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6
Generalized Distribution Functions and an Alternative Approach
to Generalized Planck Radiation Law
Uˇgur TIRNAKLI
∗
, Fevzi B
¨
UY
¨
UKKILIC¸ , Doˇgan DEM
˙
IRHAN
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science,
Ege University 35100, Bornova
˙
IzmirTURKEY
(February 1, 2008)
In this study, recently introduced generalized distribution functions are
summarized and by using one of these distribution functions, namely gener
alized Planck distribution, an alternative approach to the generalized Planck
law for the blackbody radiation has been tackled. The expression obtained
is compared with the expression given by C. Tsallis et al. [Phys. Rev. E52,
(1995) 1447], and it is found that this approximate scheme provides bounds
to the exact result, depending on the values of q index.
I. INTRODUCTION
Although the necessity of nonextensive statistical thermodynamics has been very clear
for a long time in many physical systems such as threedimensional selfgravitating astro
physical objects [1], black holes and superstrings [2], L´evytype random walks [3], vortex
problem [4] and dark matter [5] where longrange microscopic interactions are present; an in
creasing tendency towards nonextensive formalisms keeps growing nowadays, along two lines:
QuantumGrouplike approaches and Generalized Statistical Thermodynamics (GST).
GST is recently introduced by C. Tsallis [6,7] and then the formalism not only has been
applied to numerous concepts of statistical thermodynamics [828], but also prosperous for
the physical systems [2933] where extensive BoltzmannGibbs statistics fails. The detailed
∗
email: tirnakli@fenfak.ege.edu.tr
1
reviews of the general aspects of the formalism can be found in [34], and some investigations
of the subject from the mathematical point of view are now available in [35].
The formalism has been based upon two axioms; namely (i) the entropy of the system
is given by [6]
S
q
= −k
1 −
W
i=1
p
q
i
1 −q
(1)
where k is a conventional positive constant, p
i
is the probability of the system to be in a
microstate, W is the total number of conﬁgurations of the system and q is a new parameter
which is especially called the Tsallis qindex; (ii) the qexpectation value of an observable O
is given by
¸O)
q
=
W
i=1
p
q
i
O
i
. (2)
On the other hand, GST contains BoltzmannGibbs Statistics as a special case when q = 1.
Clearly S
q
is extensive if and only if q = 1 and (1 −q) can be interpreted as the measure of
the lack of extensivity of the system [24].
II. GENERALIZED DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS
Amongst the systems handled in the frame of GST, the classical and quantum gases
have been investigated for the ﬁrst time by two of the authors of the present study and
the results have been presented in two seperate manuscripts [13,14]. In the ﬁrst paper, the
fractal inspired entropies of the classical and quantum gases have been found by making
use of the statistical weights and the generalized distribution functions have been obtained
by introducing the constraints related to the statistical properties of the particles into the
entropy [13]. In the second paper, the Tsallis entropy have been used for the same purpose
and the same conclusions for the generalized distribution functions have been attained but
in this case the constraints concerned with the statistical properties of the particles have
been introduced in the calculation of the partition functions. However, the factorization
2
of the partition function which was used in this calculations has been the main disputable
point of the approximation. We claim that this approximate procedure provides a bound
to the exact results, depending on the values of q. In order to prove this, let us take a very
simple physical system which could be in bounded or free states with the energy levels A
and B. For this system let us take the inequality
[1 + (1 −q)(A+ B)]
1
1−q
,= [1 + (1 −q)A]
1
1−q
[1 + (1 −q)B]
1
1−q
. (3)
It is easy to rewrite this in exponential form
exp
_
1
1 −q
ln[1 + (1 −q)(A+ B)]
_
,=
exp
_
1
1 −q
ln [1 + (1 −q)A] +
1
1 −q
ln[1 + (1 −q)B]
_
. (4)
After some algebra it is straightforward to ﬁnd
exp
_
1
1 −q
ln [1 + (1 −q)A+ (1 −q)B]
_
,=
exp
_
1
1 −q
ln
_
1 + (1 −q)A+ (1 −q)B + (1 −q)
2
AB
_
_
(5)
If the lefthand side and righthand side of this inequality are called ”exact” and ”ap
proximation” respectively, then it follows that exact>approximation for q > 1 whereas
exact<approximation for q < 1. It must be emphasized that this situation is valid if and
only if the product A.B is positive. In photon case, which is the subject of this study, A
and B, namely energy levels of the system are deﬁned to be hν/kT that is always positive.
