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The first approach converts digital data to digital signal, known as line coding, as shown in Figure
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No. of signal levels: This refers to the number values allowed in a signal, known as signal levels, to represent data. Figures shows two signal levels and three signal levels to represent binary data.
Bit rate versus Baud rate: The bit rate represents the number of bits sent per second, whereas the baud rate defines the number of signal elements per second in the signal. Depending on the encoding technique used, baud rate may be more than or less than the data rate.
Synchronization: To interpret the received signal correctly, the bit interval of the receiver should be exactly same or within certain limit of that of the transmitter. Any mismatch between the two may lead wrong interpretation of the received signal. Usually, clock is generated and synchronized from the received signal with the help of a special hardware known as Phase Lock Loop (PLL). However, this can be achieved if the received signal is selfsynchronizing having frequent transitions (preferably, a minimum of one transition per bit interval) in the signal.
DC component in a signal is not desirable because the DC component does not pass through some components of a communication system such as a transformer. . It is necessary to use suitable encoding technique to match with the medium so that the signal suffers minimum attenuation and distortion as it is transmitted through a medium. the signal may have zero frequency component in the spectrum of the signal. which is known as the direct-current (DC) component. Signal Spectrum: Different encoding of data leads to different spectrum of the signal. The DC component also results in unwanted energy loss on the line.Line Coding DC components: After line coding. This leads to distortion of the signal and may create error at the output.
Next. . these digital or binary representations must be converted into electrical waveforms that are transmitted over the communications channel. an information signal must first be formatted so that it is represented by digital symbols (usually binary digits or bits). In baseband digital transmission.Line Coding In order to be transmitted over a digital communications system. the electrical waveforms used are pulses and this conversion from digital data to digital waveforms is known as line Coding.
there are a number of desirable properties that a line code should exhibit. However.Line Coding The binary data such as the binary 1’s and 0’s produced by a PCM encoder may be represented in various serial-bit signalling formats known as line codes. . There exists many line codes and each has its own particular advantages and disadvantages depending on the particular application.
e. Bandwidth. Power Spectral Density. The choice of a particular pair of pulses to represent the symbols 1 and 0 is called Line Coding and the choice is generally made on the grounds of one or more of the following considerations: – Presence or absence of a DC level. the property that any arbitrary symbol. Transparency (i. Ease of clock signal recovery for symbol synchronisation.particularly its value at 0 Hz. – – – – – – . or bit. pattern can be transmitted and received).Line Coding Introduction: Binary data can be transmitted using a number of different types of pulses. Presence or absence of inherent error detection properties. BER performance (this particular aspect is not covered in this lecture).
e. the bandwidth) should be as small as possible to ensure good spectral efficiency. This provides for electrical isolation and helps reduce the effects of interference. – There should be no dc component as this permits the use of ac coupling via transformer. .Line Coding Signal Spectrum: Several aspects of the signal spectrum are important: – The spectral occupancy (i.
This avoids having to transmit a separate clock signal between the transmitter and receiver.Line Coding Clock Signal: Synchronization between the transmitter and receiver is of critical importance in digital communications systems. the spectrum of the line code should contain a frequency component at the clock frequency to permit clock extraction. Ideally. .
the line code should be rugged in terms of exhibiting an immunity to interference and noise. polar codes have a better error performance compared to unipolar codes. the line code should have a low probability of error for a given level of transmitted power.Line Coding •Signal Interference and Noise Immunity: Ideally. In more technical terms. e.g. Certain line codes are more rugged than others. .
Transparency: The performance of the line code should be independent of the data.e. Cost and Complexity: The line coding scheme should not be excessively complex and/or costly. long strings of binary 1’s or 0’s should not affect the performance. i. .Line Coding Error Detection: It is useful to have some error detection capability built into the line code to permit transmission errors to be detected more quickly.
– The way in which voltage levels are assigned to the pulses. . – The duration of the pulses.Line Coding Line Coding Formats: The various line coding waveforms can be categorized in terms of the following.
e. it determines the presence or absence of a frequency component at the clock frequency). . – Non return-to-zero (NRZ) where the pulse or symbol duration Ts = the bit period Tb.5Tb. – Return-to-zero (RZ) where the pulse or symbol duration Ts < the bit period Tb. Usually Ts = 0. • The pulse duration will usually have an effect on the synchronization properties of the line code (i.Line Coding Pulse Duration: There are two classes used here.
Line Coding • Pulse Voltage Levels: There are many voltage level formats possible: – Unipolar – Polar – Dipolar – Bipolar – High Density Bipolar substitution (HDBn) – Coded Mark Inversion (CMI) .
Line Coding • Unipolar signalling is where a binary 1 is represented by a high positive level (+A volts) and a binary 0 is represented by a zero level (0 volts). • There are two variations possible: – Unipolar NRZ – Unipolar RZ . • This is sometimes known as on-off keying (OOK).
Different Types of Line Coding .
