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Page Abbreviations-Counting Addresses Affixes Alphabet-Single -MOl'se Alteration Needle Sounder of in of Staff of
5 6 5 18
-Explanation of Prefix Apparatus-Defects Batch Working ..
Call Signals Circuit Cards Code Timing Counting of Words, Signs, etc.
Defects in Apparatus Delivery Faults, of Messages defects in Apparatus, etc. of
Figures, Punctuations, General Signals .. General Instructions Greenwich Inattention Interchange Irregularities Time
9 5-24 25 25 16 21 IS-25-26
to call signal of Messages to be reported
INDEX ~continue:l. Pa~e. Me~sages by trains delivery of interchange of service .. not on Company's not to be refused signalling of .. to be examined to be written Morse sounder alphabet Numerals fo,~ 'Mor$~~Sounder Postal Message Business Prefixes, Affixes and General Signals Punctuation Reporting of Trains, "~.'. on proper forms INSTRUCTIONS.
Station Masters and others in charge of Telegraph Stations must see that a competent person is available to attend to the Telegraph Instruments throughout the hours of duty. All concerned must do everything P?ssible to ~n~ure prompt attention to messages and speed I~ transmissicn, without which the telegraph loses much elf Its value.
19; SINGLE NEEDLE ALPpABET.
A" AI, /"
0 P ,II, /1,/
,,, "I ,\\/
Signals-:-Ge;neraJ Signalling__:Instructions Single Needle Alphabet Train Reporting' Wait Signal W orde+-Counting of ,', for
13 5 20 16 l2
The long strokes represent pointing the Needle to the Right, the short strokes to the Left thus :~ , A. C. F. Y. is m~~e by pointing the Needle once left and enee
is made dght,
left, right, left.
is made left, left, right, left. is ma<i!eright, left, right, rignt.
MORSE SOUNDER ALPHABET. PREFIXES, AFFIXES
7 AND GENERAL SIGNALS.
j M N
G K 0 R H
-,I L p
Messages are to be signalled(a) In order of their precedence. (b) In the order of their code time.
The following prefixes indicate the description of messages and order of precedence in which they must be signalled :-
... -- ... z
(i) DM"':']!)ANGER MESSAGE.
Must only be used in case of accident, or to prevent accident, and takes precedence of all others and will immediately stop at any stage, any other message engaging the circuit. (2) MT-'·TRAIN TEQ-TRAIN REPORT. ENQUIRY.
FOR MORSE SOUNDER LONG METHOD.
Only to 'be used for enquiries re the running of trains. (4) TAS (Transmitted TAX)-TRAIN MESSAGE. of of
6 7 8 9
For matters oonoerning brains in motion, the running special trains, ordinary trains out of course, Relief Trainmen, etc. (5) DB (Transmitted ENGINEERING
6 7 8 9
Only to be used when a fault actually existing Electrical Apparatus. (6) (7)
absolutely necessary in case of in case of bneakdown of the
SP' (,Eratlsmitted' XP)-SPECJ1AL
For urgent enmmunications only.
