~.gh. bibicescu / e.farcu . .

DENTA -ITIMA ENGLEZA
probleme juridice si comerciale ,

-

Gheorghe Bibicescu

I

Eugenia Farca

CORESPONDENTA •
MARITIMA

ENGLEZA

Probleme juridice si comerciale

Editura

~tiintifica ~i enciclopedica
BUCURE$TI 1976

CUPRINSUL

REDACTOR:

DORIN

CIUNCAN

Capitolul I
Generalita!i JwiVind fMespondenJa comerciata Corespondentul comerciat Stilul Aran jarea in pagina a scrisorii comerciale Hlrtia ~. antetul (Stationery and Letterhead) Plicul (Envelope) Folosirea majusculelO1' (Capitalization) Forma scrisorii comerciale (Indented, Block, Semiblock, Complete Block, Hanging Indentat,ion, Simplified Letter) Elementele Jwincipale ale scrisorii comerciale ~i ordinea lor Analiza elementelor scrisorii comerciale : 1. Antetul (Headling) 2. ReferinJa (Reference line) 3. Data (locul # data) i. Adresa (Address) - Adr~ po~ta.la, adresa teleg,raficll, dl.suta po¢a.la - AcIre'sadestinatarului (Inside address) - Modnl de redactare a adreseidestinatarnIni. Societllji comerciale: Limited Company, Stock Company, Incorporated, Corporation, Partnership - Titluri 'ob~nnite de curtoazie, funcjii, titluri onorifice - Strada ~i numarul cladirii 5, Modul de adresare - salutill (Salutation) - Exemple de adrese complete ~i de moduri de adresare 6~ ObieclUl scrisorii (Subject line) 7. C~PuJ s(;risorii (Body of the Lett~ ) close) , 8. Formula de inclieiere (Complimentary 9. Semn4tu~a ;(Signature) . 13 Ii 1.5 16 17 18

20 22
29

30 30
30 32 36 36 37 38 39 ~2 i3 45 48 49 SO 51 5~

Joinl

Semnarea corespondenleide t;iltreJwocuri~ti, agenli # prepufi in general Seti.narea ordinelor de ambarco (Male,' is Receipls) Notit pentru comandan!i SUPRACOPERTA ~I COPERTA DE KERRY EUGEN

Ii a

conosamentelor (Bills 'of Lading) '5!t 51 .58
64

Forme uzuale de intr9ducere folosite curentin coresponden!a 'comercialit,e,ngJezit Forme de tncheiere (Final/Closing Paragraph)

5

. Notices oj Readiness Nos. 133 LESSON 28..nt .. Letter to Receivers requesting payment of demurrage incurred at loading port rSecond version. comercial~.16() 1.sailor to hospital. main engi~e and for moorin!1 t~ .' '. Ordering provisions. 35-36 : Letter making Shippers ~espottsible for not supplying cargo: . The Ma#er's Duties during the Voyage 4. Ordering fresh water..' . Letter to Receivers bringing to -their' notice expiration Of La:ydays.. Damage to ship and -cargo owing . Letters Nos. Invitation to Official Function.. 43"'::45. List of spare parts for diesel motor LESSON 26.'" .-63: Master's reply to ProtestRe: Damaged ease . 11 96 l7.~nt. Invi~tio~ ac~ept~~. The Master: A legal Standpoint (Continued) Comandantul.... Master partly repudiates responsibility for . The Master's Duties during the Voyage (Continued) 5.te~IU!:r~ ¥nca._':. 6-10 : To discharge underCharterPaz:y. . Letter to Agent requesting.•. Askirig Agent to send a garbage scow or an ash boat to take garbage away. a doua . ing Agent to arrange for overtime work. 0<-dering Bunker. Master's reply in respect of correct tally of-cargo.. Notices oj Readiness Nos.'.. Requesting Agent to take a -sick.:riei:tiori 'with-repairs :'Skend version LESSON repairs 27. Requesting Agent to invite Shipyard's ·rJpi-esentati. Ordering spare parts. Letters Nos. Ship Agent's letter to Consignee serving as N~tice_of ~eadiness..versiune romaneasca EOrwarding Agent for inadequate tally of. 67-69 ': Requesting Agent to arrange for overhaul and repair of main engine and for Lloyd's survey.. 64-66: Letter-to Agent requesting packaging repairs.55: Master notifies short shipping to Agent. . 1-5: To load Barrelled Olives.: .shortage 103 109 113 LESSON 21. 53 . List of Provisions.traprdillaJ.versiul1~ a doea LESSON 31. Second version. To load woodpulp under Charter Party.. 82-83: Sea Protest JOT bad 'weathiY..toarrangethe ~harge of heavy cargo " . ofiter public. Goods damaged owing to unskilful handling and use of iron hooks.aboard t.. Letters Nos. d~pa. Master requests suweY' and holds. Master repudiates claim for damage. LESSON 25. 70-72: Requesting A~." .' Shippers do not provide Tally Sheets and' Mite"s Receipt. eninderea protestului . 'Letter.Maste. Sea Protests Nos. VesseUouches mud bank... 37-40: Ma. Requesting..9 180 182 186 191 • 196 Chaptllr ROUTINE m 115 LESSON 23. 73-75: Third version.'. to Agent requesting CORRESPONDENCE LESSON 8. LESSON 18. To load/discharge under Cha.'e) Unliquidated Demurr(lge . infonping her.' .. Foggy weather. Letterto Shipc~~dler requesting supply of charts and other nautical documents. 25-27: Letter to Agent ~eq?~~t~~t~ ar~anl1~for fu~igati~n of sirip's cargo space. Letters Nos.r's instructions to Agent Re: short delivery. .. hUn to make arrangements for permission to immobilize the ship for repairs to main engine and for mooring tzials . To 'discharge Profile Iron under Charter Party LESSON 7. Master. Letters Nos. Notice of Readiness of the tanker to discharge Notll pentru comandan!i Time Sheet No. Bills of Lading r. Letters Nos. Second version. ' LESSON 9. Ask-.ster requests the Agent to provide an~therberth. " .{t to sendsurveyor and diver. Second version Notll pentru comandanJi fi oji/triinallti : Lien [Drept de retenjiesi privilegiti) LESSON 19.ffi~1s.:' '. Letter to '. 156..the .bout mooring trials ie.'iSSON 12. 79-81: BaawtatJler. 41-42: Askirig Agents to nominate Tallymen.' "Demurrage" or "Liquidated Dernl'l'r~ge:' (Gpntt:a. 33-34: Master'~ Protest Re: Dunnage jShippers' ~ef~s. LESSON 15.: LES~(JN 11.cargo l!i()tll pentru comandan!i fi ojilerii nallei . Asking Agent' to provide a motor-launch for the crew. Sea Protests Nos.to unskilful handling' ot..~tFer to neighbouring ship. to Harbour Master requesting permission to immobilize the ship for overhauling of. Notes o. Re: Impossibility of heav-". Atributii: nautice. Asking Agent to arrange for salvage of lost anchor.to load. to arrange discharge of heavy w<=ights. and repairs. ~~P1Ydechmn~ ~~lVltatiOn LESSON 13.50 LESSON 30.'os.17 ' .e~ a~thorizinl1 the Agent to~gn. sEA PROTESTS LESSON 29.Prote~t.er Party. Master's reply to protest Re: Shortage LESSo.As~ Age.winches. Letters Nos..stllliisau contrastalii contractaale}: procedura in materie de contrastalii Damages for Detention (contrastaliile e:x. ceising oj ventilation 4nd grounding oj ship. 46-5fJ: Letter to Agent in respect of unliquidated idemurrage . Notices oj Readiness 169 173 176 84 88 93 LESSON 6.121 128 LESSON 10. ' 226 232 '/ 235) ~SSON H. 16-21: Master's letter to: Pilot Station. Nbte. Letters Nos. f 1'66 LESSON 2. To discharge Manganese Ore. Lett. Letters Nos. .re·i~'cO:iJ. }j~ers Nos. 146 Agents requested to ship maximum quantity of ca~o. LESSON 24. Letters Nos. first version. Fourth version.Chapter COMERCIAL LESSON 1. 28-32: Expressing gratitud~dn'?tirigHarl>~~r O.. Sea Prctests.N 22. 22-24: Ordering paints. Raspunderile mandantului LESSON LESSON LESSON 3. 56-'-58: Master repudiates Receivers' claim for shortage. Ordering spare part~ for main engine " . to... Letters Nos. 222 137 142 Chapter IV .~retiner~ navei de catre navlositor.:. Tallyirig Letters Nos. versiun~romAneasci. i .'-". Letters Nos. ietters .. Letters Nos. The Master: A Legal Standpoint IJ rz: 77 principale ale co80 CORRESPONDENCE-GENERAL LESSON 17. . 59-60: Note of Protest Re:' Damage to the goods.1'Clirii. Letters Nos. Seli Protest for bad weather3ecpnd version: protest'demarepentiutilnp~Au. c LESSON 20.ll. 6]. irig anchor. Shippers responsible Jor repairs' .. 51-52: Agent advised that the ship is on demurrs a ge: Letter to Receivers advising' that the freight has 'not been paid' Nota pentru comandanJi ~i oji/erii\jtallei: .201 \ 206 212 2. Letter informing Agent about pUfeiage of goods. Letters Nos.s notification to Shippers R'e: damageto cargo duriiig discharge. 12-15 :'"Letter to the Agent asking for-cash to Master. Letters Nos. Notlceof Readiness of the tanker to load under Charter Party. Letters Nos. LESSON 16. Letters Nos.'.\t~ship. To load under Booking . 76-78:.' '.inazul in care staliilen~ au fostepuieate.

Insurance. Survey Report ' " LESSON 45. Case No. total loss ) ~u tnterpreta~a (constructive total loss).DE. regresul asiguratorului cll.tre armator. Settlement of disputes with P and I Club assistance. Motnentul predarii. conflictnl dintre Regulile <lela.grav 308 danger ). General Average Documentary material . scrisori de garanjie in mat erie de coliziune. Abstract collision). 94-98: Blank Letter of Indemnity Re: Condition of cargo. Collision Certificate.Release and Discharge. Claimant's letter to Cargo Underwriters.spunde~ comandantului~ale echipajulni ill materie de avarn filPlerderl . Inadequate packing. Letter of guarantee issued instead of "Deposit" or Average Bond in General Average.. Club'sf Representative's letter to Owners suggesting amicable settlement. Propeller broken. & I.4. normative privind asigurarea marit~a. Notit pentru comandan/ifi Inceperea incarcarii. cadr".. Case No. Recuperarea daunei de catre asiguratorul marfurilor LESSON 4. Misshapen. Claims. Loss and damage to the goods: Time of delivery. Raspunderea armatorului Inainte de semnarea conosamentului. ' . Solutionarea litigillor privind Iipsuri ~i pierderea de mariuri. Sea Protest-Vessel towed LESSON 33. Torn and spilling bags LESSON 35. Salvage. TBA. Modalitap de recuperare a daunelor de Ia clI. Letters of Indemnity Nos.276 286 339 340 291 349 298 Chapter V DISPUTESclN THE SEA. Log Book .rll.0. 132-139: Ex_tractfrom Sea Protest for Co_llision with extracts from of Engine . LetterofIndemnity Re: D':1ms inadequate. 105-109: To avoid arrest of vessel.6. Limits to liability for loss and/or damage.0-146 LESSON 4. Forta probanta a raportului de descarcare (Discharging. Evitarea pierderilor lii/saU avariilor. Collision (Continued): Procedure in <. pericolul acceptarii scris orilor de garantie. avaria comnna (general ave:. Claim. Owners RejeaClaim. (particular average). sechestruljudiciar.aduse ~torulUl sint imputabile. scrisoarea de garantie in materie desalvare.gubire. Ship agent's letter to Owners requesting settlement of claim in accordance with Club Representative' s advice. 128-131 : Owners Rejact Claim. Owners cimtestthevalidityof 325 251 261 268 329 337 . Risks covered by Mechanism of insurance in the Socialist Republic of Romania '. Pierderi ~ avarieri de mariuri: rllspundere economica. Claim rej~cted. Mark indistinct and stained. pericolele maritime. Package (pachet) !'nd Unit (unitate.iminent" (imminent gel') LESSON 4. Excessive Guarantee.1. Jimitarea raspunderil J cntru pierderi ~ISau avarieri de mll. Conflict between the Hague Rules and the National laws or port custom. Damage to automatic valve.ADAS. telexul Clubului P & I 8 . Cargo Underwriters' letter to Owners. with abstracts of log attached. General Average : Collision in foggy weather. Owner's responsibility before signature 'of B/L. 99-104. evitareasechestrulni. Two ways of recovering the . sechestrul ~ jurisdictia . the goods in accordance with Bill of Lading: Carrier liable even when not notified in writing. Cazul No. Proba prezumtiva a predllrii marfurilor conform conosamentului.I!.8. Tugboat assistance. tn- 357 304 370 suferite denava. Underwriters) Administrajia Asiguritrilor de Stat . Collision(Continu~d). Re: Collision. piesA). Case No. Forta probanta a certificatului de expertizll. In caz de pericol . j urisdictia. avantajele practiclrii scrisorilor de garantie .letter . Probatory. Litigii maritime. 84. Claimant's letter to CargoUnderwriters . Lstters of GU:Jrantee (Continued): Collision. 110-114.. Letters & Documents Nos. Statement of Claims. Scrisoarea de garan/ie. Invoice of damages and extra costs (sent by Receivers to Underwriters). Documents needed for the reCOl!eryof damage. Corespondenta preliminara.z de pericol amenintlltor (threatening dan- ~ ~ "'i ] 375 378 382 386 Book. In ca. Riscuri Ii pericole : actele naturii. Letters & Documents Nos.. Sea Protests Nos.: Claim. rea1ll.radiogramele comandantilor navei colizionate catre nava abordatoare LESSON 51. feeding the boilers with sea water and General Average.LESSON 32. 115:-119: Second version of Survey Report. 1 Recuperarea daunei de Ia asiguratorul mariurilor. Recovery of Claim from Underwriters.ase. Average Agent's (P & I Club) letter to Owners LESSON 4. Marine Insurance. Parcels mixed up. Scrisoarea ofiJerii navei privind buna stare de navigabilitate / 318 321 390 : telexurilearmatorului Letters & Documents Nos. RISKS .. privind pierderi sau avarieri de marfuri. 86-93: Sea Protest for boisterous weather.damages fl'om the Carrier.a~e ~ ~ariun. Re: Salvage. Letters 'of indemnity Nos. Baglio ~i legile nationale sau uzurile de port.rlI. Sea Protests Nos. comisionul de garantie : garanjie exagerata LESSON 38. Recovery of claim from Underwriters Letters & Documents Nqs.1 (Continued). Contents missing.9.: Bags missing or inadequate Re: Condition of cargo: Short shipment. limitarea raspunderii in pierderea partiala. Jurisdiction LESSON 37. scrisoarea de gara. Ia plecarea in voiaj Marine Insurance. Judicial arrest.120127: recuperarea daunei de Ia asiguratorul marfurilor . sechestrul asigurator. pierderea totalll. Vessel forced to get assistauce of tugboat and declares General Average.1 societit/ilor de asigurare (Insurance Company. rllspunderea carauliulni chiar in absenta avizarii scrise . Letters &·Documents Nos. Seri soarea de despll. Corespondenta. Sketch (of na:va =: datoririle comandantului LESSON 4. Invoice of Goods. LESSON 34. Letter of subrogation issued by Receivers. (seaworthiness) Ia 310 314 LESSON 4. catre armator ~i agC. Inadequate packing. (actual/ real. Guarantee Commission. Case No. Avaria particu1a. Survey Certificate.1. Subrogation Form. Force of Survey Certificate catre asiguratori ~ comandantulnavei : telexul agentului catre armator. Documentele necesare recuperarii daunelor. of claim. Inspaction Shortlanding Certificate. Bags broken and repaired.2.'-85: :B~isterous Weather. Preliminary C~rBspon4ence: Claim letter. 14.of CollisionAbordajui: Procedura in caz de abordaj LeSSON 50.Probator! Force of the Outturn Report: Prima facie evidence of delivery of. Asigtlrarea i. Owners' reply to ShiP Agent rejecting claim LESSON 4. Cazul nr. ' Letters Nos. Letters of Guarantee Nos. Package and Unit LESSON ~3.7. Dreptul de regres al asigurato.F. RlI. damage to engine. The claim. Corespondenta.~. Letters of Guarantee Arrest of Vessel: Conservative arrest.i#e. Asigurarea mutualit: Clubul de protec/ie Ii despitgubiri. preJudicille. .rfuri.. Procedwra solu/iondriilitigiilorincadrul Clubuiui P.3 Armatorul respinge reclamajia. formata . Sea Protest entered with Notary Public. Antedating Bill of Lading LESSON 36.3. Underwriters letter to Ship Agent demanding settlement. Claim rejected.rulni. Letters of Indemnity. lloyd's Form of General Average Guarantee (Guarantee by Corpo~ation of Lloyd's to the Shipowner) 246 251 LESSON 4. ' Generalitali : Procedura in caz de avarii impoitante ~ imediat" sau .AND PERILS LESSON 39.Room comandantului Log Book ~ached. Shortage. Settlement of disputes arising from loss and t{amage to goods: Once the liability of Carrier has been proved.2. Forwarding Agent's claim to Owners..Outturn Report).

General Average.rnspnnsul navei romanecatre agent. urgent despatch.a.. t. Cargo-claims. Radiograms requesting medical assistance.'.. Radiograma comandantlllui cAtre armator raportfnd terminarea reparat_illor ~ plecarea 39!» zepairmen.Pire . 5i. Guarantee to avoid arrest-of vessel in case of collision. scrisoarea uneinave str&ne cAtre ageritul navei romAne . etc. scrisoarea comandantuI11i priviIid reSpingerea rlspunderii in coliziune. lst 465 I :~ Chapter VII LESSON 59. 156. stranding. telegraihe . .rnuging. stores. Scrisoare de garanjie.Il of Sqrveyox:s. Requiring icebreaker. Sea Protest for shortage of-moving (starting) air. .. extraordinary expenses and-general average 447 LESSON 57. Radiograms advising expected arrival LESSON 61. Telegrams in connection with accidents. urgeift operations. fire. urgente ~ifulger. nued) : At destination: Declaration of General Average .E-SSON 58.Branch. Adjusters' cable to ShipoWner. November.le.![j)ocununts Nos.Telegrams and Radiograms (Continued) : Radiograms adVising departure from port of loadiIl. Jettison.:. Que. Letters & Documents Nos. Telex. Decision to obtain security. telex " TELEGRAMS AND RADIOGRAMs Telex : data in LESSON6fJ: . Informing about disposition of cargo. Collision (Continued). Form of' security required.London. • . Average Bonds.London Branch .'Master's telex to Shipowner . 147-155: telexul comandantului cAtre armator. Copy of letter by St. stranding . arrival. Insilrez.::Radiograms. Asking for another safe port. letter to Average Adjusters .. Charterers agreeable extend cancellation date. Telegrams and Radiograms. Documents required for Adjustment.~. tugboat. Requesting Average Bond and Average Guarantee Cheia exerci/iilOf' Abbreviations Abbreviations (abrevieri) 499 407 Chapter'VI GENERAL A.'Radiograms informing passage through some straits or intermediate points. Simplified example of an adjustment of 'General Average arising ·from. i. Enforcement of Rights in Getleral Average (Conti. Underwriter's Guarantees. General Average (CoiJinued). General Average (Continued).Telegrams and Radiograms (ContSnued). 489 . Ship Agent's DisbursementsAccount . salvage. Contributory value. Adjusters' Ietterto COadjuster. Shipowner's telex to Agent. conveyance and hospitalization of'the sick LESSON 62. LESSON 55. Ship Agent's telex message to Shipowner . Scrisoarea agentulni cAtre armator.. Scrisoare de garanjie. bun!(~r. Asking first discharging port and rotation Radiograms in connection with shiP's distress: Requesting tugboat.letter to Owners confirming cable. Lloyd's Survey CertiJicate. Offer of salvage contract. etc. GeneralAller.g damage. General Avlrag6 (Continued). 163-169: Ship Agent's Report to' Shipowners .-J62 : Master's telex report to Shipowner about the accident. Handli .GeneralAverage (Continued). 530 \ 537 541 570 436 English-Romanian Anex4.. Valuation Forms. Practical example of imA"djustment oj General Average ariSing frombreakdoen of Engine and Correspondence relating thereto 447 Letters &. Letters & Docwmenss Nos. Asking nomination of agent at next port of discharge. Radiograms qr~g .. Shipowners reply-to Adjusters. 170-1-7i : Co-adjuster's .VERAGE 422 426 505 509 513 LESSON 53. LESSON Rights in General Average: At the Damage to Cargo. E!¥change of miscellaneous radiograms: Radiograms to and from Ship Agents.ge : Main Principles. Surveyor's Report.s~Form of Average Gilarant«e. Lawrence SeawayAuthority dated St Lambert. Working overtime. Telegrame ~i Radiogra_.~ port Jor reJuge: Estimated Expenses.telegiame nOrma.a. Average Bonet Unit4!i de masuri ii greut4!i I ~ 454 l. . Requesting assistance from sister ship. Principiile avarUi eomune. Cargo Insurers' telex to ' Master c/o Agent .. . respingind rlspunderea . Requiring pilot. Letter of Guarantee.442 'iESSON56. collision. Letters & Documenis Nos. Rejecting salvage contact. E!¥ercitarea drepturilor tn avaria· eomun4 430 . LESSON 52.LT(ELT). about delayed. doctor. Scrlsoarea agentului cAtre reprezentantul asiguritorului "casco" al navei. Asking supply 01 Amiralty publications.Statement of. used in radiograms and telu messages Vocabulary . General Average (Continued).provisiqns.±Htiff ·'·n j ¢ cAtre armator cu privire Ia schimbul de garanpi.. Despre avarii Avaria eomun4. Enforce_ntof General Average.. shifting boards. Telegrams and Radiograms (Continued): Round trip tanker's radiograms..~9ya. divers.msa.y tilorile ~o'ntributive. Adjusters' telex to Shipowner ~ London Branch. Adjusters' .

prin fonn. orice scrisoare.t R0m4n de jiJul'il'e asoGietiJlii sOGialiste multilalef'al dezfIOltate p tnai1ltare a Romt1niei sjweGOmunism. tratarea diferitelor probleme litigioase. .¢orespondenta. Bucure~ti. cerespondenjei eomerciale.le. p. tot asa. considerat "fapt de comer]".. . p6litica.rga ~ifoarte variata ..nternational. ce decurge in mod. In sfera la."comerciala moderna este instrumentul de informare si tratare a faptelor ~i ~telor de comer] si de comunicare a acordului de vointa dintre parp. ofertele in general. vastele operatiunibancare si de asigurari. .Capitolul I GENERALITArr PRIVIND CORESPONDENTA COMERCIALA Pornind de la necesitatea participarii activ~ la diviziunea. contracte1e de transport. este 0 scrisoarecomerciala. .'i . emanata de la 0 asemenea organizatie catre alta similara sau catre o.vtratativele comercia..area clara. 25-28 noiembrie 1974.tinternationala a muncii ~i de la principiile coexistentei pasnice Intre statele cu orinduiri socia. corespondenta comerciala se inscrie ca o discipline aparte. de constructii navale. de eJ.: . "Partidul porneste de la faptul ca largirea schimburiloreconomice ~i cooperarea in productie cu alte state. Aceasta constituie 0 necesitate obiectiva si pentru progresul economic ~i social al tarii noastre" 1. atttprin implieatiilejuridice pe care Ie antreneaza.u}. '. 13 _.le diferite. 721.1e~i estetice. participarea activa la diviziunea internationals a muncii reprezinta 0 latura inseparabila a procesului de dezvoltare a fiecarei natiuni.In mod obisnuit.ti~ente gramatica. Orice documente privindcomertul. ~ cum orice fapt al. fac parte dinsfera larga:3.a comertului . .".. atasatescrisorilor.firesc din orientarile fundamentale ale politicii externe a Romaniei .unei organizatii comerciale este. al XI"lea al Partidului Comunist Romt1n. de vinzare sau de diverse prestari. cii ~i prin tehnica tntocmirii diferitelor tipuri de serisoare ~i a prezentarii lor in conditiile cerute de uzantele comerciale.persoana fizica. ~ Congr$sul.. in general. corespondenta comerciala intervine intre firme sau oameni de afaceri ori intre acestia ~ terti necomercianti cu ocazia variatelor tranzactii sau a altor fapte comerciale. comerciale.tn cadrul largirii noilor ~i variatelor forme de cooperare economica cu toate statele lumii. . fiecare document pastrindu-~iinsa nealterate identitatea ~i caracterul sau juridic. stnt efectuate de regula prin folosirea corespondentei comerciale.socialiste. ~i preq~a a ideii. Prospectarea rpieteior.a folosirii: termenilor comercia1i specifici cei mai potriviti scopalui. Editura. 1 Pl'ogyamul Parlidului Comunis.1975. .i.' . Romania promoveaza consecvent 0 politica de extindere a relatiilor economice cu toate statele.

pelrnga faptul ca lasa 0 umbra de Indoiala asupra seriozitatii si competentei firmei de la care emana. Frazele prea lungi 1.iscrisorile de debitare sau creditare.J iMM'6 rt 6""--" ti·:rtii'f' Indosariata metodic ~i pasttata. tra~sportun. Jactura.". in oricetmprejurare. . ca l1i folosirea barbarismelor.fre ~i aplicare justa fac parte din sfera larga a disciplinei comerclale. prin orice alte mijloace admise de art. . In comertul maritim ~i. . . proprie diferitelor categorii de activitate comerciala (comert exterior. registreIe pe care Iegea-Ie. prevede: .comerciale. . instatille capitaliste. in activitatea de fiecare zi a navelor come~: ciale in porturile de escala.>respondenta comerci~a. in Iine. De asemenea. . cadrele de conducere.ii i dokumentaJii nailngliiskom iazike. cu deosebire. '. specificatii etc.esiile exagerate. tn sensul lor.. avizarea platii consumului de energieetc. 1 Comerciantii.30). cu cuvinte prea cautate.vcomert bancar. corespondenta simpla. "cpncis" si "politicos".L Raporturile comerciale. In practica. In scrisoarea comerciala ideile trebuie expuse in forma cea •. " . ordine de plata.' valoarea. a c~or cunoa~t. in aceasta specialitate. sensa in 16. obosesc ~i indispun. In expunerile pe care le vom face vom corela corespondenta cu diverse fapte de comer] maritim. neintelegeri. In acest context se Inscrie unul din principiile calauzitoare ale stilului scrisorii comerciale. sintobligati prin lege sa pastreze. banal saupompqs. .. Neobservarea regulilor gramaticale. ~ simpla.prin excelenta.~i. . spunea in postscriptumul unei scrisori de 20 pagini.. corespondent. . oricare ar fi natura lor. STILU.rlte. . acte sub semMturA privatA.comercial este lucriitorul dinrcadrul unei -organizatii. cu forma ~i coatiautaproximativ identice.. Este semnificativa . a ortografiei eorecte ~i a 'punctuatiei. Expresiile ofensatoare trebuie evitate in mod absolut. -·folosirea ~i interpretarea justa a termenilor rcomerciali . Forma famillara.E. Un capitol special a fostirezervat avariilor comune.56. civ. Aceasta inseamna respect £ata de faptul com~c~] in sine.• art". tArt. 'New York.. ' a Rob er t L. se poate vorbi de un limbaj' comercial creat de-a lungul istoriei comerciale. 0 nuanta de subtila sobrietate jsugereaza nota de tinuta serioasa a expeditorului.cititorului timp pretios. . ~e redacteaza cu precadere in limba engleza.. francez.. fizician.inevitabil in transporturile maritime.) cu care icorespondentul comercial trebuie sa fiebirie . en registrele pli. ..-rapesc. In cazuri speciale.. folosirea unui vocabular nepotrivit. cu deosebire. Ca pregatire profesionala.cQntraindicat~. ca ~~ document~le referitoare la ?-~~ste. . timp de 10 ani de la cea din urmAvizli. el trebuie sa cunoasca temeinic: . implica cu necesitate decenta bi expriman!. Insa.). figurile de stil. Modul de exprimare in scrisoarea comerciala.sper eli. Ucebnikkomercisk01korespond . orr de cite ori autoritatea [udecatoreasca crede de cuviinj:li. asigurari. secendredition. 14 15 . care. Ca regula generala. expr.rplor ~ cu marton. corespondenta comereiala implica 0 tehnicasi reguli consacrate.Insemnatatea. prin activitatea lor. pe care sint imprimate antetul. precum ~' scrisorile ~ telegramele primite sau trimise(C.icu. . .).ta . ingtrijire 1. functiavsi caracterul juridic al documentelor comerciale ce intervin in specificul comercial al intreprinderii respective (cec. potrivttoareia nuar exista 0 limba comerciala ".anumecalificat. 46 C.. in transporturile maritime. certificat de expertiza. . a tranzactiilor efectuate ~i a solutionarii diverselor fapte de comer].' Obligatiile comeiciale seprc:'beazli. materiale. adaugam noi. conosament. lungA. . chiar cind privesc neintelegerl dintrecele. cu fa~~u~ acceptate.siIlt. fie "clar". transport pe uscat ~i aerian. oferta. dar nu am avut timp sa· fac una maiscurtA".specificul Intreprinderii vpentru care. t. fUozof ~ scriitor. Corespondentul comercial trebuie sa aiba dar in minteceea ce vrea sa sene. indiferent de calificarea pe care o au. mai neplacute. ¥ finante.. 'telegrame (~i' telexuriN. pentru '0 scrisoare a~ de. precum ~i modul de a proceda in cazuri de avarii sau sinistre maritime.repetarea aceluiasi Iucru in mai multe fraze. sint defecte inadmisibile. ~i a carui atributie de serviciu este redactarea corespondentei. Intrebuintarea termenilorcomerciali. trebuie sa. ~i care intervin . .. com. scrisoare de credit.~i oricare. Soh u r te r.limba in care scrie. 1970. ca sipolitetea exagera. E.rejudicii. comer] ~i transporturi maritime.scadentei asigurarii sau aratelor de plata: lasocietatile degaasi electricitate. carela unele mari intreprinderi au uncaractercurent (labanci.).. .fara inteles precis ~i se va pierde in generalitati vagiFara un sistem de gtndiie comerciala bine organizat nu se poate asterne dar in scris ideea conduoatoare..' CORESPONDENTUL COMERCIAL precum ~i de 0 tenninologie bogata. contract de vinzare. marketipg etc. cu subtilitatile ~i particularitatile ei gramaticale. ~i prevazute cu spatii libere pentru scrierea datelor care variaza.. Inc. cunoscut matematician. prin serisori.familiarizat. corespondenta comerciala poate constitui proba in justitie 2. ca urmare a traditiilor mscnse de Anglia in aceasta sfera de activitate comerciala. ma veli ierta. Izrailevici. cu scopul de a infati¥ aspecte de folosire practica a scnsorilor comerciale. consta dintr-o scrisoare-formular. Moskva. printre altele. poarta corespondenta comerciala. --' principiilegenerale ale dreptului comercial ~i civil. chiar intre firmele inrudite (pooluri. ' Corespondent comercial insa. dupa caz.). frazele tipice ce intervin invariabil in specificul acestui fel de scrisoare. Inacest context. cu: acte autentice. com. . '. este . dintre Iucratorii organizatiei comerciale. 1 Blaise Pascal. mai putin cunoscute la noi.'. cambie. si. c<. . trebuie . Effective Lcttef':s in Business. pierderi de timp. care. lucreaza .. exprimarea complicata prin folosirea de cuvinte inutile sau cu tnteles confuz ori interpretari dife. Company. poatecauza confuzii. vom indica modul in care comandantu navelor vor trebui sa actioneze ~i sa tntocmeasca corespondenta spre a proteja interesele naveisi ale caricului in tmprejurari deosebite.parerea-unor autori de-seama in materiede corespondenta comerciala. dintre<liver~ii parteneri. ' Corespondentul comercial este un luerator de inalta calificare si rolul sall in cadrul unei importante organizatii comerciale sau industriale este considerabil. avizarea scadentelor : la societatile de asiguratori avizarea . asociatii de firmercentrale ~i sucursale etc. cel mai exact este deimportanta considerabila . 19. sa admitA proba testimonialli. . contract de transport sau Iocatiune. corespondenta primita~i copia celei expediate constituie 0 oglinda fidela a vietii tntreprinderii. Mc Graw-HilI Book.A. '.sau trebuie sa fie . cu 0 pondere de raspunderi considerabiIa. litigii ~ip. . tnvechit. altfel va.'.54. 1191 C.tratate in cadrul strict al etichetei comercia1e. folosi cuvinte. . '.Impune a tine. folosirea lor improprie. cu tntelesuri specifice.

chiar daca scrierea incorecta nu lipseste textul de tnteles elar. 19'{6. 3 pentru a III-a s. Constantza. • Asemenea erori. pe care semnatarul 0 doreste concentrata asupra subiectului scrisorii. trebuie astfel conceputa indt sa poata fi citita cu placere ~'~urinta:'. contraindicat. impresie bunasi sa poata fixa atentia cititorului atit prin forma. daca s-ar scrie "he don't pay" in loc de "he does not pay" sau "oportunity" in Ioc de "opportunity".-/2 sau -lOver. . scrisin stinga marginii de sus. 16 • .m.pagina continuarea n~ se face pe verso ci pe 0 alta pagina. Terminarea rindurilor este inevitabil neregulata astfel incit spatiulJiber din dreapta nu poate fi strict linear. Paragraful.a. Printer's Ink. in fraze scurte si clare' este una din conditiile ce fac naturaletea stilului comercial. 2 Continuarea textului se scrie cu aproximativ 4-5 em. Daca totusi.Bucuresti. . tntreprinderea de publieitate "Publicom" . In ce priveste alegerea formei de serisoare (bloc.) si modul ei de intocmire. Washington State College. acesta sa se suprapuna spatiului liber de pe fata-scrisorii. se scrie in rinduri succesive neintrenipte. Esq.sub modul de adresare. tncep. se scrie numele adresantulni ~i data serisorii. Este. de obicei f1ira antet.5 em (6 semne) ~i chiar mai mare. acestea sint la lib cia alegere a firmei respective in functie de practica sa in materie decorespondenta. admisa in Iiteratura sau in scrisorile personale constituie un "balast" inutil in corespondenta comerciala. in dosar. ' . In. Intre paragrafe se lasa douarinduri libere. prima vedere.capatao forma asimetrica care. spatiu inegal intre rfnduri.isub formelesale cele mai diverse. si pe verso. Intre adresa destinatarului (inside address) ~i .ca aceasta sa poata ficitita cu usurinta chiar prinsa la dosar. National Office Management etc. scrisorii comerciale moderne. cu totul contraindicat ca rindurile sa fi. sau cu un .. teoria corespondentei modernegasesteun cimp de aplicare practica tot mai largo HtRTIA $1 ANTETUL (STATIONERY AND LETTERHEAD) Impresia placuta-pe care scrisoarea comerciala 0 poate face cititorului..inplanul scrisorii ' este armonioasa. centrat simetric. ' ' 1 Academia de Studii Economice . Repetitia. Tratarea problemelor in ordinea lorlogic~. Si. orice paragraf nou. La marginea de jos a primei pagini. semiblec. la prima vedere. distrag atentia acestuia. Serviciile comerciale ~ de publicitate al. este determinata in buna masura ~i de forma ~i catacterul antetului. a~a cum se va arata mai departe (vezi "Forma scrisorii comerciale"}. trebuie sa aiba margine libera atit la sttnga. de calitatea hirtiei. 6th July. de regula. Aranjarea in pagina. stilul ~i acuratetea sint conditii esentiale ale. indiferent de num1irul ftaze10r prin care se exprima.Direct Mail Advertising. intllneste opozitia ferma a traditiei. pe linga ca fac impresie nefavorabila destinatarului. de forma si calitatea plicului. dantelata etc.d. armonios ~i. BIMCO: G Nora!iu. In partea "sting1i se lasa un spatiu liber de 4-6 em. la marginea de JOs a primei pagini se scrie P. spre dreapta.adica "please turn over" (rugam tntoarceti pagina). cu 1 em (4 semne) spre dreapta fata de celeIalte rinduri ale textului scrisorii. chiar de la primul paragraf. variaza ca dimensiune in functie de natura serisorii si de uzanta firmelor in 17 .Bucuresti. Astfel.ginea scrisoriisi la" fel de contraindicata este despartirea cuvintelor la sfir~itul rindului. de rutina ~i traditie (vezi "Forma scrisorii comerciale").sub linia antetului. ca ~i tncheierea. La scrisorile de tip bloc toate rlndurile incep de' pe aceeasi verticals. echilibrat. constitui't din una sau mai multe fraze. cit ~i prin fondul ei. urmate de cifra 2 pentru pagina a II-a.e scrise chiar pina i. ins1i.e diferitelor organizapi comerciale romane ~i ale altor state socialiste. Scrisnl ingheSUit pina la margineadin dreaptaa scrisoriisau pina la marginea de jos. aspectul ei exterior au un important efect psihologic in crearea impresiei. Folosirea papetariei ieftine este un indiciu de parcimoniozitate si lipsa de consideratie pentru adresant. Cind textul nu poate fi cuprins intr-o . o calitate principala a scrisorii comerciale este sa fadi. impresie care poate influenta in mare masura modul eiide solutionare. este unanim admis ca modul de prezentare a scrisorii.. Institutul 'Superior de Marina Comercialll Constanta. denumita curent hirtie cu antet sau formular de scrisoare. continua a diverselor institutiide specialitate. scrisoarea este continuata. daca 0 forma sau altae sustinuta san ccntroversata. . necesarIndosarierii scrisorii si pentru. ' . lara spa tii libere intre ele (la un rind). A SCR1S0RII COMERCIALE Spatiul liber din dreapta trebuie sa fie de aproximativ 2 em. In acest sens.antet de report" prescurtat. Long Beach City College. Elementele serisorii trebuie dispuse inpagina bine centrat. se serie: "to be continued" (se continua) sau simplu: . . Desi orice inovare. Hirtia de scrisoare.antelesul este clarv tnsa' fraza este-incoreota dinpunct de vedere gramatical. _inc1ilcind reguli bine statornicite prin rutina. Wolf Magazine of Letters. precum si a sectiilor de studii . ARANJAREA tN PAGINA.O.T. American Business Writing Association. Evitarea "balastului" se recomanda cu insistenta. casi stilul folosit. creeaza impresie nefavorabila asupra seriozitatii ~xpedit0nllui. de 13.o elementara dar indispensabila conditie a serisorii moderne este folosirea termenilor concreti si observarea cu atentie a formei gramatica1e corecte.rea diverselor indicatii date de destinatar cu privire lamodul de tratare aproblemei respective. 4 scrisorile in forma dantelata ~i semibloc fraza de introducere. El. Forma cea mai corecta de scrisoare comerciala a constituit si constituie obiect de preocupare. Textul propriu-zis al scrisorii (body of tke letter) incepe cu 2 sau 3 rinduri .aleorganizatiilor comerciale sau industriale 1. Acest spatiu liber serveste si pentru scrie. In linie cu antetul de report sau imediat sub aceasta.n mar.acest caz spatiul liber se lasa in marginea din dreapta pentru ca. cit ~i la dreapta.' Fiecare idee principala" a obiectului serisorii comerciale. Unele 'firme folosesc insa spatiul de 1. se scrie intr-un singur pa:tagraf. Textul scrisorii. Exemplu: .moqul de adresare" (salutation) se lasa doua-trei rinduri libere. obligindu-l sa urmareasca erorile ~i terminind adesea prin a nu-i mai acorda interesul cuvenit.