There are two common variations of unipolar signalling: Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) and Return to Zero (RZ).Unipolar Signalling Unipolar signalling (also called on-off keying. a MARK). .e. OOK) is the type of line coding in which one binary symbol (representing a 0 for example) is represented by the absence of a pulse (i. a SPACE) and the other binary symbol (denoting a 1) is represented by the presence of a pulse (i.e.
1 V 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 .Unipolar Signalling Unipolar Non-Return to Zero (NRZ): In unipolar NRZ the duration of the MARK pulse (Ƭ ) is equal to the duration (To) of the symbol slot.
– Disadvantages: – Presence of DC level (indicated by spectral line at 0 Hz). Doesn’t require a lot of bandwidth for transmission. Long string of zeros causes loss of synchronisation. Contains low frequency components. Advantages: – Simplicity in implementation. Causes “Signal Droop” (explained later). Does not have any error correction capability. (put figure here).Unipolar Signalling Unipolar Non-Return to Zero (NRZ): In unipolar NRZ the duration of the MARK pulse (Ƭ ) is equal to the duration (To) of the symbol slot. Does not posses any clocking component for ease of synchronisation. – – – – . Is not Transparent.
PSD of Unipolar NRZ .Unipolar Signalling Unipolar Non-Return to Zero (NRZ): Figure.
e. . AC coupled transmission lines typically behave like high-pass RC filters and the distortion takes the form of an exponential decay of the signal amplitude after each transition. This effect is referred to as “Signal Droop” and is illustrated in figure below. This means that AC coupling will result in distortion of the transmitted pulse shapes. contains low frequency components). The continuous part of the PSD is also non-zero at 0 Hz (i. the DC level is removed converting them into a polar format.Unipolar Signalling Unipolar Non-Return to Zero (NRZ): When Unipolar NRZ signals are transmitted over links with either transformer or capacitor coupled (AC) repeaters.
Unipolar Signalling 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 V 0 V/2 0 -V/2 Figure Distortion (Signal Droop) due to AC coupling of unipolar NRZ signal .
1 V 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 To 0 Ƭ . Typically RZ pulses fill only the first half of the time slot. returning to zero for the second half.Unipolar Signalling Return to Zero (RZ): In unipolar RZ the duration of the MARK pulse (Ƭ ) is less than the duration (To) of the symbol slot.
returning to zero for the second half. 1 V 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 To 0 Ƭ . Typically RZ pulses fill only the first half of the time slot.Unipolar Signalling Return to Zero (RZ): In unipolar RZ the duration of the MARK pulse (Ƭ ) is less than the duration (To) of the symbol slot.
Unipolar Signalling Unipolar Return to Zero (RZ): Advantages: – Simplicity in implementation. – Disadvantages: – Presence of DC level (indicated by spectral line at 0 Hz). Presence of a spectral line at symbol rate which can be used as symbol timing clock signal. Continuous part is non-zero at 0 Hz. Causes “Signal Droop”. Occupies twice as much bandwidth as Unipolar NRZ. Is not Transparent – – – – . Does not have any error correction capability.
PSD of Unipolar RZ .Unipolar Signalling Unipolar Return to Zero (RZ): Figure.
.Unipolar Signalling In conclusion it can be said that neither variety of unipolar signals is suitable for transmission over AC coupled lines.
Polar signalling also has NRZ and RZ forms. 1 +V 0 -V 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 Figure.Polar Signalling In polar signalling a binary 1 is represented by a pulse g1(t) and a binary 0 by the opposite (or antipodal) pulse g0(t) = -g1(t). Polar NRZ .
Polar RZ .Polar Signalling In polar signalling a binary 1 is represented by a pulse g1(t) and a binary 0 by the opposite (or antipodal) pulse g0(t) = -g1(t). Polar signalling also has NRZ and RZ forms. 1 +V 0 -V 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 Figure.
However. due to the opposite polarity of the 1 and 0 symbols. neither contain any spectral lines. Figure.Polar Signalling PSD of Polar Signalling: Polar NRZ and RZ have almost identical spectra to the Unipolar NRZ and RZ. PSD of Polar NRZ .
neither contain any spectral lines. However.Polar Signalling PSD of Polar Signalling: Polar NRZ and RZ have almost identical spectra to the Unipolar NRZ and RZ. PSD of Polar RZ . Figure. due to the opposite polarity of the 1 and 0 symbols.
– – – . Does not have any error correction capability. No DC component. Does not posses any clocking component for ease of synchronisation. Causes “Signal Droop”. – Disadvantages: – Continuous part is non-zero at 0 Hz.Polar Signalling Polar Non-Return to Zero (NRZ): Advantages: – Simplicity in implementation. Is not transparent.
– – – . Occupies twice as much bandwidth as Polar NRZ. Does not posses any clocking component for easy synchronisation. – Disadvantages: – Continuous part is non-zero at 0 Hz. No DC component. Causes “Signal Droop”. However. Does not have any error correction capability.Polar Signalling Polar Return to Zero (RZ): Advantages: – Simplicity in implementation. clock can be extracted by rectifying the received signal.
as in unipolar.BiPolar Signalling Bipolar Signalling is also called “alternate mark inversion” (AMI) uses three voltage levels (+V. are represented by the absence of a pulse and ones (or marks) are represented by alternating voltage levels of +V and –V. -V) to represent two binary symbols. Bipolar also has NRZ and RZ variations. Zeros. The alternating mark voltage also gives bipolar signalling a single error detection capability. . Alternating the mark level voltage ensures that the bipolar spectrum has a null at DC And that signal droop on AC coupled lines is avoided. Like the Unipolar and Polar cases. 0.