In addition to this, an inequality can be derived for the partition function within the
frame of (3). The grand partition function reads :
Z
q
=
{r
i
}
_
1 −β(1 −q)
m
r=1
(ǫ
r
−µ)
_ 1
1−q
, (6)
where ¦r
i
¦ are the elements of the grand canonical ensemble. For the photon case (µ = 0),
the eq.(6) becomes
Z
q
=
{r
i
}
_
1 −β(1 −q)H
{r
i
}
_ 1
1−q
(7)
3
where H
{r
i
}
=
m
r=1
ǫ
r
is the Hamiltonian of the system. Employing the inequality (3),
another inequality for the partition function can be written down as
{r
i
}
[1 −β(1 −q) (ǫ
1
+ + ǫ
m
)]
1
1−q
,=
{r
i
}
[1 −β(1 −q)ǫ
1
]
1
1−q
[1 −β(1 −q)ǫ
m
]
1
1−q
. (8)
Since the free energy is a monotonic function of Z
q
, namely,
F
q
= −
1
β
Z
1−q
q
−1
1 −q
, (9)
it is straightforward to write an inequality for the free energy.
In the frame of the above simple mathematical analysis, it is evident that our approx
imation scheme provides a lower or upper bound to the exact results, depending on the q
values.
Within this approximation procedure the generalized distribution functions are given by
¸n
r
)
MB
q
= [1 −(1 −q)β(ǫ
r
−µ)]
1
1−q
(10)
¸n
r
)
FD
q
=
1
[1 −(1 −q)β(ǫ
r
−µ)]
1
q−1
+ 1
(11)
¸n
r
)
BE
q
=
1
[1 −(1 −q)β(ǫ
r
−µ)]
1
q−1
−1
(12)
where MB, FD and BE stand for MaxwellBoltzmann, FermiDirac and BoseEinstein,
respectively. In a very recent eﬀort [36], quantum statistics has been studied by means of a
kinetic approach and the distribution functions corresponding to the Tsallis probability are
found to be the same with the eqs.(10)(12). It is easy to show that the standard distribution
functions are recovered in the q → 1 limit. On the other hand, when µ is set equal to zero
in eq.(12), one can obtain the generalized Planck distribution (PD)
¸n
r
)
PD
q
=
1
[1 −(1 −q)βǫ
r
]
1
q−1
−1
(13)
which is going to be used here for making an approximation to the derivation of the general
ized Planck radiation law by following the wellknown procedure available in many textbooks
[37] of Statistical Physics.
4
III. THE GENERALIZATION OF THE PLANCK RADIATION LAW
Very recently, the generalization of the Planck radiation law is obtained by Tsallis et
al. [24] in order to see whether present cosmic background radiation is (slightly) diﬀerent
from Planck radiation law due to longrange gravitational inﬂuence. In the course of their
investigations, making use of the partition function given by Z
q
≈ Z
1
_
1 −
1
2
(1 −q)β
2
¸H
2
)
1
_
(where Z
1
and ¸H
2
)
1
stand for the values of these quantities in standard BoltzmannGibbs
statistics) in the β(1 − q) → 0 limit, Tsallis et al. have achieved the generalization of the
Planck law given in the following expression for q
∼
= 1 [24]
D
q
(ν)h
2
c
3
8π(kT)
3
≈
x
3
e
x
−1
_
1 −e
−x
_
q−1
_
1 + (1 −q)x
_
1 +e
−x
1 −e
−x
−
x
2
1 + 3e
−x
(1 −e
−x
)
2
__
(14)
where D
q
(ν) is the photon energy density per unit volume, ν is the photon frequency and x ≡
hν/kT. Then they applied this expression to the cosmic microwave background radiation to
test for deviations from Planck radiation law and found a 95% conﬁdence limit of [q −1[ <
3.610
−5
from the data obtained via Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite by Mather et al.
[38]. In the present work we’re trying to generalize the Planck law by using an approximate
scheme which seems simpler and more general (not necessarily q
∼
= 1).
