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2010 Water: Crisis and Choices: Tech Irrigated Agriculture

2010 Water: Crisis and Choices: Tech Irrigated Agriculture

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2010 Water: Crisis and Choices:
2010 Water: Crisis and Choices:

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02/10/2014

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Technologies in Irrigated Agriculture : Costs and Benefits

Ir. (Dr.) Ir (Dr ) Keizrul bin Abdullah President Honoraire Abdullah,President International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID)

Background
Chair Margaret Catley-Carlson Catley Carlson Panelists Ir. Keizrul bin Abdullah, ICID Muhammad Tusneem, Planning Commission Pakistan Anil Jain, Jain Irrigation Jain Plamen Bozakov, ADB

MISSION OF ICID
Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Oct 2010

Dedicated to  Dedicated to enhancing the worldwide  supply of food and fibre for all people by  l f f d d fib f ll l b improving water and land management  and the productivity of irrigated and  d th d ti it f i i t d d drained lands through appropriate  management of water, environment and  t f t i t d application of irrigation, drainage and  flood management techniques.  fl d tt h i

ICID MEMBERSHIP NETWORK

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Irrigated Agriculture

Food
Oct 2010

Water

Food
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• Lack of Food

Hunger

Oct 2010

Oct 2010

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Oct 2010

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

6,876,776,900 6 876 776 900 1,028,458,838 1,155,210,682 343,675,571

Oct 2010

20,580 20 580 Ref: www.worldometers/info

Food
Irr rigated Agric d culture e

• Lack of Food

Hunger

• 1.02 billion people undernourished • 907 million in developing countries • 5 1 million children die annually from 5.1 hunger and related causes • In economic terms, developing countries lose $ billions in lost productivity and earnings

Oct 2010

Oct 2010

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Disaster
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Starvation

Extreme events : famines, wars

8%
Oct 2010

1.02 billion

92%
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Chronic malnutrition

8%
Oct 2010

1.02 billion

Smallholder farms: 50%

The rural landless: 22%

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THE CHRONICALLY The urban poor: 20% HUNGRY
Forests dwellers, pastoralists, fishermen: 8%

Oct 2010

Oct 2010

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Oct 2010

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Ref: FAO

Oct 2010

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Irrigated Agriculture

Food
Oct 2010

Water

Oct 2010

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Irrigation I i i

Oct 2010

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Dry Season - Water Scarcity

Oct 2010

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Irrigation Canals supply water

IRRIGATED
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40% 17%
NONNONIRRIGATED

World - Food

World - Area
Oct 2010

WORLD FOOD PRODUCTION
Ref: Postel

Oct 2010

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Growth of irrigation development in Asia
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Oct 2010

Water Withdrawal
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20 % 70 % 10 %

Oct 2010

A griculture

D estic om

Industry

Water Withdrawals
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Oct 2010

Ref: World Bank

Irrigation
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• Irrigation in developing countries mostly under government agencies

Oct 2010

More Water Used
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Bigger Budget

Oct 2010

Higher Status

Irrigation
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• Irrigation in developing countries mostly under government agencies • Irrigation water use efficiency generally low : 20 % (paddy) to 90 % drip • Average for developing countries ~43 % • Calls from NGOs for improvement in water productivity water efficiency & higher hi h crop yields i ld

Oct 2010

DOMESTIC
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INDUSTRY

WATER
AGRICULTURE AGRICU TURE

NATURE
Oct 2010

Competition for W t C titi f Water

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Keynote Address at 3 WWF The Challenges of Irrigated Agriculture in the 21st Century

By Dato’ Ir. Hj. Keizrul bin Abdullah President International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage ICID 19 March 2003

Oct 2010

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More Crop Per Drop

More Crop Less Drop
Oct 2010

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Way Forward

Technology Irrigation Modernisation
Oct 2010

Oct 2010

“Irrigation Modernisation is a process of technical and managerial upgrading of irrigation scheme combined with institutional reforms with the objective to improve j p resource utilisation (labour, water economic (labour water, economic, environmental) and water productivity” productivity

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Prevailing Irrigation technologies g g g
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Vast range of technologies and tools are available for improved operation, better management and efficient use of irrigation water

Off-farm technologies On-farm technologies g

Oct 2010

Soft tools for OM &M and Evaluation

OffOff-Farm Technologies
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Oct 2010

• Water is conveyed from its source y (reservoir, lakes. river, wells) to the field head for field application

OffOff-Farm Technologies
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• Technologies for flow measurement, g , regulation, operation, diversion and distribution of water –like like
Canal lining - conventional and nonconventional technology Piped conveyance network, Modern flow measuring devices Upstream/ downstream controls, Total Channel Control (TCC) Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)

Oct 2010

Turkey has changed Irrigation design policy from traditional to modern system since 2003

Modern Control Structures in Conveyance Network
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Oct 2010

Similar examples are available elsewhere
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Ultrasonic water  level and  level and Parshall flow  recorder,  recorder, South Africa

South Africa
Oct 2010

Improved Flow measurement Cases in Australia, China and India
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Australia