cu antet.etut (de ~ fr~ntuzes~ul en-tete) e~prima intr-o anumita forma grafica de~umrrea.mce:eut r~buie sa ~ta ~ cititorullii de a. dintr-o simpla pnvire.pentruJolosirea mailesnicioasa a.cut.subject line:'). Plicurile confectionate ~n hirt~e de.de 23 X X 16 cm. .insa . De a sucursalelor ~l agentiilor. in acest spirit.'unele firmeprefera oculoare distmc~a ca un semn al individualitatii. . care. El face parte dinfondul de comer] al firmei ~i reprezina insli¥ firma. scris6area este impaturita in asa.reference line" ~i . potrlVlt spe9fic~1:ll de pro.at. asa cum se afIa de regula in comer]. ei decorner] ~.Ctpla. un simbol. adresa.. in general. cu conditia insa. Un~n. directia de publicitate si reclama. :1 .a Se deosebi eu u~urinta de scrisoarea <>riginala.lina de a-~i 3.este necesar ca adresa destinatarului sa fie. Raspunsurile date unei tntreprlnderi pe al carei antet s-a specificat si 0 anumita directie sau serviciu trebuie. sucursalele si agentiile . marca de fabrica reprezentata uneon.gust in materie de corespondent a comerciala . in ciuda acestei reguli.de preferinta in relief user lizibil. In asemenea cazuri.~l practica comerciala. imp~at cu.u ~O. ingrijire.. sa indice aceste compartimen~e pentru: ca scrisoarea sa ajunga cu ~urinta si fara intlrziere la locul cuvenit [vezi "Refermta . . -In forma ¢ continut nu este guvernat de anumite reguli de standardizare. .~re a arhivei.) spre. sub linia . . directia studii. Unelefirme obisnuiesc.plic. aceste notatii suplimentare se vor scrie in parteade JOs.Plicurile mid pot fi simple.se obisnuieste ca. de exemplu.lege antetul dorit ca si forma de scri.Pentru scrisorile formate din mai multe pagini. .sau servicii. de urmatoarele elemente: tual si de ctteva anexe. adresapo~tala ~i telegrafica : numer:le detelefon sitelex ~rcodurile folosite . !. m conceptia comertului modern. {ormatul de 20 X 29'Jcm. prin care se poate citi cu u~1.. directia c?mer~Ia. carear ~eceSlta folosirea a 6 linii. ca personal sail Attention of Mr .' \ .destinataruluisa. in mod necesar. . adresei d. spre sttnga. Totusi. avind ~i anexe numeroase. . scrisorile catre ~i de ~ sucursalele unei firme sa fl~ d:. sa. pe specific de activitate. . a conceptiei sale despre comert ~i r~c~a~~.apara exaet. culoarea plicului. oficiul juridic.. pn~ ~lmbc. Adresa pe plle (enyelope address).~i nu este cont. ca: directia productie. eventual. trebuie sa alba ~~ ~spe. de a trata direct diversele probleme ale intreprinderii.estInatarul?I' Daca . Aceste directii sau servicii au liberta tea. nu se mai scrie pe plic. tnsotite even- REGISTERED BY AIR MAIL Salvage Association Lloyd's Building Leadenhall Street .consi. . ' . Hopton 18 19 • . sa.numele directorilor ei ~l. sa nu fie prea incarcat.>. c~<?n' dife. ~ sint confectionate din hirtie subtire (foita). 'London EC3 England Attention of Mr. de cele scrise pe b!rtia cu ll. :.re libe~~ate ~ep. Unelefirme insa folosesc prin traditie si alte culori. antetul poarta ~i denumirea directiei sau serviciului deunde emana corespondenta. Ant. pe • Marile organizatii comerciale sau industriale sintorganizate in mai multe directii .: serviciul contabilitatii.fel incit. .- )' :rnaterie d~ coresponderita.1Iin~a adresa destinatarului. _'. etc. puternica a traditiei .'X 25cm pentru scrisori normale (mari) ~i 20 X 15cm pentru scrtsort rmci.. ins6tita ~l de . exista t~n?inta ferma catrebun gust prin simplitate. in general. Scrisoarea recomandata va purta plic mentiunea REGISTERED (recomandat). i~ de. PLICUL (ENVELOPE) Plicurile folosite in corespondenta comerciala variaza ca dimensiune. lua cunostinta cu usurinta.tn spatiulferestrei.' . potrivitregulamentullii lor de erganizare.duttie. a plicului. . serviciul reclamatii. Iimiteaza la 5liniiscrierea. ~erente de o!g<l.. care este obiectul ei de 'comerL' unde t~iare sediul principal.Dbiectul scrisorii . address)este scrisa in partea de jos. -'. Antetul. sau cu fereastra ('linndow' envelope). plicurilercu fereastra.. " Cea mai indicataculoare pentru hirtia de scrisoare este albuldeoarececontrastul alb-negrupermite 0 citire mai putin obositoare. ~n acest caz.C:uloare~ Pliculu.?lectru. iar expedierea ei prin' postaaeriana se indica prin cuvintul BY AIR MAIL (prin avion): -'- care este intreprinderea dela careprimeste serisoarea '. se folosesc plicuri: mijlocii. '. de parcimoaiozitate. -directia tehnica. scrise pe .scare. confectionate din btrtie durabila. P. lnghesuit sau inzorzonat. de buna calitate. La corespondenja constituita din pagini multe.lurl. spre stinga. Totu~i.semaaturii. ~l trebUl€ .evitate. din .. a hfrtiei. ob~nuit de 16 X J 1 cm.QJ. ca in aceasta parte sa nu se fi facut alte mentiuni..unele lI~formatll suplimentare. se folosesc plicuri mari.. Este generaladmis eli u:n~nte~ bine c<. ln practica comerciala se foloseste. asemenea. Copiile scrisorilor stnt in mod frecvent de alta culoare (~alben. Orice firm~ 3.' .nteh Regulile postelor. directia personal etc.' . Numele ~i titlurile adresantului ca si intreaga sa adresa. pentru scrisorile constind dintr-o singura pagina se folosesc plicuri mid. . Bunul. eventual. adresa destinatarului (~nside. roaetc.tte.raindi<. TOtU~l. f~el.i este in general alba.zacord cil. vernil. .. In a~easta pnVl~t~ un rol !IDportant n ~re influenta.calitate inferioara fac impresie neplacuta.exclude culorile tari si cere ca hirtiacu antet sa se armonizeze in culoare cu plicul.fie. s~ <_irate antet d<_itainfiintarii firmei (dale of In Jound~ng).~Il-trodusa in plic. trebuie sa nu difere cu nimic. ~dresa completa a sediului principal.

urmeazl ilumele unui !>Arhat'. the Romanians.. prenumele .. Sir ~ Madam . doamna. (mai formal declt Dear Sir) .Y. 1) . Sir. London. u2. b) Numele proprii ~i abrevierile lor: Herman Schuldt = H. Manager director Chief Accountant contabil sef john Stevens0r". Vezi ·"Esq.Box (Post Office Box) The Documentary Committee of-NAVROM d) Cuvintele # prescurtarile pe care autorul le considera importante din punct de vedere temaiic : .. Mrs. domnul.iss sint Intotdeauna nrmate de numele persoanei..7. New York.} Mr. . cu exceplia pr~poz#iilor.' dindenumirile firmelor. New York.P. · i) Toate cuvintele. London EC2N 3AU The International Hotel. pietelor. the Romanian Englishman people.:se. Dear Sir. In general..parlament n) Sectorul 'po~ (post code): Use the post code: London.. February. (maiformaldedtDear Mr. Lunile anului: January. 11201 Palmerston House. Schuldt..Jo~ fAra.scrisorii: Air Mail. nu se poate abrevia in R. Chairman presedinte Chairman of the Board presedinte al Consiliului de of Directors administratie Director .. 52 Wall Street.O. P.. cu.d. De pilda. Yours very truly.! modul de adresare (salutation) #adresa dtstinatarului (inside address).se abreviaza numai prin litera initials a numelui i?inumai dad. Johnson) Esq. Robert. Esq. Robert Bennet = R. domnisoara .excep/i" cqnjunc/iilor. N.. In forma modern&.m. Romanian.e~ precum # numele r Romania. domnule.mele de Iilr~. Bucharest. g) I.#ssrs. (free on the Master nava) board) .". prepoziliilar # a articolelor: President. cu exceplia conjunc/iilar. inclusiv prescurtarile.formula' de tncheiere" · Yours faithfully. December s. ChIP (Charter Party) contract de nav~o_sirej contract . Bennet. nnmele persoanei. Re: MIT "OLTENIA'·' -Genetal Average . Dear Sirs. (esquire) 2 domnul Virgil Preda.. Nu se admit abrevieri cind firma sau antetul este scris cu numele intreg.a) Primul cuvint at unei propozijii He refuses to deliver the goods. stimate domn. Sunday s. pr. Ltd.Y.Y.! English . canjunqiilor # articolelor. the Owners . stimate domnule Johnson. My dear Sir. the Thames. Madam. . c) Toate cuvintele. cu raspundere limitata FOB (liber pe comandantul F.. M. N. Rand.. c~vint~ care se refera la oOiectul scrisor#. de transport maritim # adjectivele corespunzl1toa. firma sau persoana respectiva foloseste abrevierea..G. sectoarelor. popoare F -- 511 Fifth Avenue. Hogg and Company Ltd.a. P. johnson. ". domnule . NeW York. · I TitIu care.postala P.O.. nauelor. N. Englahd .de obicei. prescurtarea numelor proprii .. Room 418 j) Z~lele sap~m£nii: Monday.d. /t. . Este echivaleilt aI ctlvmtuIui .!~~.O. domnii.. 20 21 . Dear Mr. (messieurs) 1. doamnei .1976 m) Cuvintele care indica modulde expediere_ . In corespondent' englezl. My dear Mr. domnul/domnului Virgil Preda h) Primul cuvint din . . Accounting Department serviciul de litigiijreclamatii Claims Department casu ta. Registered . lIf.nclusiv prescurtarile. ' . the Danube. johnson....ma lztera a cuvintelor prescurtate se scrie cu ini/ialil majusculil : Mrl (mister) . Astfel. Brooklin. stimate domnule Johnson.B. De asemenea the se scrie cu ini!ialil majusculil cind este primul cuvint at denumirii firmei: Hull Branch sucursala Hull serviciul de navlosiri Chartering Department serviciul contabilitatii . stimate domn. prepoz*ilor §. i?i nu Gh. . ... (mistress) . Rodney.B.Put intoConstantza 1. bulevardelor # drumurilor.. strazilor. 10017 4 Main Street. domnilor . Steel Plates and Bagged Maize are loaded on the mls "GALArr Bills of Lading. deoarece-majuscula R poate fi initiala maimultor nume (Richard. conosamente BIL (bill of Lading) conosament C.FOLOSIREA MAJUSCULELOR (CAPITALIZATIQN) sau frase : J In scrisorile comerciale engleze se seriu cu initiale majuscule. sucursalelor ~i agenJiilor sau ale serviciilar.m. deputat in . Messrs."'entelor sau a camerelor. Thursday. Grand Avenae.. artu01elor: " . edificiilor motelurilor precum # la indicarea etajelor # aparta.).. f) Funcliile sau pozijia ~ititlurile unor persoant ~iabrevieriior lor.armatorii the Chief Engineer seful mecanic the Charterers navlositorii Limited. Mr se sene flm punct. Very sincerely yours': Sincerely yours: .1. 10005 16 Court Street. . Gheorghe se abreviaza prin . doamna. Esq. Raymond etc. . Bishopsgate. Miss. stimati domni.. SIncerely . ". EC3A lAB . john Stevenson. a documentelor aferente unei tranzac/ii prescurtarile lor: All Softwood. in denumirea statelor. Hogg and Company Ltd.DomnuIui" ·1ntI-o scrisoare. Bsjl. NY 10004 # e) Denumirea marfurilar. or~elor..a. Mrs.

:ceasta forma.mne)' de' ~ lini~ yerticala in r.itito~ululaSUpr&.economica. folosita din ce ince mai rar. f Pastreaza in total forma bloc pentru referinta.{ormata de referinta.a:e a partilor ei componente.d~ .a. fiind universal' acceptata 'ca mod!<rna. inceputul fiecarui paragraf fiind mai retras lata delinia verticaJa. Forma Hanging Indentation.corecta si. bloc complet"). aproape scoasa din uz..incheierul'ul" in general. fata de margineadin sttnga artndurilor care Indtcaadresa destinatarului siprin inceperea retrasa a fiecaruifnceput de paragraf.rar tntfuUtai .8 se.cu semnatura pornesc de la mar inea din ~ stmga. Scrierea aceluiasi paragraf se face Ia "un rind" (vezi exemplul nr. Data.' ionria '. Aceasta formaeste folosita frecventlnS. Part~le componente ale scriSoriisimplificate stnt mai reduse p!: lim' ~~I.U. ' Forma Semiblock~ 'Esteo~()mbinapetntre forma bi~e ~i.. Daca considerentul estetic.A.a paragrafelordin corpulsc:risociise scriu indentat.·fi~" 22: . es~e lipsita de fo~ule. "Forma simplificata"). cu aproximativ 2-3 em fat a de eelelalte rtnduri ale scrisprij (vezi exemplul nr. adresa destinatarului si modul de adresare (vezi exemplUl nr.adre~ destinatarillui si modul de adresare.aportg. spori. incheierea si semnatura se scriu in parteadin dreapta a scrisorii.~ I' - ~ .t. 3. unele firme ip virtutea puternica a traditiei. folosita cu precadere ln S. ' . • .5 -. . tncheierea ¥ semnatura: tncep de-Ia marginea din sttnga: Este () forma a traetivlj. obiectul scrisorii (the subject line) ~rparagrafele (the paragraphs of the letter) sint aranjatetn bloc. nc~p n eu data ~l term!Jlwd. Complete Block sau FuU block (bloc complet). . . inclusiv data.J.Y. deosebire 'in'Scrl~~~~i!~ai~te.. lipsita de oriee nuanta afectiva.odu1~e.oriP.<:Jiesare. "Forma. ~i. precum ~i dificultatea unui efort suplimentar incitirea rapida.Obiectul scrisorii ~ .ISOru. Form'a.:<icm(6. 2.e' i~ferinta. . data. Intre adresa destinatarului si forma deadresare (salut~ion) se lasa un spatiu liber de doua sau trei rtnduri. apreeiat in corespondents comerciala..'f). In .FORMA SCRISORIICOMERCIALK In mod curent sefolosesc 6 forme : Indented [dantelata sau indentata). . . fOlose~tecu... Block (bloc)." .spenda.' . care raspunde ~i cerintelor eeonpmicj!:. Serisoarea dantelata este caracterizata prin serierea variat retrasa. .t1j.Complete Block'ori Fun'Bloek.$copul ~at~tp~n acest mod de tntocmire a scrisorii este dea.in care toate elementele serisorii.primul 'nndal fiecarui paragraf tncepe de lamarginea din sttnga. 6. Toate efementel~ SC!. formade adresare sau salutarea (salutation). ¥s~e vezi exemplul nr~5. Semiblock (semibloc)..european (vezi' exemplul. Hanging Indentation (dantelare suspendata) ~i Simplified (simplifieaU).. nu poate fi atribuit cu suficienta autoritate unei anumiteforme de scrisoare comerciala. In prezent aceasta forma de scrisoare este considerata demodata. Esteovarianta a formei bloc . ~d~~ e a vmzan ?(fon.na. In aceasta.A~ si tinde sa fie adaptata pe scara dirr ce in ce mai larga in Anglia ~i contirientul.Form~ dantelare s\1. Comumcare~ p~m ~cest fel de scrisori este rece. totusi ea se mai practica de. incepindla o dis~itta :d~"1. "Forma bloc"). avantajul economic ~i de citire mai lesnicioasa au influentat considerabil utilizarea pe scara tot mai larga a formei bloc. adica toate tncep de la margine. in timp ce rindurile urmatoare shit mai retrase.a~nteIata. ' F~rma Block.. Forma dantelata implica un timp mai indelungat pentru stenografiere ~i dactilografiere. .. "Forma dantelata").'"Fonna semibloc").se..'~~~eeI d~epoadrlite~e(~i ?.~cri~are.atenpa .e~ceSlv~ dmmodul d~ aranJ.Forma S~p~ed Letter.a. 4. scrisoarea se remarca rin simpli~te . " Denumirea bloc se datoreaza fa ptului ca adresa (inside address). ete vezi exempnr. Forma Indented.dp:~Aim. Intre paragrafele textului seIasacite un Spatiu liber de doua rlnduri.nr. 1.

Mathews. HARRISONS (LONDON) LIMITED 66. Newcastle on Tyne.... We thank you for your new year wishes and most heartily reciprocate them. Glasgow. NAVLOMAR Shipping Agency Constantza 12th February. 'NAVLOMAR Shipping Agency 197. Mark Lane. Hull. as formerly.- 24 25 . your account position with us will be perfectly clear to you. You may rest assured that. Liverpool 30th December. will be a happy. J. We feel sure that now with the information in the statement enclosed with our letter of the 28th January. prosperous and peaceful year for you' and that our long established relation will continue to our mutual benefit.1. Hamilton Partner " . hoping that 197. ' Yours faithfully. Romania Dear Sirs. Constantza . and it was not until we had received your cable that we were able to indentify this particular remittance.l (Example of Indented Form of Letter) 2. We acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 23rd January regarding the Extract of Current Account to the end of December last and would refer you to our letter of the 28th January. as we had received an account of £1589... 130 Fenchurch Street. London EC3 lEL Dear Sir. which we were unable to locate in connection with outstanding accounts. M. Teladdress: NAVLOMAR Telephone: 68112 Telex 014258-9 Your Ref: BBfMS Our Ref: GSB/VT Mr Donald C. London EC3 Telephone: Royal 3120 Telegrams: Birchrock Telex: 885744 '! Branch Offices: Cardiff.. DANTELAT. which gives full details on the position of accounts with us to the 31st December 197.00 through Martins Bank Ltd. Yours faithfully. MODEL DE SCRISOARE FORMA.. your interests will always receive our constant and diligent attention.. We delayed replying. 197. BLOC (Example of Block Form of Letter). Your Ref: GB/MS Our Ref: DPD/Sg NAVROM Romanian Steamship Company. MODEL DE SCRISOABE FORMA.

:'.to<persuade them' otherwi~e.and have suggested that the Owners should reply to you direct. Romania. .O. Kemiset Debane Alexandria Telephone: 14488 Telegrams. Bucharest.. we brought to your attention the fact that there areno:w wide possibilities of increasing your exports to the Arab Republic of Egypt andwe are confident that you will take advantage of all these opportunities. 197..· '. which not only improves our pleasant relationship. We feel it is very useful indeed for us to meet at regular intervals. . please do not hesitateto contact us. London. Telegrams: Armadores Telex: London 887501 Your Ref. as you are . 4822. Having returned from our trip to Constantza and Bucharest. . but also facilitates the exchangeof ideas and suggestions in respect of activitiesiin . JBYjGG . Supespan. Dear Sirs. Yours faithfully.. and should you require any services or help. PANARAB UNIVERSAL SUPERINTENDING Manager We thank you for your letter of the 4th of this month.RDSON AND BEVINGTONS .. 197.Alexandria.:Ma1. I. Romania Dear Sir. we hasten to. Latina..lager ' LTD . Ionescu Esq.> I Yours faithfully.. " Bury Street. ~~. MODEL DE SCRISOARE FORMASEMIBLOC (Example of Semiblock Form of Letter) 4. We are looking forward to closer and more efficient co-operation with you in . ~C3A 5AR 1st December.. BGjSM -Our Ref. . write to you to express our sincere thanks for the very cordial reception you gave us and the time you reserved for us to discuss various matters of mutua]. -Constantza. '''GLEE'' S. 197. -We~incer~ly trust that this mattercan be solved amicably but. 'We appreciate yourkind attention to this matter and are very sorry that this dispute has arisen' in our first direct contact with you ..Grounded near Co~stantza ". -WIGHAM-RICHA.. 13. the contents of which 'we have noted with interest.Average Adjuster. . We have submitted your offer to the Shipowners and their Average Adjusters . 26 . Telex: 21744 TEHNOFORESTEXPORT.B.~ware.' . " ANDEEVINGTONS LIMITED Telephone: 01-283 5250 Armadores House.s.all fields.the Shipowriers are convinced that their views-are-correct and we are unable . MODEL DE SCBISOARE FORMA ·BLOC'COMPLET· [Example of the Complete-Block Form of Letter) PANARAB UNIVERSAL SUPERINTENDING 3.> 10th February.iiwC1N" 'He t 3.~. During our conversation. 7th Des:ember. WIGHAM-RICHARDSON . P.

corpul scrisorii (body of the letter). b) tt:a. 3.'Tilburg ppa & COMPANY. marked: Istanbul .6' 5.l.A (Example of Simplified-Letter Form) METALL UND ROHSTOFF 2. February 2. Corpul scrisorii. G.fraza de introducere (opening/first paragraph). 10. which we express our sincere thanks. the body proper). DORN VAN TILBURG & COMPANY. 2. T. Your ref: BB/ms Our ref: DNH/OS March 9. for. . 1a rindul sau.: 04221 4221 Telegrams: MET AMIN Telex: 18-787 Y.our Ref: SB/MT Our Ref: GAB/gd CHIMIMPORT Foreign Trade State Company. se poate divide In trei parti: aj. referinta (reference line).. Quantity: 500 mt . c) fraza finala sau de tncheiere (final paragraph).A. It was with' the greatest interest that we met you in Bucliarest on the' occasion of the extensive discussions our friend J.~. 197. Average Adjusters KEMP HOUSE 152/160. Navrom in tum.l . van Dulst. which we would ask you to kindly follow: 1.A (Example of Hanging-Indention Form of Letter) SUSPEN. MODEL DE SCRISOARE FORMA SIMPLIFICAT. City Roads LONDON. Republicii Boulevard. 6. 4: adresa destinatarului (inside address). Mr. solid fused in drums min. . 7. Bucharest. Romania Dear Sirs. 'Skopje-Jugoslavia and according to their instructions. semnatura (sigrlature)~.. LTD. Director NA VLOMAR Shipping Agency. 197.G. Delivery: and in good condition A. 5. data (date). 28 29 . should deliver the gOQ~ to the vessel nominated by INTERIMPEX. net in 400 kg drums equals 1250 drums. We trust that the above instructions tally with your offer. All expenses up to FOB are on your account. ' ELEMENTELE PRINCIPALE $1 ORDINEA LOR ALE SCRISORII COMERCIALE 4.Romania Re: Our visit to Constantza 500 mt net of CAUSTIC SODA.. G. 8. 9. MODEL DE SCBISOAREFORMA.' Below are our instructions. Package: The drums must be airtight 3.50 per net ton FOB Constantza Port.. Delivery terms: All costs form FOB (IMCO-Tenns 1953) outgoing vessel Constantza are for INTERIMPEX account.formuladepoli . LTD The goods should be deliver~d by you .tarea obiectului (worling of the subject matter.DANTEtAT. J.DAT. 98%NaOH In confirmation of our letter of -the 20th January. DORN VAN TILBUR(iD. urmatoarele 9 elemente principale: L antetul sau adresa firmei expeditoare (heacling. 2. Yours faithfully..and taken over by NAVROM upon our 10 days' notice. We greatly appreciated your having taken the trouble of coming to Bucharest to attend the discussions and also the kind reception you gave to Mr. Re: A.. in genere. If that is not so. E. we have the pleasure ofsending you our order for 500 tons net of CAUSTIC SODA in 400 kg drums (net weight) ready in stocks for prompt delivery. obiectul scrisorii (~ubject line).C. Scrisoarea comerciala cuprinde. van Dulsthad with Navlomar and Romtrans. tete (complimentary close). HAMBURG 8 Barrerstrasse Teleph.A. Manescu. f(jrmula de tncheiere sau. at the price of $ 188. 6. please do not hesitate to request further clarification. letterhead). modul de adresare sau salutarea (salutation). Constantza .

:-ztliviMb ->». we can also offer you cargoes originating from the Black Sea. I in . sau in sttnga antetului.dQua puncte: Our ref. can present to you our. Unele firme insa folosesc pozitia inversa. Subject line We take this opportunity to reiterate the availability of our services. Mai rar. este.: PCF /sd Romanian Steamship "NAVROM" Constantza. Re: Agency business Company. Your ref. ~i acesta este cazul eel mai frecvent. Body of the letter 2. Referinja (Reference Iine) Jol<?sita.. sus. and we pride ourselves on being highly efficient and effective. KP/sn I I t 1. a juta . Weare at your disposal for any and all services' in 'Greece.sau literele mici . .Se obisnuieste ca Our ref. can be' SUpplied on request. If desired.'. Majusculele . as agents to serve you in Piraeus. ajuta firma destinatara sa repartizeze corespondenta Ia locul potrivitfara nici 0 dificultate. FUll particulars and details of the facilities available in Greece.. este 0 indica tie care~ asemenea unui cod informa tional. Yours faithfully. ' 7. 3.. we can offer you cargoes from Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean' area. Primele majuscule sint initialele numelui persoanei care a redactat scrisoarea ~iraspunde de continut. sub nivelul semnaturii. exactca . se scrie jos. punctuation) se foloseste sau numai punctul de prescurtare (ref.· .Modul de aranjare a referintelor nu este stabilit prin f~pili' fbc!!.stenodactilografei sau' dactilografei. (our reference) tnseamna referjnta noastra. Proforma Disbursements Accounts at Piraeus and other Greek ports can also be supplied on request. 30 . sa fie plasat cu un rind mai sus de. in urmatoarea forma: .': GB :MSYQur ref. Greece Teleph: 424. Salutation 6. indica adresantului ce initials (referir. completat cu initialele majuscule care constituie referinta propriu-zisa.care Our ref. Reference line 14th April 197. Inside address ) In mod curent. Heading MEDITERRANEAN SHIPS MANAGEMENT C'O. Our ref:. . as well as in the other Greek ports whenever your vessels call here. With reference to the quality of our services.urmat de punct.ef.: MED/HH sau: Your ref»: seD/VI Our ref.705 Telex: 212541 Your Ref: Our Ref. AGENCY DEPARTMENT . referinta este plasata in cadrul scrisorii.) sau numai doua puncte (ref:). in partea stinga a scrisorii... .. Ref. Romania Dear Sirs. prescurtat. As we have a very active Chartering Department. transpusa in scrisoarea expediata.t~) sa mentionezetn raspunsul sau.' c 31.: MFD :hh. ref. we. .. I 5. (your reference). I MEDITERRANEAN SHIPS MANAGEMENT CO. referinta dv. ref. titlul "Hirtia si antetul". . primeste doua puncte (R.:) sau doua puncte ~i liniuta (ref:-). LTD. Our. In general. .separate printr~ linie diagonaliideprimele majuscule. '\ '. credentials on request. Cind se foloseste punctuatia facultativa (oPen. LTD Agency Department 35-39 Akti Miaouli Piraeus. GB/MS Your ref. Signa ture I I I I Cables: Medocean Piraeus 2.la iden tificarea imedia ta a persoanel care se ocupa de problema tratataprincorespondenta respectiva sau a dosarului cauzei (vezi "Hirtia si antetul" si "Obiectul scrisori~'l. slnt initialele numelui . In corespondenta engleza ref. Firmele care fac 0 distinctie exagerata intre functiiscriu initialele stenodactilografei sau ale dactilografei cu litere mici. Date 4. . '. sub linia telefonului. in dreapta imediat sub data.. iar Your ref. scrisorile comerciale poarta~dt 'feferinta firmei expeditoare cit ~i a destinatarului. Antetul (Heading) Analiza acestui element este facuta mai inainte..'" 'tc-tri: (fit ANALIZA ELEMENTELOR SCRISORUr COMERCIALE I • sub 1.. In corespondenta americana separarea se face prin .In cea primita. YOur ref. ' ' 8~Co~plimentary -close 9: .

1978 folosirii numeralului ordinal (fara terminatie}: 12 October. dupa cum urmeaza: ' 1st (the first) 2nd (the second) 3rd' (the third) 4th (the fourth) 9th (the ninth) 11th (the eleventh) 12th (the twelfth) 13th (the thirteenth) 14th (the fourteenth) 19th (the nineteenth) 20th (the twentieth) 21st (the twenty-first) 22nd (the twenty-second) 23rd (the twenty-third) 24th (the twenty-fourth) 29th (the twenty-ninth) 30th (the thirtieth) 31st (the thirty-first) In sistemul englez. Fiecare contract sau caz are 0 identitate proprie si 0 identificare. com. de. b) referinte variate cind. se scrie imediat dupa localitate (Constantza. care In cadrul finnei respective poate fi denumit pozitie sau . ventie incheiatll cu una din pllrti a obtinutdrepturi asupra inscrisului (dobtnditorul' unui conosament transmis prin girl. participat Ia inscrisul despre care este vorba. 31st May. -46. cu facturi acceptate. 2 (2nd).cu deosebire in cadrul contractelor . Exista insa ~i varianta . In oricare din eazuri tnsa. ori pe borderoul scrisorilor expediate in cazul expedierilor colective. prin toate mijloatele de pro~ arlltate. Cod. p. In cele mai multe cazuri. d~d ~soarea are ~ scop 0 punere in intlrziere sau crearea de obligatii sau 0 instituire de drepturi 1.in semnarea de eonosamente sau In t:nPz:~jurarea. prevede: Obligatiile comerciale ~i Iiberatiunile se probeaza: cu acte autentiee. in noti1 Data indicatlllntr-un inseris sub semnllturll privatll (conosfunent. 1975 4th April. I jurupudenJit: I. mtll. Cind caaul se referll Ia pllt1iIe contractante. .. civ. Corelarea se asigura prin referinta. 3. 1977. Conosamentsjs fiind duplliegea noastrll .' . Importanta Inscrierii datei consta In consemnarea in timp a comunicarii.414.se Intlmpla deseori ca mtre aceste date sa existe diferente de timp apreciabile. I . Tratat de drepi civil..este data expedierii. In practica insa. contract etc. 1977 21st June. se ocupa persoane diferite. fiecare din acestea constituind un contract sau un caz anumit.Pandectele rom4ne" III. in sensul art. Virgula nu se foloseste dupa numeral atunci clnd acesta precede numele lunii.. Forta probantll a unui inscris sub semnllturll privatll variazll dupll cum se pune cazul: intte pllrtlle·-contractante sau fatll de terji..se scrie adresa destinatarului. ceea ce se intimplll de regulll. se bucurll de 0 prezumtie de veracitate in ce priv~e data lor. Bucureeti. adica data ~~tel. .ri 0 datil anterioarll sau posterioara semnllrii actului adicll o datil simulatll. ultim C.te sub semnllturllprivata. D?-ta reala a scrisoriidata care obliga . ca ~i de majoritatea statelor europene. Data (loeul §i data). • In sistemul englez data se scrie prin folosirea numeralelor ordinale (ordinal numbers) cu terminatiile lor. Prin . '67 c. Fiecare din." comercsal adnctat.numar etc./ Raporturile dintre doua firme sint. din cadrul aceleiasi finne. (0).. a) 0 anume referinta pentru un caz anumit sau mai multe cazuri diferite. In functie de diferi. folosit ~i in Republica Socialists Romania. (Ap. prevede: . ficari sub semnaturaprivata (vezi "Notice of Readiness'. com.ll ar fi vorba de un contract~ care ~buie facut prin act scris.pilda. eu registrele pl1i-j:Uor. trebuie sll e admita proba testimoniam. termeni. '.: 22 (22nd). factum. . ~ta . .p.se scrie in partea de sus din dreapta a scrisorii. data inscrisului sub semnllturll privatll face. com. Ea poate fi stabilita. 1974 3rd March. 1976. dovedita prin stampila oficiului postal aplicata pe plicul scrisorii respective sau pe cartea postala. prin oriee alte mijloace de probll admise de legea civilll. fatll cu cei de al treilea. potrivit practicii firmei. scrisorile schimbate tntre diversele firme . com. 133. care uneori pot cauza daune considerabile uneia din parti. n martori. luna p anul. 1182 c. Se presupune i~ genere ca data Inscrisa In scrisoare coincide cu aceea a expedierii ei. en mmun.ri girurile Ior. 23 (23fd) ~i 31 (31st). precum ~i persoanele care nu au . 1st January. care in cadrul firmei este sau sint tratate de 0 anumitapersoana . 1974 2nd February.ri a contractelor comerciale trebuie sll arate Iocul zrua. civ. Ea poate sll eorespundll datei reale a tnscnsului. '7 c. I9tredoua organizatii comerciale pot exista concomitent un mare numar de tranzactii sau prestari de servicii.. 32 33 .1st).trebuie. 1976 20th May. . .' . menti~ni)inscrisului. piull la proba contrarie. se cOUSlderlladevarata pinll la proba contrarie". Fatll de terti. mentiunea datei are. citata in Ministerul Justitiei. se in~eieg persoanele care nu se aflll in nici un raport juridic cu pllrtlle. Ia ~. In mod ob!~nuit. ori de cite ori autoritatea judecatoreasca ar crede ell. cu ac.] este numai 0 mentinne a pllrtllor. act sub semnllturi privatll.tia tho D~pa numele Iunii se pune virgula. aceea$i f0rtll probantll.p aceasta chiar in cazurile prevazute de art. la forma de scrisoare simplificata. Vezi T r a ian Ion a ~ c u ~i aljii. Editura Aeademiei RS. data fiind ~i un element de referinta In circuitul corespondentei 1. materializata sub forma unui cod. sa foloseasca cu strictete referinta scrisorii primite de la partenerul sau. 1967. in mod reciproc.R •• Bncuresti. de cazurile ~i corespondenta respectiva. scrisoarea comerciala trebuie sa cuprinda in modnecesar data mtocmirii ei ~i localitatea in care a fost mtocmita. cu deosebire cind datascrisorii arerol determinant ca. 1182 c. insll poate sll fie .o corelare precisa in:tre caz (dosar) si corespondenta respectiva. in afaradatelor de 1 (1st). De pilda: . data poate fi plasata ~i direct sub antetul scnsoru sau. II Dec. . Scrisorile unci finne oarecare pot avea referintediferite. 21 (2.terti". Tiparul romanesc.1eodicele civil. 1976). In fine.. 3 (3rrl). Asemenea oricarui act comercial. -46c. aceste referinte va purta -initialele numelui persoanei care trateaza cazul ~i redacteaza corespondenta legata de acest caz. dar care. 1 Art. GalatI. printr-o con.').Data actelor . Data arlltatll in cambie fi in orice alte titluri 1a ordin precum .art. toate celela1te date primesc termina.um doua rtnduri mal sus de rtndul pe care. 2 December.la ordin sau 1a purtator.. '7 al...tnmaterie comercia1ll e admisibilll proba testimoniala pentru a stabili fatll cu eel de al treilea data unui. 194-4. dovada numai din ziua ctnd a cllpUat data certa potrivit art. chiar dac. ca fi Intreg textul [clauze. prin telegrame. Art. 2. 119. . I Diversitatea cazurilor comerciale ~i a modului lor de trataretimplica . tele persoane din cadrul firmei care se ocupa de cazul tratat prin scrisoarea respectiva. foarte variate. cu multiple consecinje juridice. ~ l' noiembrie 1926 . chiar fatll de tertele persoane fi aceasta In baza art. . Uneon. in cadrul aceluiasi obiect de comer]. in partea stinga sub referinta (vezi "Hirtia ~i antetul").To~~i. prin corespondenta.

In sistemul american,' se folosesc mai freevent numeralelecardinaIe (cardinal numbers) _:_fara desiaente=- data fiind separata de an prin virgula, in urmatoarea forma: Afrril 4, 1976; May 5, 1976. Exista totusi si varianta scrierii cu desinente: December 12ih, 1975; January lst,1976. ' ' Se poate vorbi deci de 4 forme de exprimare adatei: 31st December, 1975 31 December; 1975' December 31, 1975 December 31st, 1975 In prezent, in Europa exists December 31;1975; January
0

the. thirty-jirstoj December, nineteen seventy-jive December the. thirty-first, nineteen seventy-jive tendinta accentuata de folosire a formei nr. 3.

10 Newton etc. Deci, adresa scrlsorilor catre S.U.A. trebaie.sa.indlce sinumele statulni - de obicei prescurtat 1 - in .care se afla orasul respectiv, de pilda: New York, N.Y., U.S.A. sau New York City, U.S.A. Prima forma este mai precisa ~i cea mai frecvent folosita, In Anglia se foloseste scrierea prescnrtata a comitatului, mai ales in te1exuri telegrame ~ referinte, ~ cum in S.U.A. se foloseste forma abreviataa statelor

I:

1 S. U.A. sint 0 republicl1 federalA constituitl1 din 50 state ~ 1 district federal. Dintre acestea nnmai 43 ~ districtul Columbia folosesc denumirea prescurtad. (Chief Administration of GeOdesy and Cartography under the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R •• The WOf'ltl AtliuMoscow 1968): • •

Alabama Alaska
Arizona

2, 1976

aceasta fiind forma care se ins¢e in-contextul modern a1 scrisorii simplificate. Nici in sistemul englez, nici in eel american nu se folosesc prepozitia on ~i articolul the la serierea datei pe scrisoare. Este inco1'eet a se scrle: Galatz, on the 1st March, 1976 Cored, sescrie: Galatz, lst March, 1976'; Galatz, March 1,,1976;, Galatz, 1 March, 1976 'sau Galatz, March lst, 1976.: In textul scrisorii prepozitia on~i articolul the se folosesc normalctnd se face referire la data. Astfel: 'Thank yoU jor your letter of the 1st March ,'we wote to you on the 1st March, Abrevierea lunilor, rar folosita in scrierea datei, are urmatoarea forma: J anuary- Jan. September-Sept. Febrw.zry4eb. October-Oct. Afrril~AP1'. November-Nov. AUgust-Aug. December-Dec." Lunile March, MtJY, June ~iJuly nu se abreviaza, Este cu totul contraindicat scrierea dateitn scrisoarea comerciala numai prin cifre. Scrierea datei Intr-o scrisoare couiercia1i numai princifre, adica tnlocuind scrierea letricaa luneiprin cifre, este contraindicata deoarece creeaza confuzii, puttnd fi interpretata tn-moddiferit in unele tan. Astfe1: 11.4.1976sau 11/4/1976 se citeste II aprilie 1976 in Europa, in tirop ce in, S.U.A, se inte1ege 4 noiembrie 1976, deoarece in aceasta tara se ,cite~te tntti luna, ~i apoi ziua. Indicarea datei numai prin cifre se foloseste pe scaralarga numai in telexuri ~i te1egrame tntre statele continentului european si Anglia. , Ctnd telexurile sitelegramelese transmit In sau din S.U.A. ziua trebuie COD;lpletata .eu desinentarespectiva: 1 st ; 2nd : 3rd j' 4th etc., spre a se evita confuziile. LocaUtatea (or~ul, judelul) # tara. Dupa: ,indicareastriizii ~i a numarului cliidirii, adresa se !;ompletea,za cu localitatea in care intreprinderea sau persoana fizica~i are sediul,cu sectorulsi codul postal (post code) ¥ tara respectiva. ", In unele taxi; de pildaS.U.A., exista mai multe ora~ cu acelasi nume, aflata: in diferitele lor 'state. Un~ri numele orasului este ~ celal statuhii, Astfe1,exi$t, 4 orase cu denumirea Philadelphia, 4 Boston, ~7 Newport, 9 New London 34

Arkansas California COlorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia . Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland :Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississipi Missouri Montana

Ala. Alsk. Ariz. Ark. Calif. Colo. Conn.. Del. D.C. Fla. Ga. In. Ind. Kans. Ky. Md: Mass. Mich. , Minn. :Miss. Mo. Mont. sint: Hawai,

La.

Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey , New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Oklahoma ' Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota. Tennessee Vermont Virginia Washington WI!st Virginia WisconSm Wyoming

Nebr. Nev. N.H. N. J. N. :Mex. N. Y. N. C. N. D. (N. Dak.) Okla. Oreg. Pa. R. I. S. C. S. D. (S. Dak.) Tenn. Vt. Va. Wash. 'W. Va.

W"JS.

Wyo.

State1e care nu folosesc prescurtarea

Idaho,

Iowa. Maine. Ohio. Texas ~ Utah.

Argyllshire Bedfordshire Berkshire Buc.kinghamshire Cambridgeshire Carmarthenshire Caernarvonshire , Cheshire Cornwall Cumberland Denbighshire Derbyshire Devonshire Flintshire Glamorganshire Gloucestershlre Hampshire' Hertfordshire

Argyl. Beds. Berks. Bucks. Cambs. Carm. (Carmarths.) Cam. Ches. Com. Cumbo Den. Derbs. (Derb.) Devon. Flints. (Flint.) Glam. Glos. Hants. Herts.

Huntingdonshire Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire Middlesex Monmouthshire Northan:!ptonshir,e Nottingha.m$hire Oxfordshire Pembrokeshire Somersetshire Staffordshire Warwicks,hire Wiltshire Worcestershire Yorkshire

'

Hunts. Lanes. Leics, Li. (Lines,) Mdds. (Miqd'x; ,Mx.), Mon. Northants. (Northn.) Notts. Oxon, , Pemb. Soms. ' Stafis. Warw. WJlts. WOo (WoreS.) , Yks. (Yorks.)

"35

4. Adresa (Address). Prin adresa 1 se tntelege indicatia pe scrisori, peplicuri, colete etc. a numelui ~i domiciliului exact ale corespondentilor (expeditorul ~i destinatarul). Spre a fi corecta, adresa folosita in scrisoarea ~i pe plicul destinate unei tntreprinderi sau persoane fizice nu trebuie sa difere cu nimic de aceea pe care adresantul 0 foloseste in hirtia sa cu antet. Scrierea eronata sau inexacta a adresei poate avea ca rezultat neajungerea scrisorii la destinatie, cu toate consecintele ce pot decurge din aceasta. Daca pe plic riu se afia si adresa expeditorului, scrisoarea cu adresa inexacta, neajunsa la destinatar, "cade la rebut", adica posta locului de destinatie 0 depoziteaza un timp oarecare - potrivit reglementarilor locale - ca obiect fara valoare, apoi o distruge. Cind plicul poarta adresa expeditorului, scrisoarea gresit adresata se inapoiaza acestuia. '". ' .' .. Se disting: a) adresa postala (ma'lZ address); b) adresa destinatarului (Jnside address sau complimentary address) si c) adresa telegrafica (telegraphic address sau, prescurta t, teladdress, cablead'dress,cabaddress si, mai rar, telegrams sau grams) . Adresa po~tala (adresa letrica - mail address), este constituita din numele exact al 'persoanei sau al firmei, strada, numarul cladirii, eventual .etajul ~ numarul apartamentului, in care locuieste sau i~i are sediul afacerilor, localitatea si sectorul postal (post code) al orasului, precum ~i tara in care se afla localitatea respectiva. De asemenea, in adresa postala se indica, daca este cazul, numarul casutei postale. Adresa postala completa (fuU address) trebuie sa mai arate numerele de telefon ~i telex, adresa telegrafica 2 precum ~i "codul" folosit de firma expeditoare (vezi "Hirtia si antetul"). Adresa telegrafica (telegraphic address) este reprezentata, de regula, printr-un singur nume sau denumire, tnsotit de localitate ca, de pilda: NAVROM Constanta; ADAS Bucuresti: EXROBANK Bucure~ti;RUDDERHEAD London; GASTALDI Genoa etc. Adresa telegrafica se poate folosi de orice firma cu conditia sa faca un aranjament contra unei taxe anuale, cu oficiul postal din localitatea unde i~i are sediul. Avantajele prezentate de adresa telegrafica constau in economisirea telegrafierii unei adrese complete - uneori constituita din cuvinte numeroase, - precum ~i in evitarea unor posibile erori de transmitere prin diversele relee postale. Firmele cu sucursale sau agentii in mai multe orase sau state pot folosi aceeasi adresa telegrafica pentru toate aceste reprezentante ale sale, schimbind doar orasul ~ respectiv tara: CHARLEBOR Paris'; CHARLEBOR Dunkerque; CHARLEBOR Calais': CHARLEBOR Le Havre; CHARLEBOR Rouen. Ci1.su!apo~tala (post office box - P.O.B. sau P.O.Box). In aceasta cartatorul postal depoziteaza toata corespondenta destinata firmei careia ii apartine cas~. este folosita pe .scara larga de organizatiile comerciale, prin inchiriere, de la oficiul postal, contra unei taxe anuale, asemenea adresei telegrafice. Ea prezinta avantajul ca intreaga corespondenta a firmei poate firidicata, de un curier al abonatului, 0 data sau de mai multe ori pe zi, imediat ~upa cartare.
1 Adresa se numeste , Vezi Lesson :;9.