The distribution of photons among the various quantum states with deﬁnite values of the
momentum h
k/2π and energies hν can be given by generalized Planck distribution (eq.(13))
¸n
r
)
PD
q
=
1
_
1 −(1 −q)
hν
kT
_ 1
q−1
−1
. (15)
On the other hand, the number of quantum states of photons with frequencies between ν and
ν + dν is 8πV ν
2
dν/c
3
(V being the volume of the photon gas). It is clear that multiplying
this quantity by eq.(15), the number of photons in this frequency interval can be determined:
dN =
8πV
c
3
ν
2
dν
_
1 −(1 −q)
hν
kT
_ 1
q−1
−1
. (16)
Therefore the photon energy in this interval is given by
dE =
8πhV
c
3
ν
3
dν
_
1 −(1 −q)
hν
kT
_ 1
q−1
−1
, (17)
5
and ﬁnally the photon energy density per unit volume is
D
q
(ν) =
8πh
c
3
ν
3
_
1 −(1 −q)
hν
kT
_ 1
q−1
−1
, (18)
which generalizes the Planck’s law. The comparison of this expression with that given by
Tsallis et al. (eq.(5) of their paper) is illustrated in Figure. It is observed in the ﬁgure that,
at low frequencies the two D
q
(ν) plots completely ﬁt into one another. On the other hand,
towards the frequency values where the maxima of the curves occur, the plots diverge from
one another by a certain amount. This is an expected result since the implication of our
approximation scheme shows itself as an upper (lower) bound to the exact result when q > 1
(q < 1). It is worthwhile to imply here that the bound is exactly same as the one that has
appeared in ref.[39] where an application of the generalized distribution functions has been
discussed (see Fig.1 and Fig.3 of this reference).
Moreover, in the x ≡ hν/kT << 1 case, we verify that eq.(18) becomes
D
q
(ν) =
8π(kT)
3
h
2
c
3
x
3
x +
(2−q)
2!
x
2
+
(2−q)(3−2q)
3!
x
3
+
, (19)
which generalizes the RayleighJeans law. As it is expected, in the q →1 limit this expression
transforms to D
1
(ν) ∝ x
2
∝ ν
2
which corresponds to the standard RayleighJeans law.
In addition to this, it is straightforward to generalize StefanBoltzmann law and show
that it remains the same, i.e. it is still proportional to T
4
, but with a qdependent constant
(σ
q
). To see this, let us write the total emitted power per unit surface,
P
q
=
_
∞
0
dνD
q
(ν) . (20)
If we use here eq.(18) with the dimensionless variable x,
P
q
=
8πk
4
h
3
c
3
T
4
_
∞
0
xdx
[1 −(1 −q)x]
1
q−1
−1
(21)
can be obtained. Since the integral term is independent of T, it can be written down as
P
q
= σ
q
T
4
, (22)
6
which is the generalized StefanBoltzmann law, with a qdependent prefactor.
It is also possible to obtain the generalized Wien shift law. By making eq.(18) maximum,
ν
m
(the frequency value which makes D
q
(ν) maximum) yields a nonlinear equation :
_
hν
m
kT
(3q −4) + 3
_ _
1 −(1 −q)
hν
m
kT
_ 1
q−1
+
hν
m
kT
3(1 −q) −3 = 0 . (23)
Although it is very diﬃcult to ﬁnd an analytical solution for this equation, the graphical
solution is adequate for our purpose. From the graphical solution, for q = 0.95 and q = 1.05
we have found hν
m
/kT = 2.444 and 3.347, respectively. For the same values of Tsallis
qindex, eq.(19) in ref.[24] gives hν
m
/kT = 2.563 and 3.08. Once again it is possible to
see that our results provide bounds to the exact ones. Moreover, the result ν
m
(q > 1) >
ν
m
(q = 1) > ν
m
(q < 1), which appears in ref.[24], is also valid in the present investigation.
The important diversity between this result and that of the q
G
deformed quantum groups
investigations namely ν
m
(g
G
) = ν
m
(1/q
G
) and ν
m
(q
G
< 1) < ν
m
(q
G
= 1) is readily observed.
IV. CONCLUSIONS
Although the generalized distribution functions are ﬁrst introduced in 1993, there has
been no attempt to apply them to the physical systems until a very recent eﬀort performed
by Pennini et al. [39] where two single particles are considered. In this letter, our goal
is to apply one of the generalized distribution functions (generalized Planck distribution)
to another physical system (Planck law for the blackbody radiation). On the other hand,
the approximate procedure used here to ﬁnd a bound to the generalized Planck law is
simpler than that of Tsallis et al. [24] (since the procedure is completely the same with
that followed in standard textbooks of Statistical Physics for the derivation of standard
Planck law) and also the bound seems to be more general, since not necessarily q
∼
= 1 (it
will have a meaning, of course, if a physical system requiring this condition exists). Lastly,
it is worthwhile to imply here that all the generalized laws derived here (i.e. generalized
Planck law, generalized RayleighJeans law, StefanBoltzmann law and Wien law) transform
to corresponding standard wellknown laws in the q →1 limit.
