of this most remarka- ble man. " To-morrow may be too late My son is under sentence of death The decision ought to be — 1 ! made now "Wait a " bit. " Good news." — ''Yes. Fisk. colonel. it ! ! — the lady responded. with swimming eyes. which no one yet has been successful in satisfactorily explaining. raised a regiment. a telegram announced a Union victory." he replied : " praise. he was overheard and. and made every man agree that the colonel should do all the swearing of the regiment." 420 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. ! Those who witnessed this scene will not soon forget it. that. He had no friends.

" He ' " then repeated. President." said the relating a ludicrous anecdote. and then said. " I did not come here this morning to hear stories. with an expression of countenance and a modulation of voice which indicated. secretary remonstratingly. he read that immortal document. It is too serious a time. it wrote a pardon for the boy. written. he appreciated the grandeur of the occasion. "Sit down.ABRAHAM LINCOLN. His memory was stored with beautiful fragments of verse. No man more correctly appreciated poetic beauty. " some quaint. that. and to rescue from that doom uncounted millions yet unborn. had met in the President's cabinet.' one of which is to me inexpressibly touching." said he on one occasion. as he afterwards said. 421 the old The President laughed at this story most heartily. There are. a member of his cabi- net called upon him to confer respecting some weighty matters. "Please. and handed to the father." The President paused for a moment. Mr. You cannot be more anxious than I am constantly. sir. I I say to you now. pressed in body. and even man joined him in the laugh. When all these grave and distinguished men. in every fibre of his soul. and heart with the burden of the war." and reading an entire chapter of his frivolous drollery. entitled The Last Leaf. was the greatest event of the nineteenth century. He then. verses. were those for which his blind had an intuitive affinity. The President commenced Mr. as if he had never cherished a serious thought. And this occasional vent. and no one knew the ol:>ject of the meeting. I think. mind. In one of the darkest hours of the war. in a few words. that. I respect your feelings. He had prepared it without consultation with others. The most delicate shades of thought. which was to deliver from bondage nearly four millions of human beings then living. which. Lincoln's literary taste was of a high order. Perhaps the most sublime and momentous moment of his life was when he presented to his cabinet his proclamation. and these were invariably of the highest literary and moral excellence. should die " ! if it Avere not for Mr. with his whole tone and manner suddenly changed. Then. Lincoln prepared himself to present the proclamation to them by taking down from the shelf "Artemas Ward his Book. laughing in the mean time with an abandon of mirth. — . queer by Oliver Wendell Holmes. and the purest sentiments.

embracing governors.. ofiScers of the army. a fast-flying cloud. and carried it in my pocket. I had it by heart. of his own imagination by attributing It is but simple justice to his memory that I should state. senators. I cannot recollect to have heard him relate a circumstance to any one of them which would have been out of place uttered in a lady's drawing-room. and members of Congress." He then repeated eleven verses of a poem of which we here give the first and last stanzas me for years. Mr. till. 'tis the draught of a breath. Carpenter says. has been greatly wronged in this in the respect. by a friend. point. A flash of He passeth *Tis the from life to the rest of the grave. by frequent reading. Lincoln was very remarkable for his fund of anecdote. during the entire period of my stay in Washington. Lincoln. and cut from a newspaper. well Dr. : — " Oh why ! should the spirit of mortal be proud the lightning. in my judgment. " There is a poem that has been a great He favorite with which my attention was first called. He always had his little story with which to illustrate any point. I — months of the most intimate am convinced. " Mr. and which I afterwards saw. Prom the blossom of health to the paleness of death. " The mossy marbles rest On the lips that he has pressed In their bloom And the names he loved to hear Have been carved for many a year On the tomb. a break of the wave. after witnessing his intercourse with nearly all classes of men. there is nothing finer than these six lines iu the English language. From the gilded saloon to the bier and the shroud Oh why should the spirit of mortal be proud ? " ! Mr. "And this testimony is not unsupported by that of others. to when a young man." On anothe? occasion he said." tLen added. " For pure pathos. It has been said that his stories were sometimes coarse. wink of an eye. Stone. came entitled to consideration. . that. after six Upon this daily acquaintance. and the illustration was often found to contain resistless argument. 1 Like a swift-fleeting meteor. : 422 LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS. and intimate friends. his family physician. Every foul-mouthed man filth country gave currency it to the slime and to the President.

madam. White House on an occasion when many visitors were present. Queen Victoria sent a letter to each of the European sovereigns. Allow me." After continuing in this style of stately address for soma moments. his awkwardness seemed graceful. who was an unmarried man. said. He once said to the Rev. accompanied by Secretary Seward.' " The tact which the President displayed in all his responses to the various kindnesses he received excited universal admiration. and his plain As the President entered one of the rooms of the face beautiful. Lincoln is the purest-hearted man with whom I ever came in contact. a lady stepped forward playfully with a beautiful bunch of flowers. that he might communicate this important intelligence. in "May it please your Excellency. if you give them to me. Mr. fixing his eyes upon the countenance of the lady. the British ambassador at Washington. and they are mine. announcing the fact. and also to President Lincoln. his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. he placed the letter in the hands of the President. expressed the same sentiment in still stronger language. "I hold my hand an autograph-letter from my royal mistress. i«< about to contract a Excellency. With much formality. Sitting in front of that whom he did not sympathize politically. that her son. Dr. have been commanded to present to your she informs your Excellency. Bellows. with my studies. President." said the noble lord. he presented himself at