(8) CR, SR, SRL, CSR, LR, WR, CWR, SWR, PR, FR-DAILY WAGON,SHEET, COACHING, STOCK,PILLOW, RUG AND FRUIT REPORTS When.any of th~se.returns are" Nil " the sending station should, III transmibting the report, signal the letter "N" before the prefix an? after gett~ng "G" or "T," signal the name of the stabion from which the report is sent e g " NSR" (name of station), ' .. . The rec~iving clerk in dealing with "Nil" reports will use an ordinary telegram form and include all such reports on one form. A separate telegram form must be used for each type of daily report. (8) SU-POSTAL TELEGRAPH URGENT SERVICE MESSAGE. (10) SG-(Transmitted XG)-RAILWAY TELEGRAPH AND POSTAL SERVICE MESSAGE. S (Transmitted Xl-POSTAL PAID MESS.AGE. REPLY PAID
Affixes and General Signals. G-GO ON. T-UNDERSTAND. E-NOT UNDERSTAND-Repeat. II-END OF ADDRESS. III-FULL STOP-To be signalled but not counted. FI-COMMENCE FIGURES. ]'F-FINISH FIGURES. GQ-BEGIN FRESH LINE. SN-lYIESSAGE FINISHED. MQ-WAIT. KQ-CALL UP WHEN READY, UQ-GO TO OTHER INSTRUMENT. LQ-WAIT TO ATTEND COUNTER, Etc., OR TO ALLOW SIGNALMAN TO ATTEND TO BLOCK INSTRUMENTS, Etc. HQ-HOW ARE SIGNALS"? * RR-INVERTED COMMAS" " * LL-UNDERLINE. * KK-PARENTHESIS ( ) *These signals to be given at the beginning and end of the Word or Sentenceto be so marked, and are to be counted as one word each, e.g. "paid on "=3 words, very urgent= 3 words, (private) = 2 words. RD-MESSAGE CORRECTLY RECEIVED. SQ-END OF MESSAGE,ANOTHER TO FOLLOW. MM-FRACTION FOLLOWS. M:MlI'[-HORIZONTAL BAR OF DIVISION-SSS-OBLIQUE BAR OF DIVISION / e.g., c/o must be signalled C SSS 0 or 2/456 as FI two SSS four five six FF. CQ-GIVE ME SWITCH FOR For S~~tch . TQ-YOU ARE THROUGH S· I 'IQ-SWITCH CIRCUiT OCCUPIED tatlons C!n y
SRP (Transmitted XRP)-POSTAL MESSAGE.
SA (Transmitted XA)-POSTAL FREE PASS MESSAGE. SARP (Transmitted XARP)""':'POSTALFREE MESSAGE-REPLY FRANKED. (12) DB (Transmitted DL)-ORDINARY RAILWAY MESSAGE. Every care and attention must be given to the foregoing prefixes, and they must not be misapplied, as any disregard of the order of precedence may be productive of serious results.
CO-BATCH WORIITNG } For Batch OOCUPYINGCIRCUIT. working NN-END OF BA'fCH st~tions only.
10 FIGURES, PUNCTUATION, Etc. The following is the method of signalling figures, etc. :_
CODE TIMING. The code for the time a message is handed in for tra~smission, is obtained by use of the lett~rs A to ~ (excluding J) and the letters RSWX for the four intermediate minutes as per diagram below.
Single Needle Instrument.
The letters FI must be signalled, then each figure transmitted in full as a word. When the transmission of the figures is completed the signal FF (figures finished) must be sent. The signals FI and FF are not be to written or counted. The signal FI must be sent immediately before, and the signal FF immediately after each set of figures in a telegram (except as provided hereafter in the case of groups), and it must be understood that when these signals are not given the numbers are to be written in words. The following is an example:"Wagon 98765." This must be signalled as " Wagon FI 98765 FF." "Your 260 of the 26th" must be sent as" Your FI 260 FF of the FI 26 FF th." When a whole number is followed by a fraction the whole number must be separated from the fraction by the letters MM in the following way :20!--FI 20 MM 3 MMM 4 FF. A fraction without a whole number as ~ to be signalled-FI MM 3 MMM 8. FF. When groups of figures occur in a telegram, e.g., 10673, 41986, 72145, it is not necessary to signal FI and FF between each group, but only the full stop. When the letter L or symbol £ denoting "pounds" precedes a group of figures, the signal FI must be given before that letter, and not between it and the figures, e.g., £14 9. 6. FI £14 9. 6. FF. (It will not be necessary in this case to signal a full stop after £.)
The code consists of one, two or three letters, the first -the hour, the second the minutes past the ~our up to the last completed five minutes, and the third the exact minute' thus a message handed in at 6.30 would be FF, ·o~e at 8.12 would be RES, and one at 10.19 would be E:OX. The " Oode Time" is only to be used for signalling the. -code time of messages. Any alteration of the code time for the purpose of facilitating the despatch of a message out of t~n, or the ;giving of a false code .to obtain or keep possession of the .circuit, is strictly forbidden,
Morse Sounder Instrument.
When sending figures, the" long method" to be adopted, dispensing with the FI signal. On completion of the message, the sending Operator must repeat all the figures, both in .the address and in the text of the message, by the "short method." The receiving operator must be careful to compare the figures repeated with those originally sent.