BiPolar NRZ .BiPolar Signalling 1 +V 0 -V 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 Figure.
PSD of BiPolar NRZ .Polar Signalling PSD of BiPolar/ AMI NRZ Signalling: Figure.
Occupies less bandwidth than unipolar and polar NRZ schemes. – – – Disadvantages: – Does not posses any clocking component for ease of synchronisation.BiPolar Signalling BiPolar / AMI NRZ: Advantages: – No DC component. Is not Transparent. – . Possesses single error detection capability. Does not suffer from signal droop (suitable for transmission over AC coupled lines).
BiPolar Signalling 1 +V 0 -V 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 Figure. BiPolar RZ .
Polar Signalling PSD of BiPolar/ AMI RZ Signalling: Figure. PSD of BiPolar RZ .
Clock can be extracted by rectifying (a copy of) the received signal. – – – – Disadvantages: – Is not Transparent.BiPolar Signalling BiPolar / AMI RZ: Advantages: – No DC component. Does not suffer from signal droop (suitable for transmission over AC coupled lines). Possesses single error detection capability. Occupies less bandwidth than unipolar and polar RZ schemes. .
‘B’ conforms to the Alternate Mark Inversion Rule.HDBn Signalling HDBn is an enhancement of Bipolar Signalling. n=3). In HDBn systems when the number of continuous zeros exceeds n they are replaced by a special code. It overcomes the transparency problem encountered in Bipolar signalling. In HDB-3 a string of 4 consecutive zeros are replaced by either 000V or B00V. The code recommended by the ITU-T for European PCM systems is HDB-3 (i. Where. ‘V’ is a violation of the Alternate Mark Inversion Rule .e.
HDBn Signalling The reason for two different substitutions is to make consecutive Violation pulses alternate in polarity to avoid introduction of a DC component. . the substitution pattern will be B00V. the substitution pattern will be 000V. If the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution is odd. The substitution is chosen according to the following rules: 1. If the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution is even. 1.
HDBn Signalling 1 0 0 0 1 0 B V 0 0 0 V 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 .
Figure. PSD of HDB3 RZ .HDBn Signalling PSD of HDB3 (RZ) Signalling: The PSD of HDB3 (RZ) is similar to the PSD of Bipolar RZ.
HDBn Signalling HDBn RZ: Advantages: – No DC component. – – – – – These characteristic make this scheme ideal for use in Wide Area Networks . Occupies less bandwidth than unipolar and polar RZ schemes. Possesses single error detection capability. Does not suffer from signal droop (suitable for transmission over AC coupled lines). Clock can be extracted by rectifying (a copy of) the received signal. Is Transparent.
Manchester Signalling In Manchester encoding . The voltage remains at one level during the first half and moves to the other level during the second half. the duration of the bit is divided into two halves. Note: Some books use different conventions. A ‘Zero’ is -ve in 1st half and +ve in 2nd half. . A ‘One’ is +ve in 1st half and -ve in 2nd half.
.Manchester Signalling 1 +V 0 -V 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 Note: There is always a transition at the centre of bit duration. Manchester Encoding. Figure.
PSD of Manchester .Manchester Signalling PSD of Manchester Signalling: Figure.
which indicate the middle of the bits. Even rectification does not help. . It is worth highlighting that the traditional synchronization technique used for unipolar. which employs a narrow BPF to extract the clock signal cannot be used for synchronization in Manchester encoding. This is because the PSD of Manchester encoding does not include a spectral line/ impulse at symbol rate (1/To). polar and bipolar schemes.Manchester Signalling The transition at the centre of every bit interval is used for synchronization at the receiver. Synchronization at the receiving end can be achieved by locking on to the the transitions. Manchester encoding is called self-synchronizing.
Does not suffer from signal droop (suitable for transmission over AC coupled lines). – These characteristic make this scheme unsuitable for use in Wide Area Networks. However. Easy to synchronise with.Manchester Signalling Manchester Signalling: Advantages: – No DC component. – – – Disadvantages: – Because of the greater number of transitions it occupies a significantly large Does not have error detection capability. it is widely used in Local Area Networks such as Ethernet and Token Ring. Is Transparent. bandwidth. .
Grant. “Analog & Digital Communication Systems” by Martin S. 4. 3. “Data Communication & Networking” 4th Edition by Behrouz A. Glover and Peter M. Lathi. Roden. Forouzan. 6. Couch. “Communication Systems” 4th Edition by Simon Haykin. “Modern Digital & Analog Communications” 3rd Edition by B. 5.Reference Text Books 1. II. “Digital Communications” 2nd Edition by Ian A. P. “Digital & Analog Communication Systems” 6th Edition by Leon W. 2. 53 .
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