Central Board of Secondary Education

2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092
A Manual for Practical Work in
Fashion Studies
Class XII
© All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise without prior permission
of the publisher.
April, 2005
Price : Rs. 40.00
Advisory Committee
q Mr. Ashok Ganguly q Mrs. Gauri Kumar
Chairman, CBSE Director General
NIFT, New Delhi
q Mr. G. Balasubramanian
Director (Academic), CBSE
Contributors
q Ms. Vandana Narang
NIFT, New Delhi
q Ms. Monika Gupta
NIFT, New Delhi
Co-ordinator
q Mr. P. Mani
Education Officer (Hum & Lang.), CBSE
Published by:
The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education
2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092
Printed at :
Chandu Press, D-97, Shakarpur, New Delhi - 110 092
Ph: 22424396, 22526936
Hkkjr dk la fo/kku
mísf'kdk
r=, ·||=- + ¬| =, ·||=- +| º+ ,=·+¸ º| + ·| ·+-= +·- ==|¬+|-. + ·||-=+ -| ¬| +- =|·=+ =º|=|÷=) +-|-
+ |¬º, -·|| ==+ ==ª- -|=|=+| +|
=|=|¬+, ¬||·| + ¬| = =|¬- |-+ ·=|=,
|+=|=, ¬|·|·=|+-, |+-+|=, ·|=
¬| = =+|=-| +. ª+- =-|,
+ |--=| ¬| = ¬+== +. ==-|
+ |-- +=|- + |¼,
-·|| =- =+ =
·=|+- +. =|==| ¬| =
.
,=|-· +. º+-| ¬| = ¬=|º=-|) = |-|-=- +=- +|¬. + ·| -|
+«|- + |¬º
-«= +-+ r| += ¬+-. ;= = |+·||- =·|| = ¬|¬ -|=.=| .- -+·+=, · ; +| º-- ¡|=| ;= = |+·||- +|
¬ =.¡-, ¬|·||-=|=- ¬| = ¬|·=||+ - +=- r
= |+·||- ,+=|¬.=+| = -|| ·|-) ¬|·||-==, !- +. ·||=| . ¡|=| ,s!! = ) ¯+ ·| ·+-= +·- ¬| +- =|·=+
=º|=|÷= + ª·||- += + |-ª·|||+-
. = |+·||- ,+=|¬.=+| = -|| ·|-) ¬|·||-==, !- +. ·||=| . ¡|=| ,s!! = ) ¯=|-· +. º+-| +
ª·||- += + |-ª·|||+-
Hkkx 4 d
ewy dÙkZO;
· + =¸ ¬ +-| ·= - ·||=- + + ·= + -|=|=+ +| =r +-| ·= r| =| |+ +r -
,+) = |+·||- +| +|¬- += ¬| = ==+ ¬|--|| , = ª·||¬| , =|-· ·+¬ ¬| = =|-· =|- ¬|-= +=
,=|) ª+- =-| + |¬º r=|= =|-·.= ¬| -| ¬- +| + |=- +=- +|¬ =·= ¬|--|| +| ;-= = = ¬| º ==| ¬| = =-+|
+|¬- +=
,=) ·||=- +. + ·| -|, º+-| ¬| = ¬=| =-| +. =-|| += ¬| = == ¬-| ºº| ==|
,·|) - -| +. =-|| += ¬| = ¬|r +|- |+º ¬|- += =|-· +. = +| +=
,=) ·||=- + =·|. ¬| =| = ====-| ¬| = ==|- ·| |-·+ +. ·||+-| +| |-=| º| += ¬| ·|= , ·||-|| ¬| = + - -| =| +=
+= ¬|·|||=- =·|. ·| -·||+ = += r| , º =. + ·||¬| +| ·=|= += ¬| |ª==| + =·=|- + |+=¡ r
,=) r=|=. =|=||¬+ = ª¡|- +. =| =+-||¬. += +=| +| =r·+ === ¬| = ==+| +|==-|º| +=
,=) + |¡|-+ +=| +=º| +. |¬=+ ¬ -= - +-, =.¬, --., ¬| = +·= ¬.+ r , =-|| += ¬| = ==+| = +·| - += -·||
+ ||º| =|= + + |- -=|·||+ ==|
,¬) + =||-+ -|-·+| º|, =|-++|- ¬| = =|-|¬ - -·|| = ·||= +. ·||+-| +| |++|= +=
,=) =|+ ¬|-+ = +|-| +| = =|-|- ==| ¬| = |r =| = -¸ = =r
,~|) ·=|+-=- ¬| = =|=¸ |r+ =|-|+|·|=| + =·|. -| =| = =·+-| +. ¬| = +«- +| =-- + =|= += |¬== =|-·
|-= -= +«- r º + =·- ¬| = =+¬|··| +. -; = =|; =| +| =¸ ¬
THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
PREAMBLE
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a
1
(SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC) and to secure to all its
citizens :
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the
2
(unity and integrity of the
Nation);
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY
ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
1 Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act, 1976, sec.2, for "Sovereign
Democratic Republic (w.e.f. 3.1.1977)
2 Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act, 1976, sec.2, for "unity of
the Nation (w.e.f. 3.1.1977)
THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
Chapter IV A
Fundamental Duties
ARTICLE 51A
Fundamental Duties - It shall be the duty of every citizen of India-
(a) to abide the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and
the National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of
India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce
practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
(g) to protect and improve the rich natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers,
wild life and to have compassion for living creatures;
(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that
the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.
Foreword
The Central Board of Secondary Education introduced the subject of Fashion Studies as
an independent elective subject at senior school level from the academic session 2004-
2005. It has published the learning resource books for classes XI and XII with the active
support and help of the National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi. The present
publication is a Manual for the Practical Work in Fashion Studies for class XII and it covers
the practical component that has 30% weightage in the Board’s Examination.
The manual gives simple practical tasks/projects in Pattern Making and Basics of Gar-
ment Making. Fashion Studies is basically a concept and skill-based subject requiring the
students to plan, visualize and execute a number of designs to produce garments. Hence
the practical component is of great importance in this subject. Moreover, students should
also be taught to use different tools and equipments that are an integral part of design and
garment making.
An attempt has been made to include basic exercises in exploration of patterns and simple
garment making. They are aimed at helping the learners acquire the right perception and
the elementary skills needed to establish a foothold in the field of fashion design and
fashion technology. Meticulous care has been bestowed by the authors on the details of
each exercise, providing adequate information by way of introduction, aim, materials and
methods, conclusions and references. The manual also includes essential information
such as Tool Kit, Standard Dress Form Measurement Chart, Established Procedures for
Test Fitting and Sewing Kit. A list of basic materials and equipment needed for the practi-
cal work besides a set of safety rules in the Laboratory have also been included. It is
expected that each candidate will perform all the 16 exercises given in the manual in class
XII and maintain a portfolio for assessment following the procedure outlined in the manual.
The viva questions given at the end of some exercises will help the learners develop an
insight into the concepts and processes involved. .
The eminent faculty of the National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi have con-
tributed to the development .of this material. I express my sincere thanks to Mrs. Gauri
Kumar, Director General, NIFT and to the authors, Ms. Vandana Narang and Ms. Monika
Gupta from the NIFT faculty. Shri G. Balasubramanian, Director (Academic) and Shri P.
Mani, Education Officer (H&L) also deserve a special mention for planning and giving
shape to this publication. Suggestions for further improvement of the publication will be
most welcome.
ASHOK GANGULY
CHAIRMAN
Lab requirement for a batch of 30 students
Lab size - 35 ft. x 20 ft. (minimum)
AC environment
Item Nos.
Industrial sewing machines with power (costs at least Rs. 4,500/- each) 30
Pattern Making tables (size 5 ft. x 4 ft. cork top) 8 (4 students/tab)
Dress forms (half) costs Rs. 8000/- each 30 (one per student)
Steam irons @ Rs. 1000/- 4
Ironing boards @ Rs. 500/- 4
Soft boards All around the wall
Stools 30
White board 1
Black board 1
Approximate cost will be Rs. 5,00,000/-
Selection criteria of school
They should have ability to provide appropriate environment, space, equipment, machinery and
maintenance, trained faculty, exclusive library for the course, willingness to upgrade facility and
faculty.
CONTENTS
1. Part A Pattern Making 1
Practical 1 Basic Bodice 5
Practical 2 Necklines 8
Practical 3 Sleeveless Bodice 10
Practical 4 Dart Manipulation 11
Practical 5 Princess line Bodice 14
Practical 6 Basic Skirt 15
Practical 7 Skirt Variations 17
Practical 8 Basic Sleeve 19
Annexure I Tool Kit 21
Annexure II Standard Dress Form Measurement 23
Chart For Bodice & Skirt
Annexure III Test fitting 24
2. Part B — Basics of Garment Making 25
Practical 1 Continuous Placket 28
Practical 2 Simple Shirt Placket 31
Practical 3 Shirt Placket With Facing 33
Practical 4 Neckline Facings 36
Practical 5 Sleeve Attachment 42
Practical 6 Cuff 44
Practical 7 Assembly of Bodice 47
Practical 8 Stitching of Skirt 49
Annexure Sewing Kit 51
1
Part A
Pattern Making
Introduction
Pattern Designing is an extensive subject which covers principles of constructions and
techniques in a wider sense rather than style detail in narrow sense. It opens scope for
infinite variety of styles both for regular designs and fantasy patterns. Pattern construction
can be divided in two parts namely measuring correctly & knowledge of technique with
which they are applied. Learning pattern making by trial and error is like learning to play
music by ear.
This is a method where in body or dress form measurements are taken for developing a
pattern. Following a logical stepwise procedure, the measurements are then converted
into a pattern. In other words this system depends on accurate measurements to com-
plete the paper pattern. There are limitless designs, which can be achieved for workable
garments. Flat pattern making should be done in conjunction with a dress form so that as
the design evolves, proportion and balance in the garment can be checked side by side. It
is important to transfer the pattern on to a muslin toile (pronounced as ‘twall’) to test the fit,
on a dress form or a human figure. Flat pattern cutting is now widely used because of its
accuracy of sizing and the speed with which complicated designs are made
Basic preparation
Prior planning and clarity is necessary for the performance of the exercises. Read hand-
outs, appropriate lab manuals and textbooks before performing the practical. Follow all
precautions and regulations while working in the lab. Listen carefully to any introductory
remarks and experimental procedure given by your teacher. Make sure that your working
space is clean and organized, and all the required stocks and materials are kept ready.
Maintain the discipline in your working area.
Recording Results
Results should be recorded in the recommended record/file neatly and legibly with great
care. The record of exercises may be done in the following headings:
2
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
1. Introduction/Aim
State precisely the purpose and objectives of the practical in two or three sentences.
2. Materials and methods
The requirements like equipment, materials, etc. should be given here. Besides, methods
should also be described along with principles of the techniques used.
3. Sample / Results
The paper pattern corrected after test fitting should be labeled and neatly folded and placed
in a transparent envelope and attached here.
Things to be included on a pattern are:-
q Grain line
q Centre Front or Centre Back
q Style number or code number of the pattern set may be evolved e.g. AB 01
here AB identify type of the garment and 01 identify the piece number of complete
set. If there are 5 pattern pieces in a garment, the pieces will be numbered as AB 01,
AB 02, AB 03, AB 04 and AB 05.
q Pattern piece e.g. skirt front, skirt back, side front etc.
q Size as 32, 34, 36, or S, M, L etc.
q Cutting information - It should be clearly mentioned as to how many pieces are to be
cut e.g. Cut 1, Cut 2, Cut on fold.
q Notches - Marks that are needed to help assemble garment sections correctly.
q Directional Fabrics - For fabrics which have designs in one direction such as floral
print, stripes, plaid, velvet, fur etc. A symbol “cut one way” or (?) is indicated on the
pattern.
q Date - Indicated as a reference point.
q Seam Allowances.
Seam Allowances
The amount of seam allowance required for each seam line may vary depending on the
location and end purpose. Generally these are the measurements followed -
3
¼” for sharp curves
½” for neckline, armhole, waistline, style line.
1” for side seam, centre line, shoulder, plackets.
2” for straight hem line.
Symbols and abbreviations
Centre Front - CF
Centre Back - CB
Grain line -
Notches -
Buttons -
Button hole -
Front - F


T ∏ < Π
4
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Back - B
Waist line - Wl
Arm hole - Ah
Side Seam - SS
Neck line - NI
Shoulder - Sh
Two way grain line -
One way grain line -
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Here, the test fits should be interpreted and conclusions be drawn after discussing with
your teacher.
5. References
Reading materials that were consulted for the experiment be given as reference (e.g. your
lab manual) along with the name of the author and the book, pages referred and year of
publication.
Safety rules in the laboratory
q Safety is important to everyone and it is ones responsibility to maintain a safe work-
ing place.
q When in doubt, ask the teacher.
q Report any injuries or accidents immediately to the teacher.
q Keep the work station clean with all tools in the tool kit.
q Turn off the iron at the end of the class.
q Always place the iron on the iron pad to avoid burning the ironing board cover.
q When trimming or cutting, put all trimmings & paper in the wastebasket.
q Scissors should be handed to another person with the handles toward the person.
q Never toss or throw scissors or equipment.
q Do not eat or drink in the work area.