4dresa d~s~inata~lui (Inside address or complementary address). Adresa destinatarului ~n s~soarea comerciala consta din doua parti distincte: - numele /'trmel, sau at persoanei # calitatea sau titlul acesteia : - strada # numarul cli1.dirii in care destinatarul ~i are sediul localitatea (orajul) insojitii. de sectorul# codul po~tat (post code) ~i lara. ' In corespondenta engleza numarul casei precede numele strazii. Numele destinataruluisescrie intotdeauna in forma in care este aratat in antetul adr:santului. Este gre~t. ~j lipsit de curtoazie ca prenumele sa fie scris prescux:_tatcmd persoana res~chva obisnuieste sa-l foloseasca in intregime. Astfel, daca adresantul semneaza James I. Pilmer, adresa trebuie scrisa Mr. James I. Palm~ sau James I. Palmer, Esq. ~i nu J.I. Palmer. . Folosirea presc~tata a prenumelui lipseste scrisoarea comerciala de exactitate in adr~sare, ~l poate cr.e3:~onfuzii. De pilda, abreviind, pe James cu J., nu se ROOtestie daca. aceasta initials rep.r~z~ta pe James, John, Joe, Jackie etc, In toate ~~e, prenumele sau initiala majuscula a prenumelui precede numele de familie. ~~ele adresantului se scrie, de regula, insotit de titlul de curtoazie sau litI'ul onorific pe ca:e-l .poseda, c?~pletate,. dupa caz, cu denumirea functiei pe care o are in organizatia economica respectiva. ' MO.dulde redaet~e a...adrese~ d~stinatarului. Societati eomereiale 1. Redac~rea a.dres~~este ?etermln~ta. in pnnCl~.l de natura comerciala ~i statutul juridic al flI1llel. destinatarului ~l, in subsidiar, de uzantele practicate de expediter in materie de corespondent a comerciala. In pr~~tica ec~nomica capitalista se disting urmatoarele forme juridice de organizatn comerciale sau industriale: ' Limited Compan13 (socie~tev cu raspundere limitata). Este forma de socie-. tat~ cll: scop lucrativ (comerciala sau industriala} intUnita frecvent in statele capitaliste. . . !-im..ite~ este o. forma pr~curta~a a ~vintelor "limited liability" (raspundere lim~tata)~l se sene, de regula, dupa cuvmtele care denumesc ~i eventual descriu societatea respectiva, . . ' ~n co:es.pon~enta, ~e ca parte din antet, fie in redactarea adresei destinatarulUl, "hunted se sene, eel mai frecvent, in forma prescurtata: Ltd. sau Co. Ltd.
• 1 Prin "societate comercia1ll". in cadrul acestei Iucrari, se intelege orice organizajie economicJ. fie cu caracter pur comereial, fie ~ industrial. ' t P~ fi.~ll. ill j:li.rilecapitaJiste. se inteIege den1lInirea convenponall aunei intreprinderi (pers~ll J~dicJ.) C87eface ~ mod ob~nuit acte ~ fapte de comer] ~ se oblip fn nume'proprlu •. Trebuie sa. ire insensll Ia mstanta judicia.r1 competenta., trlbunalul comercia1 de regulI sau Camer:' de Comert, Directorii ~ a~tratorii socieUjilOl' cu rllspundere limitaU, acte ~ fapte de comer]; nu sint comercianti, deoarece nu lucreazi in numeJe lor persoaale ci in numele societAfii. -. ~ ~etat~ ~~" r~punde~ ~i!ata. L~miled fol~t mai ales prin abrevierea Ltd •• ~DI. ~ted. adicJ. .o~lippunile sociale ale s~tllfii sint garantate cu patrimoniul social. tar asOCtapi•. in numllr limi~at:. rAspund nu~ai cu. aportul lor. spre deosebirede societ;4jile ID n~?Ie colC;Ctiv:in care. asOCtapi rAspund solidar ~ nemirginit. Rlspunderealimitata. este speSOC1~Ujilo~ ano~. in care membrii fondatorl rAspund deopotrlvll cu topacponarii iIi limita.caPltal~Ul subscns. In Anglia societatea cu rlispundere limitatll. fiinteazll. din 1907 • b. denu~ "Pnvate C0l!lpany Li~ited". In Austria afost introdusll prin legea din 6 ~e ~. tar in !ranta ~nn legea din 27 . nuu-:tie 192:;.tn Belgia a luat fiinfA, in 193:;. Potrivit .legil~r cemerciale ale di~ersel~r stat~ •. socleta.jile cu rll.spundere limitaU slnt. de regulll, obligate sa. disp_una de un anumit capital minimal care sa. constituie 0 garanpe a exec Urii bli ..." comercia1e ce ~i asum'u 0 ga,.....oJ;'

~,mi~

~!>ility ,

c:m~

~i comunicarea

oficia1ll fllcuta. in scris de 0 organizape.

institupe

etc.

36

31

Joint. Stock Company: (societate ~nC:>D~a);Societatile ~r~anizate in.acea.sta forma de asemenea cu raspundere limitata, sintcaractenstice intrepnnderilor foarte' mari. De~i aceste tipuri de organizatii comerciale sint foar~e raspindi!e, in corespondenta comerciala .~ngleza sint rar¥lnt~t~~a atare, notiunea de raspundere limitata a acestora fund reprezentata pnn l"mited. .. ¥ .. In S.U.A .. limitarea raspunderii unei ~cietati comercial~ e~te .mdicata PI1!l <incorporated'O, care corespunde cu "J<nnt Stock Company din limba eng~e~. .Incorporated,cunos~t si sub .nu;rneIe, folosit mai rar, de "Stock Corporation" tnseamna in S.U.A.soaetate allomma;· .. . Corporation3 es~eJn s.u.A. 0 ~so~iatie ~u spci~tate (~ompanie) fo~ata di_ntr-un numar nelimitat depersoane, mregistrata ~l autonzata de le~e sa functioneze ca persoana juridica, care poateadmite oridnd noi membrr '. Poate avea ~~.cara~ter nelucrativ." ..... .. ... .... . . Cuvmtele Incorporated ~l C~PoratJO,,! se folosesc mal ales abreviat: Inc. ~i respectiv Corp. . . . ... .

tura unuia dintre asociati privind faptele firmei angajeaza-deopotrivape toti asociatii. Fiecare asociat, potrivit formei juridice de asociatie, este raspunzator, in mod solidar ~i nemarginit (cuintreaga sa avere), pentruob~g:ap.ile firmei. Titlurile obipr,uite de curloazie, funcjii sau calitajioficiale # titluri onorifice jolosite In adresa (inside address). Exista trei feluri de titluri folosite in corespondenta comercialaengleza: titluri de cUrioazie, titluri deil~nqii sau c~iti~# oficiale ~ titluri onorifice a) Titluri de curtoazie Messrs. (domnilor) M r (domnului) Mrs.· (doamnei) Miss (domnisoarei) Mesdames sau (prescurtat)

Mmes. (doainne1or)

J!xemple:
Universal Shipping Lines, Incorporated Madrigal Shipping Co. Inc. Ocean Shipping Corp. sau

: Lij>sadillarttetactlvinteiot Lim~ted (Ltd.) sau ln~rpo~ated JInc.)¥inseamna di .firma respectiva ' este 0 asociatie vsau firma mdividuala cu raspundere nelimitata, ' '.. . .

Exemple:
Thomas G. Cooper Hubert Wilkins & A. Andersons Robert Rees & Co. Conakry 'Steamship Company

Cu exceptia lui Miss si Honourable toate cele1a1te titluri se scriu abreviat, urmate de punct. . Messrs. are ~i semnificatia .de firma insa nu folosit Independent, ci numaicu denumirea firmei respective. Este pluralul lui Mr. si prescurtarea cuvintului francez Messieurs. Nu poate fi folosit in salut (sa1u!ation); se foloseste tn scrisorile comerciale, cind adresarea se face unei firme In general, in care apar nume de persoane. De asemenea cind firma este reprezentata printr-o emblems insa urmata de cuvintele Limited, Company, Corporation sau Incorporatedori. abrevierile acestora (Ltd., Co., Corp., Inc.}, ' Intotdeauna se scrie inaintea nume1ui firmei sau a persoanelor carers Ie este adresata scrisoarea. .

Exemple:
. .'. Messrs. Messrs. Messrs. Messrs. Messrs. Messrs. MesSrs. Messrs. Messrs. Thomas Cooper & Stiboard Richards, Hogg International Limited Sinclair Roche and Temperley Ltd. Navrom Steamship Company W. Thomason & Co. Frank.B. Hall & Co. Ltd. Madrigal Shipping Co. Inc. James L. Parsons, Incorporated Transocean Shipping Corporation

. Pa;tnership' 4 ·Casocfu.tie) .~stefirma caracteristica micilor tn:tr~Qrirtd,eri. f?l:c. matadin doua sa,u mai multe persoane (partners), cu sc_bpul ~e a ~ace .anumlte ~~ptE:, comer], fiecare di~t;~ .~sest~!l adudnd. tID. an~t. ~pltal silufnd pa.F!e de 1a cl~tig sau pierdere, potrivit actului de constituire a firmei. Fapta sau semna;ll~' corespond~nta co~ercUiJ.li.. "Limited 'Gqmpany", ~pecifica., socie~li.j:ilQr cu rli.spU¢~ \imita:tli.•. simple.se. atribuie prin extindere ~ ,societli.j:ilo;r '. anonime ("Jom1; St9Ck ..~mp.any'): aceasta •deoarece 'ambele .tipuri .de sooietate iuncponeazli., pe; principi,:,~ ~unde.~ limitat ... ~~ indivi,dual;itatea persoanei este .absorbit~in cadrnl or~tQnc .~ !,~e~1iL Jundic ~ •. d!'§l ambele: tipurU4n1; Intemeiate in basa Dl;lui act autenric, ~eosel;!iriJe stnt .1mportante ". De ~ildi. ·as~tii(·, (partDel:$) din- "Limited Company" stnt uacponari" (sh¥eholders) .in J01Dt.~tocll:. Company numli.rul lor fiind nelimitat ~ nerestrictiv cu privire la persoana, !1ere~.~um 7. Parjd sfe·c;apital·sau.CI,>Ia .esee r~pl'!lzentatli. p.Iin "acpuni" (shares) ~. mod .n~tat. care ~t fipr.ocurate ~.lngol;le~, aegociate III. Bursa de Valori (Stocl!;, ~xc~ng~,.1I101' acpo~ rli.spDD:~ de ob~tille sooietll1:ij nttplai cu .valoarea no~ a ac1il1nilor. chia.r clnd ..llll au ·mCl 0 funcpe

In corespondenta comerciala moderna este contraindicat a se folosi Messrs. ctnd firma are ca denumire 0 emblema, fara a se arata nume de persoane sau forma sa de constituire (Limited, ComparJY, Incorporated. etc.). Adresarea in asemenea cazuri se face astfel: . Navigation Maritime Bulgare Empresa Maritima del Estado NA VLOMAR-Shipprokers & Chartering Agents Totusi, datorita traditiei in materie de corespondenta comerciala, in practica semai. continua a se formula adresa fara aceasta distinctie.De,pilda,inca se serie: Messrs. NAVLOMA,R-Shipbrokers & Chartering Agents. Este gr~it a se folosi Messrs. cind numelefirmei este preceda t de artic()l~ hot3.rit the.

~ ~c.~t;:via.t'

de la '''Incorp~rated·:.·~. ~ America:; ~. societab, sau integrat !i1~ unit cu 0 societate. sau. asociajie, . . • ... •.. -, . .. . ",a tn S.U>A.·l!I'fo1~e ~denumirea '~Corpo@tion Sole" pentru 0 fuml!.indiV1d~ (cQmp"slI..

p.Iin. ~underea su~~. pe care 0 oferll. patrimoninl,

~1:::!=~

se cuprlnd p~·eXCelen~'s~ta.tne in n~e,. c~v solidal'll. ~. nemiTginj.tli. ;a tuturor a.socuLj:ilor. din care cauzl!. prezintli. un caracter de in~ere

a.u.~

•. caracte~~ de ga@ntia, ;reaprocli., .... C,'

A. numele este precedat de titlul Mr.7. In ierarhia titlurilor are unrang mai mare redt Esq.is~ foloseste ca titlu de curtoazie ce precede numele unei persoane fizice.U. Esq. Mihai In varlanta in care adresarea estemai putin formala. separata prm vrrgula. Mr President.. in redactarea adresei. Esq. Nu poate figura in antet sau pe cartea de vizita. acesta din urma estefolosit cu preferinta. Esq.. Esq. M.A. of Parliainent . General Manager.Mr decit urmat interlocutorului.A.I. Dac~ persoana pose~a in c~drul firmei 0 anu= mita functie sau calitate.5 Ducky ]utcovich... Esq. ' c) Titluri o'nflriJice. excelenta sau excelentei sale. afara de cazul cind indica 0 informatie importanta reala sau 0 distinctie superioara deosebita.sau calitatea sa. 1 Member Mr Chief Officer. Exemple: Mr 1. acestea nu se despart de nume prin virgula si nu se foloseste titIul Mr.. Mr nu se tntrebuinteaza nici in adrese1e in care nume1e persoanelor stnt insotite de titluri onorifice.doctor hI medicinil.II.A. ca B. Grumaz.Forma corecta de adresare.:' i functia sau calitatea adresaritulUi'se scrie dupa nume. Esq. Mr Stoica. C. este plasat dupa numele adresantului precedat de prenume sau .. concomitent cu Mr.ctnd este cazul . P. Featherstone. !ji anume: Mr Johnson.tntre numele acestuia si titlul adresantului. J. se foloseste curent in corespondenta comerciala engleza ca titlu onorific pentru 0 persoana fizica de sex masculin. Nu se poate folosi Esq.. corect.U. judecatorilor de la judecatoriile de pace !ji in general persoanelor care activeaza in sectoarele juridice sau administrative !ji care nu poseda un titlu distinctiv. In . prin extindere.Sc. ~o~nului) !j. Daca numele adresan tulni este. insa. Kamber. folosita de. tnaintea simbolurilor de titluri. cuvintul 'Messrs. sau care apartin unor asociatii de prestigiu national sau international. Aceste doua titluri se exclud reciproc (vezi "Folosirea initialelor majuscule"). Popescu.3 E. aceasta se lllcl~de in adr~sa. Balanescu. Persoanele posesoare ale unor titluri sau ordine speciale.cu 2 sau 3 rmdun deasupra acestora: Exemplu: Messrs. L. careia i se face o adresare in scris. De pilda: Mr George Grumaz sau Mr G. de numele 40 41 .D. Stuart. Doctor.seori: nS:U. Petre . se foloseste cu precadere in scrisorile adresate avocatilor. Esq. Mr Chairman. Exempie: D t Manager G Popescu A:~~tInt Director Kamber M.1 Mayard Giberston. Hono~rable este un titlu onorific cu semnificatia de onorabilului si. in the U. este considerat sinonim cu Mr.A.' In S.C. Assistant Director functia Daca se doreste a se arata adresarrtului 0 consideratie deosebita.membru al Institutului de construcpii navaIe 8 Doctor of Medicine .N. Se foloseste neprescurtat !ji precede nume1e adresantului.S. v.A.ager M. se va scrie: R. se poate scrie . Se foloseste cu deosebire ori de ctteori corespondenta este adresata unei persoane fizice posesoare a unei functii sau titlu oficial. Dragomrr In vorbirea curentanu se poate Jolosi cUV£ntul. .D. membru marcant al baroului din Londra sau avocat de mare prestigiu 3 Chief Clerk of the Admiralty . Cu Esq. Astfel.denumirea firmei sint n~eroose'sa~ lun~. General Man. Kamber.. Balaban Superintendent Engineer I. indica aceasta calitate prin folosirea unor simboluri. Exemple: 1.jii 4 Lord Chief Justice . . incH bunul gust le exclude dintr-o adresa. precedat de cuvintele care definesc funct~a. sau calitatea sa se scrie dupa nume.A.]. Spre deosebire de Mr. esie : The Trade Delegation of the U. The Salvage Association The Baltic and International Maritime Conference Este gr~it a se adresa: Mr Master.C. J.K. Esq.' 1 Prenumele sau initiala majuscula a prenume1ui precede mtotdeauna nume e de familie.Iicentiat hI Iitere 8 Bachelor of Science -licenpat in ~tiinje • Bachelor of Law . Q. Dodds. Mr M. care este urmat de Esq. Jean Claireaux and Geo G'b 1 son Mr este prescurtarea cuvintului mister (domnule. R.ministru de justrtie G Member of the Institute of Naval Architects . Esq. Numele persoanei trebuie scris a~ cum aceasta n foloseste 1. titlurile care Yin dupa un nume sint de obicei omise.P. Esq. Mr Doctor. titlurile comune.' W.din considerente estetice .U. B. Esq:. ca iji Mr nu se poate folosi independent. Esq. LL. Bruce Cairns.membru al parlamentului. In S. Master Mariner V.doctor in drept I Clnd numele ce constituie. 7 Bachelor of Arts . M.A. sau Mr. 1n a.Grefier ~f al Amiralitil. De asemenea este corect: Mr Director. ammdoua aceste titluri se folosesc intotdeauna cu numele adresantului precedat de prenume. In acest caz. b) F~mclii s~u calitali oficiale. scrise dupa numele de familie. M. IIi S.10 slnt a~ de obisnuite.. Sava Valentin Mr Harbour Master. Captain.L.2 A. B.corespondenta comerciala engleza folosirea acestui titlu este practic generalizata. se arata adresantului 0 consideratie mai mare decit prin Mr. Esq.cest cas. In corespondenta engleza este generalizata folosirea cuvintului Esq. Mr Foscolo. deputat Queen's Counsellor .inalt consilier juridic. Popescu. 1 Vezi "Nume1e destinatarului". Deci. indicat prin simboluri.C.licenpat in drept 10 Doctor 01 Laws . Assistant DIrector $criere incorecta Mr Director Costin Kiritescu Mr Master Mariner.s. Adresarea corecta este: Master. Medcraft.

43. Este prescurtareacuvintului mac care are semnificatia "fiul·lui".comerciall!.' .A..' .~. n co~ndenta modernl ameneanA se fol~e ~i·recomandl iDsistentsemnul· Q~puncte). N. N..Figurat: mareafinantlL americanl. U~ sorespondenp.rte de strada prin virgula. derorgmd de la 0 frumoasa traditie jn matene de corespondenta comereiala . c-aVintMrs . '. East Fourth..e.in cOEespondenta . (stimati domni) ~i Sirs.numarul' strazii. .tif "t* n in scrisorile ditre persoane1e care detin sau au avut 0 pozitie impottanta pe na'pune.. Limited.cPalatulPR sab~_~?Cunt ' ISt~~. cu observatia ca litera c este mica. . in state sau intr-un oras. in Bucnresti ~ sclnteii . tCind tnsa cladir~a. stinga a scnsoru. ca ~i in state1e de limba engle~ se scrie intii numarul cladirii ¥ apoi strada. eu. in general.' '.11 e c.' I In fo: dneceln_ m ~. este necesarcatn adresa sa se indice ~istrada. cum ar fi. . . dica . guvernatorul unui stat. .DearSit":. City Hall .~unoscute. Fifth Avenue. London EON 7EU . a o<. p' . In S. san Ladies.' n .uu1l. . .nu este suficient de cunoseutatntr-un anumit sec or postal al unei man metropole. pe cind in Anglia este numai in orasele mici.A. stradA. introducerea in corpul scrisoru. '. ca parte din adresa..Dear Sir. in S. de pildl. folosirea 'virgulei nu constituie 0 greseala. 1~8. (Figur!l.ambasadorii. 42 .. London. • Arterli. Y. p. senatorii. Bros ~t:eprescurtarea cuvintului "brothers" (fraji) ~i este des tntilnit iIi antetele firmelor tn care aparnume de persoane dintre care une1e sau in totalitate stntfra¥. mar~ea .· Deplldl:De"rSirs:.. .Ltd.· op. ~. 40. 41).r.. I '.A. in prezent este considerat un enera1 tntreg. '" (stimate domnule . London. a . Liverpool t3 . clldirii. Adresa in general. Strada ~i numiirul clddirii.· ' Exemple: Honourable 'David Henry Smith Mayor 1 . 1 Mayor.Uneori est~ suficient"s~~ mentioneze in adresa doar nume1e c1adiriiz dnd este bine cunoscuta. 44.' cum ii. modul ~e adresare es~~.' My de:lrSirs. de:.. rimul numir ~re precede denumirea strll.'iU· sau 0 doa. Palmerston House.i renumita. cale. ... .sltoI.. constau din numerale ca: Second Avenue.pentru o. nu se folo~e modul de adresare.. principali. in New York.re (Dear Sirs. Pra~t. este primar.-HO Bishopsgate. 5 •••• (~timata doamna ) . 41. -' . ()p.). l'i.fon:na ax vir~uf! modul de adresa.~~ numArutoi.=: 45 Second Avenue 1" '3845 East Third Street...zii este numAIul clldirii.. in orasele marl se numeste Lord Mayor. localizare nu . State1e Unite ale Americii..diri .Yse pune tntotdeauna [d . Bros nu este titlu de curtoazie sau onorific. e SC?~ ~u 2-3 ~in~un su~ lin!a adr~sei (inside address) ~i cutot atU~ deas. Dear Sir.:pra lini~l ~~ referinta (subject l~ne) ~l tncepe tntotdeauna de la .vl' . 'Dear Sirs.U.ic. este la 0'''6~. fapt ce tradi1iOna1A~ co. Bursa din New York. Se scrie legat de nume1e de familie ca un singur nume. Y. (stimate domn) ~i Sir (domnule) Dear Mr. Cale magiatralA.... . de pilda. (domnilor) Gentlem. 733 Water Street. primarii etc.Street este indicatcaaceste nnmerale sase scrie prin litere cind . Dear Sirs conside~t ~ invechit (Yezi R. EC2M3AU Mc este un prefix folosit in compunerea numelor scotiene ~i irlandeze.·etc Vezi RobertR S'h t. Daca citirea implica mai multe cuvinte. EC2M 3l\U '.c· . . N.t: teatrele din New York. numarul cladirii nu se despa. ministrii. Code). epu ·"". d~ . Y. blnci (..EI arata numai calitetea de rudenie tntre componentti firmei. ci numai sectorti1 (POS.a.' Dear M~s..dupa care urmeaza imediat numelede familie cu initiala majuscw. Totusi. U. c~. New York.. Dear M~ss . . Noil Hannah . Dear Madam. femeie cf. Exemple: 8 Commercial Street 152 Broadway Z 67 Wall Street'' 270 Mabalo Street 80 City Road" 304 Fifth Avenue' 5.en. . omit. Independent. numarul strazii se va scrie prin cifre.' . Bishopsgate. p. (s~ata domnisoara ) . ca titlu de curtoazie .e~emPle: Stone House.":n" . ~odul de adr~sare ~au s~utuJ(Sal~ta~on) Modulda adr~re3 esteformula de . Nu trebuie deci confundat cu un titlu. iar alteori.' . . si cu deosebire in Anglia. 1ete " . Bruce McIntosh trebuie ~teles Bruce allui Intosh sau Bruce fiullui Intosh. (domnilor) . eomerciala sau privata.. . in este ~.~ .onatituie ~~nsoare :mPlif~ca~i ingenerai. ! Tower Building. acut tre tendinta ultra JIlodernl. drum plantat cu pomi.) ... ca ~ in alte o~ principale ale "n"liei existA IlI. Mesdames.)bulevard..Deat"Mllda". 115 Fifth Avenue 3004 East 104th Street . Shu r tel'.. trebuie sa arate strada ~i numarul cladirii in care se afla sediul firmei sau al persoanei respective. My dear Sir.. .aJutorul careia se face. ~trlzii . . prescurtarea cuvintului mistress.(stimatadOamna) . .doar 0 simpla forma de curtoazie] el nu trans~te ~Cl un m~saJ persona]. cu deosebire in S... : u r .~~tete ~onventlOnala cu . Dear Madai!J etc.. 3 Stradl din New York. (amer. nume1e cladirii ¥ strada ~upiata. ExemPle: Furness Lindsay Bros. n modul de adresare se folosesc urmatoarele titluri de curtoazie: . In corespondenta engleza. ) .Y...se poate citi printr-un singurcuvint.IBN & Bros.U. (doamnelor) 1 I Ca regula generala. . New York Exemple:· . ~e . 'til . .' In Londra. . ' Ctnd nume1e strazilor. Honourable Jrunes Van Doren Governor Albany. fara Exemple: Lloyd's Building. judecatorii curtii supreme sau ai tribunalelor federale. unde se aflA centrul marilor.. De pilda.

esa. Intotdeauna preceda numeleadresantei ~i se serie numai prescurtat. Stevenson. Miss Mrs. Sir adica Dear M. In scrisorile adresate persoanelor de sex feminin. sau Dear Mr« . Stevenson.u~:xa nuanta de familiaritate." . pe serisoare nu se mai sene. 227. fara numele persoanei.iala constituita sub fo. Oliver H. Smith and Willson Potrivit normelor de drept civil engleze l1iamericane. pro~rietar<!...Dear Sirs.andy 1. atit pentru femeile casat()rite cit ~i cele necasatorite.esa.s.. care folosesc prin excelenta Gentlemen. este varianta americana a lui Dear Sirs. Mrs. prezinta 0 usoara nuanta de familiaritate . Desi unele autoritati in materie de limba engleza comerciala sint contra folosirii cuvintului dea. in timp ce forma Dear Sirs. C£mpeanu. Dear Si" cu toate variantele sale. ChristineB. este pe cale de a fi scoasa din uz 1. De pilda. sotia va semna Mrs . In comparatie cu Gentlemen. Alice Badescu Dear Mrs. Dear Miss Welsh... Mong. spre deosebire de S. Mrs...s. d~ persoane. Sir se foloseste in scrisorile adresate autoritatilor . UIll:l auton sustin ca i?-tr~ aceste do~a forme de adresare exista cam aceeasi deo~eblre ca intr: Dear SJ. Ionescu. Dear Madam are tntelesul lui Dear Sir in scrisorile catre barbati.rul clll.nu apa. . My dea. Stevenson C. 41. . ca titlrl de curtoazie in scrisorile adresate unei firme constituita numai din femei. I Ven "Strada ~ numll. Exemple : Mesdames Smith and Willson Mmes. Dear Mrs. in modul de adresare. Astfel. 15 z '16121 Genoa.rea se face catre firme in general. Miss ~iMadam. folosit flira dear se apropie ca sens de Si. Dear M. Ch.A. Shurter. Daca firma este compusa din barbati ~i femei. adrese complete ~ de modu. sefoloseste deopotriva. Smith C.dirii. cu toate variantele. Aceasta forma de adresare intervine. omitindu-se prenumele.U. Washington. Stevenson O .. este rigid.s. iar casatorita. a) CiU. se foloseste cind scrisoarea comerciala este adresata unui barbat.e (salutul) tn corespondenja ciU. sint deseori folosite tmpreuna cu titluri1e de curtoazie. Ghetu Dear Miss Ghetu Ca . Stone. In S. Dear Madam. Miss si Madam este modul de adresare catre firmele compuse numai din persoane de sex feminin. Ionescu.A. Dear Sirs. urmat de punct. Mong. in general. si. deoarece lumea comerciala. Oliver H. B. Smith Oliver H. Mrs. and William H. Vezi ~ "Semnarea corespondentei firmelor constituite din femei". p.i de ad. B.andyar fi mai putin formal decit My dear Mr. Stevenson Christine B. este titlul de curtoazie folosit in scrisorile adresate unei doamne in general..e pe. in Europa si Gentlemen in S. Clarence H.~t'me B. 1944. insa in acest caz. Este forma preferata in Anglia si Europa. Mrs. Mrs. Mrs. . se scrie intotdeauna cu initiala mica. este practic generalizata. adresarea se poate face ian.e: .nun. Bosco. ca viiduva poat~ sa aleaga. de regula. 01'.e0 o. 1 I Cu~tul d~a. daca potrivit statutului de domnisoara se numea ~ zicem.ganizajie comerciala sau indust. Oliver H. ' Ton neformal. . l11 Mydea.s in loc de Dear Sirs sau variantele sale. este evitatin corespondenta comerciala. C£mpeanu.. In ambele forme. Stevenson sau sa-si pastreze numele purtat impreuna cu sotul In Viatao . organizatii comerciale de orice forma juridica.u: Exemple: Domni~oa.duva: Miss . Este gresit sa se foloseasca Mess. pastrind insii numele de familie ~ S<?tulUldec~d~t. precede intotdeauna numele adresantelor. Trasporti. Dear Sirs.U. cu fo~ Dear ¥ong'r:-ndy.soane de sex feminin M. My deer Miss Welsh. Lingham Englssh.siUorita: Vi1. fie ca sint casatorite sau nu si nu primeste cuvintul dear. ~i nuprimesc cuvintul dea.. cind corespondentii se cunosc personal iar adresarea se face eu numele de familie.. femeia clisatorita poate sa foloseasca numele si prenumele sotului l1i sa semneze ca atare. nume de persoane Societa Italiana Assicurazioni S~zione Sinistri Corpi. Stevenson poat~ . se foloseste cind adresa. M odul de ad. Mesdames S sau Ladies ca plural pentru M. H.sau conducatoarea firmei M. dest~na~~rul?l' D~l aceasta este totusi 0 scrisoare comerciala imhraca forma scnsorn pnvate. Stevenson O. Stevenson dl Numele.• p. H.:aduv~. Madam. Gentlemen. Stevenson Oliver H. f~losit intre My l1i M. n~ adresarn 0 . My dear M. ~~d corespondentii stnt ~i in relatii de prietenie. Mesdames este pluralullui Mrs. Business 44 45 . daca sotul se numeste Oliver H.. Robert L. el a devenit parte din aceasta expresie idiomatica. Exemple : Mrs. simplu. .in care. neglijlnd prenumele sau.~stine B: S~ith. in general.Wiar.tel: Ch. cit .U. considera ca numai cuvmtul Sir. adresa. ~ Roy Davis.A.pastra co~ti?-~are acest nume sau sa foloseasdi prenumeleei de domni~ara lIDI?reuna cu lnltial~le numelui sau de familie. titlul de curtoazie folosit in scrisoare va fi Dear Sirs. ' Exemplede . Badescu Miss Z. Via B.ma de asociaJ~esau soctetate (Company) de oriee natura: .a : Ci1.. Se poate folosi ~i in forma abreviata Mmes. Stevenson.

U. 1-3 sint redactate potrivit uzantelor S. Scrisorile adresate unei terte persoane prin intermediul unui partener cu care acesta din urma are diverse relatii sau caruia ii este cunoscut. .R.b ie' The Baltic and InternationalMaritime 19. ' 122-124. Adresarea directa ctitre conductitorul jirmeidestinatare sa~ un~ia dintre dir~to~i~ acesteia ori scrisoare a unei anumite persoane din cadrul j~rmef. Thomas Livingstone. 10005 Dear Sir: Exemp1ele nr. sau Dear Mr Cavallo.EC32EU Dear Sirs. Ceccardo.In care apar nume de persoane Messrs. Hall & Co.prealabile sau car~ se ocupa anume de p:oblema car~ formeaza obiectul scnsorn.'l corespondenta americanA. LONDON. 104.: . Livingstone: sari Dear Sir: ' (open punct'fWiion) Z 2. Thomas . Raymond J. Secretary (secretar).Y.. My dear Sir. Wall Street NEW YORK. este urmat de donA puncte. se ob~nme~te des ca numlrul c1A. attention neurmatde prepozij:ia. c) Ctitre 0 organizalie' comerciala sauv indust~ia~ consiituita sub jo~. S~t impreJurar~ in care ~ste de dorit ca 0 scrisoare privind anumit~ rela. ~ nu este contraindicat. se. My dear Sir. iar Gentlenun. nu &e' pune virguJA dupl rindurilecare formeazi adresa destinatarulni. Hall & Parsons 52. ' Se ob~nui~e. Managing Director (administrator de1egat). pun dod puncte: {Atlmhcm: Mr.. Stone House.sA ~e serisi cu majuscUle. oj. sau Gentlemen. d"n persoane de sex jemf. ' . Inc. 3 t. Via C. Exemple: (closed pUnctuation) 1. dupl!. of New York. Piazza Demarini. prescurtare de la care oj (prin grija). d: asocia/ie sau societate (company )compusa numaf... ~c: vizeaza "direct" persoana respectiva ~i 1a plural. DK-21oo COPENHAGEN 1 Dear Sirs. imprejll!3. 16123 GENOVA Dear Sir. Messrs. b) Cafre 0 jirma individuala sau persoana jizica Giuseppe Ettore Cavallo. Bennett. N.. Exemptu: Mr.Five Sisters Dress Shop.l0005 Attention 3 of Mr. Hall & Co. Mr Thomas Livingstone. N. sau Ladies. Average Adjusters. 16123 Genova Dear Sir.a persoanei dorite. Mr. President Dear Sh-s: sau Gentlemen: Si?t. EC2M 4JP Madames. ' Indicarea functiei fara nume1e persoanei este admisa numai in cazurile in: care aceasta functie este unica in cadrul organizatiei respective ca.A. ca 10calitatea . 251 Main Street Buffalo.he & Hogg International. Livingstone: sau Dear Sir: 3. In aceste cazun.: dar al carei nume nu este cunoscut de catre corespondent. Inc. Dennis & Henedy Co. 10005 Dear Mr. Leadenhall Street. In aceste cazuri denumirea functiei este precedata de articolulhotartt the. Hall & Co. " ' a Vezi nSemnarea corespondenjei firmelor constituite din persoane de sex femmm. . Giuseppe Bidone. In scrisorile adresate statelor continentului european. of New York. Kristianiagade. '. 1 I 46 47 . socotitli. Roc. of New York. 67 Wall Street. Inc..e face 1a ~gu1ar. ' . Thomas Livingstone. 4-53.General Ma~ger (director general}. Y. Chiej Accountant (contabil ~ef) etc.mn The.' • Potrivit regulli de punctuajie open j_.A.ri ctnd scrisoarea trebuie adresata unei anumite persoane cu functie nnportanta in organizatia comerciala destinatara. President Frank B. Esq.Y. Frank-B.. 67 Wall Street NEW YORK. ' NEW YORK.Y. Bishopsgate. N.Y. N. London. cu care eventual s-au purtat disc~pi .dirii sA se serie dupl numele strlzii. . 'Dear Sirs sau /?ear Sir. 14203 Dear Sirs: sau Gentlemen: Conference."atenp. }. adresarea s.U. . Inc. cind scnsoarea este in . 10005 Dear Mr.inS. . Burke Counselor at law c/o Messrs. . N. :" 1 Messrs. cuprind formula c/o. de exemplu: Chfzirman/Pre~i~ent (pre~edinte).pi ~ciale dintre partenen sa fie adresata unei anumite persoane din cadrulfrrm~l destinatare. President 1 Frank B. .. sau Dear Mr Bidone. Esq. 67 Wall Street NEW YORK.'ca cea mai mOdernl.

foloSltll intr-un caz bme cunoscut ·plLr1i!or. precum ~ 0 variantll mai simplll. Obiectul scrisorii (Subject line).zul este foarte 'bine cunoscut plLr1i!or. este abrevierea cuvintelor Bf'itish Petrolellm.ob~ectul scrisorii" sa aiba 0 redactare identica cu aceea din scnsoarea primita.v. eu indicap. May-June. despre ce se trateaza in scrisoarea respectiva si ca el sa. numarul si anul'~osarului de dauna. • B. TRADING. steel plates F.rul !ji aaul contractului care formeaza obiectul tranzactiei. sau m]».2. Astfel. tally of cargo Re: Contract No. Obiectul scrisorii este precedat de cuvintul Re.tului latin "res" (Iueru. 142/1974 Re: 300 Excavators and Forklifts b) Asiguriiri maritime Re: 4800 t.?ei care se <?cupa de solutionarea cazului.ei pe care 0 prezinta.75 B.General Average 2 !J Re: M]» 3 "AURA" . 12500 t.. chiar fllrll. . este prescurtarea cuvintelor tOfJntlge deadweight. Se recomanda ca in ~sor~e de rasp~ ..General Average on Danube 1974 Re: SIs & "CONFIDENZA" General Average . cu regula de punctuatie aratata la referinta (Re.A. in avariile comune spre a indica intrarea navei Intr-un port de refugiu.fire on board put into 5 Lisbon 1.\nll este ref. in care nu apare "Re": I~ I?r~ctica ~omer?ala. potrivit cu natura problem.Peate avea 0 variantll. 48 49 . ineepe eu indicarea dosarului de daunll. 224174 mlv "PROBITAS" "DONA MARl" at Liverpool 5. I t. s~nt abrevierile cnvintelor steam ship sau sle~mship. se .74 d) Avarii comune in collision with Re: mlv "MUCLAIR'~ .J Messrs . in Iimba ~.l si se redacteaza in fo~e variate.a "m/v" sau "m.June. respectiv m..lns11. cu motor).4.P.nuitll. locul si data la care se refera tranzactia sau alt element de natura comerciala. precum !jl nume1e . In cazul unui litigiu se mentioneaza dosarul cauzei litigioase si obiectul in litigiu.fraza de introducere sau introducerea (the opening or the first paragraph) . .6.a ~otalll de incllrcare anavei (marfll.A. In materie de asigurari maritime .1974 Re: M/e..a se indica. ar fi ea redactata.P.jraza de incheiere. este ablativul euviD.74 Demurrage £1420."ARGE$" loadingat Basrab 6-7. ardere internll (nuJ.. se face prin mentlonaree pe plic a formulei: By the courlesy of Mr.scris dupIL numele navei (Re: "MUCLAIR" m.. per mIt? I 1 R«. se folosesc ..Inminarea unui plic (scrisoare) adresantului. din practica lucrurilor.. "m.8. efecte1e sale).75 7..7.. moneda englezll f. Ltd. combustibil. ("MUCLAIR"). apa dulce. (final or closing paragraph). nume1e navei. "TRANSILV ANIA" at Alexandria 22. . '' .ele de navlosire !ji de transporturi maritime in general~ ~ arata contractul C.~ pentru nave1e eu motor cu.1974 ' e) OPera#i diverse Re: M]» "PREDEAL" at Houston 7-15. in ca.tor ship sau motor vessel) ale caror abrevieri sint m. Re:-). prin tradipe.• 5 "Put into" este expresia obi. greutllp moarte.espectiv~. Iubrifianti.74 Fresh Water SUPPlied to Vessels Your Current Account on 30. deck stowage Galatz-Dakar "SINAIA" 2. sau caricul !ji relatia de transport despre care se trateaza !jl. Obiectul scrisorii nu se redacteaza in virtutea unor norme stabilite. ~ sis. ~neori. ~int abrevierile cuvintelor motor tank (naw petrolierll. Swcopulacestui e1~~nt in scrisoarea comerciala este ca destinatarul sa ia euncstmta.P. poata identifica cu usurinta dosarul cauzei. Hamburg 6. M/v. tnsa.P. care inseamnll capacitat.Oil bunker Contract 1975 "GALATI" . a abrevierii "motor vessel" sll fie ~ majusculll.. prin amabilitatea unei persoane oarecare.ei ce se trateaza prin corespondenta r.tratareaobiectului (the body proper) .v. Exemple de redactare a.ceastll abreVlere· precede nume1e na vei..navella care se refera dauna respectiva.7. .at Manchester 20. • Cifrele care reprezmtll 0 sumll de bani.se m~ntioneaza. iar. intre ghilimele. stg. . sau m/s. Eehivaientul lui Re.v. • 3 Se obi~nui~e ca litera iui1ia.00 7 d) OPeralii diverse. La problem. initiala primului cuvint sau eventualei abrevieri se scrie cu majuscula. Re: Hull Insurance mlv "CASIOPEA". in corespondenta englezll se seriu nedespll. in eazul emd a. . 1974.. Altfe1.in ehestiunea". s-ar serie "entered (the) Lisbon".9. a f1 precedat de "Re"'. ' s. 6. Re:.int:elege f'eferilor la. fllrll. cind ca.r1:ite de semnul care indicll.9. este constituit din trei parti: . 8 Litera . 28411975 Re: Grain contract No. eventual. mit sau m. ehestiune) ~i insemneazll . clnd este vorba de contracte de vinzare se eiteaza num3.General Average). Prin extindere. (prin amabilitatea domnului/domnilor/firmei). (claim file). I In obiectul scrisorii" numele navei sescrie eu majuscule.zuri nefortuite. ~ ~/t. s-au' tras principii de baza potrivit carora trebuie sa arate succint !ji c1ar problema tratata si localizarea ei in timp si spatiu.s.s. ." (Re: "MUCLAIR" . !ji oricare ar fi obiectul ei. 1 In ma~e de liti~ obiectul seris<>I'ii." (motor v. "obiectul scrisorii" se redacteaza !ji fara Re.. oricum. sau f.lIDprop~~ -:.P.t. natura daunei.' . Obiectul scrisorii este enuntarea succinta a problem. ecb ipajul cu i:V.General Av:erage).obiectului scrisorii privind: a) Contractelede V£nzare' c) Litigii maritime 1 Re: Claim No.lll.dwS . de la pnma pnvrre.0" din o/file este prescurtarea euvintului our (dosarul nostrn]. D.Constantza-Antwerp per mlv "BRAD" 1975 Re: 120 tractors extra risk W. I Forma SlIDJ>lII.essel).P. Corpul scrisorii (Body of the Letter).1620 Pig iron . Mit "PLOIESTI" C.76 O/file 8 4 J/3605 . a!ja cum referinta ajuta la identifi~~ persoa. In acest caz. Corpul scrisorii comerciale..v. . se scrie door numele navei.

