65

The Crosby gage tester shown in the figure is used to calior to test pressure gages. When the weights and the piston weigh 140 N, the gage being tested indicates 200 kPa. If piston diameter is 30 mm, what percent error exists in the

A

A

PROBLEi'v13.4
inside and undergoes a constant temperature compression. The atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa, and the water density is 1000 kg/m3. Find the location of the water level in the tube including the effects of surface tension.

PROBLEM 3.1
Two hemispheric shells are perfectly sealed together and internal pressure is reduced to 10% of atmospheric pressure. inner radius is 6 in., and the outer radius is 6.25 in. The seal located halfway between the inner and outer radius. If the at. pressure is 14.5 psia, what force is required to pull shells apart? Find a parked automobile for which you have information tire pressure and weight. Make your best estimate of the of tire contact with the pavement. Next, using the weight and tire pressure, use engineering principles to the contact area. Compare your estimate with your on and discuss. If exactly 20 bolts of 2.5 em diameter are needed to hold the >' chamber together at A -A as a result of the high pressure / within, how many bolts will be needed at B-B? Here D = 40 em and d = 20 cm. 3.5 A glass tube 10 em long and of 0.5 mm internal diameter has ,',one end closed. The tube is inserted into water to a depth of 2 em, as shown. In the process of inserting the tube, the air is trapped

10 em

r

id.

PROBLEi'v13.5
3.6 The reservoir shown in the figure contains two immiscible liquids of specific weights 'YA and 'YB' respectively, one above the other. 'YA > 'YB- Which graph depicts the correct distribution of gage pressure along a vertical line through the liquids? Explain your answer.

e obequi-

thods

p
(a)

p (b)

p
(el (d)

PROBLEM 3.6

Piston stop Hydraulic oil (from pump) rf PROBLEM 3. The atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. (b) equal to the water surface level in the right tube. d 3d Hydraulic oil (return Ii ne) PROBLEM 3.53 kPa C Pc=? PROBLEM 3.10 Some skin divers go as deep as 50 m.r- 4-cm diameter Oil (S = 0. the water surface level in the left tube will be (a) higher than the water surface level in the right tube. A PA = 50.12 la-em diameter 3.85) f<-----~ 2.~3. and water is added to the tank to the level of the stopcock.0.2 m---- PROBLEM 3. (c) less than the water surface level in the right tube. what is the gage pressure at the bottom of the tank? 3.5 m of kerosene.15 A tank is fitted with a manometer on the side. This will be accomplished with a hydraulic pump that delivers fluid to a cylinder. The moving parts of this lift weigh 1000 Ibf. Hydraulic cylinders with a stroke of 72 inches are available with bore sizes from 2 to 8 inches.8 !?&. 3. and 15 gallons per minute.11 Water occupies the bottom 1. Find the position of the liquid surface in the manometer. The lift should raise the load to a height of 6 ft in 20 seconds. The stopcock is closed.7 3. 10. What is the gage pressure at this depth in fresh water. what IS the magnitude of the force F2 that can be resisted by the piston with the 10-cm diameter? Neglect the weights of the pistons. For these conditions. There is a stopcock located 1 m from the surface of the water in the manometer.14 A tank with an attached manometer contains water at 20°C. Hydraulic piston pumps with an operating pressure range from 200 to 3000 psig are available with pumping capacities of 5. B PB = 58. The depth of this bottom liquid is 20 em.8 This manometer contains water at room temperature. and what is the ratio of the absolute pressure at this depth to normal atmospheric pressure? Assume T = 20°C. as shown. SOLUTIONS If a 200-N force Fl is applied to the piston with the 4-cm diam• eter. Find the increase in elevation of the water in the manometer assuming the air in the manometer is compressed isothermally. The glass tube on the left has an inside diameter of 1 rum (d = 1.The glass tube on the right is three times as large. A IS-cm layer of water lies on top of the bottom liquid. SOLUTIONS FLUID STATICS }> 7 For the closed tank with Bourdon-tube gages tapped into it. ~3. Vertical 2m .0 m of a cylindrical tank.9 . what is the specific gravity of the oil and the pressure reading on gage C? 3. State your main reason or assumption for making your choice.13 The gage pressure at a depth of 5 m in an open tank uid is 75 kPa.0 kPa 3. The liquid in the bottom of the tank and in the manometer has a specific gravity (S) of 3.9 ~. If the temperature is 20cC.12 An engineer is designing a hydraulic lift with a capacity of 10 tons. trapping the air in the manometer. On top of the water is 0. What are the specific weight and the specific gravity of the liquid? 3. Select a hydraulic pump size and a hydraulic cylinder size that can be used for this application.0 mm).66 . which is open to the atmosphere.