5
Practical 1 BASIC BODICE
Aim
To develop a basic bodice and test fit the same
Principles
Block normally represents the dimensions of a specific form or figure. It has darts to fit to
the contours of the body but no other design features. It is a foundation that is used to
make the pattern for a design and has no seam allowances.
It is important that the correct block is chosen for the design; this not only saves time
during adaptation but can affect the final shape. The basic blocks can be drafted to fit
individual figures by using personal measurements instead of the standard measurements
listed in the size chart.
Requirements
Pattern paper, muslin and tool kit
Procedure
To develop pattern for basic Bodice for women wear use measurements from the given
chart in Annexure II or measure a dress form or a body. Cut a paper, whose length is front
length plus 3” and width is half of the bust width plus 4” on fold.
Fold the paper lengthwise and with fold on the left hand side mark a guideline 1” down
from the top edge, mark A as illustrated.
A to B = front length
A to C = B to D = front width (+1/2”ease to be added if
measured on dress form/body)
Join C to D
Mark D to E = centre front length
CE is front neck depth.
For neck width mark CF = CE – 1/8”Square out lines from these
points.
Draw the neckline curve as illustrated, using a French curve.
G = mid point of DE
GH = apex measurement
Square a line from H to I
Mark DJ = Centre front to princess line measurement
6
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
I K = I J, Join J and K to H
KL = Front waist line measurement minus DJ (+1/8”ease to be added if mea-
sured on dress form/body)
LM = under arm seam length. Join as illustrated
M to M1 = M1 to M2 = 2½” square out, as illustrated
B to N = Shoulder to waistline measurement
N to N1 = ½”
Draw the front armhole curve as illustrated
Join F to N1
Mark F to F1 and N1 to O = ½ shoulder measurement
Join F1 to H and O to H.
Trace BD line, L M line and M M1 line on the other half of the
paper.
Extend M M1 line on the second half of the paper.
Mark B to Z = Back width (+1/2”ease to be added if mea-
sured on dress form/body)
Z to Y = Centre Back Length
Y to X = C F
X to W = 7/8”, draw the back
neck line curve as illustrated.
Measure Z to L
1
and from this subtract back waistline measure-
ment (+1/8”ease to be added if measured on dress form/body).
The difference should be taken as dart intake at U.
Z to U = Centre back to princess line measurement.
Mark U to V = Dart intake, T is mid point of U and V
Square out from T to S, Join S to U and V.
Mark Y R = ¼ Centre back length
R Q = Back shoulder blade measurement.
QQ
1
= Draw 1” guideline, as illustrated.
Join W to N1 in front
W to P = ½ shoulder + 1/8”
P to P1 = ¾”
P1 to P2 = W to P (½ shoulder + 1/8”)
Join P to S.
Join P1 to P3 such that P3 is 1”above the shoulder
blade line (RQ).
Draw the armhole as illustrated.
7
Truing or correcting the lines or darts to conform to body shape or
aligning the dart legs and seams.
Front shoulder
Fold the shoulder dart at the apex, matching the two dart legs keeping
the folded edge towards the neckline. Join the neck edge with the
armhole edge with the straight line at the dart ends. Use a tracing
wheel to trace out the folded edge.
Back shoulder
Fold the shoulder dart matching the two dart legs keeping the folded
edge towards the neckline. Draw the shoulder line with the help of the
French curve as illustrated, dropping 1/8” on the armhole edge.
Waist line
Fold both the waist line darts (by matching the dart
legs) and also close the side seam, keeping the pat-
tern folded at the apex line. True the waist with help
of a French curve, blending the waist line darts and
side seam. The side seam should be dropped ¼”at
the side seam, as illustrated.
Observations
Test fit the developed Bodice block and check
the fit. Make necessary changes if any and
make the final pattern.
Viva questions
1. What are the important measurements
for development of bodice block?
2. How do you ensure that the bodice is
fitting well?
8
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Practical 2 Necklines
Aim
To draft & create neckline variations
Principles
Some important points to be kept in mind for designing necklines are as follows:
1. If a neckline is made wider in the front, the same needs to be done for the back.
2. Try avoiding deeper neckline for both front and back at the same time. In case one
decide to keep the neckline deeper in both front and back then an ease of about ½”
needs to be taken out on the centre front neck.
3. The measurement which is taken diagonally should be marked diagonally on the
pattern and a measurement taken straight should be marked straight.
4. For curved neckline, always square out ¼” either side at center back and center front
and on shoulder level.
Requirements
Pattern paper, muslin and tool kit
Procedure
The measurement required for any neckline is the depth of the neck measured from the
nape of the neck point to the center front diagonally. (Neckline measurement A)
In case of necklines like square,
glass neck, sweet heart mea-
sure in a straight line on the body
for the length and for the width
of the neckline at that point to
the center front is also mea-
sured. (Neckline measurement
B)
9
1. V-Neckline
Trace the neckline of bodice block with dotted line as illustrated.
Extend the centre front line up to A.
Square out lines from A so that it touches the shoulder and neckline
intersection at B.
From B, mark BC = 7" down or as required diagonally.
BC is the new V neckline join with a slight curve.
2. Square Neckline
Trace the neckline of bodice block with dotted line as illustrated.
Mark the points AB as for V neckline.
Square down from B to D as the side depth of the neck required or
5½”. Square out from D to C on the center front.
This is a basic square neck.
Finish the neckline as desired.
3. Sweet Heart Neckline
Trace the neckline of bodice block with dotted line as illustrated.
Mark the points AB as for V neckline.
From B square down to D for the side depth of the neck required or 5".
Mark E on centre front, where CE = 3½” or as desired.
Join BD and DE with straight lines, for basic sweet heart neck.
Observations
Test fit the developed neckline and check the fit. Ensure that the neck does not gape.
Make necessary changes if any and make the final pattern.
Viva questions
1. What are the important measurements for neckline?
2. How do you ensure that the deep neckline fits well?
10
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Practical 3 Sleeveless Bodice
Aim
To develop a sleeveless bodice and test fit the same.
Principles
In the sleeveless bodice, the armhole should be fitted closer to the body; when the arm-
hole is away from the body the under garments may be visible. Hence it should be finished
closer to armpit of the body.
Requirements
Pattern paper, muslin and tool kit
Procedure
For a sleeveless bodice, trace the basic bodice block is used. Change the armhole as
follows:
Go up ½” on the armhole level i.e. E and F and redraw the curves, as illustrated.
Observations
Ensure that the armhole is closer to the body but does not bite into the armpit.
Viva questions
1. Why does the sleeveless bodice need to cut closer to the body?
11
Practical 4 Dart Manipulation
Aim
To develop bodices with different dart placement through dart manipulation and test fit the
same.
Principles
Dart manipulation is a useful and interesting tool for pattern maker for creating interesting,
innovative dart placements and style lines. The change in the position of the darts creates
interest in the garments in different dart positions. The same can be magnified by using
similar technology on striped fabric where a dart gives a new dimension to the striped
pattern. The darts can be stitched as new darts, as style lines, can be converted into tucks,
pleats, gathers, yokes, etc. The basic fit of the garment is not altered by these manipula-
tions.
Requirements
Pattern paper, muslin and tool kit
Procedure
SLASH AND SPREAD METHOD
In the slash and spread method, as the name implies the pattern/sloper is slashed or cut
on the desired line and as the old dart or excess or is closed, the pattern itself spreads on
the new position, to create the new design. Some of the new dart positions are illustrated
here.
12
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
1. Shoulder dart to waist
Take two dart basic block, slash the new dart position i.e. the waist dart. Fold and close the
shoulder dart. Trace the new pattern on separate sheet.
2. Waist dart to centre front
Take one dart bodice block. Slash the new dart position, close the old dart. Trace the
pattern on separate sheet.
Design
Basic Block
Step - 1
Step - 2
Step - 1
Step - 2
Step - 3
Design
One Dart Block
13
3. Shoulder dart to armhole side seam intersection
Take two dart basic bodice block. Slash the new dart position, close the old dart. Trace the
pattern on separate sheet. Shoulder dart to armhole side seam intersection.
Observations
Test fit the developed dart manipulations and check the fit. Make necessary changes if
any.
Viva questions
1. Why is dart manipulation important?
2. What are the things to be kept in mind while using slash and spread method?
3. Does the garment fit as well as the basic block if not what could be the reasons?
Step - 1
Step - 2
Step - 3
Basic Block
Design
14
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Practical 5 Princess line Bodice
Aim
To develop a princess line bodice and test fit the same.
Principles
Princess line is a style line that absorbs dart excess within the stitch lines and hence
controls the fit of the garment. The darts are replaced with the seams extending from one
side of the pattern to the other.
Requirements
Pattern paper, muslin and tool kit
Procedure
Take a one dart sloper. Shift the dart away
from the princess line as desired. Draw the
princess line as required. Mark the notches
and grain line on both the pieces as illus-
trated. Slash on the princess line and close
the dart. Trace the patterns on another sheet
of paper. Ensure that the notches are trans-
ferred on the final pattern.
Observations
Test fit the developed princess line bodice and check the fit. Make necessary changes if
any and make the final pattern.
Viva questions
1. What are the various positions of princess line?
2. Can a yoke be called a princess line?
3. Can you make a sari blouse with princess line?
Step - 1
Step - 2
Step - 3
Design
One Dart Block
15
Practical 6 Basic Skirt
Aim
To develop a basic skirt and test fit the same
Principles
The basic skirt falls straight downward from the widest part of the hipline. The key to a
balanced pattern and garment lies in the accurate placement of the balance line on the
dress form and pattern. Any deviation of the balance line between the front and back skirt
at the side seam will create fitting problems.
Requirements
Pattern paper, muslin and tool kit
Procedure
To develop pattern for basic skirt for women wear use measurements from the given chart
or measure a dress form or a body. Take a paper, whose length is desired length of the
skirt plus 3” and width is half of the round hip plus 4”.
Make a block A B C D E F, where
A to B = back hip (+1/4”ease to be added if measured on dress form/body)
B to C = front hip (+1/4”ease to be added if measured
on dress form/body)
A to D and C to F = Desired length, e.g. 21”.
A to G = C to H = 7”, hip level
Joint G to H. Mark I at side seam
B to B1 and B to B2 = ¾”
Mark I
1
, 2” above I.
Passing through B
2
and B
1
, join I
1
J and I
1
K extending it 3/8”
above the waistline, as illustrated using hip curve.
A to A
1
= ¼”
16
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Join J to C, K to A
1
as illustrated, using hip curve.
Measure J to C, K to A
1
and note the measurement on paper, from this measurement
subtract the front and back waistline measurement respectively. The difference is the dart
intake for both front and back.
Divide this excess into two darts for both front and back.
Draw a guide line parallel to the waist line at a distance of 3½” for front and 5 ½” for the
back,
Mark C to L = Centre front to princess line measurement
L to L1 = 1
st
dart (½ of the total dart intake for front)
L2 is mid point of L, L1.
L1 to M = 1 ½”
M M1, = 2
nd
dart (½ of the total dart intake)
Mark A
1
N = Centre back to princess line measurement
N to N1 = 1
st
dart (½ of the total dart intake for the back)
N1 O= 1 ½”
O to O
1
= 2
nd
dart (½ of the total dart intake)
Find the mid point of all the darts and draw a perpendicular line till the guideline. Join these
points to the dart point to form the dart legs.
Trueing
Fold the dart at vanishing point and true the waistline as illus-
trated raising the waistline by ¼” -½” (when you true the waist-
line with the help of French curve it automatically goes up) at the
side seams. Drop back waist line by 1/8” at centre back.
Observations
Test fit the developed skirt block and check the fit. Make necessary changes if any and
make the final pattern
Viva questions
1. What are the important measurements for development of skirt block?
2. How do you ensure that the skirt is fitting well?
17
Practical 7 Skirt variations
Aim
To develop style variations in skirt and test fit the same.
Principles
Variations in skirt can be treated through dart manipulation which you have learnt earlier. It
is a useful and interesting method for creating interesting, innovative style lines. The
change in the position of the darts creates new styles like an A-line skirt and flared skirt.
The suppression of the darts is converted into fullness at the hem. The basic fit of the
garment is not altered by these manipulations.
Requirements
Pattern paper, muslin and tool kit
Procedure
1. One dart basic skirt
Use a basic skirt sloper that has two darts.
Measure the dart towards the side seam and
add the measurement to the 1
st
dart i.e. to-
wards the centre front or back and eliminate
the 2
nd
dart. Note that the length of new waist-
line dart in the front is 5 ½”same as the back
dart length. Find the mid point of the new
dart and mark the centre and true the waist-
line. This method is called measurement
method and can only be used in skirts/trou-
sers, as there is no apex in lower half of the
body.
18
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
2. A-Line
Take a one dart skirt sloper; draw a slash line as illustrated (fig.2). Slash the line and close
a part of the waist dart, so that the ease is shifted to the hem. Add 1” - 1 ½” on the side
seam at hem line for A-line shape in the skirt as illustrated. Blend till the hip level for both
front and back and also blend the hem line.
Observations
Test fit the developed skirt variation and check the fit. Make necessary changes if any.
Viva questions
1. How is measurement method used for converting two dart skirt sloper into one dart
skirt sloper is in ineffective for dart manipulation in bodice and why?
2. Which other skirt design variations are possible through dart manipulation?
19
Practical 8 Basic sleeve
Aim
To develop a basic sleeve and test fit the same
Principles
The arm is very mobile and the efficient part of the human body as it is capable of moving
practically in every direction. When relaxed, it may lie slightly towards the front on the
sides. The sleeve is one of the most difficult of the basic patterns to fit. The well balanced
sleeve will hang on the relaxed arm with out any visible puckering or stress around the
cap.
Requirements
Pattern paper, muslin and tool kit
Procedure
To develop pattern for basic sleeve for women wear use measurements from the given
chart. Take a paper, whose length is desired length of the sleeve plus 3” and width is bicep
plus 2”, fold it lengthwise and place paper with fold towards you.
Mark a guide line 1” away from the edge and label A.
A to B = Cap height
A to C = Full length
B to D = ½ bicep circumference
B to E = ½ BC-1½”
E to F = ½ elbow circumference (that includes ease of ½” minimum)
Join D to F extending to a line squared from C.
Extend D to G
Find mid point of B D line and A G by folding
the paper lengthwise.
On this line mark H to I = ½ cap height + ¾”
Mark A to A1 = ¼” and D to D1=1”
20
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Join A1 to I & I to D1 with dotted lines.
Draw the armhole curve with the help of French curve keeping
the guide line in perspective as illustrated in the diagram.
Trace all the lines for front sleeves on the other side of paper.
Open the paper.
Find the mid point of A to B by folding the paper and draw
the line JK.
Find the mid point M of KL line and on M go in ¼”. Redraw
the front curve as illustrated.
Mark the notches
For front mark one notch = ½” below point K.
For back mark two notches, one at ½” below J and next ½” away from the first notch.
Observations
Test fit the developed sleeve block and check the fit. Make necessary changes if any and
make the final pattern.
Viva questions
1. What are the important measurements for development of sleeve block?
2. How do you ensure a well fitting sleeve?
21
Annexure I
TOOL KIT
q All pins : fine, long, rust proof pins.
q Carbon paper: Coated paper on one side with white or coloured wax, used to transfer
marking on fabric or paper.
q Dress form : A standardized duplication of a human torso, cotton padded and can-
vas covered, set on a movable, light adjustable stand and compressible shoulders
and slopers. For taking measurements, develop pattern, fit garment samples, to alter
garments, to establish style lines for the garment.
q Grading scale: 2" X 18" transparent straight plastic with grid
q L-square : Plastic or metal ruler with two arms at right angles of varying lengths
usually 12" and 24" to square off corners. Establish perpendicular lines, reference
points and lines.
q Magnet: a high carbon alloy steel that has a property of attracting iron and steel can
be of any shape.
q Measuring tape: Metal tipped narrow, firmly woven double tape of cloth or plastic
usually 60" long (150cm) marked with both inches and centimeters.
q Muslin : A plain weave fabric made from bleached or unbleached yarns to test fit and
develop patterns.
q Newsprint paper: used for rough drafts.
q Paper shears/scissors: a cutting instrument, ranging in size from 8" to 12", with two
sharply pointed straight blades.
q Pattern paper: Strong white paper available in variety of weights and widths.
q Pencil: to mark lines in developing the muslin, pattern or sloper.
22
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
q Pin cushion: A small firmly stuffed pillow made in a variety of shapes and sizes.
q Push pins : Drum shaped 1/2" long pin for pivoting and transferring points & to hold
pattern pieces and fabric on table.
q Scale: Long ruler 12" / 24" metal or plastic.
q Tailor’s shears: A cutting instrument ranging in size from 12" to 16" with two wide
blades for cutting fabric and muslin.
q Thick brown paper: Strong brown papers for finished pattern. Used for preliminary
patterns drafting and development of the final pattern.
q Tracing wheel : An instrument with small serrated or needle point wheel mounted on
one end of a handle for transferring markings from paper patterns on the muslin.
q Transparent tape: A clear plastic narrow continuous stripes with an adhesive surface
on one side, available in roll. Used to hold paper pieces and mend tears.
23
Annexure II
STANDARD DRESS FORM MEASUREMENT CHART FOR BODICE & SKIRT
(in inches)
SIZES 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
FRONT LENGTH 17
1/4
17
1/2
17
3/4
18 18
1/4
18
1/2
18
3/4
WIDTH OF BUST 9
1/2
10 10
1/2
11 11
1/2
12 12
1/2