7
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors acknowledge TUBITAK and Ege University for making Prof. C. Tsallis’
visit to Izmir possible. We are very indebted to Prof. C. Tsallis for the helpful discussions
as well as kindly supplying to us some of the references therein.
8
[1] A.M. Salzberg, J. Math. Phys. 6 (1965); W.C. Saslaw, Gravitational Physics of Stellar and
Galactic Systems (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985) p.217 .
[2] P.T. Landsberg, J. Stat. Phys. 35 (1984) 159; D. Pavon, General Relativity and Gravitation
19 (1987) 375.
[3] M.F. Shlesinger and B.D. Hughes, Physica A109 (1981) 597; E.W. Montroll and M.F.
Shlesinger, J. Stat. Phys. 32 (1983) 209.
[4] R.H. Kraichnan and D. Montgomery, Rep. Prog. Phys. 43 (1980) 547.
[5] H. Bacry, Phys. Lett. B317 (1993) 523.
[6] C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52 (1988) 479.
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1019.
[8] N. Ito and C. Tsallis, Nuovo Cimento 11 (1989) 907.
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[10] A.M. Mariz, Phys. Lett. A165 (1992) 409; J.D. Ramshaw, Phys. Lett. A175 (1993) 169 and
171.
[11] A. Plastino and A.R. Plastino, Phys. Lett. A177 (1993) 177.
[12] A.R. Plastino and A. Plastino, Physica A202 (1994) 438.
[13] F. B¨ uy¨ ukkılı¸ c and D. Demirhan, Phys. Lett. A181 (1993) 24.
[14] F. B¨ uy¨ ukkılı¸ c, D. Demirhan and A. G¨ ule¸ c, Phys. Lett. A197 (1995) 209.
[15] E.P. da Silva, C. Tsallis and E.M.F. Curado, Physica A199 (1993) 137; 203 (1994) E160; A.
Chame and E.M.L. de Mello, J. Phys. A27 (1994) 3663.
9
[16] D.A. Stariolo, Phys. Lett. A185 (1994) 262.
[17] A. Plastino and C. Tsallis, J. Phys. A26 (1993) L893.
[18] F. B¨ uy¨ ukkılı¸ c and D. Demirhan, Z. Phys. B99 (1995) 137.
[19] A.R. Plastino, A. Plastino and C. Tsallis, J. Phys. A27 (1994) 5707.
[20] F.D. Nobre and C. Tsallis, Physica A213 (1995) 337.
[21] S. Curilef and C. Tsallis, Physica A215 (1995) 542.
[22] E.F. Sarmento, Physica A218 (1995) 482.
[23] F. B¨ uy¨ ukkılı¸ c, D. Demirhan and U. Tırnaklı, ”Generalization of the MeanField Ising Model
within Tsallis Thermostatistics”, Physica A, in press.
[24] C. Tsallis, F.C. Sa Barreto and E.D. Loh, Phys Rev E52 (1995) 1447.
[25] D.H. Zanette, Physica A223 (1996) 87.
[26] A. Plastino and M. Portesi, Physica A (1996), in press; M. Portesi and A. Plastino, Proc.IV In
ternational Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (FICSSUR95, Taiyvan,
China) NASA Conference Publication Series (Dec.1995), in press.
[27] A.K. Rajagopal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995) 1048; Physica B212 (1995) 309; G. Kaniadakis,
A. Lavagno and P. Quarati, ”Generalized Fractional Statistics”, preprint.
[28] S. Curilef, Phys. Lett. A (1996), in press.
[29] A.R. Plastino and A. Plastino, Phys. Lett. A174 (1993) 384.
[30] P.A. Alemany and D.H. Zanette, Phys. Rev. E49 (1994) R956; C. Tsallis, S.V.F. Levy, A.M.C.