.14 .19. Indicate whether the metal is in compression or tension. Assuming there is neither friction leakage between piston and cylinder. e ==""'*==1 ~= ...5. 3...20 DOC.. .:...~ ~) What Is the maximum gage pressure in the odd tank shown figure? Where will the maximum pressure occur? What is the hydrostatic force acting on the top (CD) of the last chamber on the right-hand side of the tank? Assume T = lO°C..15 t I!.. what volume of (S = 0.20 What force must be exerted through the bolts to hold the dome in place? The metal dome and pipe weigh 6 kN...2) Initial PROBLEM 3.h ~? 1 Stee I chamber "1 . .2 GPa..16 rwn. tube to cause piston to rise 1 in. Here f = 3. extreme pressures may cause significant changes in density.67 3. Seit can 15 cm T 20cm 1 PROBLEM 3.18 The steel pipe and steel chamber together weigh 600 lbf. however. Note: There is no bottom on the chamber--only a flange bolted to the floor.. The dome has no bottom.19 What force must be exerted through the bolts to hold the dome in place? The metal dome and pipe weigh 1300 lbf.. as a s 20 ~ind 3. from its initial position? by nor oil the ..18 trrme 3.5 ft.. The specific gravity of the enclosed fluid is 1.85) would have to be added to the I-in.. Assume the dome weighs 1000 lbf. Here = 80 cm. The dimension L is 2 ft.21 Find the vertical component offorce in the metal at the base of the spherical dome shown when gage A reads 5 psig..0 ft. _j_ to atmosphere 1m PROBLEMS 3.. Estimate the percentage difference in density of sea water between the surface and a point 6 kID deep. The dome has no bottom..22 The piston shown weighs 10 lbf.. What force will have to be exerted on the chamber by all the bolts' to hold it in place? The dimension C is equal to 2. the piston is restrained from moving to the bottom of the cylinder means of the metal stop. In its initial position...17 Usually water is assumed to be incompressible for hydrostatic computations. Assume a constant temperature of 10°C and a bulk modulus of elasticity of2. e Elevation view 3. I< PROBLEM 3. ' .. :ated ttoper is se in I the 3. with ilable e.:". PROBLEM 3.~:=: II CIosed SDLUTIDNS "':" . : §i =? T .:j_ Final Liquid (S ~ 1.... 3. FLUID Open ~ ..

3.Old). (ID) cylinder pressure at the center of pipe A. where d is the depth below the liquid surface in meters. Y= 10 kNfm3 1 Specific gravity = 2. (ID) tube L T _l 2 in. SOLUTIONS Consider an air bubble rising from the bottom of a lake.30 . Glass tube (0.29 3. (b) zero. The gage pressure at a particular poi nt in the liquid is found by measurement to be 60 kPa.25 Consider the conditions given for Problem 3.23 .28 Determinethe gage pressure at the center of pipe A in pounds per square inch when the temperature is 70°F. T Oil (S = 0. l-in. (c) positive. 4 mm OD) PROBLEM 3. glecting su rface tension. At a depth of 10m. T = 20°C. .68 FLUID STATICS 3.24. what is the gage pressure? 15 cm 3. At what depth is that point? 3. estimate the gage 4-in.26 The specific weight of a liquid increases with depth as follows: 'Y = 50 + O.85) PROBLEM 3.27 The gage pressure at the center of the pipe has a value that is (a) negative.) Specific gravity = 1.5 mm ID.00 J r A B Water leve lin tube PROBLEM 3. .21 24 in.22 ~.29 Considering the effects of surface tension.24 A liquid has the peculiar property that its mass density increases linearly with depth according to the expression P = Pwater (1 + O. where d = depth in feet below the surface and 'Y is given in Ibf/ft3. (Neglect surface tension effects.ld.27 PROBLEM 3. determi etermrne approximately wh at th e ratio of the density of the air in the bubble will be at a depth of 34 ft to its density at a depth of 8 ft. Ne.00 PROBLEM 3.30 What is the pressure at the center of pipe B? 1 30 in. PROBLEM 3.28 3. What is the pressure at a depth of 20 ft? 3.~3..