(1” below arm plate)
CENTRE FRONT 14
3/8
14
1/2
14
5/8
14
3/4
14
7/8
15 15
1/8
LENGTH
APEX 3
5/8
3
3/4
3
7/8
4 4
1/8
4
1/4
4
3/8
UNDER ARM 7
7/8
8 8
1/8
8
1/4
8
3/8
8
1/2
8
5/8
SEAM
FRONT WAISTLINE 6
3/8
6
3/4
7
1/8
7
1/2
7
7/8
8
1/4
8
5/8
WAISTLINE 14
3/4
14
7/8
15 15
1/8
15
1/4
15
3/8
15
1/2
TO SHOULDER
SHOULDER LENGTH 4
7/8
5 5
1/8
5
1/4
5
3/8
5
1/2
5
5/8
CENTRE FRONT TO 2
5/8
2
3/4
2
7/8
3 3
1/8
3
1/4
3
3/8
PRINCESS LINE
WIDTH OF BACK 8
1/2
9 9
1/2
10 10
1/2
11 11
1/26
(1” below arm plate)
CENTRE BACK 16
1/2
16
3/4
17 17
1/4
17
1/2
17
3/4
18
LENGTH
BACK WAIST LINE 5
5/8
6 6
3/8
6
3/4
7
1/8
7
1/2
7
7/8
shoulder blade 6
7/8
7 7
1/8
7
1/4
7
3/8
7
1/2
7
5/8
centre back to 2
1/2
2
5/8
2
3/4
2
7/8
3 3
1/8
3
1/4
princess line
FRONT HIPLINE 9
1/8
9
3/8
9
5/8
9
7/8
10
1/8
10
3/8
10
5/8
(7” below waistline)
BACK HIPLINE 9
1/8
9
3/8
9
5/8
9
7/8
10
1/8
10
3/8
10
5/8
(7” below waistline)
24
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Annexure III
Test fitting
Steps of test fitting are as follows
q Commonly used test material is muslin
q The quickest way to get the effect of the finished garment without actual stitching is
to overlap and pin all the seams lines. Pinning gives the same result and information,
that one wants without going to the machine. It is so much faster and easier to unpin
and then re-pin than to rip stitching and re-stitching.
q Pins should be placed at right angle to the seam line, as in this method there is least
amount of strain or pull on the seam, and it does not gape.
q Check the test fit muslin and make correction till fully satisfied.
q Mark the necessary corrections and the same should be transferred on the paper
pattern for a final pattern of the garment.
25
Part B
Basics of Garment Making
Introduction
This course is continuation with that of course in class XIth. The advanced skills are re-
quired for converting fabrics into a stitched garment, with value addition are covered in this
year. Emphasis is on how to finish the openings and on assembling of complete garment.
Basic Preparation
Prior planning and clarity is necessary for the performance of the exercises. Read hand-
outs, appropriate lab manuals and textbooks before performing the practical. Follow all
precautions and regulations while working in the lab. Listen carefully to any introductory
remarks and experimental procedure given by your teacher. Make sure that your working
space is clean and organized, and all the required stocks and materials are kept ready.
Maintain the discipline in your working area.
Recording Practical Results
Practical results should be recorded in the recommended record/file neatly and legibly
with great care. The record of exercises may be done in the following headings:
1 Introduction/Aim
State precisely the purpose and objectives of the experiment in two or three sentences.
2. Materials and methods
The requirements like equipment, materials, etc. should be given here. Besides, methods
should also be described along with principles of the techniques used.
3. Sample / Results
The sample should be attached here.
26
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Here, the results should be interpreted and conclusions be drawn.
5. References
Reading materials that were consulted for the experiment be given as reference (e.g. your
lab manual) along with the name of the author and the book, pages referred and year of
publication.
Safety rules in the laboratory
q Safety rules to be observed while working on the machine: Safety is important to
everyone and it is ones responsibility to maintain a safe working place.
q When operating the machine, do not be careless.
q Always inspect the machine before starting the work. Be sure it is clean and threaded
correctly, with no loose threads on the pulley belt and all guards in place.
q When in doubt, ask the teacher.
q Report any injuries or accidents immediately to the teacher.
q Wipe up any oil spilled on the floor immediately to prevent anyone from slipping.
q Operate machines only with permission.
q When sewing on a power machine, wear low shoes and close-fitting clothing. Avoid
loose-fitting sleeves, sweaters, jewellery, ties and ribbons when operating the ma-
chine. If your hair is long, tie it at the back.
q Do not tilt your chair forward or backward while operating the machine.
q Use both hands to raise and lower the machine head.
q Always keep your head above the table.
q Keep your feet off the treadle when you are not operating the machine.
q Keep your feet off the treadle when you are setting or threading the needle.
q Turn the motor off when you are not stitching.
q Turn the motor off before cleaning, oiling or adjusting the machine.
q Turn the motor off before removing or replacing the pulley belt and run the machine
out. Wait until all motion has stopped.
q Turn the motor off in case of an emergency or when in doubt.
27
q Turn the motor off before unplugging the machine.
q Do not use your hand to stop and start the hand wheel.
q Use your hand only to set the hand wheel.
q Before operating the machine, close the slide bed cover. When operating the ma-
chine, keep your hands, scissors and other sharp objects away from the belt.
q Keep the machine and work station clean with all tools in the side drawer.
q Unplug the machine at the end of the day.
q Know the location of the main power switch, outlets and fuses in case of an emer-
gency.
q Do not remove any safety devices from the machines.
q Turn off the iron at the end of the class.
q Always place the iron on the iron pad to avoid burning the ironing board cover.
q When trimming or cutting, put all trimmings in the wastebasket.
q Scissors should be handed to another person with the handles toward the person.
q Never toss or throw scissors or equipment.
q Do not eat or drink in the work area.
q Keep your machine covered when not in use.
28
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Practical 1 – CONTINUOUS PLACKET
Aim
Stitch a continuous placket sample.
Principles
A placket is a finishing provided to an opening in a garment. Placket should be designed
and styled in sufficient length to permit ease and convenience of dressing. Placket open-
ings are used on sleeves, front or back neckline to allow for ease in wearing a garment.
Plackets are planned as extension for placement of buttonholes, snaps and other fasten-
ers. Some plackets have buttons and buttonholes, others do not. When designed for neck-
line openings, the placket can end at the neck edge or be extended beyond the neck and
become part of the collar. The measurement can vary to create different effects.
The type and length of placket selected depends on:
q Placement of placket.
q Function of placket.
q Style and design of garment.
q Use of garment.
q Type and weight of fabric.
q Care of garment.
q Method of construction.
Continuous placket is easy to make and serves as the basis for a number of variations. It
is one piece placket that is widely used on cuffed sleeve openings to permit hand to fit
through sleeve circumferences, bloomers, children’s’ dresses, on skirts and trousers, where
zipper application would detract from appeal of the garment and as a neckline opening
alternative to other fasteners or closures.
Requirements
Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I)
29
Pre Lab Preparation
Student should be familiar with the safety rules. Cut the pattern piece for length of the
piece take double the length of the finished placket opening and add 1” extra. (The 1” extra
length of the binding strip is for emergency only. If measurements are accurate and the
placket is properly made, this amount should be cut off after the binding is stitched in
place.) The width of the piece will be twice the width of finished placket facing (which is
usually ½” for 1 side) plus two times seam allowances (which usually is ¼”)
Procedure
1. Place the right side of the placket on the wrong side of the
sleeve opening and start stitching near the edge leaving a dis-
tance of ¼”. As you come in the center of the placket, maintain
¼” seam allowance of placket piece and reduce the allowance
of the garment piece. Take care so that no pleat formation
takes place at this point.
2. Fold the allowance (other side) of the placket and
place it on first stitching line. Then stitch in place.
From right side of the sleeve. Take care that stitch-
ing at the back should be same i.e. if it is on top, it
should be maintained on top throughout and if it is in
ditch then maintain it throughout. In good quality
plackets, this seam is on top at the back.
30
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
3. From wrong side of the sleeve, stitch both the upper and under of the placket, two to
three times diagonally (at 45°) near end. This is known as Bar Tack.
Observations
The placket should be finished neatly and close properly on top of each other. The buttons
should not gape open especially near the bust.
Viva Questions
1. Where all is this placket used?
2. What is the importance of bar –tack?
31
Practical 2 - SIMPLE SHIRT PLACKET
Aim
Stitch a simple shirt placket sample.
Principles
A Simple shirt placket is an extension placket where buttons and buttonholes are placed
on the facing which is created by extending the center front on both sides.
Requirements
Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I)
Pre Lab Preparation
Pattern pieces required are two one for upper part and other for the under part.
Upper Part
Trace the bodice till centre front line. Mark the extension; which is
taken as half the button + 1 cm i.e. Radius of the button + 1cm =
extension. Or it is taken as the diameter of the button. Other wise
a standard measurement of ½” or ¾” is taken for men’s shirts.
The line of extension is the fold line. After this a standard facing of
1½” is made, an allowance of ¼” is then taken. Turn the allowance
towards wrong side of the facing. Then turn fold line towards wrong
side of the garment piece. (If facing has to be aligned to the sel-
vedge when placed on fabric then no seam allowances is taken). Cut out the pattern.
Under Part
Flip the pattern horizontally, trace it. Under part is made in the same
way as you make the over part but the difference being the facing,
which is 1”. Otherwise stitching line of under part will be visible on the
front of the placket.
32
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Procedure
Upper Part
1. Trace the pattern on the fabric and mark
the position of the lines.
2. Turn the allowance towards the wrong
side of the fabric. Turn the facing also in
the same way from fold line i.e. to-
wards wrong side of fabric.
3. From wrong side machine on the edge
of facing as illustrated.
Under Part
1. Trace the pattern on the fabric and mark
the position of all lines.
2. Turn the allowance towards wrong side
of the fabric. In same way turn the facing
also.
2. From wrong side machine on the edge
of the facing as illustrated.
Observations
The placket should be finished neatly and close properly on top of each other. The buttons
should not gape open especially near the bust.
Viva questions
1. The width of the placket is dependent on what factors?
2. Where all apart from shirt this placket is used?
33
Practical 3 - SHIRT PLACKET WITH FACING
Aim
Stitch a sample of shirt placket with facing.
Principles
The shirt band/the strip on the right side of shirt front in which the buttonholes are made,
eliminates the need for facing. An extended self-facing is used on the left front. The fin-
ished shirt band is 1½” wide but construction techniques vary depending on the fabric and
style of the shirt.
Requirements
Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I)
Pre Lab Preparation
Under Part
Trace the bodice and make extension of ¾” which is half of finished placket. Then give an
allowance of ¼”.
Facing
A straight strip of the length same as placket opening is taken, mark ¼” seam allowance
on one side and ½” seam allowance on the other side.
Under Part
Flip and trace the other half of bod-
ice and mark extension of ¾” and
facing of 1” then mark the seam
allowance of ¼”.
34
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Procedure
Upper Part
1. Place right side of the facing over wrong side of garment piece and then stitch leav-
ing the ¼” allowance near edge.
2. From right side of the fabric, turn facing towards right side. Press the seam allow-
ance (½”) of facing towards wrong side of facing. Iron in place.
3. Leave allowance of ¼” from both the sides and stitch in place from right side.
Under Part
Trace the pattern for under part on the fabric. Fold the seam allowance of the facing
towards the wrong side of the fabric. Again turn this facing towards the wrong side of the
fabric, stitch in place. (For diagram refer steps of construction for under part of simple shirt
placket.)
Placement of Buttons
The button extension is equal to the width of the button.
As a general rule the neckline of the front bodice is low-
ered by ¼” at the centre front for comfort, whenever a
basic neckline is required. The first buttonhole is placed
on center front, down from neckline an amount equal to
the width of the button. This ensures that the button will
not extend into the neck. Placement of the last button
hole depends on the need or the requirement of the gar-
ment. The rest of the button holes are marked on the
even division between the first and the last. It is a good
35
idea to place a button close to the apex or bust point this ensures that the garment does
not gape open at centre front due to movement which may cause a pull on the bust.
The size of the button hole equals the width of the button plus 1/8” for the button to go in
easily. The button hole is marked so that width of the button is on the garment side of the
centre front and extra 1/8” is on the extension.
Observations
The placket should be finished neatly and close properly on top of each other. The buttons
should not gape open specially near the bust.
Viva questions
1. Give common uses of this placket.
2. What distance from the neck edge should the first button be placed on the placket?
36
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Practical 4 - Neckline Facings
Aim
Stitch a sample each of extended facing, bias facing and shaped facing.
Principles
A facing is the fabric used to finish raw edges of a garment at such locations as neck,
armhole and front and back opening. There are three categories of facings: Shaped
facings, extended facings and bias facings.