Daca aceasta citire superficiala ti atrage interesul. Mesdames. Intre aceste doua elementeale scrisorii comerciale trebuie saexiste 0 stricta corelare de ton. de obicei numai asupra jnceputului frazelor ~. un contract important de mchiriere. . "formula de politete" are 0 gradatie vde folosire potrivit raporturilor mai multsau mai putin formale sau de amicitie dintre partile corespondente. chiar prin fraza deintroducere.. este cu totul contraindicat ca. cu conditia sa fie scrisa de mtna celui caruia. potrivit importantei mesajului pe care-l poarta.necesar ca ~~natarul sa isdi. sia se termina cu 0 formula de politete mai putin formals.et-)iWtit "P'tr<i':' -"he.urilor se ' poate folosi yours faithfully.a1r(-.foarteformal. aceste documente. ' Tratarea obiectului (wording of the. spre a atrage interesul cititorului. m competentacaruia se trateaza problema respectiva. Estenepotrivit ~i neindicat a se folosi. de . .. Nu este .ciare. el va reciti intreagascrisoare cu atentia cuvenita. de direc~orul de resort sau de adjunctul acestuia. Totusi tn majoritatea caz. sa mdeplineasca urmatoarele 4 conditii: 1.4V4!iJ"'{ e' t H t-Pf±iftt #o"Wtlil'r'. RespectfuUy yours se foloseste in general m scnsoril.'. Badesc». . de regula. scrisoarea comerciala trebuie sa fie astfel conceputa ~i prezentata inclt. f\:·'MW~. m materie de corespondents comerciala. sa faca impresie favorabila : 2. Ton formal Yours.'J\'\±k. dupa caz. My dear Sir. mai j>ulin formal Yours sinceI'ely. scrisoarea comerciala poate se~ numai ca tnceput de proba scrisa. Formula. My dear Mr Manry. spre a-si 'atinge imediat scopul urmarit. Dear Sirs. sa 'evidentieze dar problema la care se refera . constrins de timp.~~:ca cu n_?IDclesan tntreg. chiar cfnd este Yorba de contradictii sau litigii importante si. sau 0 conventie d~ illfnp. 51 . .fiir. fraza de Incheiere trebuie sa dea 0 nota de sinceritate ~i buna-credinta reala m toate raporturile.. de regula. . De regula.~efulm. tnsa. In toate cazurile. Yours veI'y sincerely.. doua semnaturi: a sefului de birou sau de serviciu ~l a directorului care raspunde de sectorul in cadrul caruia se creeaza corespondenta. Yours very truly.o solutionare favorabila. . Asemenea "Inodulw de adresare" (salutation). Ca principiu general. tonul politetiidin aceasta fraza nu trebuie sa fie in disonanta cu textul general al scrisorii. scrisoarea va ficitita in mtregime cuatentie ~i are sansa de a priroi.a mal . ca siacordul ce trebuie facut tntre aceste elemente ale scrisorii comerciale. m general.itidhmri'-. m masura posibilul~..' 0 nota concilianta. ' ..:itt""h. m functie de importanta cazului.es~ndenJa poarta! de regula. ~i anume de a atrage atentia si interesulcititorului.m~tor nave.it. Spre a face proba deplina. demcheiere (C~mplimentary ~lo8e).. adresate persoanelor mai in virsta sau mai marl in rang decit eel ce semneaza scrisoarea. in aceeasi scrisoare. fraza de introducere trebuie sa fie scurta spre a conduce pe cititor in mod treptat spre fondul problemei ~i sa spuna ceva esential.. Ton. sau amicala. Daca este atractiva ~i interesanta. Semnatura (signature). In raporturile dintre tntreprinderile din tara noastra c?r. sa se trateze mai multe obiecte distinctevOrice problema trebuie tratata cu scrisoare separata.~ termen lung..n ar fi. Spre a fi efieienta. Cind problema tratata implica raspUnde~ j~9icesau ~inan. sau hi conditii speciale.mdelll:l1ga. cw. Cu observarea indicatiilor de mai sus. Dear Mr Tink~. 9. directorul comercial. Dear Mrs. Dear Sir. Ladies. Fraza de tncheiere (final/closing paragrdph). faithfully. ' '- - . Sincel'ely. subject mattel'j the body proPel'). Frazele stnt folosite separat ~i in totalitate spre a usura intelegerea comunicarii. 4.§'s&+~·t'"t: - . ' ' 8. Pentru atingerea acestui tel. '.~ de director. ?emnatura care angajeaza este aceea cucare partea semneaza m mod obisnuit. tratareaobiectului se face in jurul unei idei centrale precise. a~ cum este inregistrat la oficiul de stare cl~a. ~ormu1a de politete este ele: mentul de scnsoare comeraala care preceda semnatura. De eele mai melteori.r~ Fl'aza de introducel'e (the opening/first paragraph). strainatatea se. Ladies. Daca nu este iscalita. vor mai purta ~ semnatura contabilulw ~f ~l avizul oficiului juridic. Fraza de Incheiere este elementul care Iasacititorului ultima impresie ~i este deci determinanta in obtinerea . W*t*. sa faca legatura cu corespondenta precedenta. s~ri~ea trebui~ iscalita (semnata). sa aiba. f (4ad.6' '··. Yours truly. 3. Cecurile si ordinele de plata se semneaza de contabilul sef . Dear Miss Ghelu. pe llnga semn<l. Scrisoarea iscalita de un mandatar obliga pe mandant m Iimitamandatului expres sau tacit.serviciu ~i a directorului. In aceasta fraza se face referire la scrisoarea careia i se raspunde ~ 'la obiectul problemei.". de exemplu. Yours faithfully.?e 1a ~eful de birou. ~i pentru fieeare din elesa se deschida un dosar a:nume..r. In teoria' '~i practica corespondentei comerciale' formula de' politete este variata ~i m fonna ~i in gradatia de ton. . citeste ceva mai atent fraza finala care. sa dea scrisorii un ton amical si prietenos.iaceste doua elemente trebuie sa fie in ton cu tntreg textul scrisorii ~i m mod deosebit cu frazade 'tncheiere.de politete co~dially yours ~plica c~oa~terea personala a partilor corespondente sau existenta de relatii comerciale .deciziei sale. 50 In exemplele de mai jos se arata gradatia de ton a formelor de adresare ~ a formulelor de politete. Fraza de introducere este elementul psihologic eel mai important aI scrisorii comerciale. Oricare ar fi obiectulcorespondentei. i se a tribuie. Sincerely yours. poate.jare a une! societati mixte de navigatie etc.tura. pma la direotorul general.' Corespondenta cu. hi ordine iex:ar}rica. Gentlemen: Mesdames. . comporta concluzia. cu orice corespondent. Folosirea formulei . scrisoarea comerciala este semnata. se semneaza de directorul general san adjunctul acestuia.ssmneaza. In acest sens. cititorul i~i formeaza parerea despre continutulunor scrisori doar dintr-o sumara privire. un mod de adresare. Ideea conducatoare din fraza finala a scrisorii comerciale este de a ajuta saudetermina pe cititor sa accepte punctulde vedere al semnatarului ei. .te intre aceste persoane.

. :precum.. Miller & Son Yours faithfully. incheierea unei tranzacpi etc. IN GENERAL 3 Procuristii semneaza corespondenta organizatiei comercia1e pe care. Wilson). Ven "Specimen de sernnAturf.mandatar" (prepus) care. 0 reprezinta scriind inaintea semnatnrii literele p.F01'mtJ a1'lle1'ican4 Tan mai pufin f01'mtJI Donald E. Mrs. Dear Miss Ghetu. Dear Sir. Wilson for Thos R Miller & Son Per Z V. in numele fi pe seama. Ton f01'mal Dear Sirs... Esq. • ProcuristuI este 0 persoanA numitA ~ .I I Modul de adresare (Salutation) 0" I Formula de politete (Complimentary close) Daca corespondenta este semnata de 0 persoana din cadrul organizatiei comerciale imputernicita in acest scop prin delegatie. Act~efAcute de procurist in afara mandatului nu obl~ pe mandant dectt dac1 le-a.mandant" care i-a dat inshcinare (imputernicire). fiin~ Semnaturile. AGENTI ~I PREPU~I. Sincerely yours. Sincerely. Mathews. Ltd . pentru ca primitorul scrisorii sa cunoasca persoana anume cu care trateaza cazul respectiv. Mathews Mrs. trebuie sA notifice mandantuIui hotirtrea sa. Sinclair. sint iscalite de catre asociatii cu drept de semnatura. Yours faithfully. dactilografiat imediat sub semnatura.. Presedintele. fiind indescifrabile. Florance Dowell Miss Elenore Adams Gentlemen: Dear-Sir: Madam: Dear Madam. Mandatul poate inceta prin revocar~ 1111 de c1tre mandant..". Gentlemen.Richards. Miller & Son V. W. Blldescu Miss Z.. dar nu cu semnatura lor proprie. Wilson). Yours sincerely •.. Yours faithfully.. regulamente sau statuto Denumirea firmei ~i semnatura nu sint urmate de virgula sau punct. Carl Gage & Co. . A. scrisorile diverselor asociatii comerciale care nu sint societati anonime sau cu raspundere limitata. A.. directorii adjuncti semneazUn virtutea mandatului ee-l au prin lege. se obliga de a face ceva prin.de indicarea oealitatii functiei pe care semnatarul 0 are in cadrul firmei tnnumele careia semneaza.).. Esq..· F±"t&Jb( . 1532-1559 c. Florance Dowell Miss Elenore Adams Dear Mr Mathews: My dear Mr.1 Este contraindicat sau al firmei. Ghetu Dear 14.re .. . Yours very truly. Miller & Son ppa V.Moduldeadresare" "Formula de poliiete" Adresa destinatarului (Inside Address) . I SEMNAREA CORESPONDENTEI DE CATRE PROCURI~TI. civ. Ghetu Messrs. in partea dreapta a scrisorii sub formula de incheiere. aItel. uneia dintreaceste pArti. Badescn. prin decesul saupunerea sub interdicjie..: Yours truly. este necesar ca numele semnatarului sa fie. sau ppa (per procurationem = prin procura) in urmatoarea forma: Thos R. pentm toate inteireSeleman: dantului (a administra 0 companie de 'navigape etc.-:'fr+·m' tttt i"-h#" ~Yk'. in general. ci scriind numele firmei cu mina. My dear Mr Richards My dear Sir.care r . Reginald Howard & Co. W. acesta va semna pentru firma.Adresa destlnatarului". pentru 0 anumitA operatie {vinderea. de regula.de a aVe&. are reTaiii de comer] mai importante. William Richards. Wilson 1 Identificarea asocia. in virtutea unui mandatdenumit contract de mandat'(art.1I. adic1 semnat cu minapropried& 'V. Thos R.i organizatillor comerciale cu care asoclapa. Yours very truly. deci al carer antet nu cuprinde cuvintul Limited. adica. Yours very sincerely.tului care a semnat cu nuinele firmei se face cu ajutoml specimenului de semnlLturi. Esq. Blldescu Miss Z. san cumpArarea unei nave. Dear Madam. Yours faithfully. Yours truly. directorii. ''Httf Modurile de folosire a elemenielOl': . Yours sincerly. Ltd. imediat dupa formula de incheiere 1. Dear Mrs. In comert. san 52 53 .renuntarea mandatarului •. Summerskill Chairman Thos R. prin.general".Hodul de adresare" "Formula de poliiete" Adresa destinatarului (Inside Address)' . contractul de mandat este considerat ca oaeros (cu platl). Wilson . Mandatul (procura) poate 1i . . . Dowell: Dear Miss Adams: Ton formal Messrs. Mrs•. Roche & Temperley (scris de mlna) _p Hodurfle de folosire a elementelor: . Exemple: a se semna peste numele dactilografiat al semnatarului I MOOul de adresa. acceptat(chiar ~ tacit). Mrs. (Salutation) Forma englezil Ton mai IUfin formal I Formula de politete (Complimentary close) Mr W. care este depus de firmA blncilor . fiind autorizat sa semneze..p. Exemple: for Thos R. t Prin per se intelege p. fi dac1 persoana juridic1 care a dat sau primit fmputernicirea in~teazJ.r 1M hand oj (Y. W. Sincerely yours.. in acest sens. reprezentare.) sau procuri. Exemplu: Yours faithfully. Mr Donald E.) sau . Sincerely Yours faithfully.special". Miller & Son (semnatura) Chairman In Anglia. Mathews: Dear Mrs.'tift '·'. Senicomanda ca semnatura sa fie precedata (sau urmata] . Richards Mr William Richards William Richards. (semnatura) R.Adresa destfnataralui". W. persoane numiti . Semnatura se aplica. W. Yours very sincerly Very sincerely yours. cu exceptie pentru scrisorile in forma Full Block ~i Simplified unde semnatura se aplica la marginea sttnga.

Encl. lnmarea majoritate a cazurilor.: "for and on behalf of . prin semnare de cecuri sau ordine de plata. (~ngajeaza) pe armator prin cuvintele As a~ents only. " " . inclircatorul ~ primitorul sa preia unele din acestesarcini atribuite armatorului ~i. notar etc. " [pentru si in contul . "Sotto palanco" sau "Liner terms". In acest ultim caz. " Three Sisters Dressing Shop .. Semnind fara a arata calitatea in care semneaza.:: 55 . in general.).U. Three Sisters Dressing Shop Elisabeth Pette Smith (Mrs. cu un rind mai sus de Encl. regulile bancare :prevad.. ' . Ie transporte. James/Smith) Indicarea anexelor. "' " " In corespondenta americana. (c) LSK: Gsp .ne se sene tot in acest Ioc.imprejurari: a) daca a facut mentiuni In ordine1e de ambarco si conosamentecu privire la starea ~i cantitatea marfurilor primite la bord. . (b)FLT: IMe Encl. ~ontract~. Armatorul nu poate fi exonerat de raspundere fata. armatorul are obligatia de a preda marfurile in aceeasi . Potrivit legilor care guverneaza organizarea financiara a intreprinderilor sau a celor privind infiintarea ~i functionarea societatilor comerciale. Yours faithfully. de terti. Specimenul de semnatura prin .. Yours faithfully..) .torie precedat de M~s.. deprimitori pentru lipsuri sau pentru avarierea rnarfurilor decit in urmatoarele . fie prin dactilografierea prenume1ui ~i a. jo'IMS Smtih). a semnAturii sale obisnuite care. Cin? un mandatar ("repre: sentative" sau "authorized agent") semneaza in numele ~1 pe contul. SEMNAREA ORDINELOR ~I A CONOSAMENTELOR DE' AMBARCO (MATE'S RECEIPTS) (BILLS OF LADING) Sincerely yours. . la nive1ul semnaturii sau putin mal JOS.. pnn prescurtarea Enel. James Smith Specimenulde semnilturii 1. Three Sisters Dressing-Shop " Elisabeth James Smith " Yours faithfully.ata detaliat in textul scrisorii·~ex~e ins3. Exemple: Yours faithfully.. stare ~i cantitafein care au fost primite la bord. acesta urmtnd a fi scns complet.~tampilare" nu are nici 0 valoare legala declt cind este folosit la parafarea paginilor unui registru oarecare (jurnal de bord. ca tntreprinderile sau firmele cucare lucreaza in mod curent sa depuna la banca specimenele de semnatura ale persoanelor care au dreptul de a angaja Intreprinderea legal. ca femeia 'cisltoritJ. pe.clvila . ~i separat in sttnga scrisorii. 'Mrs~' E..A.). ).). indircarea. Spre a se evita confuziile de sex. In acest caz "parafa" apartine unei persoane oficiale (capitan de port. . sa se tngrijeasca de descarcarea lor ~ sa le . in sensul ca navlositorulprin agentii slii prezumati. scnmd ~. semnatura trebuie precedata de cuvintul Miss sau Mrs. ". W. registru contabil etc.: Dadi persoana care semneaza este de sex feminin. Intreprinderea sau firma riu poate fi legal angajata decttde persoane anume hnputernicite. se ~mneze en nUII!e1e cempus dince1 .. persoana. W. lnne ~i: nume1e lntreg obpnut princlsll. ale armatorului. sa.).' _ . comandantul are insa mtotdeauna obligatiade a: supraveghea ca stivuirea sa nu pericliteze siguranta navei. fie din semnatura ins~i. bti t . iar prin c1auza FlOs (free in and out andstowed) navlositorul preia ~i sarcina stivuirii marlurilor. armatorul are mdatorirea de a "wdirca marfurile asa cum se cuvine *i eu grija necesara.de (exemplul 3: Elisabeth pe#B) ~. starea sa . (a) FRP/RKS ..c~t *i. grefier.Enc. 1 Model sau elqlmplu de semnaturll. Oricare ar fi insa conventia partilor In privinta raspunderii privind iIi. . sa. Encl. -este Indescifrabila.la scrisoarea comerciala. sa Ie stivuiasca._rel.tre~~e. consttnd din aphcarea de citreo anumiti!.ce1 de familie al sofolui (S". referinta (reference l. Daca totusi se foloseste abrevierea. care in ac~st caz trC::~Ulesa fie lizibila:.Encl. concretizate in c1auza "At ship's rail". un formular special.s~x fem~nin. Acest~ stnt obligatiile fundamentale. clasice. anume: Potrivit c1auzei FlO (free in and out) inscrisa in conosament. V. :a rezulte clar. a~ara de cazul in carenavlositorul s-ar face vinovat de manipularea. (M~s. '·1 V.manda-ntulUl ("princiPal") va folosiformula.clirearea ~i descarcarea. tt: J. Wilson (amer. facturi borderouri etc.'Agentul maritim semrieaZa corespondentasi documentc:Ie_ care ~bliga. se obliga personal fata. Pentru evitarea oricaror confuzii.~ semnare s~ se evite abrevierea prenumelui. sau Ene.W. ~ebUle ebUle ?l~n?oJl&~e sa fie ~entioD. . se· o~nui~ d~' paranteze.Wilson Potrivit practicii ~i legilor care guvemeaza transporturile maritime. . Semnarea corespondenjei firmekir constituite_ ~in persoane ~ .. Atasarea diverselor documente (conosamente. acreditive bancare. Partile (armatorul ~i navlositorul) pot insa face une1e derogari de la aceste reguli. (enclosu~es). stivuirea sau descarcarea defectuoasa a marfurilor. denumite "anexe". scrisori de garantie etc. serecom:n1a ca ~tit in re~ctarea adresei -:pe scrisoare ~i plic. marfase incarca ~i se descarca pe riscul ~ cheltuiala navlositorului. numelui de familie ale semnata.predea la destinatie in starea in care le-a primit".) sau . __ Femeile maritate trebuie sa semneze cu numele de familie obtinu pnn casatorie 1. le pastreze. Exemple: (engl. Eliberarea deconosamente e- 'In S.

contravaloarea mli. daca butoaiele au scurgeri. pentru eventuale lipsuri de greutate.s •. ce a fost semnat de comandant ~i eIiberat inc1rc1torului. clauses conditions and exceptions of the Charter Party dated . comandantul trebuie sa insiste a se scrie said to be 10000 tons sau the vessel had no possibility to check the weight of cargo. increztndu. respectiv comandantul.CO~tlhagtm·. despli. pericole maritime etc. gerea cuvintelor measure. raspunde personal de lipsurile ce soar constata la unele din cele 10 000 legaturi.. induce tn ereare ~ pe asigumtorii m!rfurilor care vor trebui s1 pl1teasell.mgen~ill pnn aceea ell. constata Q Ii se pred1 altceva decit au cumplrat conform conosamentului.liber de cheltuieli la descarcare).. comandantul se obliga el personal si obliga personal ~i pe arma tor.fi imediat negociat (vtndut) unor terti. PENTRU COMANDANTI In tndeplinirea atributiilor sale. iar nava nil poate ponta dectt legaturile . platesc pretnl cuvenit .ra.rfn. Nava. Daca. trebuie precedata de cuvintele "Master of the . De regula. " (comandantul navei . sa se bucure realmente de exonerarile acesteiclauze in limitele Regulilor de la Haga. number.ncn la care s-adeschis acreditivul . measure. Astfel. quantity.P. indatli. sa fie precedata de cuvintele "subject to owners' approval" (supus/sub rezerva aprobarii armatorilor). nava nu va putea pretinde contrastalii ~i nu va beneficia de clauzele de exonerare aratate In C. respectiv aarmatorilor. daca incarca tabla navala. respectiv armatornl. cu conditia insa ca pierderile sau avariile sa fie atribuite acestor cauze exceptate.P. comandantul este chemat sa semneze 0 gama variata de documente ~i scrisori..shipped in apparent good order 4nd condition weight. pentrn un act de cea mai mare rea-credinta. Spre a angaja pe armator fara echivoc. ~i va fi obligata sa.in conosament. semnatura comandantuluipe facturi privind aprovizionare~ cucombustibil. ~ca pachetele au fost violate.ra Iipsuri."curate" (clean) contra scrisori de garantie ~i mentiuni in manifest nuau nici o valoare fata de primitor 1.. 56 57 . Numai ster1 Conosamentul "clean" fiind dovada incl!.. Prezenttndu-se la bord s1 ridice marfa. dupa caz.lnca:care.pentru 0 marfA bud (Ii fll. ~i in conosament s-a scris ."Letter of Indemnity".. ~re nu contine nici 0 clauzli. De asemenea.). In conosament se face prin formula: '~AU terms. Incorporarea C.. Prin semnarea conosamentului. are numai scopul de a confirma primirea lor laobord nu insa ~i calitatea sau pretul acestora potrivit comenzii. in condrtii de linie. Se deosebeste de conosamentul C.de regul1 irevocabil . comandantul trebuie sa anuleze acel punct din clauza pentru care raspunde. Comandantul trebuie sa depuna 0 atentie deosebita asupra tipului de conosament pe care-I semneaza.). sa zicem. care nu au cun~ntll de eventualele scrisori de ga. Daca furnizarile sau serviciile prestate navei privesc pe navlositorii in "time charter" (navlosire/luchiriere pe timp determinat) comandantul va. Daca in conosament se arata. materiale. tot~. b) Daca in conosament sau in contractul C.epp. numbers. provizii. NOTA. eventual . (Gencon Bill of Lading) trebuie sa insiste sa se faca "tncorporarea" contractuluiCbarter Party. piese de rezerva etc . marks. Pentru ca semnatura sa 93.nu ~i numarul de tuburi aflat in fiecare din aceste legaturi. s. de care nu poate fi exonerat dedt in conditiile aratate mai sus. angajeaza nava si. in calitatea sa de reprezentant al armatorului. sacii slut desirati..rfuri deterininate.P. la semnarea conosamentelor. si cu deosebire a Time-sheet-ului.. Semnatura comandantului pe un act oarecare.se in lnscrierile din conosament. (locul ~i data cind a fost incheiat contractul) are deemed incorporated herein".. ~ este folosit in trausportur!le ~ntru care s-a incl1~t un contract Charter Party. Este extrem de important ca comandantul sa observe cu cea mai mare atentie clauza tip de conosament. Pentru ca nava. . Prin admiterea scrisorilor de garan~. prin ofiterii sai. va sterge din clauza cuvintele "number" ~i "quantity". si raspunderea sa personala fata cu armatori sau de terti.fiecare contintnd 50 de bucati. Dadi va emite un conosament tip Gencon 1. semna cu mentiunea "for account of the time charterers and subject to their approval" (in contul navlositorilor pe timp ~i sub rezerva aprobarii lor).n~ ~ de menpunile din manifest ~. (free out '. Incorpcrarea C. iscalitura sa trebuie precedata de cuvintul "Master" ~i intarita prin stampila navei. acest contract trebuie incorporat in acest tip de conosament. contents and value nu exonereaza de plin drept nava ~i pe comandant de raspundere. toate clauze1e ~ exc. este prezentat ba. Astfel. Neprocedind astfel. porumb in VIaC. conosamentul poate .unde se incaseazli. comandantul poarta 0 raspundere personala. Vezi "Scrisori de garanjie" . marks.nu imperios necesarsa fie intarita ~i de stampila navei.P. a caror raspundere trebuie 5-0 preia ~i prin aceasta se Intelege d exonerarea prevazuta de conosament a fost realmente luata in considerare. ~i.P. si nu este doar 0 elauza de stil. Potrivit acestei clauze soar parea ca nava nu raspunde de nimic . comandantul poarta raspunderea personala daca semneaza conosamente purtind 0 alta data de emitere decit aceea la care marfa a fost realmente mcarcata. Unii comandanti chiar cred acest lucru ~i dau 0 importanta minora unei probleme care ar trebui sa-i preocupe in eel mai inalt grad. comandantnl.armator pentru abnz de tncredere. Daca nava a tncarcat. . Pentru orice nepotrivire Intre starea si cantitatea marfii real Incarcata ~i descrierea acesteia in conosament. sparte sau ambalate necorespunzator.. acesta ~ unn1 are imprimate pe contiapaginli.gubiri pentru realizarea unor riscuri care in realitate nu au existat.. Apoi. este necesar sa se faca in ordinele de ambarco mentiuni care sa' reflecte starea reala a marfu1 Tip de conosament aprobat de The Baltic Intwnatio1JalCotl/erefJu . un numar de 10 000 legaturi de tuburi. nu va putea opune primitorului sau tertilor niei una din clauzele contractului. si nu-l absolva pe armator de raspunderi fata de primitori. Pentru aceste motive este indicat ca semnarea acestor documente. va semna cu mentiunea 10 000 bundles said to contain 50 pieces each. sa refuze primirea lor la bordo Daca totusi acestea au fost tncarcate sau reconditionate. angajeze fara dubiu raspunderea navei. Neprocedind astfel.. plateasca descarcarea marfurilor chiar daca navlul s-a ca1culat pe baza F.. neoriginali ori patati etc. trebuie sa observe ~ permanenta la .10 000 tone".i1e privind executarea transportnlui ~ se folQSe(1te prin exce1entll tn transporturile de mli. unde sint enumerate exonerarile legale de raspundere (cazuri fortuitesi de forta majora. Conosamentul se semneaza de comandant in atttea originale cite slnt mentionate in acest document.~i..O. . de exemplu. lubrifianti. se folosesc conosamente tip Congenbillla un transport angajat prin C. (incorporat in conosament) se face referire la Regulile de la Haga. In asemenea cazuri pn rlspunzltor pe . contents and value -unknown.rc!rii m!rfurilor descrise In el. cu redactarea: goods . pe contrapaginli.

cu conditia de a se fi depus un protest in acest sens. duly re~eived here ansliti compliance With.ea. ' . mud obliged for.. nu excnereaza pe armator de raspundere. accepttnd scrisori de'garan#e. olthe Lst November gratefully noted' that .<.*" . in ultima instanta. nava rasjJund6 pentru daunelecauzate primitorilor.havestlll to" thank you for your letter of the 23rd October .fed.' Introducerea. .. Opozitia ferma a comandantului de a semna clean atunci cind.it. • .ormJJl3. In compliance with your request we send you herewith .y.Cindacestlucru nu este posibil. FORME UZUALE DE INTRODUCERE FOLOSITE IN CORESPONDENTA COMERCIALAENGLEZA CURENT ..t_.. ~ 1 ~ '" a:} Porm« simpla In ac~st~ fo~a introd~cerea ~e ~\@ai '~~p~ de a face i~ga~ ~.jj ·t~. tidi'. introducerea are scopul de a usura intrarea in subiect.fu.Comandantiinu trebuie sa se lase intimidati de asemenea indicatfi ce pot da nastere lafraude.~_· ••-·.aratata in conosament..al. ' Deseori. Procedtnd aUfel..' tttaf:ij""~""" rOt ~t'"t~' . .' ' Corespondentul comard. request we have pleasure in sending you herewith .. . . descarcare.. fie de comandant.: ~ol9Sit~. care ~ faca 0 legat~a logica cu obiectul corespondentei. . . I thank. Please do accept our best. fara caaceasta sa fie .lcare a eticii oomercial«. deseori.SE. . trebuie sa reproduca in elementiunile facute de ofiterul secund in ordinelede ambarco. Se reaminteste ca scrisorile de garantie (vezi "Letter of indemnity") nu au nici a valoare fata de primitori sau autoritatile portuare din portul de. you for your letter of the 1st 2. nugase~te .. contra unei scrisori de garantie prin care el ~ armatorul ar fi complet exonerati de raspundere in caz de reclamatii din partea primitorilor.Incarcator se arataca nu se accepta mentiuni in aceste documente. ." your letter and .. 6. potrivit scopului urmarit in ·scri~ soare. thanks for your letter of the 2nd J nne the contents of which have been carefully noted. Daca marfurile sint primite dinceamuri sau salande.i'.* bf 1ijk'j~ "i('.and 25th ultimo.ri~ soare.and note that you bave passed my claim Note to.11#. acestei forme. We have received/with thanks your letter of the . . Nu exista lege sau uz de comer] care sa oblige pe comandant sau peorice ofiter al navei sa confirme primirea Ia bord a unei marfi pe care. 1975 and we are much obliged for the information SllPplied..iordinele de ambarco se vor semna numai dupa ce s-a efectuat uncontrol minutics alacestor ambarcatii spre a se asigura ca s-a desdircat intreaga cantitate de marfa. in realitate. -urmata: de prima fraza a textului. are motive serioase de a face "mentiuni" este intimpinata de ingerinte serioase din partea incarcatorilor. in Charter 'Party se introduce a clauza potrivit careia conosamente1e urmeaza a fi semnate de comandant asa cum ti sint prezentate (as presented).. moderne the 1st May. .U-li'~-"iii"t~. Your letter. . 'sc.hiar foarte experimentat. De asemenea.~i_jr~~''?re''6*_hi'~'. Thank you for your letter of. in ordine1e de ambarco intocmite de. Introducerea protestului." .hi spiritul ideii.. Nu este indicat ca mentiunea sa fie formulata: Primit *asezeci butoaie.- llitl --'j rilor primite la bord .. d.intotdeaunamodalitatea ceamai potrivita de a incepe expunerea textului scrisorii. sa-l determine a semna clean. Un act de cea mai rea-credin/i.' We. I Ipn. Daca apar diferente intre cantitatile primite la bord ~ cele aratate in ordinul de ambarco. detncli.pentrua~ura f9losu. In cazurile in care incarcatorii refuza semnarea conosamente1or cu mentiuni. de urmatoarea maniera: Primit La bard cincizeci p cinci butoaie.' ' .' " ft:.passed my Claim Note .de a intra directintext. of the 6th April was " . Salvage Association-London for Settlement.unele exemple.1: yP"r$. in contextul bogat si-foarte divers al corespondentei comerci3l~~ capata.Lst May.'..'.and would say in reply that.Se. ~i deseori ·intimpma dificultati in formularea ce1ei mai potrivite "introduceri"." . comandantul poate semna cu protest (signed under protest).. In fOJ:ll!lL. Referring to yours 1of Forme simple:... .·:i. este eliptic de'ln~les fql~fte" lIJ1yerpmJ1!l DlQdim~~na1. nu a primit-o sau a carei stare nu corespunde celei descrise in ordinul de ambarco sau conosament.hi mod concis. . We confirm JacknowledgeJ receipt of your letters of the 19th and 25th June 1975 the contents of which we have duly noted.6th April.. W~ havefor acknowledgement your letters of the 19th . Thank May. Pentru uzul practic al corespondentilor comercialts-a gasit utila expnnerea unor exemple comparate de introduceri.. cinci tn disputa.fi ~ in . S&:: . estepsemnarea anticipata sau postdatarea conosamentelor. la 0 autoritate competenta 1.~~tion~LondOn for ment. Redactata .btli~Qi~!!:-.. urinante. c~respon~enta prec~enta sau .iitiK t &- f t:t'¥"t"fh"wt·_'1tJt-. you for your letter of the 1st May. . ca.have you have to Salvage due settle'. va . Exempte comparate de introduceri Forme demodate 1. ot 5. the contents' which we ..(0' -q -.6pt:OJ1~ cuvtntul sc~. . Practica judecatoreasca internationala a confirmat constant obUgajia coman'-' dantului de a apara pe cumpariitor contra fraudelOr §i evic/iunilor. Conosamentele emise fie de agent. .'lIltI'o!iucerea. f. Thanks for your letter of. you for your letter o( (the] Lst Novemben. precum *i a unor exemple de introduceri grupate pe eategorii. ' Thank you for your letter of 23rd October and are much obliged for the inf0IlIlati9Il supplied. amite Vezi "Sea Protest". trebuie sa se faca imediat cercetan.' to which we reply as per following: sau We thank. your. 7. plu.3. 2nd June the contents of which we have duly (carefully) noted.' Ht'.s cinci In disputa.:r:i extrem de variate. diferenta aflata in disputa trebuie mentionata dar in ordinul de ambarco.'. h #.~ve duly nO. demodate ~i moderne.the .... ~ posesiv] ::-!Ufa.

.citlm".11. which has had our 'best attention. rugim). telex message from Messrs..~ "citeztt~ . 1975 and would advise you as follows in connection with your comments. In loe de punct se fol~e euvtntul stop. 1975 to which we reply as follows: - We refer to your letter of the 2nd. We thank you for your letter of (the) 4th July 1975. . to which we have replied quote I: "under port of London regulations in force schedule of rates does include charges for stevedoring. We thank you for your letter of the 1st February. With reference to the enclosures attached to your letter of (the) 21st September. 1 Exemplul Dr. wish to advise you as follows :. Exemplele de mai [os. We duly received on the 2nd November your cable dated 1st of the same month. a In telexuri se folosesc frecvent abrevierile. 1975 we would report that we have identified the goods listed therein and would like your advise as to the following: 10. • U~e. 4.11. 1975 and would reply to your remarks as follows: 3. 2. Singapore. 1975 and to your reply of the 13th September.Referire La corespOJUlenlaprecedentq. We thank you for your telex No. Aceste prescurtllri se practici numai pe conttnentul european ~i In Anglia (vezi .3. which has crossed our 2. ~ exemplu: 050430 se citeste ziua de 5 (tn~legtndu-se luna eurentA)ora 04. grupate pe categorii. '. formuleze forma de introducere cea mai potrivita aspectelor specifice la care se refera.: .- Exemple: 1.Telex"). vor ajuta pe corespondentul comercial de limba engleza sa.CABLE IF OPEN AFTER COMPLETING DISCHARGE AT HOUSTON MV BUCEGI RYC 031175:1 AFTER DISCHARGING HOUSTON PROCEEDS BALTIMORE FOR REPAIRS having cabled the following: "ATTENTION COAD JUSTER STQP' BRAD WE HAVE BEEN GIVEN GUARANTEE IN RESPECT OF BILL OF LADING NUMBER TWO CONSTANTZA FOR ROTTERDAM AND ARE HOLDING THIS PENDING YOUR INSTRUCTIONS IFtANY" 5. "Many thaJiks" este 0 formA amicali.. in cazul unor enumerll. 2. We will deal with the points. vi.seanmiptease (rog.50430 tnseamxm. We refer to our letters of the 31st August and 4th September. . to. under the above reference. February and also to thetelexes exchanged. dated 6th June reading: "pis a cable if london 4 schedule of rates does include charges for stevedoring. 5. 1975 No. in particular. Pis iu..Telegrame"). We thank you for your letter of the 2nd February. l'unete se foloseste euvtntul colon sau bisJop (Vezi . where you stated that. "'QuaIs inseamnJ. Daci prescurtarea se referll. worded: .75 Ours: dd 5. 3 noiembrie 1975. . We have received a. which we replied by letter on the 4th October.' 1975 as . From the Rotterdam I' Tug companies we received the following message: . anul. Ctnd 0 idee se termini. 9627 of 1st February letter of the same date.30. you raise in the same order as yourself: 1.Data" .. in Ioc dedoua. 3. With regard to the points you raised we wish you to note that .coma. We refer to previous correspondence concerning the above and. 9... Thank you for your letter of January 9.. . Ltd.. It!li gIsefte aplicare clnd se rispunde In aceea!ji orditle a Intrebirilor problemelor enumerate tn scrisoarea primitA.: L Many thanks for your letter of (the) 2nd June. . supervision and use of stevedoring gear". Thank you for your letter of 26th of this month (the) contents of which have been duly noted and transmitted to Charterers' Agents. MV1 BUCEGIllLEASE .. . iar In loe de virguli. ~Ii orll..75 4. 5.ref~ence to previous correspondence in respect of the above-mentioned subject we can nowinform you that .Telegrame"). 1975 which has had our best attention. tenninarea citlrii... making the following comments: . With regard to the points raised by you we would reply as follows: . 1 -In tel~gmme prescurtarile n'i' stnt u'rmatede punct. We have received you letter of (the) 21st May. rog. 1635 hours for which we thank you.. Simons & Co. Thank you for your letter dated 2nd March and have carefully noted your advices for which we are obliged." I in telegrame se fol~e prescurtarea datei prin cifre. b) Introduc~i specifice pr?blemei tratate Introducerile specifice au ca scop informarea cititorului asupra uneia din aspectele fondului' problemei.ret . Your comments therein have been duly noted and we would advise you as follows: 8. 4.. ruglm. unquote" 6.Exemple 1...cita.. Exemplu: 110. 3. sad 60 -61 . 30869 we.. ora 4 iii jumitate din 11 maio Ctnd telegrama comuDici numai ziua !Ii'ora sefoIosesc 6 cifre. We co~irm exchanged as follows: .ri. 6.. In reply to your letter dated 3rd January.. Paterson. We have received your letter of (the) 5th August. We confirm the telegrams Yours: dd 3. . supervision and use of stevedoring gear as per official tariffs but ten percent rebates are allowed under special contracts.. 2. vi. We would like to bring to your attention the scale of fees which we have been charging for attending your vessels over the last two years. 1975.Citare de texte 1. In acest caz se eIimixm.i . 4 in telexuri nu se folosesc inipaIe majuscule [vezi . ours dated 3rd March 1430 hours and your reply of the 4th. With . to your letter of the 29th June. aceasta este indicatA prin 4 cifre serise dupi alte la 4 citre care reprezintl ziua ~ luna. Astfel..follows: 7. 03117j tnseamxm. We acknowledge your letter of (the) 3rd June and wish to give you full and complete details of the position of accounts to the 30th March. ... in your opinion.

It is with the greatest interest that we met your representative in Bucharest on the occasion of the extensive discussions our friends Stevenson and Batson had with MesSrS. 1975 which is self explanatory.Referire la "anexe" : 1. • . In your letter of the 18th May you mention having sent us with your previous letter' of the 22nd April the survey raport No~ . the Lloyd Anversois from which you will see the striking expansion of UNAMAR. 2. We enclose herewith the Schedule of values as declared to us which we have divided into two section. 5. " . which bas been due to pressure. 5. Hahl by your Captain Marinescu and Mr. ' . .to settle this matter amicably as soon as possible. cargo insured with ADAS. to it within a few days and return copies of the documents to you but this did ncrprove practicable. We refer to our letter of 2Znd June and our telex of 23rd June to which your kind reply is still outstanding. We thank you for your letter of the 31st December. ' '" ' 62 1.. 8. ' 5. We thank you for your letters of the 1st and 3rd instant (together) whith enclosures therein mentioned. We refer 'to your letter of )8th january 1975 which only reached us on 10th March. the contents of which we have carefully noted. Theodore N.of the 18th and 26th May together 'with their enclosures. .of the postal strike in this country. Chittagong. It is a pleasure for us to advise you that the Empreso de Navega~oAlian~a have now published in the press our appointment as their agents for their outward services from Antwerp to Brazil and the River Plate and this as from the 1st July 1970. We enclose herewith a copy of a letter we have received from Lloyd's Recoveries Department. G. 10. 2. cargo insured in London. Kiritescu who discussed with us . and now-have pleasure in enclosing two . Katsoulis dated 1st September. 63 . 2. together with the .. 6.Rotterdam. We thank you for your letter dated 25th 'February 1976. We eonflrm.Cu Privire la vizite pe~sonale 1.. We must apologize for not replying to your letter of 4th July.We. We thank you for your letter of the' Ist of this month and note that at the moment you do not wish to seek the assistance of the other cargo interest in rebutting this claim foraIleged shortage.Cu'privire la publicitate # reclaml 1. .the stevedoring of your liner vessels at .. Firstly. We thank you for your telex message of the 16th instant of this month but would point out that we have returned to you the documents mentioned in your letter of the 29th March.• 5. 1976 we have now received following' the termination .. 6. Unfortunately we were not informed of this and . . We refer to your letter of [the] 3rd August and the enclosed copieS'of correspondence referred to therein. .this case but if the letter (did not reach you) got astray please let us know .~tten to you on the 18th January regarding . .. . . We thank you for your letter of 24th September 1976 and wish to inform you that we are .. this is a month earlier than anticipated. . 5.I. Reverting to our letters of 11th a~d 22nd June·(remained) so far unanswered.. shall be obliged if you will pass one copy to MesSrS . ' Refe-rire la probleme litigio~e 1.ourcompleted report. . G. We think you should have some explanation as-to why we thoughtitadvisable to consult the London cargo Undel'writers about the salvage reward claimed by the m/v "BRAD". We enclose herewith a copy of our letter dated June 22. from whithwe note that you have been appointed surveyor in this matter 'by" M~rs ROMANOEXPORT-Bucharest. We had expected to be able to reply. Referire la tnttrzierea riispunsului sau la nepritnirea corespondenlei 9. We thank you for your letters of the 27th August and 2ith September together with enclosures and regret .. i. Popescu during his last week's visit to your. 2. Thank you for your letter of (the) 17th instant. days' ago we were visited by Capt. A couple' of.. i.F.having .most anxious.' i.my delay in replying. 2...68/107 which has not reached us yet..J..basis. etter of the 21st December but regret to say that l we ha vebeen unable to trace the photostat copy of Messrs. We thank you for your letter of the 24th September and note that you agree it is better to await Owners'pursuing a claim for contribution in» general average. H. I duly received your letter' of the 30th November (together) with enclosures and apologize for having been unable to acknowledge it earlier. 3. 5. 7. 1975 to Maritime Agencies Co Ltd." " . and this in less than 10 months' time. 7. We have pleasure in enclosing herewith our present advertisement in.~opiesof. values of which are supplied on a C.values of which are on a C & F basis. Wf. _.. office in Constantza. and secondly. . We thank you for the copy of your letter dated 2nd July. Having returned to Hamburg we wish to thank you very much for the kind reception given (to) our Mr. We thank you for your letters . thank you for your . we would advise you that . Oclinescu and Ionescu.