v SOLUTIONS cury occupies 1. When the person stands on the scale. The level of the water in the stand pipe is to be calibrated to yield the person's weight in pounds force.35 A device for measuring the specific weight of a liquid consists of a U-tube manometer as shown. When air in the container is at atmospheric pressure. Clearly state the design features you considered.0 ft of the tube's length.31 The ratio of container diameter to tube diameter is 8.36 . Water Uniform diameter tube 3. Would the scale be linear? PROBLEM 3. the liquid in the tube moves 40 cm up the tube from position 1 to position 2. There is a seal around the piston that prevents leaks but does not cause a significant frictional force.'0fl.28. The manometer tube has an internal diameter of 0. Air 100 cm T ~ _j_ 3.ft 40cm 1.33 1---8 in.i?:. What is the container pressure that causes this deflection? The specific weight of the liquid is 50 Ibflft3. Locate the water and mercury surfaces.31. Also determine the maximum pressure in the tube. What is the container pressure that causes this deflection? The liquid density is 800 kg/m3. the free surface in the tube is at position 1. Mercury PROBLEMS 3.34 3.32 The ratio of container diameter to tube diameter is 10. the free surface in the tube is at position 1. the height of the water in the stand pipe should be near eye level so the person can read it. Choose the piston size and standpipe diameter. The scale should function for people who weigh between 60 and 250 lbf and are between 4 and 6 feet tall. 3.36 Mercury is poured into the tube in the figure until the mer .5 cm Water PROBLEM 3. Exactly 2 cm3 of unknown liquid is then poured into one leg of the manometer. 3. When air in the container is at atmospheric pressure.PROBLEMS 69 dsper 3.33 A novelty scale for measuring a person's weight by having the person stand on a piston connected to a water reservoir and stand pipe is shown in the diagram.5 em and originally has water in it. When the container is pressurized. the liquid in the tube moves 3 ft up the tube from position 1 to position 2. Indicate how you would calibrate the scale on the standpipe. When the container is pressurized.--J PROBLEM 3. What is the specific weight of the unknown liquid? gage 0. An equal volume of water is then poured into the left leg.34 Determine the gage pressure at the center of pipe A in pounds per square inch and in kilopascals. ® PROBLEM 3.31 It ~ . and a displacement of 5 cm is measured between the surfaces as shown.35 3.1jJ])__ .i.

3.Llhb· .41 3.39 Find the pressure at the center of pipe A. Design the manometer and predict the probable degree of accuracy of measurement of IIp for your design. Air p = 150 kPa abs. Determine the difference in pressure between A and B when h = 3 in.70 3. 1 h = 3 in. The specific weights of these liquids may range from 50 1bflft3 to 100 Ibflft3.42 A vertical conduit is carrying oil (S = 0.95). respectively. J_ Mercury PROBLEM 3. One leg of the manometer is open to 100 kPa pressure (absolute) while the other leg is subjected to 90 kPa. What is the difference in piezometric head between A and B? PROBLEM 3.37 A U-tube manometer is needed that will measure the difference in pressure between two points 100 m apart in a horizontal 6 ern pipe. !'I.ha . and the manometer deflection £2 is 50 em. Design an apparatus using the manometer principle to measure the specific weights of these liquids. what will the deflection on the manometer be? Atmospheric pressure = 100 kPa abs. The elevations ZA and ZB are 10m and 11 m. C 1 = 1 m.43 Two water manometers are connected to a tank of air. Water FLUID STATICS Mercury (S = 13. Find the difference in deflection between both manometers. If the absolute pressure in the tank is doubled. A differential mercury manometer is tapped into the conduit at points A and B.40 Determine (a) the difference in pressure and (b) the difference in piezometric head between points A and B.38 It is necessary to measure the specific weight of several different liquids.39 PROBLEM 3. Also estimate the expected degree of error of measurement using your equipment.40 3. 2 in. Assume T = 10°C.42 3.41 The deflection on the manometer is h meters when the pressure in the tank is 150 kPa absolute. and the maximum pressure difference is expected to be 60 kPa.6) PROBLEMS 3. j_ h T Mercury 1 --t 18 in. 3. The pipe carries water. '3.