COUNTING OF WORDS, SIGNS, Etc., IN RAILWAY MESSAGES. ) INSTRUCTIONS
The number of words, figures, signs, etc., contained in every message handed in for transmission by telegraph or telephone from the sender's name, or name of the sendinz station, to the end of the text (except the words " From r; and" To" in the addresses), must be carefully counted and the total inserted in the space provided on the form. Each word and figure is to be counted as one, and combinations . of wards forming the names of' places, persons, etc., must. be counted according to the number of words of which they are composed, as per the following examples:" Chester- le- Street " to be counted as 3 words. " Walton-on-Naze" " "3" "West Drayton and Yiewsley" 4 " Smith-Barry " 2 " St. Andrews" 2 Names such as O'Neil, MacDonald, etc., are to be counted as one word. Compound words such as Station-master, Non-delivery, etc., which are usually written as one word, must be socounted by the Operator, and when not joined together by the sender the Operator must do so, and signal the expression as one word, but "to pay" and "to hand" must be counted as two words in each case. Rolling Stock codes and abbreviated addresses should be counted as one word for each code or group of letters, e.g., MCK, XLT, etc., one word; DS, B, NC three words.
TO CALL A STATION.-Give the call signal denot~g the station required until it is answered by the station (JaIled. The call signal denoting the st~t~on calling must then be given and acknowledged by repetItIOn. These movements regularity . must be made with steadiness and
A message must be regarded as commenced when the -prefix has been signalled and acknowledged by the " understand " (T) or (G) signal being given by the receiver.· In transmitting a message, the prefix. m~st first be signalled, denoting the nature of the commu,\lcB.tlOl;,w~ether SP, DB, etc., and must then be proceeded WIth ill the following order :-(a) Code time. (b) Number of words contained in the message, including the addresses. (c) Name and address of sender, or abbreviated address. (The word" from" to be omitted in signalling the address). (d) "To" followed by the name and address or abbreviated address of the addressee. (e) II denoting the completion of the address. (f) The message itself. (0.7) On completion of the message ~he signal SN must be given, except when there IS. another rr;essage to follow when the sending station must gIve SQ and the prefix. (h) Each message signalled must be acknowledged by the receiver sending RD except as provided for in Clause 9. (i) The termination of each word must be indicated by a pause.
All initial letters such as ABC, ete., except as shewn in. previous paragraph must be counted as one word in each case. The abbreviation a.m., p.m., rd., st., th., nd., and the oblique stroke [, horizontal bar --(but not when used as a hyphen), etc., are to be counted as one word eaoh.. The expression" &c." when so written must be signalled as "etc." by the sender' ,I
14 6. The number of words in a message must be counted on receipt ..Should they correspond with the number signalled the Receiving Operator will give RD or G. If not the Sending Operator must.be requested to repeat the message, beginning with the senders name (or abbreviated address) but it will not ~e necessary to repeat each word in full, but simply the first letter of each word. If the number of words is found to be incorrect, the number signalled must be crossed Gmtand the correct number inserted in the space provided. 7. Sh~lUlda doubt arise as to the correctness of a word, the Receiving Operator must stop the communication and say:' after---," repeating the word preceding the one. required, 8. The receiving station will return E for "not. understand," and T for "Ullderstand"; and if "E" is given the word must be repeated. The Receiving Operatormust be careful not to return the Signal T (understand) or E (not understand) until the sending station pauses, to show the word is completed. The signal Gmay be given by expert Telegraph Operators. to denote to the Sending Operator that he can 'proceed with a message without waiting for the "Understand" or "Not understand" signal after each word. When a. message is completed the signal SN or SQ must be given. 9. Where a number of messages is being sent it will not be necessary for the Receiving Operator to give RD after the completion of each message, but if the number of words is found to be correct, he will give " @ " for the next message, and the signal G will be accepted by the Sending Operator as an acknowledgment of the message previously signalled. 10. The number of words in a message (immediately after the code time) must be sent in the following manner:10 one nought or ten. two five. one three six.
