JavaScript

JavaScript a fost dezvoltat prima dat de c tre firma Netscape, cu numele de Live Script, un limbaj de script care extindea capacit tile HTML, ofer o alternativ par ial la utilizarea unui num r mare de scripturi pentru prelucrarea informa iilor din formulare i care adaug dinamism în paginile web. Dup lansarea limbajului Java, Netscape a început s lucreze cu firma Sun, cu scopul de a crea un limbaj de script cu o sintax i semantic asem n toare cu a limbajului Java, i din motive de marketing numele noului limbaj de script a fost schimbat în "JavaScript". Cu fiecare nou versiune, HTML devine din ce în ce mai puternic, dar unele lucr ri cer înc mai mult decât ceea ce pot oferi etichetele HTML de baz . HTML este proiectat s formateze i s afi eze articole pe ecran. Îns dac dorea i ca paginile dumneavoastr web s interac ioneze cu utilizatorul, în trecut trebuia s scrie i un script CGI care s fie plasat pe server. Scripturile CGI sunt foarte capabile, dar necesit adesea unele cuno tin e neconven ionale de programare i de lucru cu un server. O alt variant este de a folosi JavaScript, un limbaj u or de înv at i de folosit. JavaScript ruleaz pe ma ina client i este înglobat în codul HTML, astfel c este ideal pentru oamenii obi nuiti cu HTML. Site-urile Web nu sunt îns doar ni te "tip rituri electronice", ele trebuie s interac ioneze cu utilizatorul, s -i furnizeze acestuia servicii prompte i "pe gustul s u". Pentru a putea defini i folosi comportamentul elementelor dintr-o pagin Web s-au dezvoltat limbaje simple de "programare", numite limbaje de scripting. Secven ele de program scrise intr-un astfel de limbaj se numesc scripturi. JavaScript este un limbaj de scriptare simplu, interpretat, orientat spre obiecte, care poate fi folosit pentru a ad uga un comportament interactiv simplu unei pagini HTML prin intermediul unui script de cuvinte-cheie inserate într-o pagin web. Scripturile JavaScript sunt interpretate de browserele Web, care " tiu" JavaScript, deci leg tura browser-script va ap rea cu claritate. Ca i în limbajele tradi ionale, în JavaScript vom lucra cu variabile, constante, tipuri de date, func ii. Noutatea e aceea c JavaScript este un limbaj orientat obiect i bazat pe evenimente. Aceste dou caracteristici vor fi discutate pe larg deoarece reprezint esen a limbajului. Obiect. Eveniment Oricare limbaj orientat-obiect are ca baz no iunea de obiect, de aici derivând i o nou manier de programare. Prin obiect în elegem un model software al unei entit i sau fenomen din via a real , c ruia i se re in doar însu irile fundamentale, definitorii. Obiectul va fi descris
1

. Evenimente ar putea fi: elevul nu a înv at.proprietate Modificarea unei propriet i se poate face astfel: prof.. greutate. "prototipul" unora dintre fo tii. Obiectul nostru poate ajunge într-una din st rile men ionate în urma apari iei unui eveniment. Definim în general un prototip de obiect o clas de obiecte. pred într-una. care determin reac ia obiectului (realizarea unei ac iuni). culoarea ochilor) i calitative (inteligen a.printr-un set de comportamente i caracteristici. caracteristicile i starea unei pagini HTML.).. actualii sau viitorii vo tri profesori. stare a unui obiect. imagini Apare cand.. Pentru a putea lucra cu obiectul trebuie s utiliz m numele acestuia. Dac definim i obiectul elev.. aceasta însemnând o list cu ac iunile întreprinse: pune note proaste. strig la bie ii elevi.. y În exemplul anterior a i recunoscut. event(eveniment) = "ceva care se întampl ".. cu propriile însu iri i comportamente. reac ioneaz i determin reac ii. vom avea imaginea unei lumi în care entit ile sunt obiecte ce interac ioneaz . Deci câ iva termeni foarte importanti sunt: y y y object (obiect). În JavaScript prin obiecte se reprezint ac iunile. property(proprietate) = caracteristica fundamental a unui obiect. ceea ce determin activarea ac iunii de a pune note proaste sau de a striga la elev. Putem lua în considerare caracteristici (properties) cantitative (în l ime.. în timp ce un obiect particular al clasei este numit instan (clasa este o mul ime de obiecte).80 Pentru a putea lucra cu evenimentele trebuie s cunoa tem care pot fi acestea i cum le putem "capta" (cum tim c s-a produs un eveniment i cum putem executa ac iunea dorit ). S lu m ca exemplu transformarea unui profesor (notat cu prof') într-un obiect. Utilizatorul opre te înc rcarea unei imagini (ap sând butonul Stop sau selectând o leg tur ) 2 Event handler onAbort . Evenimentele posibile sunt listate în tabelul de mai jos: Eveniment Abort Se aplic pentru. Obiectul nostru va fi bine descris prin comportamentul s u (behavior).. precum i alte obiecte implicate..bun = false prof. iar pentru a utiliza valoarea unei propriet i proced m astfel: nume_obiect. probabil. method (metod ) = ac iune a obiectului prin intermediul c reia se pot modifica una sau mai multe propriet i ale obiectului.inaltime = 1. stare de a teptare (doar o prinde pe careva copiind la extemporal). Obiectul nostru se va afla la un moment dat într-o anumit stare: stare de nervi.