A .003221 of 1ft is assumed.49 Assume that a woman must breathe a constant mass rate of~.9Patm ~ 3. 3. standard atmosphere.71 O.Pz.48 From a depth of 10 m in a lake to an elevation of 4000 m in the atmosphere.000 ft (5486 m) to be? Use standard atmospheric conditions. and then a linear decrease with a lapse rate of l. 3. end of which is submerged in the tank. If the standard lapse rate of 5.P B' and (b) the difference in pi59°P (15°C) and the pressure is 14. at what elevation is the plane when a pressure of75 kPa is read? What is the temperature for that condition? 3. 3.B' Express both answers in kPa. and density of the air when standard atmospheric conditions prevail? Give your answer in traditional and SI units. If the internal pressure of the aircraft interior is 100 kPa. If the standard lapse rate of 0. 3. and reading the pressure the gage that is tapped into the tube.72 mJs2. If the pressure on the gage is 20 kPa.47 The boiling point of water decreases with elevation because of the pressure change. The dimensions of a typical window on the airplane are 30 em by 25 em. PROBLEM 3. plot the variation of absolute pressure. If she inhales and exand manometer deflection are indicated on the figure. hales 16 times per minute at sea level where the temperature is the pressure differences P A .44 One means of determining the surface level of liquid in a by discharging a small amount of air through a small tube. The disair to mamtam her metabolic processes. Data from probes entering the Martian atmosphere show that the temperature variation with altitude can be approximated as constant at -63°C from the Martian surface to 14 km.43 A manometer is used to measure the pressure difference bepoints A and B in a pipe as shown.87°C/km is assumed.~ • .50 A pressure gage in an airplane indicates a pressure of 95 kPa at takeoff. Then the level of the liquid in the tank can be calculated. where the airport elevation is 2000 ft and the temperature is 70°F.52 Denver.46 Consider the ratio (dpl dZ)o/(dpl dzhooa. is called the "mile-high" city. Note that the temperature distribution in the atmosphere of Mars differs from that of the earth because the region of constant temperature is adjacent to the surface and the region of decreasing temperature starts at an altitude of 14 km. Find the pressure at 8 km and 30 krn altitude. What is the boiling point of water at an elevation of 1500 m and at an elevation of 3000 m for standard atmospheric conditions? 3. what would pressure.. (c) The ratio has a value greater a PROBLEM 3. is the pressure gradient in the atmosphere (z is positive up) and the subscripts and 2000 refer to elevation in feet above sea level. The atmosphere consists primarily of CO2 (95.53 The mean atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars is 7 ill and the mean surface temperature is -63°C.S.0. S ~ 3 than 1. Water flows in the pipe 3. where dpl dr. Find . Assume the atmosphere is pure carbon dioxide. Choose the correct statement: (a) The ratio has a value less than 1..·. (b) The ratio has a value equal to 1.•.51 A pressure gage in an airplane indicates a pressure of 13. Assume that the lake water surface elevation is at mean sea level and assume standard atmospheric conditions.7 psia (101 kPa).6 psia at takeoff.3%) with small amounts of nitrogen and argon.45 . What are the pressure. what is the depth d ofliquid in the tank? read? 3. Pz. Colorado. what is the outward force on the window? One hile flecPROBLEM 3.. SOLUTIONS the specific gravity of the manometer fluid is 3. The acceleration due to gravity on the surface is 3.5°C/km up to 34 km. temperature. at what elevation is the plane when a pressure of 10 psia is Manometer fluid.' •.54 An airplane is flying at 10 km altitude in a U. you expect her rate of breathing at 18. where the airport elevation is 1 km and the temperature is lOoC.