Intake and water gauge at Zhanghe Irrigation System (ZIS), China
Oct 2010

India

While Costs and Benefits in each one of these Cases are not easily available, some indication on Australian case is available

Imperial Valley USA Supervisory control
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Oct 2010

Oct 2010

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Recycling Irrigation Supply using Pumps

Not only Irrigation, in many situations, situations the Land drainage assumes importance
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Waterlogged field

Saline soil

Oct 2010

SSD installation

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Oct 2010

2.5 % of existing infrastructure needs to be rehabilitated or replaced each year (207 million ha)

OnOn-Farm Technologies
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Water supplied at the field head is applied to crops through various methods :
Modern surface methods Sprinkler methods Micro irrigation

Oct 2010

Oct 2010

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More efficient irrigation systems

Sprinklers for p rice in Brazil
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Oct 2010

Water use W reduced to one quarter (¼) cf. t f flood irrigation

Oct 2010

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Direct Seeding

Micro irrigation technology has dramatically changed the way crops are irrigated

MICRO IRRIGATION IN INDIA - A SUCCESS STORY
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million h illi ha

Water saving:30% to 60% Increase in yields: 20% to 50%

Success factors
Decreasing groundwater availability Liberal subsidy by Central and State Governments (up to 70%) p p p pp y Well developed pump and pipe industry, Strong manufacturing base

Oct 2010

Wide network of dealers/ system suppliers ( >150 manufacturers), 150 Govt. promoting horticulture in a big way

Objective:

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Development and integration of remote sensing, GIS, GPS and related technologies for efficient and precision plantation management to increase national rice and oil palm production and quality of environment

GROUND DATA COLLECTION
Pest, weed etc BASIC LAYERS
Soil Map Remote Sensing Data Yield Map Weather Data Land Use Map Socio-Economic SocioCadastral Map

MODELLING for optimum input and output ACTION MAP for optimum input

Oct 2010

Use of Technology - Precision Farming

Use of Waste Water
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Wastewater ~ 500 million m3 WW/year 50% treated to secondary level 30% treated to tertiary level 4% discharged via cesspits 16% inadequately treated

Oct 2010

Mix junction using effluent and saline water j g

The immense potential of WW reuse is seen in the Middle Eastern Region paticularly in Israel, Egypt etc

Oct 2010

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Costs & Benefits - Australian Example p
• The old Dethridge meter wheels measuring wheels, in favour of the farmer by about 8% could only deliver flow rates of 5 or 10 million liters/day. • N New electronic meters being introduced l t i t b i i t d d can now deliver flow rates of up to 25 million liters/day. illi lit /d • Besides, other measures for system improvement are undertaken at a cost of about $A 300 million. • Benefits are obvious….
Irr rigated Agric d culture e
Oct 2010

Australia invests on Hard solutions : an example l
Irr rigated Agric d culture e
Area covered (ha) Canal automation with SCADA Canal lining with - HDPE - concrete - geo-textile/ beaching Piped conveyance of irrigation water Modern water delivery outlets (Flumegate/ Magflow/ PA) 204,506 3,702 564 23,768 11,803 117,054 Cost/ ha (AU $) 627 4048 4468 142 6,490 481

Type of Technology

Oct 2010

Source: Data received from Australian National Committee of ICID (ANCID)

Soft tools for O &M and Evaluation
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• Soft tools/ models/ decision support oFAO’ RAP And MASSCOTE, , system (DSS) are spreading as a set of t di t f oBenchmarking  of irrigation schemes ( FAO‐IWMI‐ ICID), soft options oInternet based irrigation scheduling b d i i h d li • Developed for iimproved operation, maintenance, monitoring and oSatellite remote sensing and GIS for assessing irrigated  • Evaluation of irrigation systems area, extent of water‐logging,  crop water 
productivity, etc., productivity etc oParticipatory irrigation management (IMT/PIM)

Oct 2010

Stages of the Benchmarking Process (1)Identification &
Planning

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(8)Verification &
Monitoring

(7)Action (6)Integration &
Decision making

(3)Calculation &
Interpretation

(4)Comparisons &
Identification of BP

(5)Analysis
Oct 2010

Oct 2010

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FAO’s MASSCOTE

Key Messages/Recommendations
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Oct 2010

• Developing appropriate/affordable technology • Effective dissemination of available technologies irrigation managers and farmers • Effective financing system for purchase of equipment and tools by small holder and resource poor farmers • St Strengthening the national irrigation th i th ti l i i ti extension / advisory services

Key Issues
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Oct 2010

• Capacity building of local institutions • Revamping of irrigation agencies • Increased investment by public and private sectors • Mi Mismatch between prevailing technology t hb t ili t h l and local needs • Limited R&D in developing countries • Affordable technology for use of wastewaste water in peri-urban agriculture

Oct 2010

Irr rigated Agric d culture e

Ref: Salah Darghouth, WB

Issues for Discussion
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Oct 2010

• Barriers to adopting new technologies – policies, institutions, incentives institutions incentives, infrastructure? • Role of major stakeholders – beneficiaries, government, government private sector international sector, organizations • Priorities in implementing new technologies – investments in hardware and software? • Sustainability up-scaling, replication and climate Sustainability, up scaling change challenges

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