c su e de click") un element validare.onMouseMove ului arii.Blur ferestre si elemente de Utilizatorul elimin controlul formular de intrare de pe un element de formular sau fereastr câmpuri i arii de text. leg turi ferestre formulare ferestre arii de text. Utilizatorul elibereaz zone de text. imagini. imagini. Utilizatorul leg turi. ferestre ("d onBlur Change Click onChange onClick DragDrop Error Focus Utilizatorul "trage" un obiect în fereastra Înc rcarea unui document determin erori onDragDrop onError onFocus ferestre i elemente de Utilizatorul d controlul de formular intrare unei ferestre sau unui element de formular documente. zone de text tast corpul documentului documente. Utilizatorul schimb liste derulante valoarea elementului butoane. leg turi documente. imagini. imagini. leg turi tast (din ap sare) documente. Utilizatorul apas o tast arii de text. leg turi ferestre imagini. Utilizatorul mut cursorul onMouseOver deasupra unui link butoane. Utilizatorul elibereaz butonul mouse-ului Mutarea unei ferestre Ap sarea butonului Reset Modificarea ferestre m rimii unei un onMouseUp onMove onReset onResize onSelect liste Utilizatorul selecteaz 3 . butoane Utilizatorul "apas " radio. leg turi Utilizatorul mut cursorul în afara elementelor specificate onMouseOut MouseOver MouseUp Move Reset Resize Select leg turi documente. Utilizatorul "dezapasa" onMouseDown butonul mouse-ului Mutarea cursorului mouse. leg turi elibereaz o un o KeyDown KeyPress KeyUp Load MouseDown MouseMove MouseOut onKeyDown onKeyPress onKeyUp onLoad Utilizatorul încarc document în browser butoane.

În tabelul precedent sunt prezentate evenimentele posibile.derulante Submit Unload formulare corpul documentului element de intrare Utilizatorul formular trimite un onSubmit onUnload Utilizatorul iese din pagin Apari ia unui eveniment este testat prin folosirea unui identificator numit handler. deci vom în elege prin event handler tratarea apari iei unui eveniment. Acest marcaj permite introducerea unui num r arbitrar de func ii sau secven e de instruc iuni JavaScript i poate s apar în orice sec iune a documentului. Codul este urm torul: <HTML> <HEAD> <Title>Exp 1</Title> <Script Language="JavaScript"> <!-document. care este o extensie a limbajului HTML. Exemplul 1. Marcajul Script Pentru a introduce un script într-un document Web vom utiliza marcajul <SCRIPT>.write("Acesta este inceputul documentului") --> </Script> </HEAD> <Body> <P> Restul mai tarziu ! </Body> </HTML> Observatii: y Am utilizat atributul Language pentru a specifica ce limbaj de scripting este utilizat în scriptul inserat. 4 . elementele unde pot ap rea evenimentele. Vom introduce un script care s afi eze în document un mesaj. Handler-ul reprezint de fapt apelul unei func ii sau o secven de instructiuni JavaScript. Cum introducem un script. semnifica ia si handler-ul fiec rui eveniment (se adaug prefixul on numelui evenimentului).