Souza and R. Maynard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1995) 3589; C. Tsallis, A.M.C. de Souza and
R. Maynard, in ”Levy Flights and Related Phenomena in Physics”, Eds. M.F. Shlesinger, U.
Frisch and G.M. Zaslavsky (Springer, Berlin, 1995), page 269; D.H. Zanette and P.A. Alemany,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1995) 366.
10
[31] L.S. Lucena, L.R. da Silva and C. Tsallis, Phys. Rev. E51 (1995) 6247.
[32] B.M. Boghosian, Phys. Rev. E53 (1996) 4754.
[33] G. Kaniadakis, A. Lavagno and P. Quarati, Phys. Lett. B369 (1996) 308.
[34] C. Tsallis, in ”New Trends in Magnetism, Magnetic Materials and their Applications”, Eds.
J.L. MoranLopez and J.M. Sanchez (Plenum Press, New York, 1994), page 451; in ”Chaos,
Solitons and Fractals”, Ed. G. Marshall (Pergamon Press, 1994), page 539.
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1776.
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classical and quantum statistics”, preprint.
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1985).
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[39] F. Pennini, A. Plastino and A.R. Plastino, Phys. Lett. A208 (1995) 309.
11
FIGURE CAPTIONS
Blackbody photon energy density per unit volume versus hν/kT in the frame of this work
and ref.[24].
12
Fig.1
hν/kT
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
D
q
(
ν
)
h
2
c
3
/
8
π
k
3
T
3
0,0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
q=0.95 (ref.[24])
q=0.95 (This Work)
q=1
q=1.05 (ref.[24])
q=1.05 (This Work)
13
the Tsallis entropy have been used for the same purpose and the same conclusions for the generalized distribution functions have been attained but in this case the constraints concerned with the statistical properties of the particles have been introduced in the calculation of the partition functions. W is the total number of conﬁgurations of the system and q is a new parameter which is especially called the Tsallis qindex. However. GST contains BoltzmannGibbs Statistics as a special case when q = 1. pi is the probability of the system to be in a microstate. The formalism has been based upon two axioms. (2) On the other hand. II. the factorization 2 . namely (i) the entropy of the system is given by [6] 1 − W pq i=1 i Sq = −k 1−q (1) where k is a conventional positive constant. the fractal inspired entropies of the classical and quantum gases have been found by making use of the statistical weights and the generalized distribution functions have been obtained by introducing the constraints related to the statistical properties of the particles into the entropy [13]. Clearly Sq is extensive if and only if q = 1 and (1 − q) can be interpreted as the measure of the lack of extensivity of the system [24].14]. and some investigations of the subject from the mathematical point of view are now available in [35]. In the ﬁrst paper.reviews of the general aspects of the formalism can be found in [34]. In the second paper. GENERALIZED DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS Amongst the systems handled in the frame of GST. (ii) the qexpectation value of an observable O is given by W O q = i=1 pq Oi i . the classical and quantum gases have been investigated for the ﬁrst time by two of the authors of the present study and the results have been presented in two seperate manuscripts [13.
depending on the values of q. let us take a very simple physical system which could be in bounded or free states with the energy levels A and B. which is the subject of this study. It must be emphasized that this situation is valid if and only if the product A. For the photon case (µ = 0).(6) becomes Zq = {ri } 1 − β(1 − q)H{ri } 3 1 1−q (7) . The grand partition function reads : m 1 1−q Zq = {ri } 1 − β(1 − q) r=1 (ǫr − µ) . In addition to this. exp 1−q 1−q exp After some algebra it is straightforward to ﬁnd exp exp 1 ln [1 + (1 − q)A + (1 − q)B] = 1−q (5) 1 1 1 (3) (4) 1 ln 1 + (1 − q)A + (1 − q)B + (1 − q)2 AB 1−q If the lefthand side and righthand side of this inequality are called ”exact” and ”approximation” respectively. In photon case. In order to prove this. For this system let us take the inequality [1 + (1 − q)(A + B)] 1−q = [1 + (1 − q)A] 1−q [1 + (1 − q)B] 1−q .of the partition function which was used in this calculations has been the main disputable point of the approximation. an inequality can be derived for the partition function within the frame of (3).B is positive. (6) where {ri } are the elements of the grand canonical ensemble. the eq. namely energy levels of the system are deﬁned to be hν/kT that is always positive. A and B. We claim that this approximate procedure provides a bound to the exact results. It is easy to rewrite this in exponential form 1 ln [1 + (1 − q)(A + B)] = 1−q 1 1 ln [1 + (1 − q)A] + ln [1 + (1 − q)B] . then it follows that exact>approximation for q > 1 whereas exact<approximation for q < 1.