A facing is shaped to fit the edge it will finish either during cutting or just before application.
A “shaped facing” is cut out, using a pattern, to the same shape and on the same grain as
the edge it will finish. A “bias facing” is a strip of fabric cut on the bias so that it can be
shaped to match the curve of the edge it will be applied to. After a facing is attached to the
garments edge, it is turned to the inside of the garment and should not show on the out-
side.
In order to reduce bulk, both shaped and bias facings can be cut from a fabric lighter in
weight than the garment fabric. Because the extended facing is cut as one with the gar-
ment, garment and facing fabric are always the same but some times may vary according
to the design.
Requirements
Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I)
NECKLINES
37
Pre Lab Preparation
Bias Strip
Bias strip is prepared as a strip of matching or contrasting fabric. Bias for binding, piping
and tubing is a true bias and is defined as the diagonal line established by a 45
0
degree
angle, intersecting length and cross grain of a square. The bias of the fabric offers the
maximum stretch, flexibility, and elasticity needed to conform to a curved edge.
Preparation of Bias Strip
q First of all find the true bias of the fabric by folding fabric with lengthwise grain paral-
lel to the crosswise grain. The fold edge is the true bias.
q After locating true bias, draw the width and the desired number of strips needed for
desired length of bias and then cut it.
q Many times the bias stripes are not long enough to complete a continuous sewing
step. Adequate number of strips must be joined before starting to sew bias binding or
facing. Now place the cut out bias strips at right angles, right side facing right side.
q Stitch bias strips with a ¼” seam allowance at angles.
q Continue to join bias strips as needed for the desired length. Press all seams open
and snip extended points.
Once the strip is ready it can be applied on the neckline
Procedure
A. Neckline Finished with Bias Binding/Extended Facing
A standard bias strip is 1 to ½ inch wide.
Steps of construction
q Place the garment on sewing table wrong side up. Now place the bias strip on the
garment with right side facing wrong side (of garment), matching both the raw edges.
q Stitch with a ¼” seam allowance.
q Fold the bias strip over ¼” and press down.
38
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
q Fold bias binding over along stitch line and press down.
q Fold bias strip over Wrong Side of garment just covering first stitch line.
q Slip stitch along the edge of bias binding.
B. Neckline Finished With Bias Facing
A bias facing is a strip of fabric out on the bias, which is attached to the garment neckline
so that it can be shaped to match the curve of the edge it will be applied to. After a facing
is attached to the garment, it is turned to the inside of the garment and should not show on
the outside i.e. right side of the garment. The finished width of bias facing should not be
more than ½”.
Steps of Construction
q Face right side of bias strip to the right side of the garment neckline. When applying
the binding, fold back the starting end ½” and align the fold with the garment seam
line. Pin binding in place and stitch to within 3” of starting point.
q Trim away excess binding at this end to ½” beyond fold of starting end. Lap this end
over the beginning fold and stitch the rest of the way across, through all thicknesses.
39
When the binding will be turned, the end folded first will be on top; stitch or slip stitch
it with the other end.
q Clip the curved seam allowance.
q Open the facing away from the garment press all seam allowances towards the fac-
ing. To keep facing from rolling to outside of garments, the seam should be under
stitched with facing and seam allowance extended away from garment. Stitch from
right side close to neck seam line, through facing and seam allowance.
q Turn the other edge of the facing towards its Wrong Side. Press and slip stitch.
C. Slit Neckline With Shaped Facing
A neck line shape which is finished with shaped facing i.e. instead of finishing raw edges
of fabric at neckline with bias strip as used earlier, it is finished with a facing which is of the
same shape as the neckline.
40
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Steps of Construction
q Interface the Wrong Side of the facing of both front back.
q With Right Side together and the markings matched seam the front facing sections to
the back facing sections at shoulders. Press seam flat as stitched then open.
q Keeping seam allowances open, tailor edge finish the facing by turning under 1/8”
Press. Stitch close to folded edge.
q Right Side together, matching, notches, markings and seam lines, pin facing to neck
and machine.
q Trim diagonally across cross seam allowances at shoulders. Clip curved seams also
slash the opening at front neckline and clip the corners.
q Place seam Wrong Side up, using the tip of the iron press seam open.
q Turn facing to inside of garment, allowing seam line to roll inside slightly, now top
stitch at a distance of ¼”.
41
Observations
The ready piping should not be more than ¼” wide and should look neat and straight with
no extra twist or pucker.
Viva questions
1. What is true bias and what are its characteristics?
2. What is facing? Where all it is used?
42
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Practical 5 - Sleeve Attachment
Aim
Stitch a sample of sleeve attachment.
Principles
Set-in sleeves are the most widely used type. As the name implies this sleeve is actually
set into the armhole of edge, or cap, can be slightly rounded or fully gathered, the length
long or short, the bottom tapered, flared or gathered to the armscye can also very from
standard round armhole in sleeves are designed with a slightly rounded, cap ideally they
should fall in a smooth curve from the shoulder edge with no dimpling or puckering. To
achieve this, the sleeve cap curvature must be carefully eased into the armscye.
To achieve success with any garment, whether it is sleeveless or made with sleeves, it is
wise to observe several principles.
q Check garment and sleeve fit and alter the pattern accordingly.
q Carefully and accurately transfer all sleeve and armhole markings to the fashion
fabric.
q Use proper pressing techniques during construction.
q Whenever possible, finish the lower edge of the sleeve before attaching it to the
garment.
Requirements
Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I)
Pre Lab Preparation
Trace the pattern on muslin with appropriate seam allowances marked and cut.
Procedure
q Place two rows of stitching on the cap of the sleeve 1/8" away from the stitching line.
The distance between the two lines will be 1/4". Take care that the stitch size should
be more than the usual one. Leave long threads at the starting & end of both the
seams.
q Face right side to the right side and stitch at the side of the sleeve.
43
q Pull the threads and insert the sleeve inside the armhole of the bodice. Adjust the
size of the sleeve cap by pulling and releasing the thread. Put pins in position.
q Stitch the sleeve to the armhole.
Observations
Test fit the stitched sleeve on the dress form and check to ensure that centre of the sleeve
aligns with the side seam of the dress form.
Viva questions
1. What is special about a set- in– sleeve?
2. Why do you need ease on the upper half of the sleeve cap?
44
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Practical 6 – CUFF
Aim
Stitch a sample of cuff - one piece straight.
Principles
Cuffs actually consist of a cuff and a facing section, which may be cut all in one or may be
in two pieces. Before starting cuff application, apply the type of placket, which is required
for that particular sleeve and then complete the underarm sleeve seam. Prepare pleats or
gathers at sleeve edge if any. Note the placement of the cuff end to placket edge.
Requirements
Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I)
Pre Lab Preparation
Cut the following pieces-
1. One piece of upper and under cuff each.
2. Micro-dot interfacing for cuff.
3. Sleeve on which cuff will be applied along with sleeve placket.
Procedure
1. Fuse the wrong side of the upper cuff to interfacing, which can come to fold line or
can be extended half inch beyond the fold line.
2. Turn the seam allowance of the upper cuff to the wrong side of the cuff and give top
stitch at a distance of ¼” or ¾” as required.
3. Fold along fold line right side facing each other and pin the two ends from wrong
side, stitch at a distance of half inch from both the sides. Chop off extra seam allow-
ance near the edges.
4. Turn inside out and pull the corners.
5. Face wrong side of the sleeve to the right side of the under cuff, machine stitch in
place.
45
6. Insert all the seam allowance into the cuff. Start machining at the edge, from the right
side of theupper cuff on to the right side of the sleeve.
7. Optional top stitch at a distance of ¼” all around the cuff edges.
46
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Observations
The cuff should be neatly finished and buttons should and close properly on one another.
Viva questions
1. Where is one piece straight cuff used?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using one piece straight cuff.
47
Practical 7 - Assembly of Bodice
Aim
Stitching of a ladies shirt / blouse.
Requirements
Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I)
Pre Lab Preparation
Select an appropriate design. Cut a pattern and trace on suitable fabric.
Before starting to stitch ensure that all the pieces are there, for this make a check list of the
pieces for the garment.
Press flat all the pieces for a neat and good finish of the finish.
A beginner should prepare a sequence of the procedure to be followed so as to ensure
that there are minimal errors and least amount of corrections.
All the curved seam edges should be stay stitched to avoid stretching.
Pin baste all the seam lines before stitching. This ensures neater seams.
Procedure
1. Stitch the darts of both the front and back bodice if any, as demonstrated previously.
2. Stitch the shoulder seam with a suitable finish ( it can be plain seam/ French seam )
3. Finish the placket opening if any, suitably. (as has been given in the earlier chapter)
4. Finish the neckline suitably with facing / collar/ piping as required.
5. Stitch the side seam with a suitable finish ( it can be plain seam/ French seam/ Flat
fell/ Hong Kong bound)
6. Finish the armhole with facing/ piping/ sleeve suitably. (The attachment of sleeve
should be done as explained in the book.)
7. Finish the waistline with hand hem/ machine finish suitably.
48
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Observations
The garment should be neatly finished from inside and outside. The seams should not
pucker. All the seams used should be appropriate according to the requirement.
Viva questions
1. What all preparation is required before starting to stitch a shirt?
2. What openings are you using for your design and why?
49
Practical 8 - Stitching of Skirt
Aim
Stitch a skirt.
Requirements
Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I)
Pre Lab Preparation
Select an appropriate design. Cut a pattern and trace on suitable fabric.
Before starting to stitch ensure that all the pieces are there, for this make a check list of the
pieces for the garment.
Press flat all the pieces for a neat and good finish of the finish.
A beginner should prepare a sequence of the procedure to be followed so as to ensure
that there are minimal errors and least amount of corrections.
All the curved seam edges should be stay stitched to avoid stretching.
Pin baste all the seamlines before stitching. This ensures neater seams.
Procedure
1. Stitch the darts of both the front and back skirt.
2. Stitch the side seam with a suitable finish ( it can be plain seam/ French seam/ Flat
fell/ Hong Kong bound)
3. If the skirt has design/features such as pleats, tucks, gathers, etc these should be
finished appropriately, for e.g. If the skirt has gathers / pleats the same should be
stitched in place before next step.
4. Finish the waistline with waist band/ facing suitably. The waistband is stitched similar
to the cuff as explained in the book.
5. Finish the hem with hand hem/ machine finish suitably.
50
A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI
Before applying the waist band/ belt the following things should be completed-
q Stay stitch the waistline edge.
q Stitch the darts.
q Stitch the side seams and press open the seams.
Observations
The garment should be neatly finished from inside and outside. The seams should not
pucker. All the seams used should be appropriate according to the requirement.
Viva questions
1. What all preparation is required before starting to stitch a skirt?
2. What is the hem width required for the skirt?
51
Annexure
SEWING KIT
All pins : fine, long, rust proof pins.
Magnetic pin holder / pin cushion: to hold pins.
Muslin : to experiment and develop samples.
Push pins : Drum shaped 1/2" long pin, to hold pattern pieces and fabric on table.
Tracing wheel : An instrument with small serrated or needle point wheel mounted on one
end of a handle. For transferring markings from paper patterns on the muslin.
Tailor chalk: for marking on fabric.
12" / 24" scale: to mark straight lines to measure.
Measuring tape: Metal tipped narrow, firmly woven double tape of cloth or plastic usually
60" long (150cm) marked with both inches and centimeters.
Grading scale : 2" X 18" transparent straight plastic with grid in inches and fraction of
inches (or millimeters) ruler.
Pencil: to mark lines in developing the muslin, pattern or sloper.
L-square : Plastic or metal ruler with two arms at right angles of varying lengths usually
12" and 24", to square off corners.
Carbon paper: Coated paper on one side with white or coloured wax, to transfer marking
on fabric or paper.
Transparent tape: to hold paper pieces and mend tears.
Paper shears/scissors: a cutting instrument, ranging in size from 8" to 12", with two sharply
pointed straight blades, to cut paper patterns.
Tailor’s shears: A cutting instrument ranging in size from 12" to 16" with two wide blades,
to cut fabric and muslin.
Magnet: a high carbon alloy steel that has a property of attracting iron and steel can be of
any shape, to pick up pins and needles.