Exemple" vor fi tratate diferit. Punct si virgula (. Folosirea metodei alert a obiectului window determin apari ia unui mesaj de avertizare pentru utilizator. Acest obiect define te caracteristicile documentului HTML înc rcat în fereastra navigatorului. Case-sensitive . window.). Src = "fisier. ceea ce este scris în interiorul marcajului Script nu este luat în considerare. i mici.alert ("Apasa OK pentru continuarea incarcarii documentului !"). Ad ug m codului din exemplul precedent linia: window. 1. Dac fi ierul ce con ine scriptul este identificat i înc rcat f r erori. Plasarea scriptului în antetul documentului determin executarea acestuia la înc rcarea paginii de c tre navigator. var2 = 8. Daca apar erori la înc rcarea scriptului se iau în considerare instruc iunile scrise în interiorul marcajului. Con inutul paginii va fi afi at doar dup executarea scripturilor din antetul documentului. 2. Conven ii de sintax In orice limbaj. Metoda write afi eaz un ir de caractere în cadrul documentului. Exemplul 2.se face diferen a între literele mari precum "exemple. care modeleaz fereastra navigatorului.js" . se termin cu un semn de punctua ie etc.precizeaz ce limbaj de scripting utiliz m în scriptul inserat. acesta putându-se afla i pe un calculator de la distan ). Atributele marcajului SCRIPT: y y Putem introduce oricâte marcaje SCRIPT în documentul HTML i în oricare sec iune a documentului.y y y Scriptul propriu-zis a fost introdus într-un marcaj de comentariu pentru a nu induce în eroare browserele care nu pot interpreta JavaScript. scrierea are conven ii i reguli de sintax . De asemenea.) (Exemplu" var1 = 3. astfel cuvinte se termine cu un caracter 5 .! La fel i limbajele de programare au regulile i sintaxa lor.Toate declara iile trebuie s "punct si virgula" (. Chiar i scrierea în limba româna are regulile ei de sintax : orice propozi ie începe cu liter mare.) .scriptul nu va mai fi introdus în documentul HTML ci va fi preluat din fi ierul specificat (se poate scrie calea absolut c tre fi ier. Observatii: y y Am utilizat un obiect nou. document i o metod a sa write. Spunem c ascundem scriptul de navigatoarele care nu tiu JavaScript. În continuare vor fi prezentate regulile de sintax ala limbajului Java Script. Language="denumire_limbaj" . Dac folosim Visual Basic Script vom scrie ca denumire "VBScipt". într-un marcaj SCRIPT pot fi introduse un num r arbitrar de func ii i instruc iuni. Ap sarea butonului OK permite continuarea navig rii. Am utilizat un obiect predefinit.

indic o pagina noua \n . începem scrierea acestuia cu succesiunea // (Exemplu: // Comentariu).primul caracter nu poate fi un num r ... Pentru aceasta folosim caracterul backslash "###BOT_TEXT###quot; în fa a unuia din codurile Escape . Pentru a ad uga un comentariu..când scriem scripturi. un caracter de subliniere (_) sau semnul $ . acestea sunt utile pentru a face codul mai bine structurat i u or de citit. Spatiile libere . apare necesitatea de a folosi în cod sau în datele de ie ire.indic o apasare a tastei TAB \ .backspace \f . tab-urile i liniile libere care apar în instructiuni.. 4.indic un apostrof (ghilimele simple) ###BOT_TEXT###quot; . deoarece interpretorul programului nu va face diferen a între aceste nume i comenzile JavaScript cu acelea i nume.numele dat variabilelor i func iilor trebuie s respecte urm toarele reguli: .Ghilimelele simple ('') si duble ("") sunt folosite pentru a delimita irurile de caractere (string).. "status". sau o linie noua. limbajul JavaScript con ine. Comentarii ." este la fel cu "var1=2.comentariile in interiorul codului sunt necesare când dorim s specific m rolul anumitor functii i variabile.JavaScript ignor spa iile libere. (Exemplu: "Invat JavaScript" sau 'Invat JavaScript'). cum ar fi tasta TAB . Numele variabileler si functiilor . pentru o mai u oara în elegere ulterioar a scriptului.". ca în orice limbaj de programare. Ghilimelele .primul caracter trebuie s fie o liter . care fac parte din limbajul JavaScript (cum sunt "array". pe o singur linie. Recunoa te doar spatiile care apar în string-uri (sirurile de caractere).indic o linie noua \r .).indic un caracter backslash

. Exemplu: "var1 = 2 . */) 7.3.imdic un retur de car \t . Dac dorim s scriem comentarii pe mai multe rânduri. un caracter special sau o ap sare de tasta .nu se folosesc cuvinte rezervate. obiecte. handler-e de eveniment. 5. Caractere speciale . urm toarele elemente: y variabile y constante y operatori y expresii y instruc iuni y func ii 6 .. "alert"). astfel : \b .numele nu trebuie s con in spa ii libere . în interiorul codului. Elementele de baz ale limbajului JavaScript Pe lâng elementele specifice (evenimente. se folose te /* la începutul comentariului si */ la sfâr itul acestuia (Exemplu: /* .indic ghilimele duble 6. comentariu pe mai multe randuri .