Fq = − 1−q 1 Zq − 1 . In a very recent eﬀort [36]. It is easy to show that the standard distribution functions are recovered in the q → 1 limit. (8) Since the free energy is a monotonic function of Zq .(10)(12). quantum statistics has been studied by means of a kinetic approach and the distribution functions corresponding to the Tsallis probability are found to be the same with the eqs. another inequality for the partition function can be written down as [1 − β(1 − q) (ǫ1 + · · · + ǫm )] 1−q = {ri } 1 [1 − β(1 − q)ǫ1 ] 1−q · · · [1 − β(1 − q)ǫm ] 1−q {ri } 1 1 . depending on the q values.where H{ri } = m r=1 ǫr is the Hamiltonian of the system. 4 . On the other hand.(12). Employing the inequality (3). F D and BE stand for MaxwellBoltzmann. FermiDirac and BoseEinstein. respectively. it is evident that our approximation scheme provides a lower or upper bound to the exact results. when µ is set equal to zero in eq. β 1−q (9) it is straightforward to write an inequality for the free energy. Within this approximation procedure the generalized distribution functions are given by nr nr MB q = [1 − (1 − q)β(ǫr − µ)] 1−q 1 [1 − (1 − q)β(ǫr − µ)] q−1 + 1 1 [1 − (1 − q)β(ǫr − µ)] q−1 − 1 1 1 1 (10) (11) FD q = nr BE q = (12) where MB. In the frame of the above simple mathematical analysis. one can obtain the generalized Planck distribution (P D) nr PD q = 1 [1 − (1 − q)βǫr ] q−1 − 1 1 (13) which is going to be used here for making an approximation to the derivation of the generalized Planck radiation law by following the wellknown procedure available in many textbooks [37] of Statistical Physics. namely.
In the present work we’re trying to generalize the Planck law by using an approximate scheme which seems simpler and more general (not necessarily q ∼ 1). THE GENERALIZATION OF THE PLANCK RADIATION LAW Very recently. ν is the photon frequency and x ≡ hν/kT . [38]. [24] in order to see whether present cosmic background radiation is (slightly) diﬀerent from Planck radiation law due to longrange gravitational inﬂuence. It is clear that multiplying this quantity by eq.III. In the course of their 1 investigations.6×10−5 from the data obtained via Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite by Mather et al. the generalization of the Planck radiation law is obtained by Tsallis et al. −1 (17) . making use of the partition function given by Zq ≈ Z1 1 − 2 (1 − q)β 2 H2 1 (where Z1 and H2 1 stand for the values of these quantities in standard BoltzmannGibbs statistics) in the β(1 − q) → 0 limit. = The distribution of photons among the various quantum states with deﬁnite values of the momentum hk/2π and energies hν can be given by generalized Planck distribution (eq.(13)) nr PD q = 1 hν 1 − (1 − q) kT 1 q−1 . the number of quantum states of photons with frequencies between ν and ν + dν is 8πV ν 2 dν/c3 (V being the volume of the photon gas). have achieved the generalization of the Planck law given in the following expression for q ∼ 1 [24] = x3 Dq (ν)h2 c3 1 − e−x ≈ x 8π(kT )3 e −1 q−1 1 + (1 − q)x 1 + e−x x 1 + 3e−x − 1 − e−x 2 (1 − e−x )2 (14) where Dq (ν) is the photon energy density per unit volume. Tsallis et al.(15). −1 (16) Therefore the photon energy in this interval is given by dE = 8πhV c3 ν 3 dν 1 − (1 − 5 hν q) kT 1 q−1 . −1 (15) On the other hand. the number of photons in this frequency interval can be determined: dN = 8πV c3 ν 2 dν 1 − (1 − hν q) kT 1 q−1 . Then they applied this expression to the cosmic microwave background radiation to test for deviations from Planck radiation law and found a 95% conﬁdence limit of q − 1 < 3.