59 9ft r l Brace Form Bottom tie PROBLEM 3. Determine the force per unit foot of length exerted on the forms. standard atmosphere from 0 to 30 km altitude.~ 3. (c) The distance between the center of pressure on the gate and the centroid of the gate remains constant as H increases.56 A submerged square gate (pivoted about its vertical centroi.60 Assume that wet concrete ('Y = 150 Ibflft3) behaves as a liquid.8)OC DO> L. (d) TB does not change with H. PROBLEMS 3.387(z -16. (b) The distance between the center of pressure on the gate and the centroid of the gate decreases as H increases.56 ~~ SDLUTIDNS ~. (b) TB increases with H.57 Consider the two rectangular gates shown in the figure. with ties between vertical braces spaced every 2 ft. (c) TA does not change with H. If the forms are held in place as shown. where z is the altitude in kilometers.58 For gate A.A View A-A of Pivot points gate a nd pivot points PROBLEM 3.59 Find the force of the gate on the block. but one (Gate A) is held ill place by a horizontal shaft through its midpoint and the other (Gate B) is cantilevered to a shaft at its top.8-30 km T T T = 23.72 FLUID STATICS 3.60 .7-16. 3.5 + 1.57.. 3. Assume the temperature profiles are linear and are approximated by the following ranges.72 km 13.87z (0C) = -57. (d) The torque applied to the shaft to prevent the gate from turning must be increased as H increases. They • • are both the same Size. 3.8lan 16.soC = -57.58 3. S. dal axis) is set between two reservoirs of equal depth as shown.. What is the net hydrostatic force on the gate? What moment about the pivot axis is required to keep the gate closed? 0--13. Now consider the torque Trequired to hold the gates in place as H is increased.1 . 3. what force is exerted on the bottom tie? PROBLEM 3. choose the statements that are valid: (a) The hydrostatic force acting on the gate increases as H increases.5.55 Design a computer program that calculates the pressure and density for the U. (e) The torque applied to the shaft to prevent the gate from turning remains constant as H increases. Choose the valid statementes): (a) TA increases with H.

68 Determine the hydrostatic force F on the triangular gate. and Y2 = 7. Cl = 45°.07 ft. h. P necessary to just start opening the 2-mlO-ft diameter PROBLEM 3. . The specific weightofwateris 62. The valve is supported by a horizontal shaft through its center. PROBLEM 3. what is the magnitude of the reaction at A in terms of "[w and the dimensions f and w? For the cylindrical gate. 3. In the position shown. Also determine the ratio RTI F. D 3.66 For this gate. What torque would have to be applied to the shaft to hold the valve in the position shown? Atmospheric pressure PROBLEM 3.64 The square gate shown is eccentrically pivoted so that it automatically opens at a certain value of h.65 3. The is 4fthigh and 12 ft wide. and Y2 = 3 m. and W. Figure (a). Yl = 4 ft.69 For the plane rectangular gate (f Xw in size). YI = 1 m.63 3.62 Determine gate. Cl = 45°.73 A rectangular gate is hinged at the waterline. Express F in terms of "I. Neglect the weight of the gate. Figure (b). Find the necessary force (in lbf) applied at the bottom of gate to keep it closed. What is that value in terms off? 1 F PROBLEM 3. which is hinged at the bottom edge and held by the reaction RTat the upper corner.0m wide? Assume T = lODC. will the magnitude of the reaction at A be greater than. less than. as shown. 3.67 For this gate.65 This lO-ft-diameter butterfly valve is used to control the flow in a lO-ft-diameter outlet pipe in a dam.61 The gate shown is rectangular and has dimensions 6 m x What is the reaction at point A? Neglect the weight of the gate. Will the gate fall or stay in position under the action of the hydrostatic and gravity forces if the gate itself weighs 90 kN and is 1.4 . Stop PROBLEM 3.000 Ib and is 3 ft wide? Assume T = 50 F. Will the gate fall or stay in position under the action of the hydrostatic and gravity forces if the gate itself weighs 18. or the same as that for the plane gate? Neglect the weight of the gates. it is closed.64 3.