II. In cases where initial or separate capital letters have to be signalled a full stop must (except in the case of abbreviated addressses or Rolling Stock Codes) be signalled after each letter, for instance :The phrase" Bag marked H.G.F." Bag marked must be signalled-
H \\ \\ \\
G \ \ \ \ .\ \
F \\ \\ \\
12. Words having a similiarity on the instrument such as "Mondav" and" To-day,' "Bad" and" Dead," etc., must be signalled with great care as also must the signalling of figures and amounts expressed in figures or words which should be signalled in a slower and more 'marked manner. 13. Unauthorised prohibited. 14. own. conversation on the circuits is strictly
An Operator must not answer any call except his
J 5. Particular care must be taken to see a circuit is disengaged before commencing to use it by giving E, as serious delays may be caused by one station interrupting another when transmitting a message. Should the instrument appear disengaged, from the needle being still, while the receiver of a message may he writing a word, and an unintentional interruption occur, the station sending must say" Middle" and no further interruption must be caused unless the station requiring the circuit has a DM (Danger Message) in which case he will take possession of the circuit by his prefix. Should the message passing be also a Danger Message, "DM Middle" must he given, and the stations in possession of the circuit allowed to finish the message without further interruption. 16. Should an Operator persist in argning, and not at once relinquish a circuit to a station having a prior prefix or code, or being " Middle" the dispute must not be continued, but possession of the circuit given IIp, and the offending station reported. An Operator having a message when the circuit is occupied by calling should hold the needle over and then give his prefix or code time, when,
should his message bear a prior prefix or code to the station calling, ~e wiI~take possession of the circuit, but otherwise the station first having possession of the circuit will retain it. When it is necessary to give MQ in the middle of a messase the prefix or code time of that message should be used f~r regaining possession of the circuit to complete the messages. 17. An Operator must not answer ou.t the s~ation calling with an MT pnor pre~Ix o~ code, but must in the the CIrCUIt WIth the communication despatch. his call and then cut signal or message of first place challenge he may have to to . 17 21. Operators must give every consideration to those stations at which no regular Operator is employed.
22. When a Receiving Operator does not understand any word that is signalled on the Sounder, he should give UD and repeat the previous word, and in cases where an error has occurred the key must be held down for a short time, and the word repeated.
. 18. .When a st~tion is called, the Operator must reply Immediately, and If engaged at the time at another instrument, or wi!h otheJ; duties, must answer the station calling, and ascertain prefix and code of message which should be noted. S~ould it be a DM message, it m'ust be taken at once; otherwise MQ (Wait) must be given; and as soon as the Ope~ator is disengaged the station must be called using the prefix or code to obtain possession of the circuit and the message taken except as stated in Clause 19. Should a station, ~fter giving MQ, not call up within ten minutes, the station must be called again. Stations at which Telegraph Operators are employed are to be reported if called five minutes or more. ~he time of receiving MQ, or a remark respecting delay or Irregularity in connection with any message, must be made on the back of the form and not on the face of it. 19. An Operator having given MQ to another station must not of~er an:r comm~nica~i,:m (except DM, MT or TAS) to that station WIthout first gIVIng the KQ signal. 20.. An Operator, when unable to obtain ·the prompt attention of another, must not call continuously for a Ionzer peri?d than ten minutes if the circuit is required by another stabion but must call at convenient intervals, it being better to delay one message than the whole work of the circuit.
TREATMENT OF MESSAGES AS TO GENERAL
AND INSTRUCTIONS WORKING.
23. The wires must only be used for messages on the business of the Company and postal messages. 24. All messages must be clearly written on the proper form, be worded as briefly as possible consistent with being intelligible, and must bear the signature of the sender. 25. Communications of an urgent nature, but not of sufficient importance to warrant the use of the wires, should be forwarded by the sender by means of the" Urgent Train Message" system. Full instructions on the subject appear on the Urgent Train Message Form. 26. Clerks or Operators in Charge, and others having charge of the instruments, must specially report all cases of misuse of the wires which may come under the following heads:(I) Communications sent by wire which could have been made by "Urgent Train Message" system or by ordinary train letter. (2) Messages in which the Telegraph Code, Abbreviated Addresses, etc., are not properly and -,fully applied, and which otherwise contain unnecessary words. (3) Messages bearing prefixes not appear to justify. which the text does
(4) Messages which do not appear to be on the business of the Company.
18 27. Immediately a message is handed in, it must be coded, prefixed, counted and the date inserted if this has not already been done. 28. In the case of a message handed in without a prefix, in the absence of instructions from the sender, the ordinary prefix DB or DL must be inserted unless the Clerk or Operator in Charge, in the exercise of his discretion, considers that it should bear a more important prefix. . 29. Any message handed in after the office to which it is addressed is closed, must be sent to the nearest transmitting office and retained there until the office of destinationIs open, except where special arrangements have been made for. it to be otherwise disposed of. 30. All messages must be dealt with in order of prefix and code time, and any delay that takes place must be fully accounted for by note on the back of the form. All messages must be timed and initialed by the sending and receiving Operators immediately after transmission, the number of the instrument or name of the circuit being inserted. 31. In cases where an Operator is unable to effect the despatch of a message without undue delay, he must call the attention of the Clerk or Operator in Charge to it, in order that the necessary steps may be taken to expedite its transmission. This does not, however, relieve the Clerk or Operator in Charge of the responsibility of carefully checking the general work from time to time to see that heavy delays are not taking place. 32. (a) On no account must an Operator refuse a message when offered on the wire by another station, but if the transmission is not regular the station receiving the message should inform the sending station of the correct transmitting point, but if the latter insists on sending the message it must be accepted and disposed of by the best means possible. In the case of an irregular transmission the matter must be specially reported, a copy of the message being sent.
(b) When it is not possible to dispose of a message by "ire in the ordinary course, owing to special circumstances, it must be forwarded by the best possible means. 33. Operators and others are forbidden to make any alteration in, or strike out any portion of a message. !f any portion of a message is unreadable, they must ob~am a cor-rect rendering of it from the sender as quickly as possible
34. (a) Operators receiving messages must write the same in a neat and legible manner, so that the persons who have to read them may be able to do so readily and without risk of error, (b) Whenever a multiple address message is offered by one station to another for delivery and transmission, the latter should accept it, even if the station to which it is offered is not the proper transmitting office, provided a transmission would be saved by so signalling.
35. All messages must be carefully checked at intervals of half-an-hour when the work will permit, but under no circumstances must the interval exceed one hour. It is of the utmost importance that this rule should be strictly observed, in order that any irregularities may be discovered. . 36. Operators must be careful to show time received as A.M. or P.M., as the case may be. 37. Immediately a message is received the Operator must when the text denotes it to be of exceptional import;nce, call the attention of t~e Clerk or <?pera~or in Charge of the office to it, .who WIll th~n exercise hl~ dIScretion as to special steps bemg taken for Its prompt delivery. 38. The Clerk or Operator in Charge must see that messages are promptly and regularly collected and delivered. 39. Signatures and the times of delivery must be obtained from the persons to whom messages are delivered by messenger. 40. When it is not possible to effect the delivery of a message the office of origin must be advised by Service message of the non-delivery if necessary .
45. When two stations have a train to report at the same time on the same circuit, each station must convert the time the train left into a code, which must be exchanged between them, and preference given to the one which left first. Any station being in the middle of a message other than DM, must at once ,give up possession of the circuit when interrupted by the signal MT or TEQ. 46. After calling a station for three minutes unsuccessfully, the Operator at the sending station must call the next station to which the train has to be reported, and so on until it has been reported to all the others in order, after which he must again call the station passed over. 47. Trains not reported in due course may be enquired for without a written message by making use of the prefix TEQ. 48. Train reports received must be entered on the train slips provided for the purpose. INTERCHANGE Of MESSAGES.
41. Batch working must only operate between stations specially authorised.
42. Batch working must be worked so as to admit of five messages or part of five, being exchanged alternately by the two stations concerned, and the following method of working must be adopted :Station A having gained possession of the circuit and the attention of Station B, must, on receiving G commence sending the batch of messages giving SQ at the end of each message until the messages have been transmitted when the last message will be terminated with SN. Station B will then send a batch of five messages in a similar manner but terminating with SN NN. Each message must be counted and if necessary corrected on completion. Where batch working is in operation on Intermediate circuits, possession of the circuit can be gained by any other station with a prior prefix or code at the end of each batch of messages, i.e., when the signal NN is given. On both Through and Intermediate circuits "Batch Working" stations must give way for the signal DM, MT, TEQ, and TAS. When two stations are in the middle of a batch and are interrupted with any of the above prefixes the stations so interrupted must be allowed to resume working on giving the signal CO, as though no such interruption had taken place.
49. Messages can be interchanged over railway wires between stations on the L.N.E.R. with the following exceptions :(i) FroII) stations on G.E. and G.C. Sections (Southern Area) to stations on Southern Scottish Area and vice versa. (ii) From stations on Southern, North Eastern and Southern Scottish Areas to Aberdeen and stations on Northern Scottish Area and vice rersa, POSTAL MESSAGE BUSINESS.
REPORTING. of trains
43. All instructions relating to the reporting are issued by the Superintendent.
44. No train must be telegraphed from a station until the time of its departure has been duly entered on the Trairi Sheet or Slip by the person appointed to that duty. The time must only be entered by the Telegraph Clerk when specially authorised,
50. At stations where Postal Telegraph business is transacted, all persons required to deal with such business must actin accordance with the Instructions issued by the Post Office. 5l. Press messages must not be accepted at a Railway Telegraph Office, and if any are tendered the sender must be referred to the nearest Postal Telegraph Office.
22 52. Post Office Circulars containing information as to alterations of tariff, offices, etc., are supplied weekly to each station dealing with postal messages, and the office books must be corrected therefrom immediately upon receipt of the Circular. 53. Postal Messages must be forwarded to the Post Office together with a Docket shewing the number of messages, either daily or monthly, in accordance with the instructions in force. . 54. in preparing the docket it is important that the messages forwarded, transmitted and received, should be properly classified, and care should be exercised to see that the particulars entered on the docket agree with the messages. 55. The return of postal messages must be forwarded to the Post Office, in the case of daily dockets, not later-than the morning following the day to which they relate, and in the case of a monthly return not later than the first day of the following month, and the forms, etc., must be enclosed in the canvas pouch provided by the Post Office for the purpose. Any delay on the part of the Post Office officials in returning the pouches to the station must be reported in the usual way. When no postal messazes have been dealt with a " Nil" return must be rendered. 56. Where a free pass is affixed to a postal message, it must be properly filled up and stamped with the office stamp. The pass must be gummed to the back of the form, not pinned. 57. On each occasion that the Post Office petty cash and stamps are handed over by one Operator- to another a signature must be obtained in the Diary or Balance Book. At large Telegraph Offices where it may be necessary for the Clerk or Operator in Charge to distribute the cash to one or more Operators, he must obtain a signature for the same. 58. The clerk whose signature is held for the postal cash, will be considered responsible for its safe custody and correctness. Any excess or deficiency must be fully explained in the Diary, or Balance Book.
23 59. All forwarded, received, and transmitted postal messages must be carefully checked at intervals of halfan-hour when the work will permit, but under no circumstances must the interval exceed one hour. It is of the utmost importance that this Rule be strictly observed so that any irregularities may be discovered. 60. The blank Received forms and envelopes used in connection with the Postal Message business must not, under any circumstances, be supplied to any person . 61. Information respecting the transmission of postal messages must not be given to the public, but persons making inquiries are to be referred to the Secretary of the General Post Office. . 62. Should the Postal Telegraph communications be interrupted, and a request made by a Postmaster to send postal messages over Railway wires, arrangements must be made to do so; and if any are received, from the same cause, they must be sent to the Post Office for delivery, the circumstances being reported in the usual way. 63. The following is an extract taken from the Telegraph Act of 1868 (31 and 32 Vie., c.llO, clause 20) :i ~ .~ " Any person having official duties connected with the Post Office, or acting on behalf of the PostmasterGeneral, who shall contrary to his duty, disclose or in any way make known or intercept the contents or any part of the contents, of any telegraphic messages, or any message entrusted to the Postmaster-General for the purpose of transmission, shall, in England and in Ireland, be guilty of misdemeanour, and in Scotland of a crime and offence, and shall upon conviction be subject to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve calendar months; and the Postmaster-General shall make regulations to carry out the intentions of this section, and to prevent the improper use by any person in his employment, or acting on his behalf, of any knowledge he may acquire of the contents of of any telegraphic message."
'70. Cards with the code calls for the stations circuit must be fixed over or near each instrument
64. Strict secrecy must be observed and on no account are any matters relating to the business of the Company or the Postmaster-General to be divulged. Railway Messages, etc., after being dealt with must be filed at once for future reference. 65. No unauthorised the Instruments. person must be allowed access to
71. "Greenwich" time will be signalled daily (Sundays excepted) at 10 a.m., in the following manner:At 9.59 a.m. the word" Time" will be signalled on the instrument, and the handle or key will be held over or depressed until the time current is received, when the word "Ten" will be Signalled. In case of failure of the time current the words" No current" will be signalled. Where the Time signal is transmitted short rings should be given. by telephone ten
'66.(a) At each station where Telegraph Operators are employed a Diary must be kept in which must be recorded daily the state of the signals on the various circuits, any defect inthe apparatus, the state of the weather, Greenwich time, and a record of any irregularities that may occur, such as inattention at any station, irregular and obstructive working, etc. (b) Extracts of irregularities which have occurred during the day, or anything of a special nature which may be noted in the diary, must be made by the Clerk or Operator in Charge each day, and specially reported with any observations which may be necessary. 67. The times on and off duty, and the meal times of each Operator must be recorded in the Tirhe Register or Diary provided for the purpose. ' 68. No Operator must leave duty until he is relieved, or before the time appointed for the closing of the office. When an Operator is relieved he must make his successor acquainted with any information that may- be necessa.ry to facilitate the business. A list of the Operators, Messengers, Local Linemen and their addresses must be exhibited in the office. 69. (a) Violent working must always be avoided; viol~nce makes no difference to the signals but damages the instruments. (b) The handles of single Needle instruments must be left perpendicular while receiving a message, and when the instrument is disengaged.
NOTE.-In the Scottish Aj'ea the T'ime Signal is signalled at 9.0 a.m,
DEFECTS IN APPARATUS, Etc.
charge must make themselves acquainted with the system of testing. To prevent the possibility of interruption when testing, particular care must be taken that the disconnected wire, wires, or cross bars are not allowed to hang loose and come into contact with any of the terminals; and when joining up, the wires or cross-bars must be properly fixed to their terminals, and the latter well screwed up. Care must be taken that the insulation is not stripped off the copper wire, too far, as long uncovered ends may get in contact with an adjoining terminal. Where U link test boards are provided care must he taken to see that the links are pushed properly into position after testing. 73. Any defect in an instrument or other apparatus must be reported to the Telegraph Lineman, by wire if possible, if not by first train, and any inattention on his part must be reported. All such interruptions must be recorded in the Diary or Occurrence Book showing the date of the interruption, time when first observed and when reported to the Lineman.
12. At Testing Stations, Operators or other persons in
26 74. (a) In the event of an instrument failing from any cause, and it is possible for the Operator to restore communication temporarily by changing the coil or instrument, he must do so. (b) Faults generally arise fromEarth :-Where the line wire comes in contact with the earth, or with some conducting material having connection with it. Disconnection :-Where 'the electrical circuit becomes broken by the disconnection of the instrument wires, coils, or the severance of the wires upon the line; and Contact :-Where two or more line wires become twisted together or touch one another. ' (e) An earth fault is indicated to the signalling station by the increased strength and to the receiving station by the feebleness of the signals. THe wire going to earth makes the circuit shorter, and the battery has greater effect, hence the nearer the fault the stronger the signals. When this is observed to be the case terminal' stations should ascertain how far they can work by calling station after station and ascertain the locality of the fault. Disconnections have the tendency to completely break down the telegraph circuit and prevent signals from being sent. In cases of partial disconnection the signals may be weak in which case there would be a slight movement of the needle. Occasionally disconnections are intermittent, and in . cases of this type, the signals suddenly cease and then resume again. When a disconnection is observed, the Telegraph Operator should apply the earth wire, if provided with one first to the Up line wire, then to the Down, and so see on which side the fault is and advise the lineman. In any of the above cases the Lineman must be advised by .the quickest means.
R. L. WEDGWOOD, Chief General Manager.
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