De exemplu: y var x = "xyz". iar cele 'numerice' pot fi scrise si fara ghilimele.mul ime ale c rei elemente pot fi date ca valori variabilei. Tipuri de variabile .sir de caractere ce identifica in mod unic variabila. numit identificator. identificatorul con ine litere. Numele variabilei permite accesul la valoarea ei precum i schimbarea valorii dac este necesar. acesta poate recunoa te singur când datele sunt de tip " ir".zona de memorie în care se p streaz valoarea actual a variabilei (dimensiunea zonei este dependenta de tipul variabilei) Modul cel mai simplu de a folosi i a face referire la o astfel de dat variabil este de a o denumi.Cu declara ia var y i s -i atribuim o valoare prin dou metode: var nume = valoare . adica permite schimbarea tipului unei variabile in cadrul scriptului. valoare . . JavaScript recunoa te : y y . Operatori Pentru a lucra cu datele introduse într-un script i a manipula valorile variabilelor se folosesc operatori. x = 8. 7 .F r declara ia var y nume = valoare .Unde 'nume' este numele variabilei iar 'valoare' este valoarea pe care i-o atribuim. cifre. De obicei.Spre deosebire de alte limbaje JavaScript nu are tipuri fixe de date.care au nevoie doar de un operand.Observati ca valorile de tip 'sir' (formate din litere) se scriu intre ghilimele. prin variabil algoritmi. tip de date . zona de memorie . .care necesit existen a a doi operanzi în expresie.valoarea propriu-zisa a variabilei. Operatorii sunt simboluri i identificatori care determin felul în care sunt modificate datele i modul în care este evaluat o combina ie de expresii i variabile. Variabila î i poate schimba valoarea pe parcursul execu iei.Variabile În accep iunea general a termenului. dar are o singur valoare la un moment dat.operatori unari . caracterul "_" si are ca prim caracter o litera sau "_". numerice sau alt tip. Se poate crea o variabil .operatori binari . care are urm toarele caracteristici: y în elegem un obiect utilizat în y y y nume .

Operatori logici (numiti si booleeni) .Operatori pentru siruri .Operatori pentru functii .Operatori de atribuire .Operatori de comparare .Operatori sunt de mai multe tipuri: .Operator conditional ? .Operatori typeof .Operatori aritmetici .Operatori pentru structuri de date 8 .

. Exemplu: "var1 = 2 . */) 7.3.imdic un retur de car \t . Dac dorim s scriem comentarii pe mai multe rânduri. un caracter special sau o ap sare de tasta .nu se folosesc cuvinte rezervate. obiecte. handler-e de eveniment. 5. Caractere speciale . urm toarele elemente: y variabile y constante y operatori y expresii y instruc iuni y func ii 6 .. "alert"). astfel : \b .numele nu trebuie s con in spa ii libere . în interiorul codului. Elementele de baz ale limbajului JavaScript Pe lâng elementele specifice (evenimente. se folose te /* la începutul comentariului si */ la sfâr itul acestuia (Exemplu: /* .indic ghilimele duble 6. comentariu pe mai multe randuri .

De exemplu: y var x = "xyz". iar cele 'numerice' pot fi scrise si fara ghilimele.mul ime ale c rei elemente pot fi date ca valori variabilei. Tipuri de variabile .sir de caractere ce identifica in mod unic variabila. numit identificator. identificatorul con ine litere. Numele variabilei permite accesul la valoarea ei precum i schimbarea valorii dac este necesar. acesta poate recunoa te singur când datele sunt de tip " ir".zona de memorie în care se p streaz valoarea actual a variabilei (dimensiunea zonei este dependenta de tipul variabilei) Modul cel mai simplu de a folosi i a face referire la o astfel de dat variabil este de a o denumi.Cu declara ia var y i s -i atribuim o valoare prin dou metode: var nume = valoare . adica permite schimbarea tipului unei variabile in cadrul scriptului. valoare . . JavaScript recunoa te : y y . Operatori Pentru a lucra cu datele introduse într-un script i a manipula valorile variabilelor se folosesc operatori. x = 8. 7 .F r declara ia var y nume = valoare .Unde 'nume' este numele variabilei iar 'valoare' este valoarea pe care i-o atribuim. cifre. De obicei.Spre deosebire de alte limbaje JavaScript nu are tipuri fixe de date.care au nevoie doar de un operand.Observati ca valorile de tip 'sir' (formate din litere) se scriu intre ghilimele. prin variabil algoritmi. tip de date . zona de memorie . .care necesit existen a a doi operanzi în expresie.valoarea propriu-zisa a variabilei. Operatorii sunt simboluri i identificatori care determin felul în care sunt modificate datele i modul în care este evaluat o combina ie de expresii i variabile. Variabila î i poate schimba valoarea pe parcursul execu iei.Variabile În accep iunea general a termenului. dar are o singur valoare la un moment dat.operatori unari . caracterul "_" si are ca prim caracter o litera sau "_". numerice sau alt tip. Se poate crea o variabil .operatori binari . care are urm toarele caracteristici: y în elegem un obiect utilizat în y y y nume .

Operatori logici (numiti si booleeni) .Operatori pentru siruri .Operatori pentru functii .Operatori de atribuire .Operatori de comparare .Operatori sunt de mai multe tipuri: .Operator conditional ? .Operatori typeof .Operatori aritmetici .Operatori pentru structuri de date 8 .

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