As it is expected. but with a qdependent constant (σq ). (eq.and ﬁnally the photon energy density per unit volume is Dq (ν) = 8πh c3 ν3 1 − (1 − hν q) kT 1 q−1 . On the other hand. the plots diverge from one another by a certain amount. In addition to this. 6 (22) . towards the frequency values where the maxima of the curves occur.(5) of their paper) is illustrated in Figure.1 and Fig. Moreover. in the q → 1 limit this expression transforms to D1 (ν) ∝ x2 ∝ ν 2 which corresponds to the standard RayleighJeans law. it is still proportional to T 4 . let us write the total emitted power per unit surface. Pq = ∞ 0 dνDq (ν) . it is straightforward to generalize StefanBoltzmann law and show that it remains the same. (20) If we use here eq.(18) becomes Dq (ν) = 8π(kT )3 h2 c3 x + x3 (2−q) 2 x 2! + (2−q)(3−2q) 3 x 3! + ··· . This is an expected result since the implication of our approximation scheme shows itself as an upper (lower) bound to the exact result when q > 1 (q < 1). in the x ≡ hν/kT << 1 case.e. To see this.[39] where an application of the generalized distribution functions has been discussed (see Fig. i. at low frequencies the two Dq (ν) plots completely ﬁt into one another. It is worthwhile to imply here that the bound is exactly same as the one that has appeared in ref. (19) which generalizes the RayleighJeans law. −1 (18) which generalizes the Planck’s law. The comparison of this expression with that given by Tsallis et al. we verify that eq.(18) with the dimensionless variable x. It is observed in the ﬁgure that.3 of this reference). Since the integral term is independent of T . Pq = 8πk 4 4 T h3 c3 ∞ 0 xdx [1 − (1 − q)x] q−1 − 1 1 (21) can be obtained. it can be written down as Pq = σq T 4 .
Moreover. [39] where two single particles are considered. is also valid in the present investigation. the graphical solution is adequate for our purpose. CONCLUSIONS Although the generalized distribution functions are ﬁrst introduced in 1993. In this letter. the approximate procedure used here to ﬁnd a bound to the generalized Planck law is simpler than that of Tsallis et al. for q = 0. Once again it is possible to see that our results provide bounds to the exact ones.(19) in ref. For the same values of Tsallis qindex.which is the generalized StefanBoltzmann law.e. if a physical system requiring this condition exists). eq. νm (the frequency value which makes Dq (ν) maximum) yields a nonlinear equation : hνm (3q − 4) + 3 kT hνm 1 − (1 − q) kT 1 q−1 + hνm 3(1 − q) − 3 = 0 . Lastly. It is also possible to obtain the generalized Wien shift law. StefanBoltzmann law and Wien law) transform to corresponding standard wellknown laws in the q → 1 limit.[24] gives hνm /kT = 2. IV.95 and q = 1. of course. On the other hand. since not necessarily q ∼ 1 (it = will have a meaning. kT (23) Although it is very diﬃcult to ﬁnd an analytical solution for this equation.563 and 3. with a qdependent prefactor. the result νm (q > 1) > νm (q = 1) > νm (q < 1).(18) maximum. The important diversity between this result and that of the qG deformed quantum groups investigations namely νm (gG ) = νm (1/qG ) and νm (qG < 1) < νm (qG = 1) is readily observed. which appears in ref. generalized RayleighJeans law. 7 . By making eq.[24]. From the graphical solution.347. respectively. generalized Planck law. [24] (since the procedure is completely the same with that followed in standard textbooks of Statistical Physics for the derivation of standard Planck law) and also the bound seems to be more general.444 and 3.05 we have found hνm /kT = 2.08. it is worthwhile to imply here that all the generalized laws derived here (i. there has been no attempt to apply them to the physical systems until a very recent eﬀort performed by Pennini et al. our goal is to apply one of the generalized distribution functions (generalized Planck distribution) to another physical system (Planck law for the blackbody radiation).
C. 8 . Tsallis’ visit to Izmir possible. Tsallis for the helpful discussions as well as kindly supplying to us some of the references therein. We are very indebted to Prof.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors acknowledge TUBITAK and Ege University for making Prof. C.
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12 .[24].FIGURE CAPTIONS Blackbody photon energy density per unit volume versus hν/kT in the frame of this work and ref.
5 0.05 (This Work) 1.[24]) q=0.[24]) q=1 1.95 (ref.0 q=1.5 Dq(ν)h2c3/8πk3T3 q=1.1 2.0 q=0.0 0 1 2 3 hν/kT 4 5 6 13 .Fig.95 (This Work) 0.05 (ref.
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