© All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise without prior permission of the publisher.

April, 2005

Price : Rs. 40.00

Advisory Committee
q

Mr. Ashok Ganguly Chairman, CBSE Mr. G. Balasubramanian Director (Academic), CBSE

q

Mrs. Gauri Kumar Director General NIFT, New Delhi

q

Contributors
q

Ms. Vandana Narang NIFT, New Delhi Ms. Monika Gupta NIFT, New Delhi

q

Co-ordinator
q

Mr. P. Mani Education Officer (Hum & Lang.), CBSE

Published by:
The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092

Printed at :
Chandu Press, D-97, Shakarpur, New Delhi - 110 092 Ph: 22424396, 22526936

Hkkjr dk lafo/kku
mísf'kdk
ge] Hkkjr ds yksx] Hkkjr dks ,d (lEiw.kZ izHkqRo&laiUu lektoknh iaFkfujis{k yksdra=kRed x.kjkT;) cukus ds fy,] rFkk mlds leLr ukxfjdksa dks % lkeftd] vkfFkZd vkSj jktuSfrd U;k;] fopkj] vfHkO;fDr] fo'okl] /keZ vkSj mikluk dh Lora=rk] izfr"Bk vkSj volj dh lerk izkIr djkus ds fy,] rFkk mu lc esa O;fDr dh xfjek vkSj2 (jk"Vª dh ,drk vkSj v[k.Mrk) lqfuf'pr djus okyh ca/kqrk c<+kus ds fy, n`<+ldYi gksdj viuh bl lafo/kku lHkk esa vkt rkjh[k 26 uoEcj] 1949 bZ- dks ,rn~}kjk bl lafo/kku dks a vaxhÏr] vf/kfu;fer vkSj vkRekfiZr djrs gSA a 1 lafo/kku (c;kyhloka la'kks/ku) vf/kfu;e] 1976 dh /kkjk 2 }kjk (3-1-1977 ls) ÞizHkqRo&laiUu yksdra=kRed x.kjkT;ß ds LFkku ij izfrLFkkfirA 2 lafo/kku (c;kyhloka la'kks/ku) vf/kfu;e] 1976 dh /kkjk 2 }kjk (3-1-1977 ls) Þjk"Vª dh ,drkß ds LFkku ij izfrLFkkfirA

Hkkx 4 d

ewy dÙkZO;
51 d- ewy dÙkZO; & Hkkjr ds izR;sd ukxfjd dk ;g dÙkZO; gksxk fd og & (d) lafo/kku dk ikyu djs vkSj mlds vkn'kks] laLFkkvks] jk"Vª /ot vkSj jk"Vª xku vknj djs_ aZ a ([k) Lora=rk ds fy, gekjs jk"Vªh; vkanksyu dks izfs jr djus okys mPp vkn'kksaZ dks ân; esa latks, j[ksa vkSj mudk ikyu djs_ a (x) Hkkjr dh izHkqrk] ,drk vkSj v[kaMrk dh j{kk djsa vkSj mls v{kq..k j[ks_ a (?k) ns'k dh j{kk djsa vkSj vkg~oku fd, tkus ij jk"Vª dh lsok djs_ a (M-) Hkkjr ds lHkh yksxksa esa lejlrk vkSj leku Hkzkr`Ro dh Hkkouk dk fuekZ.k djsa tks /keZ] Hkk"kk vkSj izn'k ;k oxZ s ij vk/kkfjr lHkh HksnHkko ls ijs gks] ,slh izFkkvksa dk R;kx djsa tks fL=;ksa ds lEeku ds fo#¼ gS_ a a (p) gekjh lkekftd laLÏfr dh xkSjo'kkyh ijaijk dk egRo le>sa vkSj mldk ifjj{k.k djs_ a (N) izkÏfrd i;kZoj.k dh ftlds varxZr ou] >hy] unh] vkSj oU; tho gS] j{kk djsa vkSj mldk lao/kZu djsa rFkk a izkf.k ek= ds izfr n;kHkko j[ks_ a (t) oSKkfud n`f"Vdks.k] ekuookn vkSj KkuktZu rFkk lq/kkj dh Hkkouk dk fodkl djs_ a (>) lkoZtfud laifÙk dks lqjf{kr j[ksa vkSj fgalk ls nwj jgs_ a (´k) O;fDrxr vkSj lkewfgd xfrfof/k;ksa ds lHkh {ks=ksa esa mRd"kZ dh vksj c<+us dk lrr iz;kl djsa ftlls jk"Vª fujarj c<+rs gq, iz;Ru vkSj miyfC/k dh ubZ ÅapkbZ;ksa dks Nw ysA a

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PREAMBLE
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a (SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC) and to secure to all its citizens : JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the2 (unity and integrity of the Nation);
1

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. 1 2 Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act, 1976, sec.2, for "Sovereign Democratic Republic (w.e.f. 3.1.1977) Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act, 1976, sec.2, for "unity of the Nation (w.e.f. 3.1.1977)

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
Chapter IV A Fundamental Duties ARTICLE 51A
Fundamental Duties - It shall be the duty of every citizen of India(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) to abide the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; to protect and improve the rich natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life and to have compassion for living creatures; to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; to safeguard public property and to abjure violence; to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.

(f) (g) (h) (i) (j)

Foreword
The Central Board of Secondary Education introduced the subject of Fashion Studies as an independent elective subject at senior school level from the academic session 20042005. It has published the learning resource books for classes XI and XII with the active support and help of the National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi. The present publication is a Manual for the Practical Work in Fashion Studies for class XII and it covers the practical component that has 30% weightage in the Board’s Examination. The manual gives simple practical tasks/projects in Pattern Making and Basics of Garment Making. Fashion Studies is basically a concept and skill-based subject requiring the students to plan, visualize and execute a number of designs to produce garments. Hence the practical component is of great importance in this subject. Moreover, students should also be taught to use different tools and equipments that are an integral part of design and garment making. An attempt has been made to include basic exercises in exploration of patterns and simple garment making. They are aimed at helping the learners acquire the right perception and the elementary skills needed to establish a foothold in the field of fashion design and fashion technology. Meticulous care has been bestowed by the authors on the details of each exercise, providing adequate information by way of introduction, aim, materials and methods, conclusions and references. The manual also includes essential information such as Tool Kit, Standard Dress Form Measurement Chart, Established Procedures for Test Fitting and Sewing Kit. A list of basic materials and equipment needed for the practical work besides a set of safety rules in the Laboratory have also been included. It is expected that each candidate will perform all the 16 exercises given in the manual in class XII and maintain a portfolio for assessment following the procedure outlined in the manual. The viva questions given at the end of some exercises will help the learners develop an insight into the concepts and processes involved. . The eminent faculty of the National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi have contributed to the development .of this material. I express my sincere thanks to Mrs. Gauri Kumar, Director General, NIFT and to the authors, Ms. Vandana Narang and Ms. Monika Gupta from the NIFT faculty. Shri G. Balasubramanian, Director (Academic) and Shri P. Mani, Education Officer (H&L) also deserve a special mention for planning and giving shape to this publication. Suggestions for further improvement of the publication will be most welcome. ASHOK GANGULY CHAIRMAN

00. 5. 1000/Ironing boards @ Rs.500/.35 ft.each) Pattern Making tables (size 5 ft.each Steam irons @ Rs. willingness to upgrade facility and faculty. trained faculty. equipment. x 20 ft. cork top) Dress forms (half) costs Rs. exclusive library for the course. 4. 30 8 (4 students/tab) 30 (one per student) 4 4 All around the wall 30 1 1 . 500/Soft boards Stools White board Black board Approximate cost will be Rs.Lab requirement for a batch of 30 students Lab size . Nos. machinery and maintenance. (minimum) AC environment Item Industrial sewing machines with power (costs at least Rs. 8000/. space.000/Selection criteria of school They should have ability to provide appropriate environment. x 4 ft.

Part B — Basics of Garment Making Practical 1 Practical 2 Practical 3 Practical 4 Practical 5 Practical 6 Practical 7 Practical 8 Annexure Continuous Placket Simple Shirt Placket Shirt Placket With Facing Neckline Facings Sleeve Attachment Cuff Assembly of Bodice Stitching of Skirt Sewing Kit . Part A Practical 1 Practical 2 Practical 3 Practical 4 Practical 5 Practical 6 Practical 7 Practical 8 Annexure I Pattern Making Basic Bodice Necklines Sleeveless Bodice Dart Manipulation Princess line Bodice Basic Skirt Skirt Variations Basic Sleeve Tool Kit Chart For Bodice & Skirt 1 5 8 10 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 28 31 33 36 42 44 47 49 51 Annexure II Standard Dress Form Measurement Annexure III Test fitting 2.CONTENTS 1.

The record of exercises may be done in the following headings: 1 . Listen carefully to any introductory remarks and experimental procedure given by your teacher. Maintain the discipline in your working area. It is important to transfer the pattern on to a muslin toile (pronounced as ‘ twall’) to test the fit. on a dress form or a human figure. Make sure that your working space is clean and organized. and all the required stocks and materials are kept ready. Flat pattern making should be done in conjunction with a dress form so that as the design evolves. Follow all precautions and regulations while working in the lab. Learning pattern making by trial and error is like learning to play music by ear. In other words this system depends on accurate measurements to complete the paper pattern. This is a method where in body or dress form measurements are taken for developing a pattern. proportion and balance in the garment can be checked side by side. It opens scope for infinite variety of styles both for regular designs and fantasy patterns. There are limitless designs. Read handouts.Part A Pattern Making Introduction Pattern Designing is an extensive subject which covers principles of constructions and techniques in a wider sense rather than style detail in narrow sense. Flat pattern cutting is now widely used because of its accuracy of sizing and the speed with which complicated designs are made Basic preparation Prior planning and clarity is necessary for the performance of the exercises. which can be achieved for workable garments. the measurements are then converted into a pattern. Following a logical stepwise procedure. Pattern construction can be divided in two parts namely measuring correctly & knowledge of technique with which they are applied. Recording Results Results should be recorded in the recommended record/file neatly and legibly with great care. appropriate lab manuals and textbooks before performing the practical.

Directional Fabrics . fur etc. AB 01 here AB identify type of the garment and 01 identify the piece number of complete set. methods should also be described along with principles of the techniques used. Cut on fold. Cutting information . plaid. AB 02. AB 03. Besides. Cut 2. materials. L etc. the pieces will be numbered as AB 01. or S.Marks that are needed to help assemble garment sections correctly. Cut 1. Notches .It should be clearly mentioned as to how many pieces are to be cut e. A symbol “cut one way” or (?) is indicated on the pattern.g. etc. M. 2.g. q q q q q q q Seam Allowances The amount of seam allowance required for each seam line may vary depending on the location and end purpose. Seam Allowances. 3. 36. Materials and methods The requirements like equipment. 34.For fabrics which have designs in one direction such as floral print.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI 1. Introduction/Aim State precisely the purpose and objectives of the practical in two or three sentences. Size as 32. stripes. If there are 5 pattern pieces in a garment. Things to be included on a pattern are:q q q Grain line Centre Front or Centre Back Style number or code number of the pattern set may be evolved e. Sample / Results The paper pattern corrected after test fitting should be labeled and neatly folded and placed in a transparent envelope and attached here. velvet. Generally these are the measurements followed 2 . skirt front. AB 04 and AB 05. Date . should be given here. side front etc.Indicated as a reference point. skirt back. Pattern piece e.g.

centre line. shoulder. armhole. waistline. Symbols and abbreviations Centre Front Centre Back Grain line Notches Buttons Button hole Front 3 - CF CB ↔ T∏<Π ↔ F .¼” ½” 1” 2” for sharp curves for neckline. for straight hem line. plackets. style line. for side seam.