the concrete is poured in lifts of approximately 1.70 .66. The forms for the face ofthe dam are reused from one lift to the next.69 ~3. and the ' ' speci'ft c gravity of the liouid in the tan k IS 0. For the new pour.68 (a) Plane gate (b) Curved gate PROBLEM 3. If the rectangular iqui gate is 6 It wide and ifYI = 1 It and Y2 = 10 ft.74 FLUID STATICS Standard atmospheric pressure PROBLEMS 3.71 In constructing dams.80. The figure shows one such form. 70 The air above the liq uid is under a pressure of 5 psig. SOLUTIONS . which is bolted to the already cured concrete. what moment will occur at the base of the form per meter of length (normal to the page)? Assume that concrete acts as a liquid when it is first poured and has a specific weight of 24 kN 1m3.67 View A-A PROBLEM 3. 3. Air Hinge flUID Rectangular gate SOWT p PROBLEM 3.5 m (Yl = 1. 'what force P is required to hold the gate in place? 3.5 m).

or are the moments equal? Explain. Note the hinge at the bottom of the gate. PROBLEM 3. The chain and leface.74 Determine the minimum volume of concrete (''{ = 150 Ibflft3) needed to keep the gate (2 ft wide) in a closed position. direction. or C' ) to resist the hydrostatic force. .75 New pour level Cantilevered form --(------ PROBLEM 3. The cylinder is 25 em in dia. Here C = 1 m. e =4 ft. and hne of action of ameter and weighs 200 N.77 A gate with a circular cross section is held closed by a lever ~For the curved surf~ce AB: . Neglect the weights of the walls. is it stable or unstable? Neglect the of the gate. or below the pin? Pin (center of curvature of gate) PROBLEMS 3. and line of action of the chain such that the gate is just on the verge of opening when the the horizontal component of hydrostatic force acting on the water depth above the gate hinge is 10 m.77 Water is held back by this radial gate.71 The plane rectangular gate can pivot about the support at B. The gate is attached to a horizontal shaft the vertical component of hydrostatic force acting on the surso it can pivot about its center.76 The three walla are holding back water as shown. Determine the magnitude. the conditions given.73. surface. ver attached to the gate have negligible weight. Per unit of width (normal to the page). PROBLEM 3. which wall requires the greatest resisting moment (at A'.74 3. Determine the magnitude.76 3. Does the resultant of the pressure forces acting on the gate pass above the pin.75 3. = 2 m. 1 m long attached to a buoyant cylinder. B'. direction. PROBLEM 3. The liquid is water. through the pin. .72 Determine the minimum volume of concrete ('Y = 23.. Find the length of b.6 needed to keep the gate (1 m wide) in a closed position. PROBLEM 3. .3.

82 This dome (hemisphere) is located below the water surface as shown. PROBLEM 3. 3. Determine the location of the horizontal component of hydrostatic force. The depth of the center of the plug is 2 m in fresh water. O-ring PROBLEMS 3.82.80 Determine the magnitude and direction of the horizontal and vertical components of the hydrostatic force acting on the twodimensional curved metal surface per foot of width.79 Atmospheric pressure Metal surface Atmospheric pressure PROBLEM 3. 3. Here Yl = 1 m and Y2 = 2 m.2 m.83 3.25 m. For these conditions. Assume T = lO°e. Find the horizontal and vertical forces on the plug due to hydrostatic pressure. Show the line of action" of the hydrostatic force acting on the gate.81 .79 Determine the hydrostatic force acting on the radial gate the gate is 40 ft long (normal to the page). The water surface is at the level of the center of curvature of the dome. The radius of the hemispherical plug is 0.78 PROBLEM 3. 3. This dome is 10 ft in diameter. Surface is 1 m long (normal to page) 1 e 1 PROBLEM 3.76 c. The same block weighs 700 N in air. determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant hydrostatic force acting on the dome. The plug is sealed by an O-ring with a radius of 0.82. FLUID STATICS 3. Determine the magnitude and sign of the force components needed to hold the dome in place and the line of action of the horizontal component offorce.83 Consider the dome of Prob. Determine the specific weight and volume of the material.84 A block of material of unknown volume is submerged in water and found to weigh 400 N (in water). Determine the resultant hydrostatic force acting on the surface. 3.81 A plug in the shape of a hemisphere is inserted in a hole in the side of a tank as shown in the figure.3. but now the dome is not submerged.80 3.