We now await required of us. in care amabilitatea. 9. Yours faithfully. Yours faithfully. your comments so that we 18. Looking forward to your reply.. evitindu-se vorbaria goaIa. (obtained) your Solici- 11. accepte 0 sugestie sau un anumit punct de vedere al autorului. frazele trebuie sa. 6. Yours faithfully. sa. 16. 64. We shall be obliged if you will keep us advised as to the next move to be made by us. bunavointa ~i onestitatea sa. your further instructions as to what. FORME DE INCHEIERE (FINAL OR CLOSING PARAGRAPH) Fraza de incheiere are 0 considerabila importanta in scrisoareacomercialii. . Yours faithfully. bine corelate. Folosire a unui ton potrivit intr-o scriere cursiva nepretentioasa. Yours faithfully. (we remain) Yours faithfully. dictionar. London Underwriters of Cargo 1.mtr-o subordonare logica. spre acjiunea dorita de autor.cu scopul de aimpresiona . Yours fai thfull y. so that this matter formala 15. We leave it to you to draw your own conclusions. 2. with your alternative suggestion. are efect psihologic favorabil asupra cititorului. if anything. fie o unit ate separata de gindire. to. Este indicat ca. 9. with best regards. frazele de incheiere sint grupate pe categorii. We hope that the above is of assistance to you and that you will reply as soon as possible so that this matter may be brought to a conclusion. dear Sirs. (we remain) ... Yours faithfully. in cadrul politetei comerciale. We trust therefore that you will be able to find the Bill of Lading amongst the documents we returned. _ Yours faithfully. aiba drept unic scop citirea cu u~urinta si Iatelegerea clara a mesajului..the documents enclosed with your letter. If you would let us have the appropriate accordance information. we now await your further instructions.. spre a alcatui in final 0 exprimare unitara ~i clara a ideii centrale. Meanwhile we are. si. Yours faithfully. faca sau sa. obisnuit. Fiecare fraza in parte trebuie sa. ideea centrala a autorului. Frazele trebuie formate din propozitii concise. Your earliest attention to the above would be appreciated . We are considering the questions you have raised and will write to you again as soon as possible. Yours faithfully. We shall be pleased to know whether you are now in a position to let us have a reply. Looking. Se disting: a) Forma "simplii. . Se recomanda folosirea unui vocabular cunoscut destinatarului. Sint contraindicate frazele pompoase. we are.potrivitscopului ce i~ipropune scrisoarea comerciala. we are. 8. Yours faithfully." In aceasta forma. Yours faithfully. indrumeze pe cititor. nu fad un anumit lucru. We shall write you shortly again on this subject. faca un efort suplimentar sau sa recurga Ia..a expresiilor tehnice sau stiintifice ~ a cuvintelor rare. se desprinda cu discretie. 20. Under the circumstances' kindly let us have may telex them to London fotthwith. 65 .vpurtatoare a unei parti clare din. We think this answers the additional point you have in mind and we return . 14. 17. may be finally settled. 3. we . incheierea are simplul rol de politete traditionala. Now we are awaiting with interest your comments on this matter. pentru a carer intelegere cititorul ar trebui sa. Looking forward to receiving your reply. 13. de solicit are laconica a unui raspuns. in mod subtil si convingator. Yours faithfully. Under the circumstances. . Yours faithfully. fraza de incheiere sa. forward to receiving your (kind) reply at your earliest convenience. ea avind functia de a determina pe primitor sa. . Yours faithfully. 1 eli ton de amabilitate exagerata. We await further news from you when you have tors' views. folosirea . (we remain) Yours faithfully. ·5. Repetarea in alte cuvinte a lucrurilor deja spuse in text (tratarea obiectului) este obositoare ~i are efect psihologic nefavorabil asupra cititorului. 4. In corespondent a comerciala. . we are.Traiarea obiectului (the body proper). We would like to express our thanks to you for offering to contact other . Exempte: 1. Pentru 0 mai buna folosire practica. Yours faithfully. is still Yours faithfully. 12.will proceed in 7.

seems that we shall have to retain your good services in connection with the above matter. Yours faithfully. It is therefore apparent that the vessel's deviation to Chios was not unlawful. Sincerely yours. 2. any further information (please) do not hesitate to I 'Ii Sincerely yours. It is due to the fact that in a spell of extraordinarily heavy pressure of work in connection with the meetings of BIMCO. Yours faithfully. be concerned. your letter had been mislaid. diverse. Yours faithfully. We regret our delay in replying but this has been due to pressure of work. Should any further information We are at your disposal for any further information Sincerely yours. this will be a somewhat complicated procedure. It. de a comunica sau. 12. Yours very truly. Yours faithfully. We shall. Exemple: Cu referire La probleme uzuale. As requested. we 5. 7. R. . We do not think that any weight can be attached to their enquiry for the time being but will write to you further on this point when we send you the schedule of values weare collecting. We must apologize for not replying to you sooner but our Superintendent. 3. With regard to the last paragraph of your letter we regret the sentiment expressed but we have no objection to your pursuing this course of action.typing error in the above mentioned Bill of Lading. de a cere sau a da 0 instructiune. . Yours faithfully. Yours faithfully. Yours faithfully. Yours faithfully. Cordially yours. be required. 2. Should contact you require us. We have endeavoured to reply to all the points raised by you and we shall be most obliged if you will. Yours sincerely. this error may have caused In aceasta categorie sint grupate Incheierile care poarta un mesaj final deosebit al autorului. de comerl maritim 1. We must apologize for the delay in reacting to your letter of the 25th April.21. tn ideea de a determina pe primitorul scrisorii de a face sau a nu face un anumit act sau fapt.solicita. 0 ultima informatie. We have to apologize for II.Cu privire la "informaJii" suplimentare 1.. . Ltd: full credit as to their professional ability. As the adjustment must be prepared in at least three currencies. we return your papers and on hearing from you that we have dealt with all the matters on which you require advice. de a exprima 0 ultima parere etc. 3. de a primi 0 sugestie sau un punct de vedere. We apologize most profusely for having been unable to reply earlier. Yours truly. we will forward a note of our charges to NA VLOMAR in Bucharest. 5. Yours faithfully. reconsider the . you may require. 4. Ionescu. We will greatly appreciate having your further views and the additional information required at the earliest possible moment. We enclose herewith the guarantee and will inform Mr. We await your response.matter in the light of our reply and allow us to finalize the disbursements account. 6. We (sincerely) apologize for any confusion or inconvenience which this wording might have caused in relation to our earlier notification. 66 67 . Yours faithfully. therefore. ' Yours faithfully. un document. 13. Yours faithfully. happened to be abroad for about a fortnight. As we explained at the outset of this letter. Yours faithfully.Prezentare de scuze 1. We would advise you that extensive revision of the accounts will now be necessary to include interest and expenditure up to the present time. I. do not hesitate to resort to us. b) Incheieri specifice ' to. Yours faithfully. 9. I confirm that insofar as our Principals may ultimately are in agreement with this Charter Party. Mr. Yours faithfully. We hope soon to hear from you and are always at your disposal for any further information you might require from us. . succint. of course. require the cargo claims papers settled by ADAS. Antigoon Co. We (sincerely) apologize for any inconvenience to you. Stoica that it has been passed to you. 6 . you should give Messrs. 7. who is in charge of this matter. Before advising on the question of unseaworthiness we would want to see all the relevant documents and in particular all the relevant survey reports and repair accounts. 11. 8. 4. .

4. Yours very truly. We will greatly appreciate 'your further views and additional required at the earliest possible moment. Very sincerely yours. perhaps. Sincerely yours. We hope full details. We shall be studying these claims further in the light of your letters and of other documents now sent to us. 12. Yours very truly. 1 "Yours truly"'. We duly note that the freight should be settled within one month from to-day's date. As a safety precaution weha ve had the telegraph and engines checked. . 15. Yours faithfully. . Veri "Formula de Incheiere" (complimentary close).>i' "Yours' very truly" sint "formele de politete" folosite rica.Cu privire la !. Cargo would be carried with potential danger of loss and. Much to my regret (To my 'utmost regret) I have to reject the Receivers' allegation regarding shortage of weight. We are therefore far from satisfied with the evidence your clients produce. 5.' " : Yours truly. we will put the claimants on notice. report in the matter as early as possible. Yours truly. Club. Yours truly. Yours truly. We therefore advise you th~t the Owners are protected from liability for sudden malfunction of a· valve. If you think the survey report is somewhat inconclusive. which we expect to have early next week. Yours truly. 4. . 9. 11. & 1. Should the matter be pressing. We shall be grateful if you would disregard this clause on any such invoices which might reach you. ' Very sincerely yours.gioase" 1 1. Yours very truly. It is surpnsmg that a reputable organization of your standing withhold payments due to us for such a longtime. suspension of cargo insurance. Sincerely yours. 8. Yours truly. . 2. We shall be pleased (obliged) if you would kindly let us have your detailed . will be found in our Surveyor's Report. should 3. in special in Ame- 68 .probleme Uti. 14. Yours truly. information 13. 10. 6. 7. we would advise your informing the UK P. Since it is evident that the entire claim under this head rests on this somewhat doubtful assumption. No faults -have been traced. In case you ultimately become involved. we reject any payment. Very sincerely yours. we are likely to need the classification report prior to the voyage (in question).

however. lt is to be noted. T~e org. and may even bring it to a standstill.possibilities may indeed be discourteous. and indeed. Thus correspondence is vital to the life of any business and. It slows down that business. . including both .. time is money. it~ copy should be filed away for reference. th~ customer needs to be shown that his opinion is valued and that his WIshes will be respected and hence the tone of the letter is important too. where the choice of words so often affects not only the objective meaning but also the mental atmosphere or mood. often because the rulings of different courts of law have interpreted them and legal precedents have thus been established.' To ac~eve these qualities it is not necessary to learn a special commercial Idiom or Jargon. tact is necessary to maintain. Since in the countries with which he will be corresponding an undertaking made or implied in a letter will often be l~gally enforceable. Each paragraph will deal with a single ideas or aspect of the business in hand. . where carelessness in this particular is often interpreted in the . Last. Finally. but it may also be unintentionally funny. In a business letter.rs. he must be able to state his meaning with clarity and precision. :' ~. '. . having in many ~ases no ot~er ex~rience of him or his firms. . as soon as a letter is dispatched..anization ~f trade and ~ommerce has been compared to the human ~dy In which money IS called the life-blood. material the food. Vocabulary is perhaps most important of all in English.same light as. all business letters must be clear."-. courtesy. ~missi?ns and ambiguities can all cause delay. that in commercial correspondence quite a numbe~ of formuJ-ashave been preserved. In the ordinary way undue repetition is a fault of style. to take so little trouble with the identity of your correspondent surely suggests an unconcern with his opinion which might well be reflected in your attention to his business interests. on a more personal plan. Before the commercial correspondent commits his ideas to paper they must be clearly thought out.' No letter should' ever be allowed to go to the post with errorsinit.~e should.' Spelling is important above all in English. an impression of firmness. Superfluous detail and comment are to be avoided: the essentials should be stated. The exercise of.. Punctuation can be vital: a comma in the wrong place can cost a fortune in legal wrangles. To becom. Everyday English will do. .: 70 . and this in turn leads to dissatisfaction and loss of business even where it does not involve as well it may. costly claims for compensation. To use the wrong word of several. . concise.commercial and technical terms. responsibility and a high standard of moral principles. At all times careful attention must be given to. In business. And. they suggest 'carelessness . but n?t l~st.Chapter II COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE-GENERAL Commercial correspondence is the communication of information on matters of trade and commerce.' "" 1'.e a good bu~ess correspondent the student will need a good deal of expenence and practice. labour the digestive tract. accurate and courteous." . a . and there is seldom any need for preoccupation with transition. which in our case is fairly comprehensive. For these reasons. he is dealing with people who. . What is more. He has to have a sound grasp of the technical vocabul~y employed. A British citizen whose name is misspelt in a letter will not uncommonly regard this as a person's affront.the very last quality to appeal to a potential customer. and no more.~ot hesitate to repeat a word or words if there is any risk that avoiding repetition may cause ambiguity.. t·. if it is defective. whether corrected or not. however. Such letters must be retyped and retained copies must be exact replicas of the version sent. and their logical relationships must also be clear in his mind.. will be likely to judge both according to the nnpression created by the letters he writes to them. especially in documents. and anything that wastes either is to be avoided.' .breach' of good manners..' . and correspondence the respiration. -:. 7 'X. the tone of the letter. Erro. .

Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. of.entilation. In that capacity. under special circumstances. Romanian Commercial Code). In such cases. As regards the preservation of the goods. He acts in the capacity of legal head of the community on board his ship. weather conditions. . civil and penal responsibility. 84. 370) and the Shipowner's directions. the Master must be personally in command (art. he must' exercise due diligence to make the ship seaworthy and keep her in that condition. Rules for Service on Board. and art. the Shipowners' directions. and art. The Master· must not effect transport free of charge or on his own account. the obligation of completing the voyage or-voyages for which he was engaged. nor. the Rules for Service on Board. He is not entitled to deviate from the route that has been selected for the voyage. and in places congested with ships. the Master is under. he is personally responsible for the preservation of the goods. binding the ship within the limits of the competency established by the Rules for Service on Board (art. For part shipments.a coaster.Romanian Commercial Code). which Romania joined in compliance with -decree No. or by trading with the enemy. he must observe local regulations: fulfill Customs formalities and the formalities demanded by the Harbour Master's Office. give notice of the ship's arrival in the ports of destination. The main duties of the Master.. when sailing near places dangerous to navigation. He is described as the legal head of the marine adventure in the ship's articles. Accordingly. He is the Owner's representative and the agent of the owners of the goods. through straits and canals. etc. who is answerable for the latter's mistakes. etc. and below bridges or through locks. Being considered as agent of necessity under the law and responsible for the cargo. 1974). he must also transport the passengers under satisfactory conditions. difficult passages. Romanian Commercial Code. . and if the orders given him as regards the ship's management or navigation are illegaL The Master carries out his duties in compliance with the laws of the flag.of destination fixed by the owner and has no right to sail along a route that is not habitually used by ships. The Master is entitled to refuse the command if the vessel is insufficiently or inadequately manned. Nor is the Master entitled to call at places that have not been approved of or are not legally justifiable. as derived from the laws. In case of per. As representative of the owner. In this capacity. the Master must transfer his duties to the Chief Officer. he is invested with absolute command of the ship. The Master is invested with the command of the vessel. it is his duty to keep the log book up to date. preservation and delivery of the goods at destination in the condition and in the quantities recorded in the Bill of Lading (art. the unfolding of loading and discharge. etc. The Master must possess a certificate of competency as Master of an ocean-going vessel. b) Commercial: Performance of the contract of carriage. Havind arrived in a port. on entering and leaving port. Rules for Service on Board). He is considered to have acted in bad faith if he signs Bills of Lading before loading. 514 and 515. stowage (art. the Master is considered to be the agent of the Shippers. or a coasting certificate. When thus acting he .aSSUII1.).Lesson 1 THE MASTER: A LEGAL STANDPOINT for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1. and actually be in the ports of destination on the date stated in the notice. 387. 375 of Rules for Service on Board. discipline on board. sailing with open hatches. the Immigration Autho. .es personal. are the following: a) Nautical: Command and management of the ship during navigation. the Bills of Lading should be issued after each parcel has been loaded.126. The voyage is decided on by the Owner and is executed by the Master in the capacity of servant. During the voyage. Rules for Service on Board and art. It is not legal for him to choose another route based on the consideration that it might be shorter.. even though he is offered a letter of indemnity. particularly in case of necessity. 774/196Q. See Sea Protest). -or antedates them and does not specify the real condition of the goods he has loaded. 386. He must rigorously observe the Rules 72 73 . the Master must take the ship to the port . the Rules for Service on Board and international conventions. he must sign the Bills of Lading (art. The pilot on board is under the sole command of the Master. having been chosen to act in that capacity by the Shipowner. visits on board. When reaching a port 10f refuge he must lodge a sea protest and declare general average (art. sailing incidents.108. international conventions and sailing practice. At dangerous moments (in foggy and stormy weather with poor visibility. he represents the ship in all relations with natural persons and legal entities as well as before juridical bodies in the country and abroad. if in command.he is entitled and is in duty bound to take any measures and go to any {reasonable) expense for the Shippers' account in order to avoid or minimize loss and damage. During the voyage as well as during turn round operations. collision it is his duty to give every possible assistance to the other vessel. He must lodge a sea protest whenever the ship has encountered some out-ofthe-way incidents (art. the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (London 1960). Rules for Service on Board). if the Shipowner is unable to find a substitute for him. 387. reception of goods on board. recording with great accuracy all events on board.I he must take steps to salve the ship and the goods.e. One-sided notice of termination of the contract by the Master is a penal offence except in cases of force majeure. and in cases of.rities. particulars about hold v. 84 and 388. Having accepted the command of the ship. in cases of peril or emer1 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1960) i. When loading has been completed. the Health Service. effect illegal transport by forcing a blockade without the sanction of the Owner.

cu echipaj inadequately in mod necorespunzator the law of the flag legea pavilionului rules re'gulament in foggy weather pe vreme de ceat! lock ecluza rule regula seaworthy in buna stare de navigabilitate c:>ndition stare sole command comanda exclusiva answerable rll.. Rtsingrates. The nautical and commercial duties of the Master make of him the repre. Aceast~ dovedeste ca . dece~~es occ~g during the voyage. The Master acts .gerundul are. pasibil de pedeapsa to carry a transporta EXERCISES 1. The master carries .He is entitled to . Misuse of authority made manifest by insults pr violence" is punishable under.o~er's extended hand (longamantis) and in that capacity he is .~i poate . a preaviza .un participiu. ' . .entitled and ~bliged to act asa competent Shipowner would have done under the same circumstances.spunzator turn round operations operatiuni in timpul stationarii (in port) log book jurnal de bord to keep up to date a tine Ia zi accuracy precizie to lodge a sea protest a depune un protest de mare out-of-the-way incident incident neobisnuit stowage stivuire. fMII urmat de un complement direct. What is meant by the obligation to keep the log book up to date? 7. geney.. he records the births and.. When is the M!1. 3.. ' notice of termination pIl8aviz de t~rminare. 391... Rules for Service on Board). thecapac:itY. . . What does the Master do in his' capacity as public officer a) as registrar? b) as notary public? c) as examining magistrate? l.ster take into account in carrying out his duties? What are the Master's nautical duties ' a) at dangerous moments? b) in case of collision? .of/iDhis capacity as'master. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where required: 1. Se observll ca prepczitia ·folositain limba engle~nu se traduce ."tificat'de eabota] in8rine' adventure' expeditie maritilnil. a-~i des~ura activitatea " hi.. What are the Master's duties as regards the goods his ship carries? 13. . . .. Pe de alta parte. of a (oreign-gomg v~el in cali1.. What should the M!1. care are Cl!Xacteris~ci verbale (se ..74 75 .. deosebire de limba romtld. ca ~i al partici~iului.na. What are the Master's commercial duties? 8. board his ship. ca mai sus. certificate ce!.. unele.0WDerproprietar . . to declare general average a declara. Perfectul gerundului. the flag' and the Rules .. the chief officer. In limba englez! dupl 0 prepontie se foloseste forma verbal! in.e ingriji ca . 0'. . Acting as notary public. . (ship)owner armator . " ' . to carry .into the offen'ces committed on board.out the other d~ties in ~he Rapacity of head of the marine adventure.caracteristici substantivale. avarie comuna emergency caz de urgent! unseaworthy in stare de nenavigabilitate for the shipper's account in contul tncarcatorilor disbursements account decont de cheltuieli the suppliers' invoices facturile furnizorilor registrar ofiter de stare civila to record a consemna notary public notar public will testament ~ ofatiorney procura examining magistrate judecator de instructie offence delict to see. cu forma in -ing a verbulUl to "afle+..6. plectnd dinport. What are the Master's obligations as regards the route selected for the ship under his command? 12. When sailing below bridges.' . ' ..•. is considered as the..Cind ~te portul... What duties does the preservation of goods imply? 9. He can draw up l~gal acts in his own name for the Shipowner's account. a face e scala la/ln .sterdo before signing the ship agents' disbursements accounts and the suppliers' invoices? . 2. The 'law delegates pl!-blic authority to the M!lster ~th the powers of a registrar.tion: b) when he has reached the port of destination? 10. immigration and sanitary regulations are observed. 3. He has authority to enforce discipline on board and to see that the Ru1es for Service on Board. -'. the Master 'must take such steps as are most adequate in 'd~fenc~ of the interests· of the Owners of the goods.-~g. to observe a rule a respecta 0 regula to enforce discipline a impune 0 disciplinll crew echipaj to exercise rights a exercita drepturi to resort to a recurge la to fly a flag a naviga sub un pavilion misuse of authority abuz de autoritate punishable pedepsit.Ifotified·to the Peopl~'sCouncilon reachi:ng theco~ntry (art . .p"rlidPiul trecut al verbului deconjUgat. to fulfill customs formalities a indeplini formalita1iIe' vamale Harbour Master's Office capit!nia de port part shipment tncarcare partiala to issue a bill of lading a elibera un conosament free of charge gratuit to load a incarca on his OWDaccount pe cont propriu sanction/approval apro bare route rut! accordingly in consecinta port of refuge port de refugiu to call at. lungl cOlillter cabotier . .. arimare recorded in consemnat in . the community . '. When must the Master sign the Bills of Lading? 11.' .. .foloseste dupa o... When is the Ma... gerandul. the law. 'spre . . benefit of the ship and her cargo (art. Fiindca' i1 fost ales·saactioneze.Obligaj:ia de a termina cmtoria. . avea un complement.of destina.Norn:S The obligatIon of completing tM 'floyage . him.n~asures in order. but only for the. .. .. Board). i.Dupl ce i-a dat ordine. .' c) Public Officer. precum ~ caracteristic~ adjectivale: .c0!l: [unctie..5.ster entitled to refuse the command of the ship? What must the Ma. he inquires..-. .in limba romA. H. ~ Taxe in crestere. legal head .is a delegate of p~blic authority serving the interests of the persons and of the goods he carries on board. 37().. .. ' . .Atunci eind navigheaza pe sub 'poduri.sentative of the Shipowner.ster entitled to draw up legal acts for the shipowner's account? 1.ate lie comandant de cursll.. compliance . In exercising the latter nght abroad he may resort to t~e Consul. to man a dota 0 navll. What must the Master do a) before reaching the port . ' . demmtare a contractUlui substitute 'inlocuitor . 2. and customs.as well as the marriages between Romaman Cl~lzensoutside Romanian territorial waters.shipper incarcator to minimize a micsora damage a varie to give notice of. on. As far as possible. VOCABULARY !. a avea dreptul de a . .. to enforce discipline on the crew and passengers.ster of a vessel act? What is the Master obliged to do once he has accepted the command of the vessel P. .' In what capacity does the Ml. If the shipowner is unable to find a substitute . tS -wiu#ti 'y' . Answer the following questions. while whericarrying .l!aving gif/en him ordws... sa se observe ca participiile $i gen. gerundul are~l caracteristici verbale.. that . Having been chosen to act.. he receives the wills of the crew and of the passengers. leaving pOrt . ship's articles rol de echipaj II. ca ~l gerundul). and as examining magistrate. his duties •. to militarr vessels flyin~ the sa~~ flag and even to port authorities. a s.. the Master IS obliged to check and to sign the disbursements accounts of the ship agents as well as the suppliers' invoices. to be entitled to. Aici forma in -ing este ...• the laws ••.. .'. .take x.outone's 'duties a-~i indeplini func1ii1e /atribupile. the Master must transfer his duties . se formeazll. i:08sting. at the same place and at the same moment. the capacity .ndurile se traduc deseori prin propozitii subordcnate ~i 'ca se folosesc cu conjuncpi sau "preporltii. he. Such events are entered in the minutes book and are ... . .: . Generally the Master . Rules for Service.

4. as a rule. 2. etc. eomandantul are dreptul ~i indatorlrea de a Ina i mlLsuri pentru evitarea pierderilor. 6. comande nava. concessions where demurrage is concerned. The Master has no right to leave or abandon the ship during the voyage except under special conditions provided hy theIawjart. ~. to arrive. The Master is not entitled to make the Owner responsible for payment of any sums of money that are not necessary for themarine adventure. 380. 7. el trebuie sa semneze conosamentele. foggy weather. The Master may prejudice the Shipowner or third parties by his errors or negligence.. The money can. He (may) issue a Bill of Lading.tile inscrise in eonosament. 9. lock. sea- 1. choosing from The Master's main responsibilities. a) He can undertake to carry goods in special cases. In calitatea sa de reprezentant 11. Echipajul nu va avea voie sa parlLseasca nava. and. deaths and marriages. 3. also fall under the incidence of penal laws. to encounter. Ii este interzis eomandantului sa fad transporturi far! plata sau pe cant propria. 519. 3. 5. Romanian Commercial Code). An official charged with keeping registers of births. 4. etc. twenty-four hours . Translate into English: a) 1. bodily injuries and loss of life caused by collision. VI. Under certain circumstances the Master is responsible for the manner in which he uses the vessel.. to lose. Use the -ing form instead of the phrases or clauses in italics: 1... Ei nu au putut sa termine stivuirea in doua are. b) in the Past Tense. Comandantul nu a putut sa anunte sosirea navei in port. A book in which an official diary of events occurring in a ship's voyage is kept.. to substitute. He (can) use only a seaworthy ship. Operatiunile navei in port vor trebui terminate pin! la sfir~tul saptaminii. 4. and damage to.Service Board. the moment . . Atunei cind sose~ intr-un port el trebuie sa respecte regulile locale. the goods if this occurs through his fault.. 4. Moreover. 2. 4. 2. tn porturi. however slight. b) He is not entitled to transport goods or passengers free of charge or to use the ship in his own interesttart. except in fortuitous or force majeure cases (art. 537. El este capitan de cursa lunga si va trebui sa paraseasca portul la sfir~tul lunii acesteia. bridges or locks. d) N. 3. Dupa ce a pArlLsitportul. He was allowed to (may) 1. to load. 8. 3. Regulile pentru prevenirea abordajelor pe mare trebuie sa fie riguros respectate. 6. 3. 5. El nu are dreptul sa facA escale nejustificate legal.. Romanian Commercial Code).. 3.. log book. An enclosure in a canal. bunker. Dupa ce a controlat decontul de eheltuieli. in order to ensure thecontinuationof the marine adventure the Master is entitled to raise money by drawing a draft on the Shipowner. fuel. . The Master must lodge a sea protest . Dupa ce a recurs la serviciile noastre."make. unseaworthy.. ... to coast. materials). Abandon- community.1ncll. 77 ... Legal declaration of one's intentions as to the disposal of one's property after one's death. to comply..rclLtorilor. force majeure. money in cases . He could (can) He will be allowed to . 6. In a fit state to go to sea. will. Not in a fit state to go to sea. to possess. Dupa ce a inc4reat marfurile. Model: He will have to . 3. arrival in port. as failure to discharge his obligationsconscienciously imperils the maritime adventure and consequently public interests. Rules for Service on Board). Dupa ce a ajuns. 4. Romanian Commercial Code). He (can) sail below that bridge. to sail. III. 6. The Master must be personally .and the latter then have the right to sue him. when sailing . He (may) draw a draft on the shipowner. MArfurile trebuie predate la destinatie in starea ~ cantitll. Circumstances beyond one's control. stranding or other accidents.After fulfilling customs formalities. command dangerous moments: . illegal abandonment he is responsible under the law. Nor is he entitled to. 10. 4. Antedated Bills of Lading.B. to choose. worthy. 5. La intrarea in port eomandantul personal trebuie sa.. A body of people having common rights or interests. A person. but is not entitled to change the terms and conditions of a contract concluded by the Shipowner. to refuse. His duties (must) be in compliance with the laws of the flag. Having fulfilled customs formalities. c) Model: Dupa ee a indeplinit formalitatile vamale. or thing put in the' place of or serving for another. for raising and lowering vessels by the introduction or liberation of water. El n-a avut voie sa ridice niei a sumll de bani. el este dator sa se supuna regulilor locale. registrar). between gates. lnainte de a elibera un conosament.. 2. amo11g those listed below: (substitute. 506. He (must) accept the command of the ship. Such expenditure is justified only if needed in order to ensure the ship's seaworthiness and the execution of the contract of carriage entered into by the. The draft should specify the purpose for which the money is required (repairs. shipowner. Put the verbs in brackets: a) in the Future. V. He is responsible under the civil law for non-performance of the contract of carriage and for loss of. Inainte de a declara avarie comuna. purchases of materials and provisions. The Master is personally responsible for his fault. Shipowner. e1 l-a semnat. Give nouns corresponding to the foUowing verbs: . 2. b) 1. be used for 'repairs.. He had to (must) He will be able to . the Shipowner cannot raise any objections when the time comes for the draft to be honoured.. provisions. entering or leaving port. intr-un port de refugiu el trebuie sa depnna un protest de mare.of great necessity outside the" port of residence of the Owner or of his representative in order to ensure continuation of the marine adventure (art. 1. For. Lesson 2 THE MASTER: A LEGAL STANDPOINT (Continued) IV. One who owns a ship or ships. Give the word or words answering the following definitions. 3. to collide. The Master's responsibility towards the Owners falls under the penal law. c) He can raise.

. the former is a tanker. The act of saving (a ship. Are el voie sli. the . of the crew. This is the . in propozijiile subordonate de timp ~i condijie introduse de conjunctiile . N.. Poate armatorul sli.rfurilor to undertake to. supposing. failure to discharge one's obligations neindeplinirea obligapiilor sale . fi vorbit cu armatorul. An allowance by the charterer of a vessel. They will no doubt . as soon as. when. crew. as far as possible in mllsura in care este posibil to be in duty boUnd to. Cind asemenea cheltnieli justificate? Cind trebuie sli. nu a dus la bun sfir~t reparajaile . .Nu a rli. On condition the salvage of the people on board has been organized. on condition etc. At the meeting yesterday. an ore-carrier. '.Le vom pillti dupa ce vom fi vorbit eu agentul. . Here is the ..East area. failure.B. Failure to discharge one's obligations. to purchase. Fill the blanks.a ridica. He will not be able to raise any money until he proves that it is needed to ensure the ship's seaworthiness. and only on ccndition the salvage of passengers. telex. payment. contract of carriage. sailing list of the Near . See Notes 2. The Master can . . to imperil/to endanger a primejdui. He will draw a draft on the shipowner as soon as he has been informed what the repairs amount to. Are el voie sli.NeindepJinirea obligajiilor sale. 6. . One who travels a public conveyance by land.facli. The Master is in duty bound to be the last to leave a sinking ship and as. information we could get.seaseli. 5. that question.. loss. ... performance. b) the latter . vessel to sail from our port last night.. before. (demurrage. Translate into Romanian. to specify a preciza. sinking. peril. 4. se aplicli. care se scufundli. ca ~ verbul corespunzltorto fail. facli. sure. Comandantul va pli.. till. facli.B. cu contrastaliile? Nu. dau un sensnegativ verbului care urmeazli.concesii in ceea ce priveste contrastaliile dacli. to raise. until. The Master must be the . a man in the front bench . 4.. A written agreement to carry goods. We shall pay jar the provisions as soon as/when we receive them.. 5. in case. -d . He will only undertake to carry the goods after the shipowner has given his consent... the more important ship dccuments. Who is the last person to leave a sinking ship and what should that person take with him? 78 79 . The level Of the Danube . 3. the most importimt ship documents cele mai importante documente ale navei engineer's log jurnalul ma~i to be the last to leave a fi ultimul care sa plI. 5... Comandantul va aveadteptul sli. 3. IV. choosing one of the words given below : a} to raise. The company of seamen manning a ship. water or air.rli... Who is entitled to sue the Master of a ship and for what reasons? What is . 'valuable.. is carried out with the recommendation of the mate. money outside the owner's port./namely ~i anume seaworthiness bud stare de navigabilitate to enter into a contract a incheia un contract to abandon a abandona abandonment abandonare peril/danger pericol chief mate/chief officer secund chief engineer mecanic ~ef salvagesalvare sinking ship navli. demUrrage contrastalii free of charge gratuit terms and conditions clause ~i cond~pi to raise money a ridica bani to draw a draft on a trage 0 traU asupra to raise objections a zidice obiectii . punere pe uscat to be stranded a fi ~uat non-performance of. 6. fi fost organizatli. 3. ne-executarea . 2. armatorul va da consimtamlntul. nu peate! 5.rli.the Master not entitled to do? When can the Master raise money for the owner's account and how does 'he raisefhat money? When is the Master entitled to abandon his ship? . as.. b) 1. possible. purchase.ultimul (in sensul de eel mai recent) 1.spuns la telexul nostru.&sigure buna stare de navigabilitate a navei executarea contractului de transport. 2. 4. able. Use failure or to fail in each sentence.. printr-un Present: in lim ba englezli. news.. regulli. organizat salvarea pasa3. 4.cel de-al doilea. exprimare ar fi: non-fulfilme. shipper.modifice clauzele ~ conditiile unui contract incheiat de armator? nu are acest drept. . V. 2.ultimul the latest .. 5. loading. stranding esuare. II. In limba romid timpurile folosite sint: viitorul ~i viitorul perfect. verbul este folosit la Present Perfect pentru a exprima 0 acjiune deja terminata Iatr-un moment dat din viitor. in spring.. Comandantul are dreptul sli. 2.. Nua indeplinit instructiunile . the engineer's log. Substantivul failure.. salvage. to discharge. 2.Cu condijia ca salvarea celor de pe bord sli.. etc. to rise. VOCABULARY to prejudice a prejudicia t!' sue someone a intentaproces cuiva fortuitous fortuit . then back into English: a) 1. . (of a ship) to go to sea.. neexecutarea 2. objections.nt of one's obligations. Failure to carry through the repairs left the ship unseaworthy. Give the antonyms of: Performance of a contract. In limba englezli.. . sure.. The barometer will surely . . Failure to carry out the instructions created many misunderstandings. nu a furnizat N.. the chief engineer and the main members. We shall pay for tliEm after we have spolim to the agmt. the last . goods.si nava dupa ce va fi. 0 altli. She was the . to his feet : to speak. He failed to carry out the plan. a specifica where. Form verbs from thefollowing nouns and adjectives and translate those verbs: Title. after... if. risen . NOTES 1. has been organized. The "Dauntless" and the "Undaunted" are both seaworthy ships. a avea obligapa de a. 2. the ship's money and other valuables. a se angaja sa. I!:cesta din urmli.. EXERCISES L Answer the following questions: 1.. contract of carriage contract de transport damage to the goods avarierea mli.. are! 4. neindeplinirea eonditiilor contractuale. 2. far as possible to take with him the log book. responsible.ment of the ship in case of peril. 2. Give the word or words answering the following definitions.a se ridica 1..: He failed to answer our. circumstances permitting. ... . They failed to carry out the· conditions of the contract.ridice sume de bani in contul armatorului spre a asigura continuarea ? Da. concesii in legllturll.· rose.ti proviziile imediat cejatunci cind Ie vom primi. -d. 3. his head and .. III. crew and as far as possible of the valuable goods..}. VI. Aceastli. They had to . seaworthiness. to leave a sinking ship. obiecpi in acest caz? -Nu. choosing from am01fg those listed below: . a periclita marine adventw:e expeditie maritimli.. passenger). 3. the . 4. is concerned in ceca ce priveste to honour a draft a onora 0 traU viz. to owner for delay in leading or unloading beyond the time named in the Charter Party..Vom plli. 2.. Neexecutarea contractului de transport. nu ! 3. 3. Ei nu vor avea dreptulsa ridice bani inainte ca comandantul sli.. til asemenea propozrtii o actiune care va avea loc in viitor se exprimli.

a conventiilor internationale si practicii marinaresti.). starea disciplinara la bord. este considerat reprezentant al proprietarilor marfurilor. ineheiatll la Londra Ia 20 octombrie 1972.de buna conservare . ales de el pe considerentul ca ar fi mai scurt. 239 din 23 decembrie 1974. • Republica SocialistA Romania.rezonabile .B. nr.P.uar ca parte contractantll la conventia ulterioarll de la Londra cu acelasi obiect. ca . conosamentele se elibereaza dupa inclircarea fiecarei partide in parte.C. iar. la intrarea sau iesirea din porturi. modul in care decurg operatiile de fncarcare sau descarcare.com. regulamentul serviciului la bord ~i conventiile internationale sint: ' .). 1974. Considerat de lege ca ~ent de necesitate . sa forteze blocada Ura mouviintarea armatorului sau sa faca comer] cu inamicul. eonferita prin inscrierea sa ca atare in rolul de echipaj. la alegerea armatorului. poate face acte juridice.ile A 108 (ES III) din 30 noiembrie 1966 ~ A III(V) din 25 octombrie 1967 ale Aduni1rii Generale a I. la apropierea unui pericol de navigatie cind se navigheaza prin strimtori sau canaluri. punde de greselile pilotului. Pentru tncarcarile partiale. In ceea ce priveste conservarea marfurilor.P. anexe ale Convenjiei ineheiate la Londra. Accepttnd comanda navei. este dator sa tina la zi jurnalul de bord.) comandantul trebuie sa fie personal 13.C.comandantul este agentulcare n executa. tn timpul voiajului. chiar daca in acest sens i se ofera scrisori de garantie. cu exceptia cazului dnd denuntarea este motivata de un caz de forta majora. fiind in acelasi timp seful legal al comunitatii aflate la bordo Calitatea de comandant deriva din investitura conferita de autoritatea competenta ca sef suprem la bordul navei in baza unui brevet de capitan de cursa lunga sau. sa faca transporturi ilegale.Comandantul Comandantul navei comerciale este persoana investita cu comanda umca a navei.com.. 1a ·17i unie 1960. regulamentului serviciului la bord.in aceasta postura. precumsi. brevet de cabotaj. a aplicat ~i R.A.comandantul trebuie sa ia rnasurile cele mai.M. 84 ~i 368 RS.la care a aderat prin decretul nr. furtuna -extraordinara. Pilotul aflat la bord este sub comanda unica a comandantului. Nu are voie sa faca escale neaprobate sau nejustificate legal (deviation).B.O. Comandantul i~i desfasoara activitatea conform legilor pavilionului. nu are dreptul sa urmeze alta cale de navigatie decit cea folosita in mod obisnuit de nave.In contul marfii.are obligatia ca.B. serviciul sanitar etc.. conservarea ~i predarea lor . dar pe contul armatorului. 773 din 7 decembrie 1966. loc simoment in care s-a aflat comandantul. . com.B.la carea aderat prin decretu1 nr. inscriind cu exactitate evenimentele bordului. navigarea cu magaziile deschise. b) Comerciale.Imprejurari. Nu are dreptul sa devieze de la ruta callitoriei. (Regulile pentru prevenirea abordaje1or pe mare) anexe la acea conventie.com. civila si penala. In acest sens. In aceasta calitate are dreptul si indatorireade a lua orice masuri ~ a face cheltuieli . potrivit ordinulni M. 370) ~i instructiunile armatorului.B.avarie comuna (art. potrivite pentru apararea intereselor proprietarilor marfurilor. nu este legala. C. Denuntarea unilaterala a contractului de angajare de catre comandant constituie de regula 0 fapta penala.M.M. In asemenea cazuri. Comite £nsa un act de grava rea-credin!a semn£nd conosamente anticipat sau antedatate on fara a men#ona £n ele starea reala In care s-a £ncarcat marfa.al proprietarilor marfurilor. elaborate cu ocazia ineheierii aeestei conventii. 698). la punerea si mentinerea navei in buna stare de navigabilitate (seaworthiness). pentru evitarea sau micsorarea pierderilor ori a avariilorj. Voiajul este decis de armator.C.cu deosebire in caz de necesitate . in acelasi.zntna extinsa" (tonga manus) a armatorului ~i.84 RS. La sosirea in porturi este dator sa se supuna regulilor locale: sa mdeplineasca formalitatile vamale ~i cele cerute de capitania de port. privind executarea contractului de transport.gestionar al caricului in hnprejurari speciale. ~i art. 387 ·RS.Tn momentelepericuloase (pe vreme de ceata sau vizibilitate redusa. s-a elaborat ~ adoptat Conventia referitoate 1a Regulamentul International din 1972 pentrn evitarea abordaj . au fost acceptate de Romania cu decretul nr. ori prin locuri frecventate de multe nave.sa verifice si. vizite 1a bord etc. politia de frontiera. potrivit normelor generale de drept maritim. adoptate prin Rezo1up. El.transportarea inbune conditii a pasagerilor: preavizarea sosirii navei in porturile de destinatie ~i respectarea acestei preavizari.M.85244{1964.). facturile furnizorilor. 370 RS.). Vezi "Sea Protest"). Dupa terminarea inclirclirii trebuie sa semneze conosamentele tara intirziere (art. 387 RS. are dreptul ~i obligatia de a face tot ceea ce ar fi facut un bun armator aflat in aceleasi. stivuirea : (art. in calitate de reprezentant al armatorului. 514 ~i 515 c. sa vegheze. 375 R.S. rom. In timpul voiajului are conducerea absoluta a navei. regulicare au intrat in vigoare la 1 septembrie 1965... in caz de abordaj sa acorde toata asistenta posibila celeilalte nave. 386 RS. 533 ~i urm. comanda (art. 508 c.O.ln numele sau. ca ~i In stationare. inca de 1a 19 septembrie 1963 (H.M. a) Nautice constind din conducerea si administrarea navei In navigatie. ca parte contractanta ta Conventia Internationala pentrn ocrotirea vietii umane pe mare din 10i unie 1948.B. din 17 iunie 1960. fapte1e de navigatie. precum ~i in fata organelor jurisdictionale din tara si strainatate. a aplicat R. la treceri dificile. Este reprezentant al armator~ui ~i agent prezumat . Sub egida I. Comandantul este considerat in general. Comandantul este indrituit sa refuze comanda navei daca armatorul ti da un echipaj insuficient sau necorespunzator ori ii dli dispozitii ilegale cu privire la administrarea navei sau la navigatie. date despre ventilarea magaziilor.).a raarfurilor.).in masura posibilului . primirea marfurilor la bord.N. In aceasta postura trebuie sa duca inava in portul de destinatie indicat de armator. Atributiile principale ale comandantului derivate din lege. '80 81 . 526 c.M. care ras1 Regulamentu1 Serviciului la Bord. daca armatorul nu-l poate lnlocui. angajind nava in limitele competentelor ce i-au fost stabilite prin regulamentul serviciului la bord (art.P. dupa caz (pentru navele costiere). 435 din 30 septembrie 1970. depericol sau urgenta.rom. comandantul. comandantul este obligat sa termine voiajul sau voiajele pentru care. In portul de refugiucomandantul trebuie sa depuna protest de mare deelarind. Parcurgerea altui drum. Amendamentele 1a R. fiind personal raspunzator.care intrA in vigoare 1a 1 iannarie 1976. comandantul trebuie sa transmita functiile sale ofiterului secund. sa semneze decontul de cheltuielialagentului navei. s-a angajat (art. starea vremii.B. Comandantului ii este interzis sa faca transporturi fara plata sau pe cont propriu. la trecerea pe sub poduri sauprin ecluze etc. si art.l). insa numaicu privire la miva ~i caricul ei (art. 341 din 17august 1954.A. a instructiunilor date de unitatea careia ii este subordonat.A. Sa depuna protest de mare ori de cite ori nava a tnttmpinat evenimente extraordinare (art. In caz de primejdie ia masuri de salvare a navei ~i a marfurilor. Romania a aderat la nona conventie eu decretul nr.la destinatie in starea ~i cantitatile tnscrise in conosament (art.lor pe mare. Pentru asemenea fapte comandantul poarta 0 raspundere personals. In aceasta calitate reprezinta nava in relatiile cu persoane fizice si juridice. EI trebuie sa respecte cu strictete Regulile pentru prevenirea abordajelor pe mare 2.A. ~i art.

