By: girish k jani

Introduction y Sources of heat y Mode of heat transfer y HEAT TRANSFER .

Many pharmaceutical processes involve the heating of materials y The amount of heat involved in any heat transaction depends upon the following: y The amount of material y The difference in temperature y Specific heat of the substance involved y INTRODUCTION .

y y y y y y y y The most important sources of heat energy on earth are the SUN Hot interior of Earth Chemical action ± burning of fuels oxidation of food in body Mechanical energy of friction Electrical energy form which heat is produced Nuclear energy converted into heat energy in at atomic reactor SOURCES OF HEAT .

Heat transfer by conduction y Basic equation y Path of heat flow in a area ¶A¶ y (A)compound resistance in series y (B)compound resistance in parallel y (C)use of mean andmean temperature difference mean area y MODE OF HEAT TRANSFER .

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