References Reading materials that were consulted for the experiment be given as reference (e. pages referred and year of publication. Always place the iron on the iron pad to avoid burning the ironing board cover.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI 4. Turn off the iron at the end of the class. your lab manual) along with the name of the author and the book. 5. Discussion and Conclusions Here. ask the teacher. Keep the work station clean with all tools in the tool kit. q q q q q q q q q 4 ↔↔ Back Waist line Arm hole Side Seam Neck line Shoulder Two way grain line One way grain line - B Wl Ah SS NI Sh ↑ . Safety rules in the laboratory q Safety is important to everyone and it is ones responsibility to maintain a safe working place. the test fits should be interpreted and conclusions be drawn after discussing with your teacher. put all trimmings & paper in the wastebasket.g. Scissors should be handed to another person with the handles toward the person. Report any injuries or accidents immediately to the teacher. Do not eat or drink in the work area. When in doubt. When trimming or cutting. Never toss or throw scissors or equipment.

mark A as illustrated. Cut a paper. It is a foundation that is used to make the pattern for a design and has no seam allowances. It has darts to fit to the contours of the body but no other design features. Requirements Pattern paper. this not only saves time during adaptation but can affect the final shape. muslin and tool kit Procedure To develop pattern for basic Bodice for women wear use measurements from the given chart in Annexure II or measure a dress form or a body. whose length is front length plus 3” and width is half of the bust width plus 4” on fold. Draw the neckline curve as illustrated. It is important that the correct block is chosen for the design.Practical 1 BASIC BODICE Aim To develop a basic bodice and test fit the same Principles Block normally represents the dimensions of a specific form or figure. using a French curve. The basic blocks can be drafted to fit individual figures by using personal measurements instead of the standard measurements listed in the size chart. G = mid point of DE GH = apex measurement Square a line from H to I Mark DJ = Centre front to princess line measurement 5 . A to B A to C = front length = B to D = front width (+1/2”ease to be added if measured on dress form/body) Join C to D Mark D to E = centre front length CE is front neck depth. Fold the paper lengthwise and with fold on the left hand side mark a guideline 1” down from the top edge. For neck width mark CF = CE – 1/8”Square out lines from these points.

Extend M M1 line on the second half of the paper. Mark U to V = Dart intake. Join W to N1 in front W to P = ½ shoulder + 1/8” P to P1 = ¾” P1 to P2 = W to P (½ shoulder + 1/8”) Join P to S. Measure Z to L1 and from this subtract back waistline measurement (+1/8”ease to be added if measured on dress form/body). as illustrated Shoulder to waistline measurement ½” Draw the front armhole curve as illustrated Join F to N1 Mark F to F1 and N1 to O = ½ shoulder measurement Join F1 to H and O to H. Join S to U and V. Join as illustrated M1 to M2 = 2½” square out. Mark Y R = ¼ Centre back length R Q = Back shoulder blade measurement. Join P1 to P3 such that P3 is 1”above the shoulder blade line (RQ). Draw the armhole as illustrated. draw the back neck line curve as illustrated. Join J and K to H Front waist line measurement minus DJ (+1/8”ease to be added if measured on dress form/body) under arm seam length. QQ1 = Draw 1” guideline.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI IK KL LM M to M1 B to N N to N1 = = = = = = I J. L M line and M M1 line on the other half of the paper. The difference should be taken as dart intake at U. T is mid point of U and V Square out from T to S. Z to U = Centre back to princess line measurement. 6 . Trace BD line. as illustrated. Mark B to Z = Back width (+1/2”ease to be added if measured on dress form/body) Z to Y = Centre Back Length Y to X = CF X to W = 7/8”.

dropping 1/8” on the armhole edge. What are the important measurements for development of bodice block? How do you ensure that the bodice is fitting well? 7 . Observations Test fit the developed Bodice block and check the fit. Waist line Fold both the waist line darts (by matching the dart legs) and also close the side seam. blending the waist line darts and side seam. as illustrated. Front shoulder Fold the shoulder dart at the apex. Join the neck edge with the armhole edge with the straight line at the dart ends. Viva questions 1. Back shoulder Fold the shoulder dart matching the two dart legs keeping the folded edge towards the neckline. The side seam should be dropped ¼”at the side seam. 2. Make necessary changes if any and make the final pattern. Draw the shoulder line with the help of the French curve as illustrated. True the waist with help of a French curve. keeping the pattern folded at the apex line.Truing or correcting the lines or darts to conform to body shape or aligning the dart legs and seams. Use a tracing wheel to trace out the folded edge. matching the two dart legs keeping the folded edge towards the neckline.

For curved neckline. 2. 4.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Practical 2 Necklines Aim To draft & create neckline variations Principles Some important points to be kept in mind for designing necklines are as follows: 1. 3. sweet heart measure in a straight line on the body for the length and for the width of the neckline at that point to the center front is also measured. muslin and tool kit Procedure The measurement required for any neckline is the depth of the neck measured from the nape of the neck point to the center front diagonally. If a neckline is made wider in the front. The measurement which is taken diagonally should be marked diagonally on the pattern and a measurement taken straight should be marked straight. the same needs to be done for the back. (Neckline measurement A) In case of necklines like square. Try avoiding deeper neckline for both front and back at the same time. Requirements Pattern paper. (Neckline measurement B) 8 . glass neck. In case one decide to keep the neckline deeper in both front and back then an ease of about ½” needs to be taken out on the centre front neck. always square out ¼” either side at center back and center front and on shoulder level.

Mark the points AB as for V neckline. 2. Mark the points AB as for V neckline. for basic sweet heart neck. Sweet Heart Neckline Trace the neckline of bodice block with dotted line as illustrated. Square Neckline Trace the neckline of bodice block with dotted line as illustrated. Finish the neckline as desired. V-Neckline Trace the neckline of bodice block with dotted line as illustrated. Viva questions 1. Extend the centre front line up to A. Join BD and DE with straight lines. BC is the new V neckline join with a slight curve. Square out lines from A so that it touches the shoulder and neckline intersection at B. Make necessary changes if any and make the final pattern. This is a basic square neck. From B square down to D for the side depth of the neck required or 5". Ensure that the neck does not gape. What are the important measurements for neckline? How do you ensure that the deep neckline fits well? 9 . Mark E on centre front. Square down from B to D as the side depth of the neck required or 5½”. mark BC = 7" down or as required diagonally. From B.1. 3. Observations Test fit the developed neckline and check the fit. Square out from D to C on the center front. 2. where CE = 3½” or as desired.

as illustrated. E and F and redraw the curves. Principles In the sleeveless bodice. Requirements Pattern paper. trace the basic bodice block is used.e. Observations Ensure that the armhole is closer to the body but does not bite into the armpit. when the armhole is away from the body the under garments may be visible. Viva questions 1. Why does the sleeveless bodice need to cut closer to the body? 10 . the armhole should be fitted closer to the body. Change the armhole as follows: Go up ½” on the armhole level i.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Practical 3 Sleeveless Bodice Aim To develop a sleeveless bodice and test fit the same. Hence it should be finished closer to armpit of the body. muslin and tool kit Procedure For a sleeveless bodice.

as the name implies the pattern/sloper is slashed or cut on the desired line and as the old dart or excess or is closed. can be converted into tucks. The basic fit of the garment is not altered by these manipulations. Some of the new dart positions are illustrated here. Principles Dart manipulation is a useful and interesting tool for pattern maker for creating interesting. Requirements Pattern paper. pleats. The change in the position of the darts creates interest in the garments in different dart positions. the pattern itself spreads on the new position. etc. yokes. muslin and tool kit Procedure SLASH AND SPREAD METHOD In the slash and spread method.Practical 4 Dart Manipulation Aim To develop bodices with different dart placement through dart manipulation and test fit the same. innovative dart placements and style lines. 11 . gathers. as style lines. to create the new design. The darts can be stitched as new darts. The same can be magnified by using similar technology on striped fabric where a dart gives a new dimension to the striped pattern.

close the old dart. Trace the pattern on separate sheet. Design Basic Block Step .1 Step . Fold and close the shoulder dart.2 Step . Waist dart to centre front Take one dart bodice block.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI 1.3 12 . Trace the new pattern on separate sheet. slash the new dart position i. the waist dart.1 Step . Slash the new dart position.2 2.e. Design One Dart Block Step . Shoulder dart to waist Take two dart basic block.

Shoulder dart to armhole side seam intersection Take two dart basic bodice block. Slash the new dart position. 3.3 Observations Test fit the developed dart manipulations and check the fit.1 Step . Make necessary changes if any. Design Basic Block Step . close the old dart. 2.3. Viva questions 1. Shoulder dart to armhole side seam intersection.2 Step . Why is dart manipulation important? What are the things to be kept in mind while using slash and spread method? Does the garment fit as well as the basic block if not what could be the reasons? 13 . Trace the pattern on separate sheet.

Trace the patterns on another sheet of paper. Requirements Pattern paper. Viva questions 1. Design One Dart Block Observations Step . Draw the princess line as required. Principles Princess line is a style line that absorbs dart excess within the stitch lines and hence controls the fit of the garment. The darts are replaced with the seams extending from one side of the pattern to the other.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Practical 5 Princess line Bodice Aim To develop a princess line bodice and test fit the same. muslin and tool kit Procedure Take a one dart sloper. Slash on the princess line and close the dart. What are the various positions of princess line? Can a yoke be called a princess line? Can you make a sari blouse with princess line? 14 . Mark the notches and grain line on both the pieces as illustrated.3 Test fit the developed princess line bodice and check the fit. Make necessary changes if any and make the final pattern. Ensure that the notches are transferred on the final pattern.2 Step . Shift the dart away from the princess line as desired. 3. 2.1 Step .

Any deviation of the balance line between the front and back skirt at the side seam will create fitting problems.g. hip level Joint G to H. The key to a balanced pattern and garment lies in the accurate placement of the balance line on the dress form and pattern. Mark I at side seam B to B1 and B to B2 = Mark I1. as illustrated using hip curve. e. C to H = 7”. where A to B = back hip (+1/4”ease to be added if measured on dress form/body) B to C = front hip (+1/4”ease to be added if measured on dress form/body) A to D and C to F A to G = = Desired length. whose length is desired length of the skirt plus 3” and width is half of the round hip plus 4”. muslin and tool kit Procedure To develop pattern for basic skirt for women wear use measurements from the given chart or measure a dress form or a body. 21”.Practical 6 Basic Skirt Aim To develop a basic skirt and test fit the same Principles The basic skirt falls straight downward from the widest part of the hipline. Make a block A B C D E F. Passing through B2 and B1. join I1 J and I1 K extending it 3/8” above the waistline. Requirements Pattern paper. A to A1 = ¼” ¾” 15 . 2” above I. Take a paper.

L1. The difference is the dart intake for both front and back. Trueing Fold the dart at vanishing point and true the waistline as illustrated raising the waistline by ¼” -½” (when you true the waistline with the help of French curve it automatically goes up) at the side seams. L1 to M = 1 ½” M M1. from this measurement subtract the front and back waistline measurement respectively. using hip curve. Observations Test fit the developed skirt block and check the fit. = 2nd dart (½ of the total dart intake) Mark A1 N = Centre back to princess line measurement N to N1 = 1st dart (½ of the total dart intake for the back) N1 O= 1 ½” 1 O to O = 2nd dart (½ of the total dart intake) Find the mid point of all the darts and draw a perpendicular line till the guideline. Divide this excess into two darts for both front and back. Mark C to L = Centre front to princess line measurement L to L1 = 1st dart (½ of the total dart intake for front) L2 is mid point of L. Draw a guide line parallel to the waist line at a distance of 3½” for front and 5 ½” for the back.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Join J to C. Join these points to the dart point to form the dart legs. K to A1 as illustrated. Make necessary changes if any and make the final pattern Viva questions 1. K to A1 and note the measurement on paper. 2. Measure J to C. Drop back waist line by 1/8” at centre back. What are the important measurements for development of skirt block? How do you ensure that the skirt is fitting well? 16 .

This method is called measurement method and can only be used in skirts/trousers.e. as there is no apex in lower half of the body. Measure the dart towards the side seam and add the measurement to the 1st dart i. The suppression of the darts is converted into fullness at the hem. towards the centre front or back and eliminate the 2nd dart. Find the mid point of the new dart and mark the centre and true the waistline. Note that the length of new waistline dart in the front is 5 ½”same as the back dart length. 17 . It is a useful and interesting method for creating interesting. muslin and tool kit Procedure 1. One dart basic skirt Use a basic skirt sloper that has two darts.Practical 7 Skirt variations Aim To develop style variations in skirt and test fit the same. Requirements Pattern paper. The change in the position of the darts creates new styles like an A-line skirt and flared skirt. Principles Variations in skirt can be treated through dart manipulation which you have learnt earlier. innovative style lines. The basic fit of the garment is not altered by these manipulations.

2. A-Line Take a one dart skirt sloper. How is measurement method used for converting two dart skirt sloper into one dart skirt sloper is in ineffective for dart manipulation in bodice and why? Which other skirt design variations are possible through dart manipulation? 18 . draw a slash line as illustrated (fig. Slash the line and close a part of the waist dart. Blend till the hip level for both front and back and also blend the hem line.1 ½” on the side seam at hem line for A-line shape in the skirt as illustrated. Observations Test fit the developed skirt variation and check the fit. so that the ease is shifted to the hem.2). Viva questions 1. Make necessary changes if any. Add 1” .A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI 2.