p~liseasdi sau sa abandoneze nava tn cursul voiajului dectt in conditiile prevazute de lege (art. Comandantul este personal raspunzator pentru greselile sale. afara de cazul dnd sint datorate unor cazuri fortuite sau de forta majora (art. combustibiletc. Spre a asigura continuarea calatoriei.lndeplineste in mod accidental functia de notar public. nave militare purttnd acelasi pavilion si chiar la autoritatile portuare. Ia sosirea in tara (art. dt ~i pentru pierderi sau avarieri de marfuri cauzate prin culpa personals.~i cu conditia de a se fi organizat salvarea pasagerilor. netndeplinindu-si obligatiile in mod constiincios. Comandantul are datoria de onoare de a parasi ultimul nava abandonata si este obligat a Ina en sine~ in limita posibilului . deoarece.). Abuzul de autoritate manifestat de comandant prin insulte sau vioIente este pedepsit de lege.resedinta a armatorului sau aunui reprezentant al acestuia (art. materiale etc. tragind in acest scop 0 trata asupraarmatorilor. chiar usoare. Raspunderile principale ale comandantului. 519 c.legatura cu respectarea Regu1amentului Serviciului la Bord.).B. 82 .com. de frontiera sau sanitare. Nu are Jnsa dreptul de a angaja pe armator la plata unorsume ce nu stnt necesare expeditiei maritime. Comandantul nu are dreptul sa. In aceasta calitate inregistreaza nasterile ~i decesele survenite In cursul voiajului.Trata trebuie sa specifice scopul pentru care s-au cerut banii (pentru reparatii. poate recurge la consul. c) ·~ate ridica sume de bani in cazuri de extrema necesitate. Abandonarea navei in caz de pericol se face .c) OJi!er public. echipajului ~i. este ras. dar nu poate modifica clauzele ~i conditiile unui contract tncheiat de armator. Raspunderea sa este ~i de natura penala. iar armatorul nu poate face obiectii cu privire la onorarea platii.S. In exercitarea acestui drept in strainatate. nu poate face concesii in legatura cu contrastaIiile: b) nu poatetransporta marfuri sau pasageri in mod gratuit sau folosi nava in interese personale (art. Aceste cheltuie1i sint justificate numai in cazul In care trebuie sa se asigure buna stare de navigabilitate a navei ~i executarea contractului de transport incheiat de arma tor.banii bordului ~i alte valori. Peate lua masuri disciplinare la bord contra echipajului si pasagerilor.pe cit posibil. Fata de proprietarii marfurilor poarta 0 raspundere civila atit pentru neexecutarea contractului de transport. 537 c. compromite interesul public. a marfurilor pretioase. Abandonul nelegal antreneaza raspunderea sa personala. prin aceasta. e~uare sau alte accidente. 39JR. . calitate in care primeste . ca un delegat al autoritatii publice.dupa prealabila consultare a ofiterului secund. ~i de judeciitor de instruclie pentru infractiunile comisela bordoExercita autoritatea disciplinara si de politie pe nava. combustibil. 380 R.iregulilor vamale. In anumite tmprejurari.com. De asemenea.ditiei (reparatii.) spre a asigura continuarea expe.com. .). in afara portuluide. Astfel: a) poate angaja transporturi in cazuri speciale. acestia au drept de actiune recursorie contra sa. pentru tutelarea intereselor persoanelor si ingrijirea bunurilor angajate in transportul respectiv. ~i oricedocumente importante ale navei. Aceste evenimente se inscriu in registrul de procese verbalesi se comunica la consiliul popular. insa. in . pune in pericol expeditia maritima si. Comandantului Ii sint conferite prin lege atributii de delegat de stare civila.). precum ~i casatoriile intervenite tntre cetateni romani ill afara apelor teritoriale. pro curare de materiale si provizii.B. Prin erorile sau neglijentele sale comandantul poate cauza armatorilor ~i tertilor daune considerabile.S. provizii. pe care le comite in exercitiul functiei. In atributiile sale nautice ~i comerciale comandantul reprezinta pe armator. raspunde penal pentru emitere de conosamente antedatate sau pentru leziuni corporale sau pierderi de vieti omenesti cauzate prin abordaj. sefulni mecanic si a membrilor principali ai echipajului .punzator de modul nejudicios de folosire a navei.daca imprejurarue permit .).testamentele echipajului sau ale pasagerilor. 506 c.). pentru care. in timp ce in toate celelalte atributii apare. comandantul are dreptul de a ridica bani.jurnalele de bord si de masini. tncalitatea sa de sef al expeditiei maritime.

fork-lift trucks. Whether he sails for a. goods are ready for loading.w_. a doctor in case of illness on board.then see that the. On receivmg the Master's provisional notice of arrival (an eight or four days' notice). ~ statement of facts or the rime-sheet of loading. barges. together with a letter containing his instructions.copies of the bills of lading of the shipped cargo . lighters. for they may have to bring them to the port from other places before the ship's ru:ival: if. perishable.). the Master has the following commercial duties: a) To make sure that the ship herself is seaworthy and manned with all the navigation apparatus materials and provisions required is seaworthy in every respect: that the ship according to the rules. the customs. the nature of the goods (whether dangerous.~-- . as a rule by air mail. as the case may be. port of loading or of discharge. the agent mforms the port authorities (the pilot station.). the Master should cable the correct date to the agent.rucks. Such a cable is of great importance: it stands in lieu of notice and marks the moment of the vessel's arrival in the roads' it is from that moment that the time lost by the vessel in waiting for berth is counted. the vessel remaining in the roads waiting for berth. If for any reason (bad weather. and a twenty-four hours' notice . the Master is personally responsible for the preservation of the cargo during the voyage.the notice. that she is provided and documents as well as with the bunker. the date of the ship's arrival in the port of discharge and the goods he has on board for that particular port.}: the stowage factor (measurement per ton): who is to procure dunnage.itles (railway t. as for cabling the ship's arrival and the quantities of goods to be discharged m each port. "at ship's rail" and "under ship's tackle" such charges are borne by the ship. and who are the shippers: the weight and/or volume of the goods. On receiving the final (24 hours') ~otice. the vessel is unable to reach the port of destination on the date stated in his notice of arrival. lorries.the cargo manifest - r c) To know the conditions of transport: what goods he is to load. Lading and of the Cargo Manifest and. he also sends copies of the Bills of. In the same cable he should state his requirements: bunker. are not obliged to send . contract of carriage: The Master is personally responsible for taking the goods on board and ~~owmg them proper~y as well. If the ship must discharge cargo. Should the vessel leave port with cargo on board. the sanitary service.I. damage to vessel. Should the delay be a long one or in case of interruption or cessation of the voyage.. tractors..O. provisions and so forth.Ir .) and arranges for the vessel to enter port without any delay: the shippers make arrangements so that they may. water.~ave at their dispo~l the necessary gangs of workers and the required port facilities (cranes. sailing on fixed schedule. ~ Liners. cargo is to be discharged in the port. repairs. also.considered as a final notice . lighters.h the provisions of the Charter-Party or the instructions received from the Shipowner or the Ship Agent.).the bill of health the log book and the engineer's log . the ~gent advises the shippers who will .re adYIsed of It so that they may have the time to procure transport faciJ. etc. the Master must inform the agent. I On leavinJI port in order to sail to the port of loading in performanc~ of the Charter Party.It should be noted that when the vessel sails for the port of loading.final notice): who is to bear loading and/or discharge charges. terms such charges are borne by the charterer. As already shown. Under Liner terms. etc.approximate notice -. the. etc. that is by the shippers or receivers. the Master's commercial duties are also in accordance with the provisions of the . 84 85 - -- -- ~----. which is mostly the case. If the port of destination is congested and no berths are available. in what port' he is to load them. their packing. the rate of loading and/or discharge. the Master must cable his twenty-four hours' notice of arrival to the agent . ' . .particularly at the port of discharge. it is the receivers wh?3. the Master must also advise the owner and the charterer of the fact. immigration authority. UnderF. readiness to load and/or discharge. It is advisable that the Master should be supplied with Charter Party governing the relevant voyage. the shipowner sends the agent the Charter-Party. the date when he must cable his notice of arrival and the addresses he must cable to (as a rule an eight days' and four days' notice . " . etc.irrespective of his having or not having special instructions concerning the notice". the mode of calculating the laydays. b) To exercise due diligence in order to have at hand the following documents: _ _ the ship's articles the ship's certificate of registry the radio certificate the ship's classification and survey certificates the freeboard certificate the deratization certificate the crew's customs declaration (listing the provisions on board and the crew's personal belongings) . shippers and/or receivers by cable of his arrival and his. Lesson 3 THE MASTER'S DUTIES DURING THE VOYAGE After leaving port ~n accordance wit. etc. for the intended voyage. the Master must cable to the agent at the port of destination and possibly also to the receivers.

. comandantul a telegrafiat agentului.1. Alte exemple: He arranged for the Agent to. Whom does the agent get in touch with on receiving the final notice? II. 6...Este necesar ca ei sa cunoasca conditiile de transport. de muncitori port facilities instala pi portuare crane macara fork-lift truck autostivuitoare lorry camion ... Tractoarele urmeaza sa soseascll azi.. 6.Having left port.. u 3... :NOTES 7. On leaving port. 4.. 1.Ia mli. as a rule de regula. Dupa CB .rfurileau fost preglltitti (to' be made ready)' pentiu incll.sa villa 1a bordo It is necessary for them to know the conditions of t1'ansport.rcare to bear (bore. .. in port. . What does the shipowner send the agent after the vessel has sailed? 9.Use the Present. . When he1'eachedtheroads. 4. cabling . VOCABULARY to make sure that .. 2. When he learnt the conditions of transport. (to sail) portul dedestinatie.O.by radio. N-au sasit inca slepurile? 9. board and ..B.!>'sdischarge to-night (we). . . Nava a ajuns deja... 2 .. What is meant by a seaworthy ship? 3 What documents must the Master have at hand? What is meant by the transport conditions the Master must be informed ?f? .. 4. 3. V-ap asigurat ell nava este in buna stare de navigabilitate? 2. . it sbould-be noted that. she has transport facilities at her disposal. Fill in prepositions and conjunctions where required: 1. Translate into English: a) ·N. the vessel to enter . 2. IV. . Cind Q sosit in port. Se foloseste deseori atunci cind persoana care face actiunea exprimata pnn Infinitiv nu e~te .. What is the Master'~ first duty before leaving port? 2. ...natate he is to load el urmeaz1l. le incarce.. he cabled to the owner..I.:port1 . It is impossible to reach the port of destination in time (she).the agent. ..(to sail) spre....tile portuare. . When he 1'eceived the notice. See Notes 1. 5. 3... Dupdce s-a asigu1'at: c1l. portuI de destinajie. The party who bears the charges. .. (free in and out) terms in conditii F. everyrespect. III.s~ntences into Romanian: It is difficult to sail in such weather. 3. The ship that takes the goods on board. What is the importance of this last cable? 8..Si..rfnrile pe care urmeazll/urma sa Ie incarce. b) N..Este greu ca nava/ca ea sa navigheze pe 0 asemenea vreme.echipa... a aviza pe cineva de.Marfurile pe care urmajtrebuia sa. Replace tlfe verbs in italics by gerund or .fie arimate in magazii.vizeze pe Incarcatori de venirea navei.. 5.nava este in buna stare de navigabilitate comandantul porneste . ~. The Master shouldptake sure . He arranges forthe vesseUo enter port. . I. The work was too difficult to do alone (one gang of workers): Model: V. 5. . He must know what goods he is to load. 3... -_qnd a parli. nava s-a indreptat spre. The day when the goods were discharged.... Mli. VI.a primit conl1'actul de navlosire. intre in port gang of workers. It is necessary to know . 4. 0 necesitate. . 6.. Insert for-phrases according to the model and translate both .. DuPd ce a Pd1'1lsitportul.subiectul propozitiei principale.participle constructions: Model: Wilen he leaves port. destination. he contacted .O. . S-a trimis tau fost trimise conosamentele? 10.cine shit incllrcAtorii? 3. Se traduce ca mai sus. The goods (which) he is/he was to load.se~te portul.Perfect' to ttanslate the main verb: 1. Change the verbs according to the model below in order to express an action that has been pre-arranged: Model: The goods (which) he loads/he loaded. Answer the followin'g questions: 1. . As. Whom does the agent get in touch with after he has received the Master's provisional notice of arrival? 10... The date on which the ship arrived.....Este imposibil ca marfuri atit de periculoase s1l. the roads. leaving port the Master should have the following documents . taking the goods . The person who procures dunnage. When he left port.. It is difficult for the ship/for her to sail in such weather. 1. the ship had been damaged.. Macaraua aceasta urmeaza sa incarce doullzeci de tone pe zi. ...." .know the ship's date of arrival (he). Agentul urma sa a. .Indefinite orPerfect .. .. damage to ship avarii navei to advise somebody of. waiting . delay . . . It is difficult to load the ship in such weather (the stevedores).. 2.. F. 5. Daca am spune: He arranges to enter port. 7. terms discharge/charges are borne .rcate to cable/to· wire a telegrafia receivers primitori port of discharge port de descli.rfUri1e rmeaaa sa fie descllrcate in cursu! dupa amiezii.suri ca nava sa intre in port. . The agent arranges .I. trebuie notat ca . transpprt facilities mijloace de transport lightermahona lighterage mahonaj barge ~lep customs varna he arranges for the vessel to enter port ia masuri ca nava sa.. 2.sit portul.Cind parli.fost procuratemijloacele de transport? 8. The Master is responsible .. se vor ingriji ca . the charterer. Past Tense: The goods he was to load. in every respect din toate punctele de vedere/ tn toate privintele certificate of registry act de nationalitate classification certificate certificat de clasa survey certificate certiticat de vizita :tadio certificate certificat de statie (TFF) freeboard certificate certificat de bord liber personal belongings obiecte de uz personal bill of health patent! de sa.B. Verbul to be + in finitivullung exprima 0 indatorire. congested aglomerat berth dana to state one's requirements a-~i formula pretentiile .agentul informeazll autorit!i.rcare irrespective of (+gerund) indiferent daca . Themain. 6. Sa incarce perishable perisabil stowage factor indice de stivuire measurement cubaj dunnage material de separape the rate of loading norma de incli. (liber de cheltuieli de tncarcare ~i descarcare) under liner terms in eonditri de linie under ship's tackle sub palan at ship's railla balustrada navei eight days' notice preaviz 'la 8 zile charterer navlositor should the vessel leave port daca nava pleaell din port mostly de cele mai multe ori. 6. 5. comandantul a incarcat marfa. . port . It is necessary to get in touch with the Agent (the Master) . a se asigura ca.rfurilepe care le incarcll/le-a Incarcat. Mli.she experienced heavy weather.Este greu de navigat pe 0 asemenea vreme (ship! she). . under F.I.. in portul de destinajie? 6. persoana care ia masurrle este aceea care intrli. de obicei they will see that. the ship's arrival .O. she had to put inat a port of refuge. denumitlLfor ph1'ase (expresie cufor).. 0 actiune pusa la cale in preaIabil. 4.. . borne) discharge charges a suporta spezele de descarcare . It is impossible forsnch dangerous goods to be stowed In the holds. They cabled to the owner to know how things stand (he)... A Iuat mlLsuri/a aranjat ca agentul . The vessel is . He cabled to the Agent to. Apaflat (to learn) . Constructie specifica limbii engleze. When the ship ente1'Sport. What must the Master do if the port of destination is congested and the vessel has to remam in the roads? 4: 86 87 . What should the shippers do then? 11. come on board.. 5. Agentul a fost iniormat/av4a. 2.~ de sosirea navei? 7. hand. Nava a parli. Se compune dinfot' +substantiv sau pronume la acuzativ + intinitivul lung...thing is to terminate the shi. '. .. '2.M1I. Cind urma sa intre"nava in. 5..Mli.. cel mai frecvent EXERCISES the goods to be discharged mli. Atunci cind primejte peavizarea finaltf.rfurile ce urmeaza a fi descli.Trebuie sa stie ce marfuri urmeazartrebuie sa incarce.tdeja portal? 4~· Mllrfurile nu au fostinca arimate? 5.te translate the sentences in italics: 1. 4. 1. berth.. the ship is seaworthy .rcare? ' . $-au proc'!lra!:lau. As soon as she sailed for Athens. = Este ne<?esarsa se cunoasca .. the agent the date . The stevedores who stowed the goods. And what should the receivers do? 12. c) Use ·the gerund or the Participle . the port . What information must the Master transmit to the agent at: the port of destinahon and possibly to the receivers? . he will advise the shippers.

~90) and in France (Commercial Code.' whether the hatchways had been properly closed and whether the goods were found in good condition or damaged._ the radio certificate.). In certain cases the Master can provide a clean Bill of Lading against a letter of indemnity. the Master protests against the deficiencies to the party at fault. After each parcel of goods has been loaded. The Master is entitled to reject the goods which are not accompanied by a Mate's Receipt. of the contribution to general average and of the expenditure incurred for the preservation of cargo. This is done as a rule through the medium of the Ship Agent. broken. draws up the time-sheet or. they draw up a report of infringement of customs regulations and the ship is liable to be fined and the undeclared objects to be confiscated. . damages for detention. provided that document incorporates a clause on the payment of demurrage.nifest. or again If the goods are brought on board or are discharged in an unsatisfactory condition. to submit to the port authorities: . if they are incurred in the port of shipment. some sacks are torn or are second hand. the agent sends it to the shippers or the receivers.quence ~~-lien for non-payment of demurrage is unquestionably enforced. demurrage. . the surveyor shows the cause. This is done to enable the Master to take the final measures required on board. 306). if there IS no Charter Party. As a rule a lien is enforced for non-payment of freight. 579 ad. salvage charges or other debts incurred in sea transport. and the latter can only take delivery of the goods after discharging all the debts they are saddled with. cans are caved in. the report is drawn up unilaterally by the ship's surveyor and constitutes sufficient evidence of the facts ascertained. the Master checks it in order to see whether it tallies with the Mate's Receipt and qualifies the Bill of Lading even if the Mate's Receipt does not. and the name (If the port of discharge. dead freight. that some . fail to appoint a surveyor. Having completed the loading of a parcel of goods. In the Socialist Republic of Romania (Commercial Code. the Master is obliged to sign the Bill of Lading if the shipper demands it. their marking. there is a shortage. • On receiving the notice. 88 89 .copies of the bills of lading .of Romania) or with the Notary Public or the Consulate of the State whose flag the ship flies (when abroad).the Cargo Manifest . for example. The lien ~or non-payment of demurrage may also be enforced if the carriage of the goods IS effected under a Bill of Lading only. ?r if the goods or the ship are damaged during loading or discharge.gentwho informs the Master ofthe date and the exact time when the vessel Is.. Any other debts should be put down in the Bill of Lading. at the shipowner's disposal. or the ship and/or the cargo have been damaged. or the weather has been particularly bad so that there is fear of the goods or the ship being damaged. If loading or discharge is defective or slo~.should he be unable to do so.Lesson 4 THE MASTER'S DUTIES DURING THE VOYAGE (Continued) On reaching the port of destination The Master should have the following documents at hand. a Statement of Facts. art. in France and in a number ~f other States dem~age is considered to be an accessory to the freight and III conse. even though such things are not concealed. The surveyor draws up a certificate showing.the crew's customs declara tion 1. . This document sets forth the number and type of packages making up the parcel to be loaded. the lien is enforced by dischargIll~ the goods and delivering them into the custody of a third party.~ses are broken or stained. art. If anything out of the ordinary has happened during the voyage. Before signing the Bill of Lading. as a rule through the medium of his agent. as the shipper engages in the maritime adventure for the account of the consignee. some barrels are without bottom or leaking. particularly if the goods are valuable or perishable. The lien for debts incurred in the port of discharge is established in accordance with the clauses of the Charter-Party or Bill of Lading. the Master should lodge his ~ea protest with the harbour master's office (inthe Socialist Republic. the Master delivers the notice of readiness to the delegate of the Ship Agent who accompanies the inspection team 2. after being notified of the ship surveyor's inspection. as the case may be. when the owners of the goods have debts to pay to the ship as a result (If non-payment of freight. the packaging 1 Should the Customs Officers find on board anything that has not been declared in the Ma. On the occasion. Should the goods be damaged. Each parcel of goods brought on board must be accompanied by a Mate's Receipt. or spilling. On the termination of loading or discharge. As a rule in the Socialist Republic of Romania (Commercial Code. In the latter case the enforcement of the lien relies on the principle in maritime law which binds the receiver of the goods to the sea carriage contract or Bill 'of Lading. as a rule. after which he tenders the loading list to the Master through the agency of the foreman to enable him to draw up the cargo plan. nature and extent of the damage. Just as It IS for non-payment of freight. etc. the Master should ask for a survey on the hatchways and on the condition of the goods. If the receivers. In 'his notice the Master should list the goods he is to load or. volume and weight. Before breaking bulk. the Master in agreement with ~s agent or with the shipper or receiver.the bill of health . In the port of discharge the Master may exercise his right of lien on the goods. make reference to the Charter Party. the Chief mate makes qualifications on the Mate's Receipt to show the real condition of the commodities.to commence loading or discharge. specifying. It is also the a. and not by retaining the goods on board. art. It is advisable that the receivers of the goods should be informed of the date and place of the surveyor's inspection to enable him also to appoint a surveyor. or if the stowing is faulty.the ship's articles .

' . . notificare de punerea to tally with a corespunde . to see .stt~~ ~ter submit to the J?o~ a..' . Should the Master be unable to provide a list of the goods to be loaded. . the Master. at hand . de . ' out 'of the ordinary deosebit the party at fault. The parcel is accompanied . un sfat. breaking bulk. 2. faultless. We shall sail to-morrow in order that the perishables should not get spoilt. silitll) tQ leak (ed. a debt. 2... to .t loading? 6. 6...... 9...wliat . been damaged). 4.. saci de mina a to incur debts. to . charter party. his agent..weather is fine or not. ". Limitation of meaning. 90 91 .. .. port of shipment.•. :a) with prepositions VOCABULARY caved in concav to submit to somebody a prezenta.El trebuie slldepunll un. An agreement in writing concerning the hire of a vessel... the suroeyor shows the cause of the damage. We shall sail tomorrow whether the . _ Dacll (desi este foarte Improbabil) echipa de control ar veni acum . to tender aprezenta to discharge a.among those listed below: {customs officer... 3.. An opening in the deck to reach the holds. they would -draw up a report. a lien. bulk. . ordinary. the Mate's Receipt.. to commence .rt?f des. The right to detain goods until some claim has been satisfied. .. 2. 3.. Lading. rezerva . Should aici se foloseste dupaconjunctia ifpentru a exprima 0 posibilitate. . .. choosing from .. What does the surveyor called upon to make a survey state in his certificate? 12.Se va observa cll prima exprimare comporta ~i 0 inv~rsiune.. to ... When does the Master exercise his right of lien on the gQods? 13. 8. Were the commission of surueyors to com« now . partea in culpa customs officer vam~ .. 10..3.o.rca even though chiar dacll hatchway gura de magazie to draw up a report of infringement of customs to app!lint a surveyQr a numi . the surveyor ._" .stain a pllta salvage 'charges cheltuieli de saivare . to .' Dacll marfurile sint avariate.. A deficiency .. loading. Qf indemnity scrisoare de garantie inspection team echipa de control faulty. . b) I. to r~ect a refuza. ' III. The Master checks the Bill of Lading .. 3. cllc~ must (0 ~ra~uc~re literal ma1 fidelll a verbului din llinba rOIIlAnll)ar reda -un imperativ supllPlltor de categonc m limba eng1ezll. 2 . A sum paid for space reserved in a vessel but not made use of for cargo... the payment of demurrage.. .. reguIatiQn a dresa proces verbal de contrato fail to appoint a nu numi ventre vamala .. a hvra In custodia. trebaie sll. infringement. 4. J.. 'b" •d .. to appoint. hatchway. they draw 4lp a teport of infringement of customs regulations.d sacks saci uzati. What does the Master do when he receives the loading list from the agent? 3. to be able. A cylindrical wooden container. Who informs the Master of the date and the exact time when the vessel is to stru. • (Se va observa ca were indil=ll 0 posibilitate mult mai putin J)robabilll dec~t should). la In emma. How is it enforced? II. -4. . port of discharge.. a lua in primiie. to . We shall sail to-morrow even though the sea is rough.. Were the -Customs Officers to find on board goods that have not been declared in the Manifest.on ofsurveyors were to come now)... The lien . 5. to tear (tQre. shortage.. 5.. . one's right. What should the Master do before breaking bulk? II..Should tM goods be damaged'. .a achita 0 datorie parcel Qf goods pal"tidll de mAxfuri to be saddled with . Give the antonyms of the follOWing words: . to .. a respinge ' at sQmebody's dispQSal la disp!lzipa cuiva qualificatiQn remarcll.... a protest...un expert. 5.protest d~emare~. tQ be entitled tQ... tQ enable somebody (pentru) a da cuiva posibi·to ~ake delivery QL. recipisa lien drept' de retentie '. debt .. a receplitate pona . barrel. to load. 2. '.. What does the Mate's Receipt set forth? 7. Dacl( mcarcaturaar fl avariatll . an expenditure. Should este folosit aici pentru a exprima 0 reeomandare. 7. (ljthe comm. 1. nation? '.. ....' secundului .payment.Comandantul.. We shall sail to-morrow provided 'We have finished loading. b) with verbs: :to . '. the Mastei' lodge a sea protesH..ss..NOTES 1. ittaIlies .' .. the BfL incorporates a clause . He should lodge a sea protest.(.thorities on reaching. The port where the goods are discharged... Mate's Receipt ordin de ambarco. . a Ma.. ..... swift. experful aratl1 cauza avariei.. .. . they would have drawn up a report. ~ef de echipll {Qr the account Qf. in contul .. Fill in the blanks: and conjunctions where required: 1.. Under what circumstances must. conditiol1 stare . demurrage contrastalii to specify a' preciza: dead freight "navlu mort to .. tom) a rupe general average avarte cem~~ second hari. should fiind asezat Inaintea subiectului. to..te's Receipt. freight' navlu '. Constructia inversata se mai foloseste ~i-cu were ~l had. The Master .. 2.· . . destinatar foreman stivuitor (lef. . Official concerned with the levying of customs duty...ti. a surveyor. ca. up a certificate. datoru dona '. dead freight): qualifi- " \ 1.. na vei la dispozitie . inspection' control to stand in lieu of/in place Qf a InlOCUl . he is to make a reference to the Charter Party. 4. to take.. a Bill . to ..... . spilling sacks saci cu scurgere enforcement executare . a face. statement of facts istoricul opera'tiunilcr to lodge a protest a depune un protest to break'bulk a descA.' prQvided cu condipa... to deliver into·tlie custQdy Qi. When is the lien for non-payment of demurrage enforced? 14.. draws up the time sheet.the amount of a deficiency.. ed) a se scurge to rely en a se aaza pe .' . . A nswet the following ques~ions:. third party' tett· . When is the time sheet drawn up? 10. a loss. ascertained constatat liable to be fined pam. -cation.. The port where the goods are loaded/shipped. S-ar putea traduce ~ prin: Daca s-adntimplaca marturile sll fie avariate . the carriage of the goods is effected . the termination loading.. . Translate into Romanian then back into English: a) 1.shou~d have .. demurrage may also be enforced . What happens if the Customs Officer finds on board anything that has not been declared in the Cargo Manifest? -4. Altll exprimare: Ijthe goods should be damaged. 6..bil de amendll the extent Qf the damage volumul daunei as the case may be dupll caz cQnsignee:p~imitor. . a supune iJhortage lipsa cuiva to check a controla notice of readiness notis.. agreement .. IV. . to . Should the Customs Officers find on board anything that has not been declared. to. Had the Customs -Officers found goods that had not been declared. to reject.. What is a qualification on the Mate's Receipt or Bill of Lading and when is a qualification made? 8. When is a letter of indemnity issued to the Master? 9. We shall sail to-morrow in order to reach the port of -destination in time. a fi Impovarat. the Romanian flag. to find. up a report.. C1IJl/tin cutie de conserveEXERCISES 1... iarll vreo certitudine. . lien. V. (ljthe cargo had. bulging in the middle and formed of staves held together by hoops . the !. at . The Master should ask a survey . fast Had the cargo been damaged . . We shall sail to-morrow if the weather is fine. letter. ' defectuos. :non-payment . ·aavea dreptul siL. documents m". Give the word or words answering the following definitions.

Use the -ing form in the Perfect for the adverbial clause in it~cs: 1.t nu s-a intimplat in timpul caJatoriei. 3. 93' . agentul I-a trimis incarcatorului. Having made certain that .cabling their ETA. and has received free pratique. if it has not been accepted. before twelve o'clock. the notice of readiness is not accepted and the reasons for non-acceptance are stated. comandantul trebuie sa se~~eze c0:Dosa~ mentu!. 2. Shippers or Receivers. n. acele mentiuni rrebuie sa fie trecute pe conosament.VI. Dad!.butoaiele curg. i. that is. in their capacity as presumed agents of the charterer. the notice can be transmitted by radio. Master brings to the notice of the Shippers or Receivers. Daca secundul navei face mentiuni pe ordinul de ambarco. Deoarece . b) N.. Daca Incarcarea.ntenc~: 1. comandantul nu a depus un protest de mare. nupa ce a primjt notisuI. As a rule the vessels trading on regular lines are not strictlybound to give notice of readiness either for loading or discharge but they are' not exempted from cabling their 72 and 24 hours' notice. tha t the ship under his command is in every respect ready to load or discharge the goods in accordance with the provisions of the contract of carriage. the lay'days commence at eight hours on the following working day. the lay days commence at fourteen 'iflSurs on the day when the notice has been delivered. provided the ship fulfils the following conditions: 1) provided she is considered as an "arrived ship". provided this has been done during official hours. If the notice has been delivered after twelve o'clock. 2) provided she is in all respects fit to load or discharge. Lesson 5 NOTICES OF READINESS These are written documents whereby the. Translate into English: a) N. 2.minat incarcarea unei partide de maria.e neobi1nu. If the ship cannot enter port immediately.. este defectuoasa. In such a case the timeshe spends in the roads counts as "waiting time" provided the clause "time lost in waiting for berth to count as lay days" is inserted in the relevant Charter Party. as a rule through the ship agent. -4) provided the' notice has been accepted.m to transla~e ~ach se. the Shippers inspect the ship's holds in order to ascertain whether they are fit to receive the particular cargo the ship has engaged to transport and it is only then that they accept the notice. the reasons for non-acceptance must be stated. Use should both with if and in the inve.the ship has arrived at' the time and place laid down in the Charter-Party. It is from the moment the notice of readiness has been accepted that the laydays commence. One copy is returned to the Master after it has been accepted or.B. 3) provided the notice has been delivered to the shippers or receivers. The notice of readiness is delivered to the. If the ship is not fit to load or has infringed other Charter-Party conditions. Dupa ce a te. she is berthed or anchored at the place shown in the contract of carriage.ted fo. comandantul depune un protest. aceasta trebuie specificat pe conosament. in duplicate. e..B. 3. In' accordance with usage and under a Gencon Charter-Party.

. the day when the notice has been delivered. 3.) with prepositions where required: 1. to trade a face comert to be bound to a fi obJigat sa to be exempted from' a fi exonerat/scutit de t.. if. What do the shippers do before accepting the notice? How is the notice transmitted if the ship cannot enter port? What ships are not bound to give notice of readiness? Are such trips exempted from cabling their ETA? II.. Answer the following questions: 1.pentru a constata mll.: An instrument that. 3. 5. 6. 5..a incepe Acest verb se folcseste de preferinta in Time Sheet ~ Notice fa~ de sinonimele date in vocabular.. • . a telegrafiat agentului. 10. to discharge. lay days.. the notice is returned . who receives goods.. cala . to deliver. timpul pierdut . in conformitate cu provision stipulatie. laid) a stipula. to berth. time lost . a descarcat marfa. 3. the ship is ready to load Or discharge.. VI... hold) 1. What is a notice of readiness? To whom is the notice of readiness delivered? When is it delivered? Why is the notice of readiness delivered in two copies? When do the lay days commence 1 What conditions must be fnlfilled for the lay days to commence? 94 . in order to. To ascertain the e:rtent of the damage to the ship .... EXERCISES I. a-si da seama. books. Fill in the blanks: .. 2. hold magazie. prevedere to be fit to.. a inainta (un document) as a rule de regula.rfurile? 5. VOCABULARY notice of readiness notis. De asemenea.. 3. pentru a termina se foloseste in aceste documente : to terminate. A place. 1.pentru a verifica daca nava-esteIn buna stare de navigabilitate. the notice bas been accepted... a expune to return a (se) inapoia non-acceptance neacceptare laydays stalii to commence/to begin/to start a Incepe provided cu conditia ca to fulfil a Indeplini (conditiile etc. who charters a ship. cargo. non-acceptance . -n) a arMa to make certain (ofsmth') a se asigura (de ceva) having made certain that dupa ce s-a asigurat ca to lay down.. to connt as urmeaza sa se socoteasca ca relevant respectiv . pertinent. 2. port. a fi apt sa . Inlocuieste 0 propozitie circumstanjiala). "/ IlL What do you call the person: who ships goods. The commander of a merchant vessel. 5. The lay days commence at fourteen . De ce nu s-a acceptat notisul? 2.hours . to deliver/to tender a prezenta.. de obicei in duplicate In dublu exemplar reason motiv . 1. 4. {Master.. 1.. The notice is transmitted . Translate into English: a) Model: Why has it not been done? De ce nu s-a fkut (aceasta)? 1. The reasons . 8. De ce nu s-au descarcat marfurile ? . A copy of the notice is returned to the .. to ascertain whether they are fit to receive the cargo. a consta ta.. a include berth dana ... 7. 2.. hambar (de naval in order to pentru a to ascetain a se asigura. This document 'brings to the notice of the ship~ . (laid.t of a ship. fourteen hours .. 1. referitor la 0 chestiune etc. less enclosed than a harbour.. De ce nu s-a inapoiat 0 copie comandantului? 1. 3.ce a acostat. to anchor. The interior of a vessel below decks where cargo is stowed... Give the nowns corresponding to the following verbs: to arrive. a ridicat ancora..) to berth a acosta to anchor a ancora to show (-ed. Dupa. to load.. roads. the Master. The shippers inspect the holds ..preferabil folosirii lui for + gerund. to accept. a verifica whether daca cargo caric to engage a (se) angaja usage uzan~ official hours orele reglementare (legale) debiroujde lucru working day zi de lucru/zi lucritoare to infringe conditions a incll. who reads. 6. the place shown . 1. The lay days commence . Dupa ce a ancorat. who writes speaks. to state a declara. To ascertain whEther they are fit to receive tke cargo -pentru a se asigura dacA sfnt apte sA primeasca caricul. where ships may ride at anchor.. to complete.. Dupa ce s-a asigurat ca nava" a sosit [constructia participialll. Dupa ce a incarcat marfa. De ce nu s-a adus aceasta la cunostinta comandantului? 3.. to receive. lays hold of the earth by a hook and thus holds the vessel in a particular place. precum ~i folosirea infinitivului pentru a exprima UD scop . The days allowed by the charter party for loading or unloading a vessel. b) Model: Having made certain that the ship has arrived .o cable/to wire a telegrafia Le. to enter. who IV. radio if the ship cannot enter . Dupa ce a scris scrisoarea. the ship is not fit to load. One copy . De ce nu s-au incarcat mll.lca conditiile to enter (the) port a in tra In port to transmit a tranS'mite in the roads/roadstead In rada waiting time timp de asteptare to insert a insera. the notice has been delivered before twelve o'clock. The ship must be berthed . 2.sura in care nava a fort avariata/cuantumul avariei.. who works. Observati sensurile verbului to ascertain. 9..NOTES 1. h) with the conjunctions given below: (that.. a pus-o Ia po~ta. berth. after)' 1. being cast overboard. The notice is not accepted .. 2.. in duplicate in dublu exemplar in triplicate in trei exemplare in quadruplicate in patru exemplare in five copies in cinci exemplare 2. notificare de punerea navei la dispositie whereby/by (means of) which prin care to bring to the notice of someone a aduce la cunostinta cuiva to presume a presupune to charter a navlosi charterer navlositor in accordance with potrivit. The place where a ship lies at a wharf.Master . anchor. V. the notice must be stated.. To ascertain whether the ship is in seaworthy condition . 5. not to accept. (id est) /that is adica ETA (estimated time of arrival) timpul probabil al sosirii (naveil 7.. 3. the contract.. provided. To commence . a consemna. The freigh. Give the nouns answering the following definitions.

00 hrs.v.00 hrs. Franck Han No.. 25th NOTE' "..45.O. on the 22.197 .' ". Yours faithfully. ~~iJ. 12 of Co.:serthNo.197 . Lesson 6 Messrs. . if any. . Yours faithfully.8 in free pratique..11.30 hrs. 197.. 197.e. . ready 'hl a!l respects to load her cargo of 450 tons Generals for Constantza. .' ~"'. '~IDIA" under. as from 07.00 ~s.2 NOTIOE OF READINESStTO-. Dan Spirecu . November 25th..v.: NOTE: Should the Master have the Charter Party in his possession. -~. on the 25th of November . is now lYi~g. on the 25th of November ACCEPTED at 08.S in' free l'ra. the above-mentioned cargo. he does not mention the time allowed for loading and consequentl~ the de~y in loading.: ~. RECEIVED at 07.' . 197..m.'.) ~. Istanbul-Galata 1. Piraeus Dear Sirs. today..in view tha.Istan1)u. November. and IS lying at berth No.44..'. substitute the words Charter Party for Booking Note.' . ready in all respects to receive a cargo of 480 tons of barrelled olives as from 08. he is to . Shipping Agency. 43.1laving . i.30 hrs. The laydays commence and are counted as per clause No.11. ..v.. .. MEDITERRANEAN NEAR EAST SHIPPING 35-39 Akti Miaouli.f Port at '06.tiqu~". on the 22. my command arrived ip. IHSAN BERKIN. the Shippersacc~4inglY. "as fast as the vessel can receive". 96 . 101. OLIVES 22nd November.. and'. NOTICE OF READINESS TO LOAD BARRELLED Piraeus.Qn'the . ••.25th of November. as stipulatedInfhe Booking Note dated Bucharest. Please ibe informed that the rn. at 08. .30 hrs. "MOLDOVA" RECEIVED ACCEPTED NOTE As the master is not in possession of either the Booking Note or Charter Party. 197.. P. will be dealt with by the shipowner (NAVROM) direct with the shippers in Piraeus.gside .Master of the m. Dear Sirs. "MOLDOVA" !lnd~r my command arrived in the port of Piraeus today at 08..'.'" '.v.B." 197. This is to inform you that the . November 15th.ttwo working days SHEX'are allowed for loading. . '~MIDIA" Messrs.30 hrs. the Owners' Bill of Lading. Pl~se inf~np. !lie Prodan Master of the m.40 hrs..LO"AD'lJNDEltBOOlCtNG Istanbul. at 08.::IO.

t<r.. total of 371... at 01. Please sign this.v. Dear Sirs.. dated Lo~d0!l 10th :J~~e 197. Yours faithfully.OOhours local ?me.. Harry Rochdale :). on the 3rd Jan. to-day... as. 197..to receive a full and ~o~P. England Dear Sirs. and is lying at berth No.~e vessel is rea?:y.' This is to . Norfolk..under.m.inform you that them." '.. conditions and exceptions of the Charter Party covering this voyage.v.Aecording-to the Charter-Party.e port 'of ~orfolk.. ready In all respects to load/discharge about 4000 tons of steel sheets and 300 tons of steel pipes..PRED..•• .000 bale cubic feet. with a.. after which the vessel will be on demurrage.. "GALATI" time and date :'. Buckeye Cellulose Norton and Ellis Compo Ltd. NOTIOE OF READINESS .:ed in this ~rt at 12. Norfolk.' . 4. ' .. per Charter Party dated London 22nd November 197. "" . .. 42. . Buckeye Cellulose Norton and Ellis Compo Ltd..~y 26th July. '. 3rd January. 197..I Messrs."C"" YiJ:~.~ I\. 197. .v. .00 ll~urs.00 GMT. .. Virginia Messrs..von the same date and IS lYIng arberth No.Barcelona as 'per Charter Party covering this voyage. : • • •• ' ! of .. . The vessel ~~provided with 6 lower holds and 6 tweendecks and has 10 hatchways. July 26th.. with acceptance.: .30 p... '..TO IlOAD WOO:9PULP UNDER CiuRTER'-PARTY. subject to all terms. ' r •. Plea~be'adVi~ed~t' fhem.. Constantin Totet Master of the m. . Manchester.3... St.00 hours on the 26th July 197. . . . . 120.OADlDISCliARGE .. '''PREDEAL'' Nolice accepted RECEIVED and accepted at 15.. .at l~..:EAL:'... 'tolda'Y 26th' July' 197. . Constantin Spinu Master of them. "GALATI" under my command arri.39:' . & Co. Atlantic Street.m.y command arrived m~~.OO hrs.' UNDO CHARTER PARTY Manchester.•.." ..v.. '.. the lay days are commencing this 26th day of July and will expire on the 5th of August.letecargo' of about l1!OOSmetnc tons of wood pulp' for '.. NOTICE OF READINESS TO J. John Street..22 in free pratique.. my notice of readiness. . as from' 14..'. Yours faithfully. got -free pratique at If.

UNDEll. se fol0se~ fulimba eriglezl participiUl trecut' aI verbelor respective . cu '. wire strml EXERCISES I.~):..~~tri1a..:.. shipping company (abrev.1 '. • ~." .v. i.at Braila..1 (tiairhlj' mhrfuri general~.iii sad . having in view avtnd In vedere "'bltto'aiei: ' :._. bundle Iegt. . timpulacordait pentru .' .der booking note conform avizului de angalament shippillg agency agenpe maritiml p1_ be informed that cu respect vA aducem ! 1a C1mo~j. . " 7th November. conditions and exceptions· as per relevant Charter Party. "BR.: I h~reby' i. ~~re ~vaIe'n1ii rOinAri~ (hnbuteIiat)... ".Ql ... bale' . H.~xceptecO cu exceppa dnminicilor iJi slrbitorilor lllgllle. Imbuteliat 'baggeil -'.. Wm..generalS/general ~. . Yours faithfully AI Dv. to' be o~ demurrage a fi In contrastalii deIaylnitrziere . This is to advise yo.B._. un.AILA" accordiogIy In consecintl barrel butoi barreIledoliv«:s/oIives in barrels hl. Neal East OrientuI Apropiat above-mentioned sns-mentlonat ". Answer the following questions: I. denavlosirepentru acest voiaj .terdaw··aj:. 6.• This i. '7."frithconform.. Re.: . or •••: llU' este nici .·' n.) .2. '.e-:jl lun ". 3 to lie (lay... . Pale eta . Miiller & Co. '...! D~ Sirs.40.in butoaie .v. hoursto-day as from which time she has been in every respect ready to discharge her cargo of 1315 bundles Wire . ~l. .) companie de navigape lIa~ ~~t. . Miiller & Co.. . "Predeal" to load? . 7th November 197. eithet .. ~ ~i inuiili. 10.' . P. Please be in formed that ..v.pentru voluml the time allowed for.turll... bottled .led . (motor. either .4 if any' dacll este cazul.". 197. cu as per/according to/in accordance . Rotterdam 2.: What is the Carrying capacity of the m.~. ba. Wm. . ' Rotterdam..i tirined ..'" .. H.'ldeea:· (iLmbaIat}·ln butoaie.ine: or Tendered and accepted: Rotterdam at 09.00 hrs..062. 2. Co. 12. NOTICE OF READINJil~:D·MbDI~OOE.'. inceplnd de la please' be advised that sintep anuBtap cA....a de the m. All terms. '..'.~ bale I ba!oturi ' .. 8. (Sundays •.. 11.v..s to inf_ you tllat . 21 Is the notice of readiness delivered to the Shippers? If not. Please be advised tllat ... In limba romlnl 100 101 .' de Iemn to be lying at berth a stapona la danl under Charter Party confeJ!m'contractului de' in free pratique cu litled practicA navlosire· as from cu tncepere de la. • •• ...dat.. Notice of Readiness No.."BQfDt:&-~ON ()HARTER PARTY ... .t kind of goods does-she cartvi. 2' .. "ppa.. "BrliIa" carry and where is she to discharge her cargQ? ' cind se transmit informapi. cU.110 koso loaded . consequently' In conseeintl . 110 Notice of Readiness No. . What goods are to be loaded' by the M:met who writes the notice of readiness No. lain) a zlcea.. 2. . Messrs... What is the Master who writes the notice of readiness No... tllat ••• Acestea sint formule de incepere a uneiscrisori se traduc prin: Prin prezenta vA informll.' .. or' sau·.! ' .." •.' . 9. SIlEJt.::: --. "'l'! ..• . . Westerlaan.. "GaIaji": and wh3.' '.. mlv "BR.• • • .Uql~dll".':1 >.O..steel pip«:S levi de otel IIteel sheets tabIl de otel Notice :R.. NOTES 1. as deoarece lower hold magazie inferioarll.in sticle.in eutiide tabIl " .. .. .. 3.. ..5 profile iron profiluri de ~ier/de ote! hereby prinpr~ta. ~ 'be dealt with a fitratat/soluponat de .ea:diness No'. Ion Badescu Master of the m. In what port is she to load the cargo and for wbt destination j What storage space has the "Predeal' got? .m / vA avizlm cA. barrelled .i complet as fast as the vessel can receive en celeritatea about aproximativ cu care nava poate primi " Charter Party covuing this voyage contract.l cA' .. '.nfmm: yOlJ that my above-mentioned vessel arrived in the port of R0.420 koso loaded at Galatz and 314 bundles Profile Iron ..!Q~. ~de d.\. daclexistl .hy 5.stimA. ~:.'NOTICE OF READINl. r lIereby inf_ y014 tllat .':SS. to whom? What does the Booking Note stipulate withiegard to the time allowed for loading? What is the m.•• r lIereby advise you tllat •...sl(u hatch(way) gurll de magazie/d~ hambar' it is not.v.: " . 1. respect vAanuntlm cll. Notice of :Readiness No. a sta Intins/culcat woodpliIp celulozi!.1 to load? Where is his ship lying? .~'.(7J:.i bales cubic feet picioare cubice. : in conformitate cu . . What cargo does the m.•llic. Yours faithfully.•. vessel) motonava Notice of Readiness No .•..AILA" • . . full and complete cargo caric plin .'_ .624.•. What are the three things brought to the notice of the Shippers by the notice of readiness No l~ Why does the Master not / mention the time allowed for loading? .

The papers are lying on the table..•. >. ~idatliacceptArii: .. 2.c!CO~:.prezenta va facem cunoscut cA.bauld we have generals to transport.ponat ladana nr. Fill in prepositions: 1.• 3"E:iYah\l :Hanova Street Haifa'" '.~ge.2.f~. ready. 1 Ei urmeaza sa aducA.. Use one word for the words in italics.wiU be ..00 hrs. in conformitate cu contractul de navlosire.sailor is. 3. _ She has lain at Berth No. Nicolae Lu_pescu Master of them.lying on the bed.he FCljectour offer... "TIRGU MURE!. aCCQ1'tling"~()''ihe model' ana tra1isltlteit.a..nat la dana nr •. .:... ~n consecinti. Clnd ap primit vestile acestea? b) Model: Should he be thffe we can tell him the news.. 2. .r. 1 :.. w. III. 2•. IV. .l97 ./ II. '. . I. 4.:1.hen back into Englisn. Berth No. 4.:" steel sheehi as . 1.pe qata de 23. "TtRGU MURE!.& semna aceastl!.~ .:.2 yestm'day. c) 1.. 3. de 200 tone portocale pentru Constanta taceptnd de la orele 7 dimineaj. Clnd au Incarcat marfa? 4.::_. Istanbul Port •. A stl!.IJ. 2 toatA ziua.cest port azi Ia orele 14 ora. 2. . we!WaIJ. The sick . The vessel is lying alongside berth No. . 30th November ~ ". ca~ f-c.3..me i. She ~.... kx:a1A. them on deck. . 3.mence.~~a at 23. Ie putem arima iri magazia No. c) Model: He is to go to the Harbour Master Office. The Midia arrived '" the port . 3: Urmeaza sa pontarn 1 butoaiele.into Romq.00 hours on the 29th of Novembir ..~ .eetjl.he Injured telegraph operator was lying on the floor when.lg!. The repair tools are lying 00 deck. expirl la 28 decembrie. we shall ship. Da. and is ready in all respects to discharge the above-mentioned cargo as from 07... decembrie.GfteadinessAS sooa as we arrive.•• 08. to-day."~'.a~slate . ti..' Romanian..a comandantului.. Ciud au descArcat butoaiele? 5. . •••.rcaturA.ca ei desca~ marfa pinli.T L:i': . Dacl este acolo ii putem spune vestile. .ati pe Incarcatori. la orele 15 ~ acum stapeneaza la dana nr..lf~'~ se.- ~~ . Cind ap fost informat de aceasta? 3. b) 1... .v. 'l'heJar da-ys c9l11. . a ob1iulltlillera .30 hrs. fg~an~:rnvedl~ thfe port.2 t:#l day.• my command arrived . berth No. Yours faithfully.li. .EADINESS TO DISOJIARGE UNDER CHARTER PA~TY' Haifa. 4.. The vessel •. Should there be a <leIayin loadiug. DacA ei trimit Yin in butoaie. Urmeaza sa navlosimo naw. NOTIOE OF :Q. . T. The: holiday makers are lying on the beach.c.ol$. . 3. on the 30..Greece. shipowners.•.00 hours and is lying . .practicA.... . bott'es.. Shculd. '. a. d) Prin..hich time the vesse1.lI-re:1<9 .' r . Th."PREDEAL" pe care 0 comand a sosit in a.. Past Tense). ·T..•~ demurrage.. ev~r siB. Cind a sosit naval 2. it "will"be dealt With by the.sent G01J:CMnfdum" the shipping oj tJ!ith sMpping . 197.l" under m . ~'. adYi. Thc:Y. ". N..• the 23rd of December. 3. The Y~:~JiI~vi.'). 10. .. .. : CJlarter'Party. at 08.~~y a. numJ. .Rom..l'he vessel is .. Should the olives be barrelled. ~s is . ores in bags. putem sa 0 expediem dupA atniazA. pratique. V. ~.. '.' .si. charges ftw the'shipping .~go.stoll( them in hold No. Dacl ei accepta oferta noastra. . A.a aceasta.. 2..motonava.v. es .yo.intrat In ~? (dupA ~h8n se f~l9se~e tntotdeaune.~. Model: - . _ She lay at. . -_ I olives in barrels • goods. She was lying alongside the wharf· w)len the storm brQke out. 1. DacA.~tdoCJulJ!'.u. ..197 . all respects to load her cargo .' • Dear Sirs.' Lesson 7 III. cargo. i~ saci.x lowe". avlnd In vedere cA.:.Jo 6. 12.: a) 1.00 hrs.! "Galap" is to dlscliarge 4000 tonS . .. Nava staponea. 7•..• generals. ''$. 3.l" a) Model: When did she enter POt'tlCIlJd'a.o~. vi vOIll informa.ol580.E1 !. ::0' at 08. wrog sa anunj. the Charter Party and will"~.11.to.' . . 4.lying at Berth No 5. 4. Two working days are allowed •••loading ~Iie. i. •' j. He is to substitute that word. dupA care datA nava. WI ~. .. 1. theg~ in two days.niant. the Master came in.' 2.. We are to arrive in Piraeus at 10 o'clock to-morrow..asper Charter Party dated Buchar t October 23rd.. putem in~ '1I11L!1a imediat. the.zA :Ia'dana Dr.se.aceastala cuiiOftinj.. ei ~~'gqU. He had been lying there for'two 'hours. on the 30. 2. ducA.1._ 197..:.j :Y~12·:)·. Messrs. 12 in free pratique. Change the s~es'below . for.'~'{ I The lJessel is lying at Berth No 2. Dizengoff& Co Ltd:. .~ . Eaeste gata sa primeasca 0 incA.2 ~ri. . changing the word order if nfCeSSlfry: . va ~iin con4asta1ii• Binevoip'. . ~o1:ificare' cl' ora. 4.... h. w~ s1laJl sell th(l goods elsewhere. $po.t~~ the m. ~heat in sacks. .e accident had occurred. . staliile tncep la 2'3decembrie ~..'iY~' of goods'.~.rancther. We are to give Jiotice.Ia cApitAniapqrtului. tOOS'-lOf General Cargo from Constantza and 380 tons IambslQns '.Vrm~a sa priinim marfa in diI:nin~j..dO&#menIs covering shipped goods..

197. DISCHARGE MANGANESE o. 5th May 197. 197. ' .. 5th May 197.m/s "BABITONGA". NOTICE OF READINESS This is to advise you that the subject vessel arrived at Constantza at 15.' Dear Sirs...Co. ~!BABITONGA" The above vessel has arrived to-day in port With a cargo of 3.00 hours on 5th May.F READINESS NAVLOMAR Shipping Agency NOOlICE i . . Your$ v~ truly.004 metric tons of Manganese Ore in hulk.' j Mineralimportexport Constantza ..5.F READINESS TO.00 hours on the 5th May. N.. 10th February..NSIGNEE~SEBV1NGiAS o.Y. . "BABITONGA" MINERALIMPORT.. 8. 197.. .. SBIP'AGENT'8 ·LE'M'ERTo..004 metric tons of Manganese Ore in bulk and is ready in allrespects to discharge it. in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Charter Party dated New York. NOTICE o. and is in all respects ready ttl commence discharging 3. 197.. Constantza '!. Notice tendered at 09...20 hours on 4th day of May. Constantza. NAVLOMAR on behalf of Mineralimport lOS .RE Constantza.. " . c/o "N AVLOMAR".s. ec. Yours faithfully.. for NA VLOMAR Dorin Iliescu Acting Manager 5. Please treat this letter as Notice of Readiness on behalf of the Master of tlle. Ship Agent. Christian Fleehter Master of the m. forwarded to the Master of the "BABITONGA" ' Not ice tendered and accepted at 09.s. • ~...7. Re: MIS "BABITONGA" Dear Sirs. m.

Yours faithfully. at 07..... 15th November. the~oads of Kharg' . the receipt of this notice. by the Gulf Agency Co. Ltd.y in. unless l~<png' c0Inni~ces earlier. Please be informed that the mIt "OLTENIA" anch?r~d.. Chittagong (in the roads). 2nd October 197.'.. : The vessel is in all respects ready t9 cormnencedisCharging her cargo of 15.' Notice received and accepted . NOTICE OF READINESS OF THE TANKER TO D1SC1lARGE Kutubdia '.'''. 197. _ _ The lay days will commence to count upon~xpirationof six hours after the receipt of this notice of readiness. dated Bucharest.>?fabo!!t 3. Ltd.~ons of 3.9. Petre Stefanescu Master of mIt... Iran Gulf Oil Co. Ralli Buil~g. • Messrs..~'."ShelIcollsec 2" C/P. Pakistan Dear Sirs.you as ~bem~ m all respects ~~ylo load a full an~.. Notice received and accepted at 10.. . 2. 30th November 197. . Ltd:. ..400 tons of superior kerosene. ~<!_da.! '). Ralli Square. Ltd. Tante Serescu Master of mit "OiTENIA" . "ARGE$" . on behalf of Messrs.15 hours on 15th November 1'97.00 hours on the. November 30..' Messrs. 2nd October. 4411.. NOTICE: OF READINESS. NATIONAL PAKISTAN OILS LTD.. Lay time will commence to count 1n accordance with the .00 hrs.O...co~p~ete cargc. berth or no berth. vessel being on berth or not. 11. " on behalf of Messrs. 1~J7 . Yours faithfully. in accordance WIth the ShelIconsec 2 Charter Party datedBueherest.B. llyBirdship Co. (signature) 104 101 . GULF AGENCY Co.000 tons heavy fuel. " . 197.Is_lrul~is tendl!I'ed to . OFTBETANKEB C1lARTER PARTY TO LOAD UNDER 10..\ ~. grades of Pefroleum products. upon expiration of six hours after . . unless actual discharge is commenced earlier. at 16. _ Kharg Island Dear Sirs.50 hours on 30th November 197. "ARGE$" arrived in the roads -of Chittagong and anchored at Kutubdia at 12..QO() long ..) . Chittagong.No. Kharg Island -(in roads).P. Please be informed that the mit.4. Ship Agent.. . National Pakistan Oil. (signature) 1.000 tons of fuel oil and 10.

expeditor Charterer . ' Nava este gata in toote privintele sl Inceapa descarcarea caricului slu de 10 000 tone plcura ~ 9000 tone petrollampant in conformitate cu clauzele ~ conditiile contractului de navlosire cu data Bucuresti. persoane care trimit. VII.girat Sufixul -ee formeazl substantive care all.palancarile sau shmelede tncarcare etc. 11. Conform uzarrtei. S"a tnapoiat comandantulut 0 copie a: norisului P 10. Vor trebui sl semneze notisul. I return thanks . tanc. Study the Time Sheet at the ena of the Romanian text tkatjollows explain lwW it has been drawn up. cli. . .. Instructions concerning the shipping/shipment.'. we hear to the contrary. had had (trebuisem) to discharge the goods the day before. I. 10) to load? Where is the vessel at the time when she tenders the Notice of Readiness? II. 6. We canjmustwire theshippers (early in the moming . A company engaged in transporting or arrangjug Ior the transportation of goods by sea. Don't be uneasy on my "'. 10.. 9. se 'pIateste) Ett40rsee ~ andosatar. The port where the goods are shipped. snaIl have (va trebui) to discharge the wheat to-morrow. de sepal' ratii ¥ de stivuire (dunnage) potrivit prevederilor contractului CfP'. . pIatesc. <1) Prin prezenta vii avizlmcilm/t . arose).sa'Llsa descarce. i.s. 5. Acesta este un document prin care capitanul informeazil pe inclrciltori ell nava este gata sl incarceinltfurile.destinatar .. Trebuise sl telegrafieze armatorului. consignee/receiver destinatar. 3.6) to discharge? Under what document is the vessel carrying the goods? What is the Master of the m. I.aster (before long.Navanu v.t.. Give synonyms for the words in italics and make the necessary changes: a.. '" . 4. 8~ A cargo-boat fitted with tanks for the carrying of Qil. p. unless." VI.. III. S-au specificat motivele neacceptarii notiSului? 8. . Translate into English: a) 1. He pleaded in/on . please be advised.ongthose listed. gata de folosire: De asemenea. on behalf of) I.' We We We We We the' adverbs between. : VOCABULARY lambskin piele de miel manganese ore minereu de mangan the subject vessel nava ru1. . in afarl de cazul clnd Incarcarea ar incepe mai devreme. i.NOTES Consign.t. 5. i. 6. 5. Trebuise sl pleee numai. . un sens pasiv: persoane carora Ie este destinat.the lambskins [eazly next:week. primitor (al mhiii) in bulk in vrac to forward a transmite. to be anchared. La indircare. in:primul rind. i. c) 1. staliile tncep la Ora 14in. Este nava' gata de Incarcare? 9. fie cil nava este 1a danl sau nu. this is to advise you. Fill in the words listed below and translate into Romanian: (relevant. The charges made for shipping the 'goods. shipping documents. .decft. Staliile vorIncepe sl conteze la expirarea a sase cire de la primirea acestui notis. Give the word or words answering the following definitions. 0 ~V:l destul de mare . of the culprit. .• 9. Trebuisesa accepte ofem. 3. The pr~pectus c~ntains ~ th~ . Nu vor putea sl fie aici la timp.' . below: " choosing from '. The agent is acting on my . of Mr. "Babitonga" (Notice No. 3.: l"l:Ieycanlmust bring it to the Harbour Ma.consignatar. to unload.. li~A fost acceptat notlsul? 7. 10) carrymg? What is the m. shipping charges. shipping port/port of shipment. I come . 5. Va trebui sl arimlm marfa. Weare sending you a copy of the notice and the documents. and NOTA PENTRU COMA.beneficiar [eel chula i... am.The weight of the goods when shipped.. that letter' (today.Oltenia" pecare 0 cemand a sosit in rada portului Famagusta ~ a ancorat In ziua de 15 septembrie la 10. X. in vreme ce sufixul-er formeazl substantive cu sens activ. shipping weight. 2.l being on berth 01' not. To put Or receive on board for transportation. to commence.Clnd au inceput -staliile ~ . expediazl. wire..<1w:er of attorney. 8. in all respects: consignte..lricatl to commence discharging a incepe sl descarce /desclrcarea terms and conditions conditii ~ clauze on behalf of in numele . dacl' nu actual efectiv grade calitate 1.5 septembrie 197. 7.50 ora Greenwich. You can/must write ' V.. 6.'. 5.3. Exemple: Consign.Uhte de ora 12.sau a practicii portului respectiv: pentru !nceperea contarii staliilor. before any difficulties as they were shipped). pentru acest caric. 2. . ..petrolier to anchor a ancora heavy fuel combustabil greu fuel oil plcnrl kerosene (petrol) petrol lampant receipt primire berth or no berth/the vessel being on berth ". a trimite. before . 7. Nn putnsera sil navloseasca. 2.. as soon 3. Documentele aferente sint anexate la prezenta. we start at once." information. not dacl 'n&Va este la danl sau nu unless in afarl de cazul iri care.s-a predat notisul CU condipa ca aceasta slliavut loc in. the HarbourM. Va trebui sl fim acolo laora trei.' Charter Party.ziua in care. to ship. suficient ca nava sa fie sosita. shipping instructions. 3. We shall ship the goods . 2. (motor tanker) petrolier ell.' 5. Nu 'putuse ~ descarce jmediat.navlositor. in locul exact 1a care urmeaza sa incarce . before 'the agent got in touchwith him). este necesarca nava safie dintoate punctelede vedere gatasa tnceapa operatiile. The documents showing that the goods have been Shipped.3 august 197. i.. he IS grven a P. Payee . ..addinig brackets: Model. my colleagues and myself.Nti vom putea sl Incarcam Intr-un timp atJtde scurt. kerosene.li se pl&te~te etc. . . A nswer the' following questions: I. the day before).v. potrivit prevederilor contractului de transport (C/P). magazii1e. ..navei trebuie sa fie goale si curate. 2. Metal drawn out into the form of thread. Notis primit ~acceptat la 0"Fe q_30. fie in buna stare. "Arge~" (Notice No.. We shall be late . . este. The witnesses should stick to the facts. the vess. ' b] 1. We can/~ustspeak to 5. shall be able (vom putea) to discharge the wheat to-morrow. nava trebuie saposede materialnl. primitorul mlrtii este in~tiinj:at cil nava este gata in toote privinj:ele sl descarce..7) to discharge? Is Ore packed for transport as a rule? If not. 'a expedia EXERCISES m.ster's notice (in the afterno~. "Tirgu Mure~" (Notice No. iar aparatele de incarcare (vinciurile." .r .. 1. 3. 6. Nil. motor tanker navl petroliera. " '.) sa. of goods.the :Master returned). The agent will do nothing . What is the m. "Oltenia" (Notice No. had been abl' (putusem) to discharge the goods the day before. can / must discharge the wheat (to-morrow. Change the tenses of the verbs as required. In calitate de' agent al navlositorului.a putea sl intre in port asa cl va trebuisltransmiteD! notisul prin radio. Nil va putea sl· obtuil autorizajia de export..t. What petroleum products is the m. immediately). 2. andoseazl etc.~DANTI IV. 109 .xora li se trimite. how is it transported? .. We can/ must stow . 7.. 2. i. (shipping company.. tanker) " .

Incarcatorii. consta i~ calcularea. dupa te~area ~peratiilor. se adauga In t~me-skeet. pe r~~. timpul pierdut de navl m IIl}t.bord. (If loading/discharging commmces earlier such time not to count). (If loading/discharging commences earlier such time count . ~ce:st mod de ~culare a tiinpului de asteptare pentru danA se foloseste potrivrt hotAririi date la 9 Iulie 1970 de tnbunalul comercial englez Queen's Bench Division Lon~on. prevederile contractului C/Pcu privire la notue. sau parte din eI. de asemenea.:ii ~otice-m. nava ~l. in mod con~n~l1~.n:avlositori. Daca incarcareajdescarcarea incepe mai devreme. sa fie contat ca stalii. de exemplu. sec preda. In ~oate cazurile insa comandantul poate refuza inceperea operatiilor tnainte de expirarea ragazului sau poate accepta tncarcarea sau descarcarea in aceasta perioada de timp. De :ele~ai multe ori. predea 1 Clauzele nr.nava a tncetat de a mai astepta pentru dana. iar staliile propriu-zise se calculeaza potrivit C/P.. tncarcatorilor ¥ primitorilor li se acorda un "ragaz" (respite) de la predarea notice~ului . ului. este in contul navlositorului.~c~t separat si independent. ultenor. . cit ~i potrivit practicii de comer] maritim.publicatie de specialitate locala. vederea intoCIDifii . depunerea notice-ului ~u ~al este necesara sau.. res~ctiv intre nava ~i tncarcator! san primitori. ' 2. Germarua tim pul lucra t in perioada ragazului nu este luaf in considerate la calcularea staliilor. implicit. ar fi exclusi din stalii (dupa amiezile de simbata etc. In aceasta privinta tribunalele diverselor states-au pronuntat in mod ~ent. cu conditia ca ragazul. . Daca operarea navei incepe inainte de expirarea "ragazului". PinA la data acestei hotArlri.'In imprejurarea in careIncarcatorii sau primitorii nu sint cunoscutiIn portul aratat inCtp sau conosament ~ acestia nu seprezinta spre a tncarca sau prelua marfa.. comandantul publica notice-ulintr-un ziar sau . ' Timpul pierdu~ de nava in asteptarea danei. p._fl adAugat (mt~me-sheet) la urma.to count asdoading/dischargingtime) 1. armatorulw in. la calcularea time-shed-ului. respectiv despatch sau in contrastalii (ven exemplul la nr.as lay days). 11). in vederea operarii navei. 110 111 .Loucas N". ~enea staliilor. duminicile.:ptarea danei se calcuIa.A. 3. sepaiat.atitprin C/P. T~pul de .<?CazlO~at. p. insl. '10-. de pilda. 3.. fiind 0 simpla informatie. daca totusi se depune. de inceperea incarcarii Timp folosit la tncarcare Contrastalii la tncarcare 4 zile 5 zile o ore lora 0 minute 0 minute to 1 zi lora 0 minute 3 zile 22 ore 0 minute 4 zile 23 ore 0 minute In cazurile in care nava va tncarca sau descarca in mai multe porturi. .' N otice:ul navei In ~tePtarea danei '.p. ea. Panama.p~a la inceperea operatiilor de Incarcare sau descarcare. ~i rlmasA definitivl. In R.in wzil<:. Cu alte cuvinte.ragazului. ea trebuie sa depuna notice of readines« conform prevederilor C/P. timp~ de ~~tept~e. . era lnat ~. :. potrivit exemplului de mai jos: Stalii ~tru incarcare/descarcare5 A~teptare pentru dana Nava in contrastalii. cOUS1~era:re raport de rezultatele obpnute in operarea navei.. F.Notificarea de punerea navei la dispezitie pentru operare tnseamna eli nava este "r:a:Jmente gata de a' opera" la data prezentarii notice~ului. fie In rada (roadstead) fie in acvatonul portului etc.n Inc.. -Copia notice:ului -se pastreaza. Practicile judecatoresti I au stabilit urmatoarele principii pentru calcularea timpului pierdut de nava in asteptarea danei de tncarcare sau descarcare: 1.a~teptare se calculeaza separat ~i independent de stalii. & BIMCO Annual Report 1972-1973.lucrat nu va fi contat. sa. ' Noul principiu 4 de calculare a time-skeet-ului. sarbatorile. . S. nu are valoareaunei notificari. respectiv primitorn. cuprivue la stabilirea momentului de la care tncepe contarea staliilor. ~ (pentru tncArcare) ~ 6 (pentru descArca. Evitarea acestor dispute se realizeaza prin tnscrierea in CfP aunei clauze potrivit careia se stabileste modul de calculare a . vol. Daca tnsa. co~ecutiye de 24 or~. timpului de stalii. Cind. 3 BIMCO Bu letin VI/1970. .).59. la.512. Daca Incarcareajdescarcarea mcepe mai devreme. Dadi tncarcarea/descarcarea incepe mai devreme. dupa predarea notice-ului.. timpul astfel lucrat va conta in tntregime.re) din contractul Charter Part "Gencon". faca aceste operatii. tn Franta ~i Belgia tribunalele au hotartt eli timpul operat inainte de expirarea ~agazului conteaza in calculul staliilor in proportie de 50%. 108. penoadele de timp nefavorabil sau alti timpi care potrivit e/p. inainte . prin inceperea operarii in sine. in care intervine timpul de a~teptar:. ..' Clauzele din C/P privind timpul de asteptare exista independent de cele referitoare la stalii. timpul astfel lucrat va conta pe jumatate. a~estui timp ~ ~omentul ~i in ordinea in care s-a . cu toate obligatiile ~i drepturile ce decurg din aceasta notificare..219-227.Loucas N". deseori se nasc diferende tntre ~atori ~i . Pina la ~ata d:. cum ar fi. simbata.ui sei~scrhlw in jurnalul d~ . aceasta spre a le permite sa. ~openhag~n. .56-. Notifiearea latimpul viitor. (If loading/discharging commences earlier half of such time to co~nt): D~ta ~i~ra pre<Ia. trebuie notice of readiness in fiecare din aceste porturi. in'f:/P sepre~ad elauze potrivit ~~ota "timpUl Pi~dut de. • Lloyd's List Law Report 1966. incarelitorii incep incarcarea sau primitorii incep preluarea marfii in mo~entul cind nava este gata sa.II.d~l nu va maI. cazul . la sffrsitul timpului de mcarcare sau descarcare spre a evidentia pozitia contrastaliilor.berth.9 i~e 19703. faca pregatirile de ultim moment. Acest moment capatafmportanta deosebita incazurile in care determina intrarea navei in contrastalii la 0 data favorabila armatorului.mnalional Maritime Co"fertmc~. Monrovia. timpul astfe1 . ~u acceptafnava ~.. de Indata ce perioada de asteptare s-a terminat. fara nici 0 exceptie. prin care incarelitorul este informat ca nava: "va fi gata" ctndva.. inainte de ora 12!00. Exemplu: 1. 5 Exemplul este lnat din A"nual ReporI1970-1971 oflhe Baltic and I. ~ Ionia~ NaVlg&tio.cazul"Vastric". " '. ~matorii navei . p• .Time-sheet . . in procesul dintre Atlantic Shipping Co. nava. aceasta constituind dovada sosirii navei ~i aptitudinii ei dea primi san preda marfa. ' 2. timpul astfel real pierdut se deduce din staliile acordate c?nform CP. in' asteptarea danei rccnteaza ca timpde incarcare sau descarcare" (Time lost In :waiting fo_r . aceasta ramine 0 simpla form~tate deoarece.

O.4.11.00 . terminafJacarcarea ora 11..timpului pierdutde nava pentru asteptarea dane. Comandantii deci trebuie sa retina cu deosebita atentie faptul ca timpul de asteptare pentru dana se calculeaza separat destalii.. .70 .00 7.4...4. 8. 11 a. ..70 ora 07.70 ..00..Q1. Totusi. duminicile ¥ sarbatorile exceptate (SHEX = Sundays.00. in locul de operare capata ca1itatea de "nava sosita" (arrived shiP). .00 O..staliilor. ' '•.4. staliileincep 1a ora 13.70 notice acceptat ora 10. 10.00 .4.•.00 pina 1a .00. 9.70 staliileexpira la ora 09.l Varianta practicata p£na la 9 iulie 1970 'TIME Joi Marti ora ora ora ora ora ora Simb1ita 10... Holidays Excepted).' nuimplidi obligatia comandantuluide adepune Notice of Readiness sau ca nava s3. . daca acest mijloc de comunicatie este posibil. '..' sia« (laytime) 6.00 1.00 Timp de asteptare in rada 6.00 5.30 timpul Incepe la ora 13.7.01.4.00 1.70 .O.Contarea .03. contrastalii '. (1. Z.00 0:090. .00 0.4.4.00.. Simbat1i conteaza pin~ la ora 12..00 daca "notice"-ul' este depus ~iacceptaUnainte de ora 12.13.00.00. EXEMPLU DE TIME SHEET :m~T DtNPRA:CTIC..M..00 0..00.00 4.•.• .fi obtinut ...M. 1~. '.4. 11.4.70 ora 1.00 3. 1. prin radiotelegrafie...4. 1.0.. 0.00.lunea de 1a ora 08.00) 06.70 0600 nava 0700nava 0900 nava 1000 nava 1030 nava 1200 nava 1100 nava SHEET ancorata in rada paraseste rada acostata 1a dana de incarcare primeste libera practica preda "notice"-ul incepe mcarcarea termina incarcarea Timp acordat pentru incarcare 4 zile.00.00 1.22.12. incepe calcularea staliilor propriu-zise.." '/ 113 .' . Despatch: tot timpul economisit.Jibera practica" (free pratique) deoarece are regim deosebitde a1 . Deci dnd nava ajunsa.70 6.4. aratfndu-se data ¥ ora sosirii navei.00.70.00 . pentru evitarea netntelegerilor este indicat sa se transmita navlositorilor o informare. adica a predat notiee-ul in mod obisnuit ~i a obtinut "liberapractica".00 tuni 'r Miercuri Joi Vineri Simb1ita Duminic1i 0.. " .70 ora Despatch (despatch) Z.

for example: requesting a safe berth of sufficient depth. .00 Joi 8.. 1.CTUA.M.30 timpul incepe la.OO . .. on their opportuneness and the date on which they are mailed that depends whether or no the aim in view is attained. putting of a lien on the goods. ....4.00' Simbata '10. . empowering the agent to sign bills of lading...•. maintenance materials. etc.'.11 b..sau alte momente care. with port authorities and more particularly with the Ship Agent in his capacity as representative of the ship and protector of her interests.01. ... t.deal with a matter of some importance.00 ..23.00 Timpfolosit la inc1ircare . deratization.00 Miercuri 7. potrivitultimei interpretari a arbitrilor ~i tribunalelor 1. .4. provisions.0..00' ...00. . "..75 notice acceptat ora 10. It is on the manner in which the ship's letters are drawn up.510-.00 Vineri 9. 115 . 1.. Total contrastalii Nota Arbitrii si tribunale1e au apreeiat ca timpul deasteptare pentru dana trebuie calculat "de la moment la moment de timp pierdut" fara ca intre aceste momente sa se intercaleze perioadele de eventual despatch. transport of the Master and of the crew by launches or taxi-cabs.4.. spare parts.. .4.75 1..Luni .75 ·· 1. ....00 • _. etc. ~ ".4. ".01..00. ~co Iii St Timpa~teptare pentru dana .11. . the Master should take the Ship Agent's advice as to whom the letter should be sent and how it SHould be drawn up.. 1 Pentru detalii.. in conditii de operare normala. 5..••. _.H. 12.22.4~75 staliile expira la ora 09.75 ' ': . • •.O.. partitioning to be effected by the shippers and the supply of dunnage by the latter...L Varianta (desfa~urata) recomandatd dupa 9 iulie 1970 i " ~... It is advisable that whenever the letters .• • • •• • • . Marti 6.ora 13. 4.: . Routine correspondence refers primarilyto various services and work needed by the ship in ports.512...00 1. notification of demurrage'. fuel. r Chapter m ROUTINE CORRESPONDENCE Lesson 8 Pastrind . ~'.. 'Stalli (lay time) Z.00 Contrastalii initiale . etc.... ar crea une1e avantaje navlositorului.00 0. and it is also in his correspondence that the Master takes a stand under certain circumstances which might affect the unfolding of the ship's operations." ..: claims put forward or rejection of other people's claims for short shipment or damage to the goods. se reda modul de calculare a time-sheet-ului. etc. . as part of the Captain's relations with the Shippers and receivers of goods.j b) Services such as: medical assistance. c) The stand taken under certain circumstances which might affect the unfolding of the ship's operations in ports as. obtaining permission to work overtime. complaints lodged for non-operation or faulty operation of the ship.75 terminattncarcarea ora 11. Routine correspondence comprises all the letters written in connection with the ship's daily activities. 3. . O.00 nf orm e/P' ..in intregime date1e aratate la exemplul precedent.~-.. ...00.....01.00 . a se vedea BIMeO Buletin VI/1970 p• ... technical assistance on board...00·.. Such letterswill consequently deal with: a) Supplies of water. ~ . t u. ·4.. EXEMPLU DE ~SHEET!..

. Bordeaux Dear Sirs.. .the. "Arge~'~ ~P'$.RAD'~. LETrER TO THE AGENT.to the port and back: three times a.in accordance with my Owners'letter of credit dated 13th June 197.as cash to Master.. be put in the ship's disbursements account.Plesu ' Master of the mjv '. !:" CASH TO MASTER ":3rd August. . and 8Jl()p.30 a.t...eBahia& Co. c" 197~.. 14.Messrs. Bahia. to-morrow. 117 .. . Ist June... ' Nicolae Moisescu Master of the m. to-morrow . Messrs.te 1W:e 'amotor-. Maracinescu Master of the mIt «Oltenia" by the Chief Officer.t. to~e . shipyard. -of June. 2nd.. bac~. be alongside'. p. . the m. . ' The sick man will be accompanied Please confirm receipt. ASKING AGENT TO"SEND. The expense is to.. 12 bis Quai Bacalan.m.30 a..m.d'Urville Rouen Dear Sirs.tb.from . 3rd .m. A..OQ... 1 La acest tip de scrisoare alineatul se dactilografiazll._ Messrs. Yours faithfully.' Yours faithfully.faithfully. You are kindly requested to make the necessary arrangements for all ambulance boat to come alongside our vessel at 10 a.and 4th. Shipping Agency. to take a sick sailor ashore and further to the port . I would request you to arrange for a garbage scow or an ash boat to take the refuse and rubbish from my: ship at 08. to bring them . ..at the landing stage in front of the Maritime Station Building at 11.'...S~~". wowdr~~e$t.m. Charles Le Borgne. and 5. Please 1 send on board at noon to-morrow Frs. . '4 Bahia ' 15. Ist June. Dear SU-S. cu un spatiu alb de cinci litere. Ltd. -Cie.chfo:r acc~~t. Rue Dumont .' Bordeaux ii. Charles Le Borgne . 197.~~ . "Arge~"at8.la~D.In order to carry some 20 members of the.m.m. 197.Yours. Yours faithfully : Gheorghe .. ship'sterew.12.' . BE2UESTING AGENT TO TAKE A SICK SAILOR TO HOSPIT:U Bordeaux. 1000.4. you .Sociedade Anonima Conde Rue Visconde de Rosario. day on the lst.197. Ion Mihnea Master of the mlv "B.00 hrs. We. 2. crewashcre. 'Rue Foy D~ Sirs.5. '" The motor-launch should. Compagnie Charles Ie Borgne " " .hospital by car.m.A TO TAKE GARBAGE AWAY GARBAGB SCOW OR Rouen. and.CLUP Messrs. N. AN ASH BOAT 18th May.00 p.00 p.

V-am ruga.tll. . o compulsie (to rompel.pitanul deport. ? 10.. a) Verbele care exprimll. W. maintained for hire on public thorough- • 118 119 ..to carry out the repairs in time. 0 nigll. advice: a urmasfatul cuiva ClISh . to ask }.'short slIipment... • ~- ~stions: • < • ' 1. . 1. o nuanfll. Se foloseste dupll.: 3. b) Verbele compulsive {to !MO. . to oommand ). ~ I had requested . to un. ia masurile . to like.~nrare tll deal with a trata despre supplies furnizare.atragem atenfia. V. What· services does she 'require? . IiI. . . ca verb modal fiind trecutul verbului will..A supravegheat I urmll... Please take the crew .We made •.paT& . 4.. '. It is hard for him to realize what has happened. 0 activitate mintalll.. the Agent for cash? 8•. .... eu motor.] 4.tkrstand. a influen1..We saw .•. 10 !MCe). e) Verbele to let. This cannot go on.to declat'e.pretenfiile shortcomings Iipsuti . lien. the shippers. 3. vi!.• VOCABULARY more particularly tndeosebi to take a stand a lua pozitie under certain circumstances tn anumite situatii unfolding desfll.?· 5. . requeSf. What do such letters deal with? (Name 3 main subjects.rm IV. the port and hack.the'Iollowing. un sentiment [to wish. aouzalivul ou in jinitivul. t'. 8. to !tate). 10. . e:tpea the motor launch I "" 10 be here at 11. . Dupll. 5. (Post meridiem) 10 seara . ~ nu ca auxiliar pentru formarea condifionalului .qum . ~au sfi!....I told •. 0 percepfie senzoriall!.... w.jtate supe::' rioarll..m.. Account stating what funds are paid out.zll. 2. . would t'. un ordin (to order. A place whe~e ships are ~uilt or ~paired.necesare. It is im~ble . To ensure the supply . 6. 6. In the meantime he can . c) Verbele declarative {to tell.• board .quest. {to know. Construcfia propozitiei. . 5 dupll.ckw.am dori sll. ~e hired a car.m. .. 7. It is impossible for those shipyards to carry out the repaus m time. 6.bish gunoi garbage scow/ash boat "gabarA de ..Between )Vhomis such correspondence -conducted? . Please send •... amiaza EXERCISES I.sll. . If he is dissatisf~ed he can . He dre. care .' . The motor-launch should take the crew . What phrases do you. 7..Ii? . .•. informeze pe ell. the goods..2. . to desire..• 8. to report]. forward have been . J.• 9. Itad them repair the !tatGhways.Voiam ca el sll.•.. c.We expected . ••• Aceste formu1ll. dunnage . To put forward claims . repare gurile de magazie.: . to e"peot}.atragem atenfia ell. possibly a compO'Und. 10. 0 dorinfll. to waiGh. 2. W.se traduce prin "rug!m". . a c?mplaint. to believe. We believe them to be able to do 1t.I asked T him to come on board. d . They carried out the repairs. ea sll. .. toate aceste verbe constructia este: Acuzatfv + Infinitivul sCUTt (fi!. to conside«. limbii engleze. notification notificare to put a 1ie1l on a insti tui 0 retentie asupra to draw up (drew..• 7.T-am spus~. letter of credit disbursements account shipyard. Mpd~l : ~e came on board.• ? b) uerbs : 1. 0 cerere {to t'. Vi!. .. emanded in'letter No. . H. vi!. What letters does the Master write in connection with the ship's operation? 7. 5. What does the mailing lposting . .I knew .·to) Exemple: He watGhed lhe stev.min te.m .& pune la po~tll.• 10. landing stage. .30 dimineata..OOO. {to see. He was a very good engineer. sll. .I-a pus sll. .1.' to Observe}..• . aprovizionare maintenance materials material de tntrefinere spare parts piese de schimb motor launch ~Iupll.. .. Say it in One word. 2. . That ship is missing. 8clvf5able recomandabil to take!lOmebody!s. tie the latter acesta/ac~ din ur.I consider .t .am dori sll. The ambulance boat reached the· ship in time. . fjlrnizeze produse de cal. b) Verbele care exprimi!.ambulance boat .. a stand. W. IaD4iDg stage debarcader ambulance boat ~lupll. 10 hav. . short shipment tDarfll.· depth adlncime to empower a imputernici. . the Master must .ascash . . binevoifi a inchiria 0 ~upll. It is hard to realize what has happened. b1cll.. would ask yov to . . .rit . . to p_it). 5 p. To put a lien . a claim for short shipment. 2. to dislik. a autoriza to work overtime a lucra ore suplimentare to put forward claim$ a formula.. 10 nolioe. specifiell. .m sll. cerem . What does the Master in·letter No. rugll. Fill in the blanks with the Accusative with the Infinitive as shown in the model and translate into Romanian.pretenfj. Please take the sailor '" hospital. to.the 'aim in view· scopul . We posn:d the ~etters. short shipment).A~'. 5..am dori sll. drawn) a redacta. : partitioning separatii dUllllllp material de st.m."owf.ments.urmll. We want the gang of workers to work ov~e. a lien on the goods. We told him to supply high quality produas. Translate into Romanian then back into English: 1. 2.••• shipyard ~ntier naval to take ashore a (con)duce la fll. further mai departe garbage/refuse/rub. W. este deAumiti!.. sanitari!... ILEiU in a) preposmons wJUre. ashore. vi!.. 4. We closed the hatches for the rain not to spoil the goods.rit pe stivadori/ pe ei (in timpul cind ei) stivuiau marfa.Wlriz· 8 t~ NOTES 1.' .. .. .• the letter depend . . to prov. would t'equest yov.tuit sll. Enmple: W.They reported . Aouzativul + injinitivullung (cu to) se foloseste dupa: a) Verbele ce exprimi!.cerem . What does the letter deal . I.. It is necessary for the Master to speak to him.. 9. All the claims he .w up the Mate s ~ecelpt. fie aici la ora 11. The crew went ashore.. 8.. ...~ci se intrebuinfea.. 12'rely OIL in' asking. siguri!.. 4.rise folosesc chiar atunci ctnd in limba romAnll.. They Iodged a complaint. taxi-cab taxi deratlzation deratizare to affect a afecta. launch. adll..}. 3.•. .se fndulceste tonul dind verbului care urmeazi!. Master. W.:. Why is an.quest yov to hit" a maIM laumh. What do you mean by routine ccrrespcndence z 2.required: 1.. noon to-mo..rca. 6.Lsam rugat .d him to make the necessary 5'rrang. 3. A passenger-cat.rugll.I had advised . He helped them {Io} do it. him to worm the Horbour Master. In minus damage to the goods avarierea mll. Alte exemple: We wovld add that . use to ask someone to do something? (See the first sentences of the four letters). ~I/tj) pos.. .rylng motor vehicle seatillg four to seven people.mil. d) Verbele care exprimi!.ganoi tlisbulseiDeDt5accoUllt decont 'decheltuieli 10 a. consulte pe agent.'10 p:m.Conti!. 4. to advise. The Moldova 18 a seaworthy ship. 10 want. 5. To 'cause damage '" the goods. onthe ship's disbursements account in letter No. The Master examined the tallymen s sheets and . choosing from among those listed below! (taxi-cab. would point out t!tat ••• . . What does the Master request the Agent to ptovideinletter No.cerem sll. to help.. to Masterfonduripentru comandant letter of credit acreditiv to arrange for a boat to ••• a Iua mi!.suri pentrn ca 0 barell. 0 faell. am spune: vi!. 9. Vi!. to lodge complaints a depune ceclamajii non-operation neoperare : faulty operation operare defectuoasi!.T-a ajutat sll.slthemslow lhe goods... atntoemf opportuneness oportunitate . 0 permisiune (to allow... It is necessary to speak to the Harbour Master. 3.rll. What supplies does a vessel require.a to request a cere. We expect them to complete loading the ship to-day. a ruga safe berth danll. to make.. What expense is to be put.rfii . In consecinfll. We wanted..i to reject claims a respinge.They wanted .m ca salupa IciI. to heat'. 15? It. They 'advised him to' coD8Ult the Agent.30 a.ug!m ci!. (ante meridiem) 10 dimineata . de politete. Prin folosirea cuvintului _ld. 13 and for what reason) ·9.

W?a.pn thestarbcard bow. 4. i. Ei voiau sa le trimitem 0 notificare.v. BE: IMPOSSmILITY OF REA VING ANcHOR January 16th. Agentul ne-a sfatuit sa respingem pretenj:iile lor. p~c:ase-pay atte. ora 7 seara.-amiazl. . scrisoare cu data de 3 mai. TO PILOT STATION. Translate into English: a) Ora 9 dimineaja . 3. VI.dus .a-i aduce lnapoi.Qn4ecke. El voia sa redactez risp. Shipment of goods in quantities below those agreed upon. 197 .. 7. iar la ore1e . Credeam cl accidentul se datoreaza· unei oper!ri defectuoase a macaralei. a angaja un taxi pentrn a duce pe marinar Ia spital. "BRAILA:" Virgiliu Drocan . The ship proved unable to drag the anchor and heave it up after mooring alongside the pier. 14. Therefore.30. A-cerut Q1pitanului de port sa Ii se permit! sa luereze ore. suplimentare. 7. 1. 6. 6.rugam sa binevoijia lua masurile necesarepentru ca 0 ~upi sanitarl sa duel un marinar bolnav pe fArm.t of ~ny size used for ca. Salupa va trebui sa fie Ung! tancul "Arg~" la orele 9. Am auzit pe stivuitoru11jef pltngindu-se de aceasta. • b) Va rugam sa binevoiji a angaja 0 ~upl. L-a rugat pe agent sa informeze pe inclrcltori de veuirea navei. ora i dupA.. A letter addressed 'by. To the Pilot Station.to a certain sum and guaranteeing to accept . A platfonn. The right to retain property until a claim is pald. "BRAILA'~ Please take notice that the starboard anchor of the abovevessel under my command is still 15 fathom in water and the chain leads about 55 degrees out . . cu contractu! de... Master of the m.i 17 pentrua conduce eehipajul pe tarm.'lDc. Cheltuie1i1eurmeazi sa fie trecute in decontul de cheltuieIi alnavei. 10. .B. Cu stima. 5-.itef • !' r·'(-' mte$.' • " .Ia spital eu m~.and freight. Va. ~alupa trebuie sa fie Ungl navl miine la ora 5 dupi·amiazi. acrediti~"cu' da~ de 5 iulie.&t the end o{ a ~ {oJ'.v.the landing and embarking ·()f passengen. c) N. a banker to the person to whom the creditis'given authorizing him to draw money up. '.unsul.. 6. ~alupa sauitari trebuie sa fie Ia debarcader la ora 8 dimineata. 16. Seeundul urmeaza sa fie. 5. ~tiam ca aceasta este posibil.d. 2... . Yours faithfully.pentru a conduce aproXbnatiV" zece membri ai echipajului de la santier In port ~i Inapoi de trei ori pe zi pe data de 5 ~ 6 martie.iliVtdn BaM sentence.. An open •. 5. 2.ntion when manoeuvring in the harbour. or largely. 3. 9.Conformitate. 8.'8.12'. Use the Aacusativ8 wilh the InJin. Three ropes were broken in the attempt to do it.the draft. d) Va rugam sa binevoiti a angaja 0 ~upa in contul navel. '.rrYing_passengers shon distances. Le-a cerut primitorilor sa preia marfa. Varna' Re: m.navlosire : a angaja 0 ~upl pentru a duce echipajul la jarm .. Doream ca agentul sa angajeze o ~upi. in confonnitate eu ordinele comandantului. Lesson 9 16.4.30 ~ 12 sa se afle in fafa garii maritime pentru.

' .I refer to the 'phone conversation I had this morning with comrade S. about 25 metres off berth No.:~ 18. Re: m.. During the ship's stress. NE and heavy swells. as per Bunkering Contract concluded with Messrs. During the boisterous weather of last night." ~. please let the Pilot Station' and the HarbOur Master' know' Jhat-IDll.'"".. A. Yours faithfully.noeu~g . . the ship rolled and pitched heavily. shipping plenty of water on deck and hatches. with winds blowing from N. .A. duly signed by tile Chief Officer. . . . 72.O. ~p~'Care and attention. Payment of bunker will be made by the Owners.IN Varna. May 17.B. Shell Oil .. "> '-/ Messrs. ASKING AGENT TO ARRANGE FOR SALVAGE OF LOST ANCHOR AND THREE SHACKLES OF CHA.WATER Singapore. .. 897 Singapore 1 ' Dear Sirs.' 123 . LETTER TO AGENTOlUlERI~m ~SH . O.~pd. At the same time..~th. said area. Pavlov of your office in respect of my letter of yesterday's date. the chain of the fouled starboard anchorbroke and the anchor was lost. at berth No.. to the Pilot Station regarding the fouled anchor of my ship.". P. Please arrange for about 200 tons of fresh water to be supplied to. my vessel to-morrow before noon. 2nd February 1970 Messrs.. . Tripoli (Libya) Dear Sirs. Re: Supply of bunkers I would ask you to contact the local Shell OU Branch andjnstruct them to supply my vessel with 240 tons of gas oil in the afternoon of' the 4th of this month.'. LETTER TO AGENT' ORDERING BUNKER Tripoli (Libya).. Yours faithfully. Box 393. Libyan Shipping &" Stevedoring Cotts House P. Paul Stanescu Master of the mJv "GALA TI!! Co.4. Maritime Building.eff~<..17. . . NAVROM-COnstantza. attached The cost is to be put on ship's disbursements account with the relevant to it. I would request you to ~ontact the port Salvage Department and ask them toundertake-the salvage-:oft}le·a~c1.ndthe chains on "No cure no pay"' -.s: . Ship Agent. . 1st February. ."YoUrs \fuitlifUIJ. Simons & Co. 197. together with 4 shackles of chain. p. . 197.$o~q be .-t~I1l$.rora. . Nicolae Maximilian Master of the m/v '.London. T' STATE SHIPPING AGENCY. v. Virgiliu Brocan Master of the m.. "BRAILA''..:.i~th~. "BR.. Patersons. .ILA'! '" . v. "INFLOT!! VARNA Dear Comrades. ~ " supporting voucher.PREDEAL~! 19. S. .j. Ltd.

Yet Be foloseste In propozipi negative. Flamingo Port Sudan Dear Sirs.astersho~4 be t. a fi de acord).: ' . plums. braje. to agree (a conveni.' . :.melolls. be.Miq.e/llo. propunere. .4iJle. 0.'.: de '5 brate. LIST OF PROVISIONS Chickens.that.: •.. ". _. 3. Fruits: apples....pi.l'a. ·-t:. . . ." /.to. 0 cerere. It is still in water .ncim~II. ' .& oranges " . Carrots ' "" ". be able a nu put. ' (athoJJl (f.'/?~_ftlr 1. ..t)lat tlu 1.:'·)L. .rte spunem: .the. ".. aduce la cuno~tintA). .'.Port Sudan. ..Nu este inca acolo. to 'command. which please airmail to Owners.to supply us to-morrow provisions. geese. "ORADEA!: .uteste un. Salad-oil: .' " 21. kgs 200 I would also request you to instruct the Ship chandlers that the provisions be of the best quality and at the lowest possible price. a Ina mll. ancora . heAve.' 5. It is not yet there . '1 •••• ..ham " . an-anile (a ~nj.-.. " The cost of the provisions is to be included in the ship's disbursements account..cesta are forma be la.':.'.. Tinned boile4.' " " : " Yours faithfully.' ' . it is tidvisable.'~. 'L.. lua.. i~falhoms .tirma$e. Petre Vasilescu .'. gammon pig kidneys . tn chestiunea .Adi. Let tlu Harbour Master know that manoeuvring (should) be effected .: too 50 40 " Garlic" grapes. i 2.'. . '' Este recomandabil sa se ia contact cu capitanul de port. which should bear my signature. hens & turkeys (ab.m sil. apricots. ..2g ~~~ of.suri).. '. i. i. la cheu) ... fathom (l. bow prova. order (a ordona).a. bananas. . 15() kgs ·150 . tel." Fresh butter«: : .Qntac..: -..11our M. impossible" it is natural.' :. vA.peaches •. s/J~ld ~ + Pf:Irlidpiul trer..' to moor a. .. by dllipl verbe care exprimli. .· CiLbbage .brat. Virgil Stan Master of the m. Shipping Agency. ." 'to. mecra. 0 hotArl.'f' .p.~board .ra.. ' ' Smoked hamwith -bones i...it is ne~~sary.·un ordin.. :r.led.ainlant ' to."".: ':. 20 ·20 15 II.:d.~~Hlrag. ~j'"i. ~wr.. ' . . beef fores " " halves . NA VROM-Constantza.' (' Potatoes": .. hinds pork cutlets ". of' each) Fresh meat...va.-. . a lega (na. 1qQ 10 s. ducks.J.'1 " Vieii*a.' " loin -.' " Trout or sturgeon ". to request (a cere). Pe de altll.:.. " . fathom . .'~V$a..:1. Shlpchap. Aduce1i Ia cun~ta capitanului deport ca manevra sa Be efectueze . 197 ••. it is betur. ama.' • ".5 . derapa.:_.dlers 4th of this month With victuals as' per enclosedfistof .purser of the m.'n. avi.a.j.k~ 10 " . it is surprising. toate persoanele)...:. Still Be foloseste in-. Inlocuitor al subjonctivului (a. together with the relevant invoice. . The National 15. 5 5 5 5 125 .. ch..re. .". . referire la. .' :". to.) brat. ..: _".:. de un numeral care ar cere plurahd : '".. " It is advis. vii. v: "ORADEA'! NOTES '. ' . Tomato!t§: Onio~~.. s.bottl~s'. tribord ple8$e~eJlOtice ..liver tongue 124 30 legs 20 ..l!. ~.Illt ca.: .qc. fathom . I to VOCABULARY xe: en.P. prQp<>zi. '. Se f oloseste : a) dupll expresiile impersonale: iti$:~portant. Please makearrangements with.:~·. . Bucharest salame. "". .(". . it is.6 kgs. Street.ugll.< Freshporksalame...1JJl&bJ.ea. .......Este inca In apll.• ~: f . .829m) to.' noti.. or fm.le ~chor a..chlct este precedat A harbour 5 fathom deep.to' ... Se foloseste f~ termiriapa pluTal~~ (-sl. anchor/to ~gh anchor a ddlcaJvjra/." " . to demand.' !". ." " 'JQ:'.'.§eS. S/4ggest (a propane] .Un port adt'. to let know' (a..t.::.. to propose. ' .. Messrs. raspberries. it is unusual." . 3rd January.. irrespective of the rebate of 5% they usuallygrant us... starboard anchor ancora tribord ". water . strawberries..

Iuati contact cu agentul. A subordinate local office of a company. de clI. A paper certifying t~e correctness of a transaction. 6. Give the opposite of the words in italics: high price. bOisterous weather. Ask your neighbour whether: (N.tura comandantului. A cerut ca proviziile slI. It is unusual that they should put a lien on the goods under such: circumstances. 10.. 6.tet anexat~. Give synonymsjor: to grant a rehate.tl tcimiteiiarmatorului. a doua 21. 8...• . What had happened to the ship the preceding night? ~. Where was the m. the ship moored a long time ago..irr~nI.. it was dangerous to manoeuvre dunng yest~rday's swell.. EXERCISES 1.~~:a:ate'·Ia scrlsoare . . It is surprising thattheyShould' not have supplied any dunnage. 4. It is advisable that he should contact the-·Agent. 4.ntnes he had travelled through.•. 9.•. Este important ca ~upa slI. They arranged that deratization should be carried out as soon as possible. to moor) 1.metri distan~ de .. What does the writer warn the pilot station of? -to What does the writer of letter No. borne) a purta o semnlf. independent de. factura anexatll. < : 1. the Salvage Department was asked to undertake the salvage .se facll.livreze navei provi2. be able. ~jatll.. sosea. in afara . to heave anchor. VI rog.-amiaza. la .. to let somebody know about something a aduce ceva la cuno~~ cuiva to manoeuvre a manevra relevant supporting voucher act justificativ respectiv duly signed semnat in . What is the agent asked to arrange for in letter NO. '. 8-. 8. I. 4. mi· refer la .v. ca secundul slI. It is necessary that the Master should secure a safe berth. invoice facml to bear a signature (bear. he contacted th~ Shell Oil Company. company branch."j"nu salvezi. fresh water to be supplied to the ship. prices were ~l> in the cou.. rugll. A list of goods sold with prices.. How is payment for the gas oil supplied to be made andin accordance with what document? 10. How is payment to be made? 13. 19 and for what reason?9. slI.maibine.. salvage sa1vare . \ -. It is natural few him (few the owner) 10 _he payment. according to. 7.sclI. sucnrsalll. Este natural ca el(cajarmatorul) slI. 4. voucher.. fie de cea Illal bunll..semneze acest document. What does the writer of letter No. .Inclus in. de magazie the ship's stress solicitarea navei . tie . in incercarea de a .· swell huIll. . 5. What must be airmailed to the owner? • II. boisterous weather. la scrisoare.rtment to undertake the salvage? 7. vlI. 5. to be able.reguIl branch ramurll..bin~voip a lua contact cu furnizorul maritim ~ a-I da dispoziPi slI. It is natural that he should have &sired for a safe berth. a rula ~i tanga puternic to ship water a ambarca apa hatchfhatchway gurll.. ' . On what terms is the Salvage Pepa. calitate ~ la prej:ul cel mai scAzut. b) (Use the Past Tense in the main clause) 1.).. on no cure no pay tenns in condi1ii "piata numai in caz de salvareefectivll. 3." BrllIa" moored? 3. the provisions were of the best quality.m slI. Choose the words answering the definitions belowfrom among those listed here: (ship chandler... tzimiteti scrisoarea cu 'avionul . 5. Use the Past Tense) 1. Costul provizii1or urmeazll. to woe anchor. c) VlI. fouled auchor ancorll. ~u co~venit ca salvarea . not to III. indiferent de to airmail to somebody a trimite cuiva prin pop aerianll.P'?Cyme_ntele a. nu patesc" .fie. bore. the anchor was lost during the ship's stress. a aviona cuiva that the provisions be/should be . 2.. calitate ~ Ia pre~ cel mal scAzut. gas oil motorinl to make payment a efectua plata as per/according to conform victaalsfprovisions provizii enclosed with a letter/attached to a letter anent la 0 scrisoare ship ehaadler furnizor maritim to grant a rebate/to make an allowance/to allow a discount a acorda un rabat irrespective of.. What particulars are given in respect of the provisions to be supplied? 12. Este mai bine ca factura slI. B. 9. vll. 2. slI. care trebuie ~ poarte semnltura .•ca proviziile slI. rugam slI..atragep atenpa furnizorului ca proviziilesll..A luat masuri I a aranjat ca costul proviziilor slI.in the attempt to. 5..pitch heavily a avea un rulin ~ tangaj mare. tmmtep acreditivul cu avionul. he let the Harbour Master know about the salvage. aiei azi dupll.. It is impossible that they should come so early. 3.sa se facll. Este . de asemenea.. We-arranged that a tw-cab should come and fetch the sailor. 2..' "": VI. to enclose with aJetter. jmpreu~c:u· factura respec~vlI. etc.fie trimise numaidecit. IV.Model: according to the models It is natural that he (that the owner) should make payment.' . Translate into English: _~ . 3. 18? 8. he arranged fOJ.. Whom is the agent asked to contact in letter No. A cerut ca iPl'oviziitll SAfie decea mai bu'hl!.poarte semnll. Este neobisnuit ca Iantul sll.ther vreme fUrpInoa.~ea. 3. 6. VII. To secure (a vessel) in a place by fastening with cables. Change the following sentences into for phrases below and translate into' Romanian: . Constanta.slI.rog slI. pecate va: rog slI. What are the ship chandlers to supply in accordance with letter No.ii conform lis. 126 . 2. Answer the following questions: 1. 7.fie trecut in decontul decheltuieli arnavet. . A dealer in supplies for ships.metres off. invoice.efectueze pIata. aduceti aceasta la cunostinta comandantului. se rupll. the ropes broke when they heaved up the anchor. It isbettetthat the shippers should lodge a complaint. 20 and who is aSked to arrange for it? II. A propus ca plata slI.turl V. 17 aSk the agent to arrange for? 5. decontul de cheltuieli al navei. 16 bring to the notice of the pilot station? 2..tre armator .Navrom. boisterous weather/stress of weather/bad wea. 7. the wewst quality. to roll and. sluu:kle of chain cheie de Ian~ I refer to. 10. It is important that he should go there at once. Intr-un timp atJt de scm. 9.

. Cunard Building. 200 kgs.. Tokyo and order for my vessel the following paints: . 197.. 82 (vol. 5332 and 5333. type VS green-colour (bottom coatings) . 150 kgs... Mark Lane. W.Catalogue of Admiralty Charts. where she IS expected to arrrve on or about 7th.. . BROTHERTON Shipchandler.. the Boatswain and myself. .Romania. I. The invoic~ ... type QD red colour (bottom coatings) ...Boottopping paint. "PREDEAL" 129 . Messrs. Mark Lane. and the net amount thereof. . . . . Re: supply of nautical documents Your are kindly. whom I have mformedaccordingly. November 22. Ruban.Tar epoxy type 1 for inside coating of the ballast tanks.HARRISONS.u. requested to supply my ship with the following nautical documents:. Master of the m. .. 136 .. Dear Sirs... 103 and 104 . green colour (boottop 150 kgs. 1973 . 5301 and 5302 All abo~e documents sho~d be supplied on board my ship at Liverpool.Meteorological Charts Nos. II & III) . duly signed by the Chief Officer..•.. . it. 3 and 4 . coatings) . type VS red colour (boottop coatings) . 114 .• Lesson 10 Messrs... 100 kgs. 5331. LIVERPOOL L3 IDS Dear Sirs..v. I) -. you. colour (topsides coatings) . Harrisons 66. Messrs.requestedto contact the London representative of Messrs. 3865 a~d 1688 Index G : Nos 365 and 1870 .. . Directia de Navigatie Maritima NAVROM Constantza .~ Volumes Nos.Finishing coat. Yours faithfully. should be delivered The relevant invoice.Anticorrosive paint.. E. Yours faithfully. gross price less the usual 5% rebate.. 90 kgs. Nos 2059 and 2203 Index T: Nos 762 and 3982 Index Tl: Nos 435. please airmail to the Owners. type "Daio" {topsides coatings) .. Radio sign. LET'l'ER TO SHIPCHA:KDLERBEQtiESTlNG·SUPBLY AND OTHER NAUTICAL DOCUMENTS OF Cmt'RTS Limerick. & Co.Anticorrosive paint....Red lead primer.inst.Distance Tables Nos. Please inform the supplier that the above paints on board not later than 25th of this month.3 (London) Ltd. 197. "OLTENIA'! 128 . 1st October. . mentioned supply... please send for payment to Ships Agen~. Liverpool L2 lDS.23. type "Gaston Marine Topsides" white 400 kgs. ....Tidal Stream Tables No.Wash primer for the ship's cargo oil tank..Pilot books Nos: 70 and 71 (vol..W. 22 ORDERING PAINTS London.regarding the above. .. 220 kgs. 2. A:. H.Plotting Diagrams Nos. Ltd.e kindly .. 1. I. type C.Nautical Charts Imlex·. Iliescu Master of the mIt. London. 350 kgs.Ocean Passages No.• . Faustin C¥pini§eanu .C. Nippon Oils & Fats Go.Antifouling paint.. is to be put in the ship's disbursements account..Lights list No.

to report. c) eu verbele care. Yours faithfully.. certain.cll nava este displrutll. tip V.. Schuldt.be II competent pilot.B. unlikely. marinll Admiralty Amiralitate pilot book carte de pilotaj lights list lista de faruri radio sigual semnal radio distance tables tabele :de distante tidal stream table tabele de curente de maree ocean passage drum oceanic plotting diagram diagram! de lucru pe harta she is expected este a~teptatl on or about 7th inst. ..O.rtI!. sA . Who is to pay for them? 9. . Please contact Messrs. Yll rugllm/vll cerem sll binevoiti a . type Gaston Marine Topsides.. reducere . . Messrs. Se anunj:l!. euloare rosie Anticorrosive paint. The paint is sure to reach us before noon.v... b) eu verbele de perceptie senzorialll [to hear. ~i: He was . You are requested to contact the Agent. Atragem de asemenea atenpa asupra folosiriipasivului in limba engleza pentru a traduce forma Impersonala din limba romAna. Traducerea exacta ar fi: slnteti rugaji / vi se cere.. . to ask). He was told to ••. likely. green colour (bottom coatings) pitura (vopsea) antivegetativll tip V.:. Kruse Dear Sirs.toPer!". 10 feel). The ship is reported to be missing.. 10 declare. d) eu verbe declarative (to say..Li se va permite sa' debarce. What does the writer of letter No. to understand).i se spune sa . f) Precum ~ cu verbullo be plus adjectivul sure.. la sau in jurul datei de 7 a lunii eurente attached hereto anexat la prezenta to settle an invoice a achita 0 facturll . 10 see. 23 order? 7.. 197. Tot astfel: You are asked to •. Vll rugam sa luaji contact cu agentul. to command). The weather is unlikely to change. Ruban green colour (boottop coatings) piturll (vopsea) anticorosiva.. pasivul fiind folosit . Ship Chandlers. H. a aviona they shoUld be delivered trebuie/ar trebui livrate amount sum! gross price pret brut rebate/discount/I!llowance rabat.NAVROM-Constantza.S. the net amount obtained? 6.Este pujin probabil ca vremea sa se schimbe.lo consider.• . to adlJue)..S. Ruban. What does the Master of the m.B. The expert prOlJed to be right. to appear.S.. Nota Vezi scrisorile or. "DEVA'~ . They will be permitted to disembark . tip QD.. order. . Tunegaru Master of the m. When and where are the documents to be supplied? 8. . 10 tell. When should the paints be delivered? 3.-ocerere (to r~q. '. Through whose agency are they to supply the goods? 11.Ar fi obligaji sa se Intoarca la bordo The priee is understood to be £ = 200.. ~i suprastructura) Finishing coat.. duly signed by the Chief Engineer and myself.S-a dovedit cll expertul avea dreptate. 0 penmeiune (to allow. .. You' arB requested to .S-a stabilit pretul Ia £ = 200 F. C. culoare verde (piturarejvopsire de fund) Boottopplng paint. culoar e rosie (piturarejvopsir e de fund) AntifoUling paint. ' you are kindly requested to.S. as shown 10 the list attached hereto. type C.. Messrs. . to compel. ORDERING SPARE·P ARTS FOR MAIN· ENGINE Hamburg. to contact someone •. Who is to settle the relevant invoice? 130 131 .. botman Tar epoxi type 1 for inside ·coating of ballast tanks pitura (vopsea) epoxi de gudron pentru vopsirea tancurilor de balast Wash primer for the ship's cargo oil tank grund de splliare (curitire) penteu tancurile de produse petroliere ale navei Anticorrosive paint. 0 compulsie (to force.I). e) Nominativul eu infinitivul se mai foloseste ~ eu unele verbe la diateza activll (to jwOlJe. What are the Ship Chandlers to supply in accordance with letter No..tip Gaston Marine Topsides culoare alb!![piturarejvopsire opera moattll ~i suprastrueturll to airmail a expedia cu avionul. The relevant invoice. Hamburg 1 For the attention of Mr. who will settle It in due time. Se spnnea elL.i s-a spus sa . F.is to be entered in the disbursements account se va trece in decontul de cheltuieli nautical chart ha. 2. VOCABULARY NOTES 1..Este sigur cll pitura ne va parveni inainte de amlaza.EXERcISES 1.24. plea~e airmail to my Owners. They would be compelled to return on board. culoare verde (piturarejvopsire de fund) Red lead primer type "Daio" (topsides coatings) "grund minium de plumb (piturare/vopsire opera moarta. Se folose~e: a) eu verbele care e_Jq)rimllo l'11gllminte.. red colour pitura (vopsea) de fa~.. (ordine) boatswain ~ef de echipaj. . .. un pilot competent. va rugam.ue$t.• a lua contactcu cineva duly signed seronat In buna regu1l!. .O.i se va spune sa . type V. tip C.vi se cere sa . type V. type QD. 22) order? 2.pentru ada 0 nuanta Impersonala..i s-a oferit sa . de>risensul este eel dat mai sus. . . He was asked to send an ambulance boat. . white colour (topsides coatj~fliS) piturll/vopsea de acoperire . uno~ (to..]. Answer the following questions: 1.. red colour (bottom coatinp) pitura (vopsea) anticorosiva. He was offered to •. Toate aceste categorii de verbe sefolosesc la diateza pasiri in constructia nominativul eu Infinitivul: . Aceastll constructie este denumitll: nominativul en infinitivul. By whom is the invoice to be sigued and to whom is it to be airmailed? i. How is.. In what account is the net amount to be entered? 5. to make)..i s-a spus sa fie atent.exprimll 0 activitate mintalll (to know.. .I s-a cerut sa trimitll 0 ~tipll sanitarll.ultima mlnll/ultimul strat .v.ri cerem.. Hunedoara (letter No. 23rd November. Ballindamm 8 2. 68 si 75. Gilstorf & Co. to seem.saidto . and request them !o supply my ship with spare parts for main engine Sulzer STAD 56.. to beli~e. He is lold to ••• .ar fi. He will be told to . 2i? 10. sa se observe diferenta intre he was told to be careful •. to happen).

Tanks used for ballast are .. spare parts .. 4. 3. to foul. Total price without any deductions..s. Li s-ar fi spus ee sl fad.'. . . 6. S-a intimplat ca agentul sl!. Translate into Romanian then back into English: 1.. Change the following sentences according to the Model to form Nominative with Infinitive sentences: . 25. . I se va . He would have been offered to .foggy.·5rd . paint. the mrs VASLUI IS fixed . 22nd April. Este sigur cl!.. etc. . dated ~amburg 23rd.3. 4. Costul se va trece in decontul de cheltuieli pe care v1 rugam sl-1 avionati armatorilor. H.the Jrd . They asked him to airmail the invoice to the Owners. .• the main engine. . 8.sentence. 7. 2. . to settle an invoice). 197. 1. Translate into English:a). Se ljItia d nava este in buna stare de navigabilitate. The ship is expected to arrive by Monday. Supply the words that answer:the following definitions.. the Owners are under the obligation to clean the holds to the Shippers' satisfaction . It is said that he is a very good pilot. 4. ..as possible for the . 32. It was proved that the stevedores were at' fault. 1. a furniza piesele de schimb amtate in lista anexatl!.account. FIRST VERSION Hamburg. 7. VI.our on the ground that there were traces of vermm from the ship s last cargo of nee loaded -at'Bombay. to airmail.. 6. ask you to take the necessary steps to have all the ship s cargo space fumiga ted as soon. Ballindam 8. The person who supplies anything. The ship is expected to . la prezenta scrisoare. Hamburg 1 Attention of Mr.. supplier. 4. In compliance.for three consecutive voyages WIth flour from Hamburg to one or two ports In the Arab Republic of Egypt .•.pilot her if the weather had been .. To airmail a letter to someone means to. .'in view of the above. paint used against fouling is . 6. They requested them to settle the invoice .. 4.. III. 2. 3. letting me know the exact date fixed for fumigation. the Shippers' representative objected that the loadin~ space was I!-0~fit. b) VI!.. To pay the amount of an invoice. 8.. 7. gros price. Please request the Ship Chandlers to . (Chart. 5. 3. net price. plane" 4. I s-a spuss1livreze pitura pe data de 15 a 1unii curente. Upon inspecting th~ holds and the tweendecks. They compelled the party at fault to carry out the repairs. 5. 2. Lesson 11 IV.. . 2. each. those in brackets: . send it . 5. 0) Model: They told him to contact the Agent.to receive f!.·. Yours faithfully.rog sl bineVoip. S-a dov:edit d el avea dreptate. 5. The invoice should be '" by the Master. N.B.of this month. 9. Fill in the blanks. Master of the s. . It was reported that the ship was stranded.. 9.• next month. It seemed that the Chief Engineer was satisfied with the spare parts' supplied.) by plane. _ V. They allowed the crew to go ashore. '. He was requested to supply spare parts. He had been requested to cable to the Owners..~r?-an~e with C/P. L Paint used against corrosion is . the Shippers refused to accept the Notice of Readiness I tendered this morning through your agency.. 2. 3. in regull de ljIefulmecanic. To send (a letter. The Agent will be told to order paint. The ship is expected to be here by Friday.. tanks.."VASLUI'! . Este putin probabil sl intirzie. impreunl cu factura respectiva semnatl!. 197. the. " In acc.. 2.seemed to be made of high quality steel. A map for the use of navigators. a) Model: It is expected that the ship will arrive by Monday. Khale 1. March.spune ce sl fad. SCHULDT. 1.. V1 ruglmsl binevoip. As y:ou are aWll. 2. Liverpool . That pilot would be offered to pilot the ship if the weather were foggy..He was told to contact the' Agmt (Passive Voice).· Se credea c1 -comandantul era la bordo 6.II. choosing from among Messrs. The price after deduction of the rebate. LETTER TO AGENT REQUESTING HIM TO ARRANGE FOR FUMIGATION OF SHIP'S CARGO SPACE. Use the Nominative with the the Infinitive in . in tirop util..fie la bordo 10. air. 5.. They .. salupa sanitarl va veni la timp.. 3. clause No. OF ••. .To cover a ship's bottom with anything that impedes its sailing. ~y Ship .ship' s. 6.. a Ina contact eu furnizorul.re. wi~h the provisions of the CIP. He was asked to contact the Ship Chandlers. Dear Sirs. NAVROMConstanta. paint.. J. The spare parts proved to be of best quality. They ordered them to take the sick sailors ashore. ~ would therefore. ... !lie Rascanu . They saw the boat disappear in the fog.

"Vaslui" been fixed fori 6.. Pavel Siteanu Master of the m.rcare attention of Mr . 3. Cost of fumigation to be for ship's account.screpa~cles noted during loading.• obligation to clean the holds .. To whom is letter No. 4.• compliance . I also authorize you ·to clause the M~nifest a.•. three voyages . 271 10. Give two possible answers to the following questions according to the model: M odd : Who will undertake the salvage lIt is the Salvage Department which / that will undertake the salvage. 27? 8. as endorsed by the Chief Officer on the Mate s Receipts. a) Model: 134 135 .A luat masuri ca sa se fumigh~ze magaziile. Bombay.. They arrange it as best they can. They are cleaning the holds. (despre 0 navli. 3•. He is painting the.• the provisions . He is fumigating the holds. Who endorses the Mate's Receipt? 3. He is tidying up his cabin.. 197.••• in atentia D-lui. SECOND VERSION VOCABULARY fumigation fumigatie. your agency. the shippers refused to accept the notice I tendered •. cuiva to take steps/m!. primeasca on the ground that pe motivul eli. II. ~eci) rice orez to be aware a-si da seama. He is having the holdsjumigated.apt sli. Who pays for fumigation in letter No. 6.. "GALATI" NOTES He made arra14gements to have the holds fnmigated. .inli.asures alua masuri . He has the holdsjumigated. rice loaded •..26. What is the agent authorized to do by the writer of letter No. What is the agent asked to arrange for in letter No. coridoare to object a obiecta . 4..' 1. di.. LETrER AUTHORIZING THE AGENT TO SIGN BILLS OF LADING 19th May. Herbert Watcon & Co..ppoint • date a fixa 0 data to have the holds fumigated. Who writes letter No.. He is making a diving suit. 2....1.nt Bills of Lading in respect of any . Can the loading begin before the holds have been fumigated I If not a . in/on smb. vermin . Ltd. Answer the following questions. Robertson House. discrepantli. 25? 4.. 4. 5. 7. avind in vedere through' somebody'sagency prin intermediul cuiva in compliance with in conformitate en to be under (the) obligation a fi obligat. I would request you to make the necessary arrangements wi~h the Sanitary Service of the Port to fumigate without delay all the ship's holds and tweendecks in order to make them fit to load flour in bags. The salvage will be undertaken by the Salvage Department.. to be fit to receive a fi· .. se foloseste in limba englezli..A pus sa se curete magaziile.•. Please let me know the date for fumigation and oblige. What is the agent authorized to do if any damages or discrepancies are noted during l'llading? 9. Fill in prepositions. 5.'s behalf in favoarea cuiva to clause a face mentiune pe damage deteriorare..s.. Yours faithfully. Why is fumigation necessary I . Who authorizes the agent to sign the Bi1Is of Lading in letter No. trace urmli. He signs the letters. Manchester 2 Dear Sirs. The vessel is fixed . sobclani. 3. constructia de mai sus: " . verbul to have sau to get la timpul cerut + substantival san pronumele la acuzat. a realiza as you are aware dupa cum ~titi in view of dat fiind... He paints the boat. am spune: A curlLtat magaziile desi nu subiectul face efectiv actiunea. 27 addressed I IV. . 27? 2... the Near East.. those traces.innumele men.. 1.ul trecut al verbului notional. Change the following sentences according to the models below to show that it is not the subject of the sentence that does the action expressed by the verb. Under what document is she undertaking the voyages and what is she to cartj? 7. .damages or. 25? 2... 1. ' . For whose account is the cleaning of the holds to be undertaken I . to be fixed a fi angajatli. the holds .. my behalf.. avar'ie ' discrepancy nepotrrvire. I am making a.' He fumigates the holds. III.. from the 14th to the 19th of this month.v + parlscsp. Who writes letter No. What voyages has the m. You are to sign the bills . Alt e:xemplu: He IuuI the holds cleaned. the shipper's satisfaction.nd the releva. boat. several ports . vermin paraziti (carcalaci. a face mentiuni(pe dosuJ unui document) . Constructia se foloseste cbiar atunci cind in limba romdnli. 2.•. He tidies up his cabin.) upon inspecting inspectind flour fli. the ship's last cargo . This is . Yours faithfully. The owners are •. They are arranging it as best they can. He is signing the letters. to endorse a andosa.. tweendecks corrdor. London . They clean the holds..a fumiga magaziile on lilY behalf . v.. Who is the addressee I Messrs... dezinfectare. 6. 5. . I hereby authorize you to sign on my behalf the Bills ofLading covering Cargo loaded on board my vessel at Manchester for Constantza.• the Charter Party. 25? 5.. South Square.• view . deratizare prin gaze cargo space/loading spaee spatiu de incli. EXERCISES I. lading . pair of oars. 27. There are traces . Atunci cind subiectul nu face efectiv actiunea exprimatl prin verb. for the ship's account in contul navei to fix/to II.state the reason. a avea obligapa to somebody's satisfaction spre satisfactia.

they came 'to inspect the holds. The ship chandler will send victuals. Cind 0 va vopsi? 4.Change Model: the sentences below according to the . b) Model: V. duPll cum ~tij:i. a constatat cl! doul1lllzi trebuiau sl1fie Inlocuite. 1. They will count the parcels. i.B. When he reached the landing stage. vI! rugllm sl1ne comunicaj:i data exactl!. See exercise III 1. I should like to return on behalf of the ship's officers and crew. When they heard about it. 2. you 'reserved for us to load the vessel under best conditions and within the shortest time. He will endorsefhe mate's receipt. Translate into English: a) In coniormitate cu contractul de navlosiie. '. 3•. We greatly appreciate your courtesy and your friendly co-operation. b) N. Ion Racovita Master of the m. them to be unfit for loading. 4.B. i. On leaving your beautiful port. When they found. 31st December.. CHINA OCEAN SHIPPING SHANGHAI' Dear Comrades. d) Vi rog sl1Iuaj:i mllsurile necesare pentru a fumiga nelntirziat toate magaziile ~ coridoarele navei ~ a Ie face apte sl1primeasca fl1inl1 saci. See models in Exercises IV and V 1. Comandantul fumigheazl1 magaziile. i. 5. EI va repara nava. When he received the notice. he saw the wreck. Cine trimite notisul agentului? Comandantul il trimite. Controllnd marfa. "SIN'AIA" 137 . AGENCY. Cine pune scrisoarea la po~tl1? Prietenul nostru 0 pune. ~s. they had them fumigated. He tIIill have the Bills oj Lading signed. sincere thanks for the very cordial reception and the hospitality extended to us everywhere in your city. Yours faithfully. 28. they found them to be unfit for grain. EXPRESSING GRATITUDE Shanghai. 3. ei au refuzat sl1accepte ml!rfurile. Costul Iumigajiei' va fi in contulnavei. 6.v. 3.When they inspected the holds. 3. he saw the wreck. 2. ei au refuzat sl1'plllteascl1. . Ajungind I ctnd a ajuns la debarcader. 197 ••.tmA "Mtb He will sign the Bills of Lading. Cine face mentiuni pe conosament? Comandantul face mentiuni pe conosament. in conformitate cu prevederile clauzei nr. Lulnd contact cu cl1pitl1niaportului.e1l as for the time.model. e) N.. The consignees will check the goods. VI! cog sa-mi cornuin nicaj:i data fixatll pentru fumigaj:ie. He-will post the letter. a aflat el! nu este nici 0 danl1 disponibill1. a vl!zut epava. Cine va furniza proviziile? Furnizorul maritim Ie va furniza. 1. 5. dupl1 cum ~tij:i. Telefonind agentului. 2. vA rugl!m sl1Ie comunicaji conditiile noastre. Lesson 12 VI. On reaching the landing stage. el a constatat cl1acesta nu primise notisul. . 2.. he informed the shippers.. .

. Antwerp Anvers to' acknowledge receipt.v. '''Bounty'''. NOTES In notele lectiei nr. -en account Gf/because Gf din cauza .. s'il vous plait (French) = Reply.ale navei: . REPLY DECLINING INVITATION Mr. 197. .. Cind relajiile dintre corespondenti sint distante.. ultimul timp near aproape (adverbul de. Duke's Place.) to'.V. aducem Ia: cunostinta cil. Master of the m. the Anniversary of Romania's Liberation Day. 6 ... INvITATION TO OFFIQAL FUNCTION London. he is unable to accept your kind invitation to the celebration of 23rd August.protocolar. Atunci cind ar fi deplasata. a ll!. "Bounty". . scrisorile cuprinse In lectia aceasta intilnim . William Bligh. vii. I am pleased to bring to your notice that on the 5th of this month we will celebrate on board the opening of this line. the Anniversary of Romania's Liberation Day.exprimarea unui sentiment de pllkere. informil. ell. We are pleased to bring to your notice that .• .. if you please..Va aducem la cun~tinti!.Avem onoarea sil.m .try hard a face eforturt mari hardly de-abia..am dat citeva Iorrnule de Incepere a unei scrisori prin care se transmit informafii specifice acestor documente. . 32.un sill rnai. Atunci cind Informatia transmisl este neplacuta. vi).. with intermediate calls at Hamburg. HARRISONS (LONDON) LTD. "ROMANIA" 30.... the Anniversary of Romania's Liberation Day. greu (despre mund!. INVITATION ACCEPTED Messrs.29. 20th August. 2() Cadogan Square. Invitap.. puternic (despre vtnt): furtunos (despre mare) it is (high) time to. displeased.• We have (much) pleasure in advising you / in forming you / bringing to your notice that.v. NOTA. folosit in legil... to. este timpul sil.i personale.ile insA au. nu prea I need hardly say nu este nevoie sl spun latetirziu . 32/38. thanks the Romanian Commercial Office for their kind invitation to the celebration of 23rd August. VOCABULARY gratitude recuno~tintl ill' return a (se) inapoia to' return thanks a mnltumi. Mr. astfel inclt oflterul secund ~ seful mecanic vor primi invitap. aprecierea pentrn intermediate calls escale intermediate regular line linie regula til.S. in general..high inalt.v.• 31. foarte/extrem . highly pleased. / that ..Ne face plil. caracter personal. i97 .. spunem: We regretlo in form you of ... London EC3 Dear Sirs. Master . SW.. Rotterdam and Antwerp. 1 1 Repondez. ~ THE ROMANIAN COMMERCIAL OFFICE Requests the pleasure: of the company of Mr. Master of the m.uda hard tare (material). loc) nearly aproape (adverb de mod) Yours faithfully.. De regula. spre exemplu cind anuntam -o schimbare de adresa. 138 139 '-~ .Cu regret vii. ~ de invitarea .pf the m... aducem la cnno~tinti!. nemultumit to' praise highly a elogia..cere sl.. The present voyage of the m. Master of the m. a exprinla muljumiri the reception extended/given to' us primire ce ni s-a flcut we greatly appreciate apreciem multo avem toatil. etc. INVITING HARBOUR OFFICIALS ABOARD THE SHIP London 3rd January. spunem : We have the honour to inform you . Gheorghe Odinescu '. and would request the pleasure of the company at dinner of your Staff of directors as well as. to celebrate 23rd August. William Bligh. You would greatly oblige us by acknowledging receipt of the invitation'../ Avem -onoarea sl vl informlm cil. a confirma primirea Gfficial functiGn recepjie oficialil. Evening dress R. . to' be a few minutes late a intirzia cu citeva minute latelY/Gf late in.v.ute exemple: We have the pleasure to advise you Ito inform you that . and has much pleasure' in accepting. invitarea comandantului la diverse festivitl1i este inso1itil.de multumit. 1 on Saturday 23rd August 197. •••..v.P.. William Bligh. regrets that as his vessel sails on the 23rd August. "Bounty".. "RoMANIA" under my command inaugurates the new Regular Line established by NAVROM between Constantzaand London. . ..ofit~rului secund ~i a ~ului mecanic... on Saturday 23rd August. spunem: We wish to inform you / We have to inform you that ..turile sociale . of the !ep!es~ntatives of the Harbour Authorities for whom we have reserved twenty invitations.Notices of Reactin~ss . at a reception at our offices.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful