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Published by: Little Angel on Feb 02, 2012
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Compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.

Compressors are similar to pumps both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, while some can be compressed, the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids.

Working Air compressor consists of two major components y Compressing mechanism y Power source The compressing mechanism can be a piston. rotating impeller or vane. whereas the power is supplied by an electric motor or other energy sources .

more and more air is pulled inside a limited space mechanically by means of piston. Since the amount of pulled atmospheric air is increased in the receiver or storage tank. . which is then used as per requirements. impeller or vane. atmospheric air is drawn in through an intake valve. In the process. pressure is raised automatically.Working The basic working principle of an air compressor is to compress atmospheric air.

Compressor Classification o By principle of operation o By construction type o By staging o By service duty o Lubricated/ non lubricated .

Principle of Operations Type of compressor Positive displacement Dynamic Reciprocating Rotary Centrifugal Axial .

Liquid Ring & Lobe y Diaphragm . Vane .Screw.Positive Displacement (Increase pressure by reducing volume) Types are y Reciprocating y Rotary .

to air/gas and then converting it into pressure Types are y Centrifugal or Radial Compressors y Axial Flow Compressors .E.Dynamic or Turbo Compressors By imparting K.

with pulsating output ‡ Many configurations available ‡ Single acting when using one side of the piston.Reciprocating Compressor ‡ Used for air and refrigerant compression ‡ Works like a bicycle pump: cylinder volume reduces while pressure increases. and double acting when using both sides .


simple & open in construction .y Advantages: . piston/rider rings -Large bulky foundation -Long installation time .site repairs possible -do not require specialist at site y Disadvantages: -Maintenance prone mainly valves.

low weight. easy to maintain ‡ Sizes between 30 ± 200 hp . compact.Rotary Compressor ‡ Rotors instead of pistons: continuous discharge ‡ Benefits: low cost.

Types ‡ ‡ ‡ Lobe compressor Screw compressor Rotary vane / Slide vane .

fewer components . Mainly anti-friction bearings used and these have limited life -Close tolerances between screw elements -Site repairs not possible .compact design. very good for portable applications -package skid mounted concept y Disadvantages: -Not very reliable.y Advantages: .

Diaphragm Compressors y A diaphragm compressor (also known as a membrane compressor) is a variant of the conventional reciprocating compressor. Only the membrane and the compressor box come in contact with the gas being compressed . instead of an intake element. The compression of gas occurs by the movement of a flexible membrane. The back and forth movement of the membrane is driven by a rod and a crankshaft mechanism.

Centrifugal Compressor ‡ Rotating impeller transfers energy to move air ‡ Continuous duty ‡ Designed oil free ‡ High volume applications > 12.000 cfm .

wt. easy installation -consistent performance Disadvantages: -Sensitive to changing ambient conditions -Special protection system against surge -Change in gas mol.no wearing parts. limits the operation .Advantages: . compact design.reliable and suitable for uninterrupted operation without standby .

airfoil based compressors in which the working fluid principally flows parallel to the axis of rotation. axi-centrifugal and mixed-flow compressors where the air may enter axially but will have a significant radial component on exit. . This is in contrast with other rotating compressors such as centrifugal.y Axial compressors are rotating.

Advantages: . y -Special care to be taken for the variation in frequency .no wearing parts -consistent performance Disadvantages: y High noise level.Highest efficiency .

Classification by staging of compressors y Single Stage ( compression of gas in one stage) y Multi-stage ( compression of gas in more then one stage ) .

Lubricated or Non Lubricated Compressors y Lubricated Compressors : Where the gas is mixed with lubricant y Non Lubricated Compressors: Where process gas or air remains uncontaminated by the the lubricant during the compression process .

000 hp ‡ 70 ± 90% of compressed air is lost .Significant inefficiencies of Compressors ‡ Compressors: 5 to > 50.

production increased and product quality improved . downtime decreased.Benefits of managed systems ‡ Electricity savings: 20 ± 50% ‡ Maintenance reduced.

petrochemical and chemical plants. natural gas processing plants. manufacturing and building processes to power all types of pneumatic tools . y In gas turbine systems to compress the intake combustion air y In many various industrial. and similar large industrial plants for compressing intermediate and end product gases.Applications y In petroleum refineries.

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