The well balanced sleeve will hang on the relaxed arm with out any visible puckering or stress around the cap. A to B A to C B to D B to E E to F = = = = = Cap height Full length ½ bicep circumference ½ BC-1½” ½ elbow circumference (that includes ease of ½” minimum) Join D to F extending to a line squared from C. it may lie slightly towards the front on the sides. On this line mark H to I = ½ cap height + ¾” Mark A to A1 = ¼” and D to D1=1” 19 . Mark a guide line 1” away from the edge and label A. The sleeve is one of the most difficult of the basic patterns to fit. When relaxed. Extend D to G Find mid point of B D line and A G by folding the paper lengthwise. muslin and tool kit Procedure To develop pattern for basic sleeve for women wear use measurements from the given chart.Practical 8 Basic sleeve Aim To develop a basic sleeve and test fit the same Principles The arm is very mobile and the efficient part of the human body as it is capable of moving practically in every direction. whose length is desired length of the sleeve plus 3” and width is bicep plus 2”. Take a paper. fold it lengthwise and place paper with fold towards you. Requirements Pattern paper.

2. Redraw the front curve as illustrated. Find the mid point of A to B by folding the paper and draw the line JK. Make necessary changes if any and make the final pattern. For back mark two notches. one at ½” below J and next ½” away from the first notch. Draw the armhole curve with the help of French curve keeping the guide line in perspective as illustrated in the diagram.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Join A1 to I & I to D1 with dotted lines. What are the important measurements for development of sleeve block? How do you ensure a well fitting sleeve? 20 . Mark the notches For front mark one notch = ½” below point K. Find the mid point M of KL line and on M go in ¼”. Viva questions 1. Trace all the lines for front sleeves on the other side of paper. Observations Test fit the developed sleeve block and check the fit. Open the paper.

ranging in size from 8" to 12". Grading scale: 2" X 18" transparent straight plastic with grid L-square : Plastic or metal ruler with two arms at right angles of varying lengths usually 12" and 24" to square off corners. long. Measuring tape: Metal tipped narrow. light adjustable stand and compressible shoulders and slopers. reference points and lines. Magnet: a high carbon alloy steel that has a property of attracting iron and steel can be of any shape. Carbon paper: Coated paper on one side with white or coloured wax. to alter garments. to establish style lines for the garment. Pencil: to mark lines in developing the muslin. set on a movable. For taking measurements. develop pattern. Paper shears/scissors: a cutting instrument. Dress form : A standardized duplication of a human torso. cotton padded and canvas covered. used to transfer marking on fabric or paper. Muslin : A plain weave fabric made from bleached or unbleached yarns to test fit and develop patterns. Newsprint paper: used for rough drafts.Annexure I TOOL KIT q All pins : fine. Establish perpendicular lines. with two sharply pointed straight blades. firmly woven double tape of cloth or plastic usually 60" long (150cm) marked with both inches and centimeters. fit garment samples. q q q q q q q q q q q 21 . Pattern paper: Strong white paper available in variety of weights and widths. pattern or sloper. rust proof pins.

Thick brown paper: Strong brown papers for finished pattern. Tracing wheel : An instrument with small serrated or needle point wheel mounted on one end of a handle for transferring markings from paper patterns on the muslin. available in roll. Used for preliminary patterns drafting and development of the final pattern.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI q Pin cushion: A small firmly stuffed pillow made in a variety of shapes and sizes. Used to hold paper pieces and mend tears. q q q q q q 22 . Scale: Long ruler 12" / 24" metal or plastic. Push pins : Drum shaped 1/2" long pin for pivoting and transferring points & to hold pattern pieces and fabric on table. Tailor’s shears: A cutting instrument ranging in size from 12" to 16" with two wide blades for cutting fabric and muslin. Transparent tape: A clear plastic narrow continuous stripes with an adhesive surface on one side.

Annexure II STANDARD DRESS FORM MEASUREMENT CHART FOR BODICE & SKIRT (in inches) SIZES FRONT LENGTH WIDTH OF BUST (1” below arm plate) CENTRE FRONT LENGTH APEX UNDER ARM SEAM FRONT WAISTLINE WAISTLINE TO SHOULDER SHOULDER LENGTH CENTRE FRONT TO PRINCESS LINE WIDTH OF BACK (1” below arm plate) CENTRE BACK LENGTH BACK WAIST LINE shoulder blade centre back to princess line FRONT HIPLINE (7” below waistline) BACK HIPLINE (7” below waistline) 32 171/4 91/2 143/8 35/8 77/8 63/8 143/4 47/8 25/8 81/2 161/2 55/8 67/8 21/2 91/8 91/8 34 171/2 10 141/2 33/4 8 63/4 147/8 5 23/4 9 163/4 6 7 25/8 93/8 93/8 36 173/4 101/2 145/8 37/8 81/8 71/8 15 51/8 27/8 91/2 17 63/8 71/8 23/4 95/8 95/8 38 18 11 143/4 4 81/4 71/2 151/8 51/4 3 10 171/4 63/4 71/4 27/8 97/8 97/8 40 181/4 111/2 147/8 41/8 83/8 77/8 151/4 53/8 31/8 101/2 171/2 71/8 73/8 3 101/8 101/8 42 181/2 12 15 41/4 81/2 81/4 153/8 51/2 31/4 11 173/4 71/2 71/2 31/8 103/8 103/8 44 183/4 121/2 151/8 43/8 85/8 85/8 151/2 55/8 33/8 111/26 18 77/8 75/8 31/4 105/8 105/8 23 .

Pins should be placed at right angle to the seam line. that one wants without going to the machine. and it does not gape. Pinning gives the same result and information.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Annexure III Test fitting Steps of test fitting are as follows q Commonly used test material is muslin The quickest way to get the effect of the finished garment without actual stitching is to overlap and pin all the seams lines. q q q q 24 . Check the test fit muslin and make correction till fully satisfied. Mark the necessary corrections and the same should be transferred on the paper pattern for a final pattern of the garment. as in this method there is least amount of strain or pull on the seam. It is so much faster and easier to unpin and then re-pin than to rip stitching and re-stitching.

The record of exercises may be done in the following headings: 1 Introduction/Aim State precisely the purpose and objectives of the experiment in two or three sentences.Part B Basics of Garment Making Introduction This course is continuation with that of course in class XIth. 2. 25 . Besides. Follow all precautions and regulations while working in the lab. Maintain the discipline in your working area. with value addition are covered in this year. and all the required stocks and materials are kept ready. etc. Listen carefully to any introductory remarks and experimental procedure given by your teacher. appropriate lab manuals and textbooks before performing the practical. The advanced skills are required for converting fabrics into a stitched garment. should be given here. Basic Preparation Prior planning and clarity is necessary for the performance of the exercises. Emphasis is on how to finish the openings and on assembling of complete garment. materials. Read handouts. Recording Practical Results Practical results should be recorded in the recommended record/file neatly and legibly with great care. Materials and methods The requirements like equipment. methods should also be described along with principles of the techniques used. Sample / Results The sample should be attached here. 3. Make sure that your working space is clean and organized.

5. your lab manual) along with the name of the author and the book. When sewing on a power machine. Always inspect the machine before starting the work. Turn the motor off before removing or replacing the pulley belt and run the machine out. Always keep your head above the table. If your hair is long. 26 q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q . tie it at the back. Avoid loose-fitting sleeves.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI 4. Turn the motor off in case of an emergency or when in doubt. ties and ribbons when operating the machine. Discussion and Conclusions Here. Do not tilt your chair forward or backward while operating the machine. wear low shoes and close-fitting clothing. Safety rules in the laboratory q Safety rules to be observed while working on the machine: Safety is important to everyone and it is ones responsibility to maintain a safe working place. Turn the motor off before cleaning. Turn the motor off when you are not stitching. sweaters. Operate machines only with permission. Wipe up any oil spilled on the floor immediately to prevent anyone from slipping. Keep your feet off the treadle when you are not operating the machine. ask the teacher. Be sure it is clean and threaded correctly. When operating the machine. Report any injuries or accidents immediately to the teacher. Keep your feet off the treadle when you are setting or threading the needle. the results should be interpreted and conclusions be drawn. with no loose threads on the pulley belt and all guards in place. Use both hands to raise and lower the machine head. do not be careless. When in doubt. References Reading materials that were consulted for the experiment be given as reference (e. Wait until all motion has stopped. oiling or adjusting the machine.g. pages referred and year of publication. jewellery.

When trimming or cutting. Do not eat or drink in the work area. Turn off the iron at the end of the class.q q q q Turn the motor off before unplugging the machine. Use your hand only to set the hand wheel. Keep the machine and work station clean with all tools in the side drawer. keep your hands. Unplug the machine at the end of the day. Do not use your hand to stop and start the hand wheel. When operating the machine. scissors and other sharp objects away from the belt. Before operating the machine. Do not remove any safety devices from the machines. outlets and fuses in case of an emergency. Scissors should be handed to another person with the handles toward the person. Know the location of the main power switch. Keep your machine covered when not in use. q q q q q q q q q q q 27 . close the slide bed cover. put all trimmings in the wastebasket. Always place the iron on the iron pad to avoid burning the ironing board cover. Never toss or throw scissors or equipment.

Function of placket.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Practical 1 – CONTINUOUS PLACKET Aim Stitch a continuous placket sample. Principles A placket is a finishing provided to an opening in a garment. Care of garment. front or back neckline to allow for ease in wearing a garment. The type and length of placket selected depends on: q q q q q q q Placement of placket. Continuous placket is easy to make and serves as the basis for a number of variations. on skirts and trousers. Plackets are planned as extension for placement of buttonholes. Use of garment. Requirements Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I) 28 . where zipper application would detract from appeal of the garment and as a neckline opening alternative to other fasteners or closures. bloomers. others do not. When designed for neckline openings. Type and weight of fabric. Method of construction. Placket should be designed and styled in sufficient length to permit ease and convenience of dressing. It is one piece placket that is widely used on cuffed sleeve openings to permit hand to fit through sleeve circumferences. children’s’ dresses. snaps and other fasteners. Placket openings are used on sleeves. the placket can end at the neck edge or be extended beyond the neck and become part of the collar. Style and design of garment. Some plackets have buttons and buttonholes. The measurement can vary to create different effects.

e. In good quality plackets.Pre Lab Preparation Student should be familiar with the safety rules. if it is on top. (The 1” extra length of the binding strip is for emergency only. this amount should be cut off after the binding is stitched in place. Take care that stitching at the back should be same i. As you come in the center of the placket. Take care so that no pleat formation takes place at this point. Place the right side of the placket on the wrong side of the sleeve opening and start stitching near the edge leaving a distance of ¼”. 29 . it should be maintained on top throughout and if it is in ditch then maintain it throughout. From right side of the sleeve.) The width of the piece will be twice the width of finished placket facing (which is usually ½” for 1 side) plus two times seam allowances (which usually is ¼”) Procedure 1. maintain ¼” seam allowance of placket piece and reduce the allowance of the garment piece. Then stitch in place. If measurements are accurate and the placket is properly made. this seam is on top at the back. 2. Fold the allowance (other side) of the placket and place it on first stitching line. Cut the pattern piece for length of the piece take double the length of the finished placket opening and add 1” extra.

Observations The placket should be finished neatly and close properly on top of each other. two to three times diagonally (at 45°) near end. Where all is this placket used? What is the importance of bar –tack? 30 . The buttons should not gape open especially near the bust. Viva Questions 1.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI 3. From wrong side of the sleeve. 2. This is known as Bar Tack. stitch both the upper and under of the placket.

which is taken as half the button + 1 cm i. which is 1”. (If facing has to be aligned to the selvedge when placed on fabric then no seam allowances is taken). Upper Part Trace the bodice till centre front line. Otherwise stitching line of under part will be visible on the front of the placket. 31 . Or it is taken as the diameter of the button. Radius of the button + 1cm = extension.SIMPLE SHIRT PLACKET Aim Stitch a simple shirt placket sample.Practical 2 . trace it. Principles A Simple shirt placket is an extension placket where buttons and buttonholes are placed on the facing which is created by extending the center front on both sides. Cut out the pattern. Turn the allowance towards wrong side of the facing. After this a standard facing of 1½” is made. Mark the extension. Under part is made in the same way as you make the over part but the difference being the facing. Then turn fold line towards wrong side of the garment piece. The line of extension is the fold line. an allowance of ¼” is then taken. Under Part Flip the pattern horizontally. Other wise a standard measurement of ½” or ¾” is taken for men’s shirts. Requirements Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I) Pre Lab Preparation Pattern pieces required are two one for upper part and other for the under part.e.

Trace the pattern on the fabric and mark the position of all lines. Turn the facing also in the same way from fold line i. 3. The buttons should not gape open especially near the bust. 2. 2. Trace the pattern on the fabric and mark the position of the lines. From wrong side machine on the edge of facing as illustrated. 2. Turn the allowance towards wrong side of the fabric. In same way turn the facing also.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Procedure Upper Part 1. Turn the allowance towards the wrong side of the fabric. 2. The width of the placket is dependent on what factors? Where all apart from shirt this placket is used? 32 . From wrong side machine on the edge of the facing as illustrated. Observations The placket should be finished neatly and close properly on top of each other. Under Part 1. towards wrong side of fabric. Viva questions 1.e.

Facing A straight strip of the length same as placket opening is taken. mark ¼” seam allowance on one side and ½” seam allowance on the other side. Then give an allowance of ¼”. The finished shirt band is 1½” wide but construction techniques vary depending on the fabric and style of the shirt. Principles The shirt band/the strip on the right side of shirt front in which the buttonholes are made. eliminates the need for facing. Requirements Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I) Pre Lab Preparation Under Part Trace the bodice and make extension of ¾” which is half of finished placket. An extended self-facing is used on the left front.SHIRT PLACKET WITH FACING Aim Stitch a sample of shirt placket with facing. 33 .Practical 3 . Under Part Flip and trace the other half of bodice and mark extension of ¾” and facing of 1” then mark the seam allowance of ¼”.

Press the seam allowance (½”) of facing towards wrong side of facing.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Procedure Upper Part 1. Place right side of the facing over wrong side of garment piece and then stitch leaving the ¼” allowance near edge. down from neckline an amount equal to the width of the button. Again turn this facing towards the wrong side of the fabric. This ensures that the button will not extend into the neck. 2. turn facing towards right side. From right side of the fabric. 3. Placement of the last button hole depends on the need or the requirement of the garment. As a general rule the neckline of the front bodice is lowered by ¼” at the centre front for comfort. Fold the seam allowance of the facing towards the wrong side of the fabric. whenever a basic neckline is required. (For diagram refer steps of construction for under part of simple shirt placket. It is a good 34 .) Placement of Buttons The button extension is equal to the width of the button. Iron in place. Under Part Trace the pattern for under part on the fabric. The rest of the button holes are marked on the even division between the first and the last. The first buttonhole is placed on center front. stitch in place. Leave allowance of ¼” from both the sides and stitch in place from right side.

idea to place a button close to the apex or bust point this ensures that the garment does not gape open at centre front due to movement which may cause a pull on the bust. The buttons should not gape open specially near the bust. What distance from the neck edge should the first button be placed on the placket? 35 . The size of the button hole equals the width of the button plus 1/8” for the button to go in easily. Observations The placket should be finished neatly and close properly on top of each other. The button hole is marked so that width of the button is on the garment side of the centre front and extra 1/8” is on the extension. 2. Viva questions 1. Give common uses of this placket.

using a pattern. A “bias facing” is a strip of fabric cut on the bias so that it can be shaped to match the curve of the edge it will be applied to.Neckline Facings Aim Stitch a sample each of extended facing. Principles A facing is the fabric used to finish raw edges of a garment at such locations as neck. There are three categories of facings: Shaped facings. After a facing is attached to the garments edge. A “shaped facing” is cut out. it is turned to the inside of the garment and should not show on the outside.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Practical 4 . NECKLINES Requirements Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I) 36 . In order to reduce bulk. both shaped and bias facings can be cut from a fabric lighter in weight than the garment fabric. to the same shape and on the same grain as the edge it will finish. armhole and front and back opening. A facing is shaped to fit the edge it will finish either during cutting or just before application. Because the extended facing is cut as one with the garment. extended facings and bias facings. garment and facing fabric are always the same but some times may vary according to the design. bias facing and shaped facing.

right side facing right side. Continue to join bias strips as needed for the desired length. Steps of construction q Place the garment on sewing table wrong side up. Press all seams open and snip extended points.Pre Lab Preparation Bias Strip Bias strip is prepared as a strip of matching or contrasting fabric. matching both the raw edges. q q 37 . piping and tubing is a true bias and is defined as the diagonal line established by a 450 degree angle. Now place the cut out bias strips at right angles. Neckline Finished with Bias Binding/Extended Facing A standard bias strip is 1 to ½ inch wide. Preparation of Bias Strip q First of all find the true bias of the fabric by folding fabric with lengthwise grain parallel to the crosswise grain. Stitch bias strips with a ¼” seam allowance at angles. flexibility. and elasticity needed to conform to a curved edge. The fold edge is the true bias. Adequate number of strips must be joined before starting to sew bias binding or facing. intersecting length and cross grain of a square. Many times the bias stripes are not long enough to complete a continuous sewing step. q q q q Once the strip is ready it can be applied on the neckline Procedure A. The bias of the fabric offers the maximum stretch. Fold the bias strip over ¼” and press down. Bias for binding. After locating true bias. Stitch with a ¼” seam allowance. Now place the bias strip on the garment with right side facing wrong side (of garment). draw the width and the desired number of strips needed for desired length of bias and then cut it.

it is turned to the inside of the garment and should not show on the outside i. 38 q . When applying the binding.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI q q q Fold bias binding over along stitch line and press down. After a facing is attached to the garment. The finished width of bias facing should not be more than ½”. which is attached to the garment neckline so that it can be shaped to match the curve of the edge it will be applied to. Pin binding in place and stitch to within 3” of starting point. Trim away excess binding at this end to ½” beyond fold of starting end. through all thicknesses. Neckline Finished With Bias Facing A bias facing is a strip of fabric out on the bias. Slip stitch along the edge of bias binding. B.e. fold back the starting end ½” and align the fold with the garment seam line. right side of the garment. Fold bias strip over Wrong Side of garment just covering first stitch line. Lap this end over the beginning fold and stitch the rest of the way across. Steps of Construction q Face right side of bias strip to the right side of the garment neckline.

Stitch from right side close to neck seam line. q C.When the binding will be turned. To keep facing from rolling to outside of garments. stitch or slip stitch it with the other end. Open the facing away from the garment press all seam allowances towards the facing.e. Press and slip stitch. 39 . it is finished with a facing which is of the same shape as the neckline. Turn the other edge of the facing towards its Wrong Side. Slit Neckline With Shaped Facing A neck line shape which is finished with shaped facing i. the seam should be under stitched with facing and seam allowance extended away from garment. the end folded first will be on top. q q Clip the curved seam allowance. instead of finishing raw edges of fabric at neckline with bias strip as used earlier. through facing and seam allowance.

using the tip of the iron press seam open. Turn facing to inside of garment. With Right Side together and the markings matched seam the front facing sections to the back facing sections at shoulders. Right Side together. Place seam Wrong Side up. Keeping seam allowances open. allowing seam line to roll inside slightly. q q q q q 40 . Clip curved seams also slash the opening at front neckline and clip the corners.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Steps of Construction q q Interface the Wrong Side of the facing of both front back. Press seam flat as stitched then open. markings and seam lines. tailor edge finish the facing by turning under 1/8” Press. notches. now top stitch at a distance of ¼”. Stitch close to folded edge. pin facing to neck and machine. Trim diagonally across cross seam allowances at shoulders. matching.

Viva questions 1.Observations The ready piping should not be more than ¼” wide and should look neat and straight with no extra twist or pucker. What is true bias and what are its characteristics? What is facing? Where all it is used? 41 . 2.

The distance between the two lines will be 1/4".A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Practical 5 . q q Check garment and sleeve fit and alter the pattern accordingly. it is wise to observe several principles. Carefully and accurately transfer all sleeve and armhole markings to the fashion fabric. Use proper pressing techniques during construction. the length long or short. To achieve success with any garment. the bottom tapered. To achieve this. can be slightly rounded or fully gathered. Procedure q Place two rows of stitching on the cap of the sleeve 1/8" away from the stitching line. flared or gathered to the armscye can also very from standard round armhole in sleeves are designed with a slightly rounded. Principles Set-in sleeves are the most widely used type. Face right side to the right side and stitch at the side of the sleeve. q q Requirements Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I) Pre Lab Preparation Trace the pattern on muslin with appropriate seam allowances marked and cut. As the name implies this sleeve is actually set into the armhole of edge. or cap. finish the lower edge of the sleeve before attaching it to the garment. q 42 . Take care that the stitch size should be more than the usual one. Whenever possible.Sleeve Attachment Aim Stitch a sample of sleeve attachment. cap ideally they should fall in a smooth curve from the shoulder edge with no dimpling or puckering. whether it is sleeveless or made with sleeves. the sleeve cap curvature must be carefully eased into the armscye. Leave long threads at the starting & end of both the seams.

q Pull the threads and insert the sleeve inside the armhole of the bodice. q Observations Test fit the stitched sleeve on the dress form and check to ensure that centre of the sleeve aligns with the side seam of the dress form.in– sleeve? Why do you need ease on the upper half of the sleeve cap? 43 . Put pins in position. 2. Viva questions 1. Stitch the sleeve to the armhole. What is special about a set. Adjust the size of the sleeve cap by pulling and releasing the thread.

which can come to fold line or can be extended half inch beyond the fold line.one piece straight. Requirements Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I) Pre Lab Preparation Cut the following pieces1. Turn inside out and pull the corners. which may be cut all in one or may be in two pieces. Chop off extra seam allowance near the edges. 44 4. Micro-dot interfacing for cuff. Before starting cuff application. stitch at a distance of half inch from both the sides. One piece of upper and under cuff each. Fold along fold line right side facing each other and pin the two ends from wrong side. 3. 5. apply the type of placket. Principles Cuffs actually consist of a cuff and a facing section. Sleeve on which cuff will be applied along with sleeve placket. 2.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Practical 6 – CUFF Aim Stitch a sample of cuff . machine stitch in place. 3. Fuse the wrong side of the upper cuff to interfacing. . which is required for that particular sleeve and then complete the underarm sleeve seam. Face wrong side of the sleeve to the right side of the under cuff. Procedure 1. Prepare pleats or gathers at sleeve edge if any. Turn the seam allowance of the upper cuff to the wrong side of the cuff and give top stitch at a distance of ¼” or ¾” as required. 2. Note the placement of the cuff end to placket edge.

45 . Optional top stitch at a distance of ¼” all around the cuff edges. from the right side of the upper cuff on to the right side of the sleeve. Insert all the seam allowance into the cuff.6. Start machining at the edge. 7.

46 . Where is one piece straight cuff used? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using one piece straight cuff. 2.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Observations The cuff should be neatly finished and buttons should and close properly on one another. Viva questions 1.

(as has been given in the earlier chapter) Finish the neckline suitably with facing / collar/ piping as required. 5. Cut a pattern and trace on suitable fabric.Assembly of Bodice Aim Stitching of a ladies shirt / blouse. 47 . Press flat all the pieces for a neat and good finish of the finish. 4. A beginner should prepare a sequence of the procedure to be followed so as to ensure that there are minimal errors and least amount of corrections. Pin baste all the seam lines before stitching. 3. Procedure 1.) Finish the waistline with hand hem/ machine finish suitably. Stitch the shoulder seam with a suitable finish ( it can be plain seam/ French seam ) Finish the placket opening if any. This ensures neater seams. 2. Stitch the darts of both the front and back bodice if any. Requirements Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I) Pre Lab Preparation Select an appropriate design.Practical 7 . for this make a check list of the pieces for the garment. (The attachment of sleeve should be done as explained in the book. Before starting to stitch ensure that all the pieces are there. suitably. Stitch the side seam with a suitable finish ( it can be plain seam/ French seam/ Flat fell/ Hong Kong bound) Finish the armhole with facing/ piping/ sleeve suitably. 6. All the curved seam edges should be stay stitched to avoid stretching. as demonstrated previously. 7.

All the seams used should be appropriate according to the requirement. The seams should not pucker.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Observations The garment should be neatly finished from inside and outside. 2. Viva questions 1. What all preparation is required before starting to stitch a shirt? What openings are you using for your design and why? 48 .

4.Stitching of Skirt Aim Stitch a skirt. If the skirt has gathers / pleats the same should be stitched in place before next step. Stitch the side seam with a suitable finish ( it can be plain seam/ French seam/ Flat fell/ Hong Kong bound) If the skirt has design/features such as pleats. Pin baste all the seamlines before stitching. The waistband is stitched similar to the cuff as explained in the book. Stitch the darts of both the front and back skirt. 5. Procedure 1.Practical 8 . A beginner should prepare a sequence of the procedure to be followed so as to ensure that there are minimal errors and least amount of corrections. for e. Requirements Machine & sewing kit (as given in annexure I) Pre Lab Preparation Select an appropriate design. Before starting to stitch ensure that all the pieces are there. gathers. tucks. All the curved seam edges should be stay stitched to avoid stretching. This ensures neater seams. for this make a check list of the pieces for the garment. Cut a pattern and trace on suitable fabric. Finish the hem with hand hem/ machine finish suitably. Press flat all the pieces for a neat and good finish of the finish. etc these should be finished appropriately.g. Finish the waistline with waist band/ facing suitably. 49 . 3. 2.

All the seams used should be appropriate according to the requirement. What all preparation is required before starting to stitch a skirt? What is the hem width required for the skirt? 50 . The seams should not pucker. 2. Stitch the darts. Observations The garment should be neatly finished from inside and outside. Viva questions 1. Stitch the side seams and press open the seams.A MANUAL FOR PRACTICAL WORK IN FASHION STUDIES CLASS XI Before applying the waist band/ belt the following things should be completedq q q Stay stitch the waistline edge.

Tailor’s shears: A cutting instrument ranging in size from 12" to 16" with two wide blades. to pick up pins and needles. long. pattern or sloper. rust proof pins. Magnet: a high carbon alloy steel that has a property of attracting iron and steel can be of any shape. to hold pattern pieces and fabric on table. Carbon paper: Coated paper on one side with white or coloured wax. Tailor chalk: for marking on fabric. to square off corners. Grading scale : 2" X 18" transparent straight plastic with grid in inches and fraction of inches (or millimeters) ruler. ranging in size from 8" to 12". 12" / 24" scale: to mark straight lines to measure. Transparent tape: to hold paper pieces and mend tears. Tracing wheel : An instrument with small serrated or needle point wheel mounted on one end of a handle. 51 . Muslin : to experiment and develop samples. Push pins : Drum shaped 1/2" long pin. firmly woven double tape of cloth or plastic usually 60" long (150cm) marked with both inches and centimeters. to cut fabric and muslin. Paper shears/scissors: a cutting instrument. For transferring markings from paper patterns on the muslin. to transfer marking on fabric or paper.Annexure SEWING KIT All pins : fine. L-square : Plastic or metal ruler with two arms at right angles of varying lengths usually 12" and 24". Pencil: to mark lines in developing the muslin. to cut paper patterns. Measuring tape: Metal tipped narrow. Magnetic pin holder / pin cushion: to hold pins. with two sharply pointed straight blades.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful