What is GDM2000?

GDM stands for the Geocentric Datum of Malaysia. It forms the new earth-centred coordinate datum for Malaysia that will gradually replace the regional datums of Kertau 1948 in Peninsular Malaysia and Timbalai 1948 in Sabah and Sarawak. GDM2000 is basically realized using Global Positioning System (GPS) to connect the national Zero Order Network (i.e. the Malaysia Active GPS System stations) with some of the global permanent GPS network (i.e. the International GPS Service stations). GDM2000 was officially launched on 26th of August 2003.

Why is Malaysia adopting the GDM2000?
There are many reasons for the adoption of GDM2000. Amongst them are: Wide spread use of satellite positioning systems Existing datums not compatible Unification of datums between East and West Malaysia In line with international recommendation

The advantage of GDM2000 compare WGS 84
The main advantage is that GDM2000 coordinates are immediately compatible with global coordinates obtained from GPS and with other coordinate systems adopted in many parts of the world. It will also allow an efficient exchange of data and linking of products from various information systems. Difference between the existing coordinates and the new GDM2000 coordinates is the existing coordinates were obtained using conventional techniques, long before satellite techniques were available. They are based on a model of the earth, that best suited our region at the time. On the other hand, GDM2000 is based on an international mathematical model which "best fits" the shape of the whole earth, with its centre coinciding with the earth's centre of mass. Existing coordinates will change approximately 200 metres with the new GDM2000. The exact change and orientation of the change will vary slightly from area to area.

but more complicated as there are many vertical datums currently in use. the coordinates of the boundary marks will change since they would then be referred to a different coordinate referencing system. This is due to tectonic¶s plate motion and thus they need to be brought or mapped using a plate motion or velocity field to their coordinates at a time of. In Peninsular Malaysia.000 scale. At 1:50. It used GPS data recorded up to the year 2000. The good news is that these heights can be transformed to levelling heights using the national geoid model. 2000. which was developed over 15 years ago by the US Department of Defense. which is different from the mean sea level (or the geoid). Thus it is more accurate than the WGS84 datum. our height system is referenced to the Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Vertical Datum (PMGVD). Nevertheless. based on local mean sea level. the ITRF2000 Epoch 2000. The bearing as well as distance of the land parcels and consequently the lot boundaries will not change. However. On the other hand. There are two issues that need to be addressed here.000 the shift is barely significant at 4 mm. First. ITRF2000 is the latest realisation of the reference frame and thus the most accurate to date. . in our case. It is based on the mean sea level from a 10year tidal observation at Port Kelang since 1983. the present cadastral survey system will be maintained until the full implementation of the Coordinated Cadastral System (CCS). the heights of GDM are above GRS80 ellipsoid.0 set of coordinates has an epoch because coordinates slowly change with time. relative to the gridlines on the map. which would be making use of GDM2000 as the coordinate reference frame in Peninsular Malaysia. One of the motivating factors in the adoption of the GDM is to develop the cadastral database to be in an internationally accepted reference frame and to an acceptable and defined accuracy. It is 20 mm at 1:10. The same principle also applies in Sabah and Sarawak. Secondly.Implementation Of Geocentric Datum GDM2000 affect existing map details will experience about 200 metres shift.

SLR.0) coincides with the centre of the mass of the earth and the directions of their axes are defined by convention (Figure 3). y Strengthening and readjustment of Peninsular Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network (PMPGN2000) y Derivation of transformation parameters. a geocentric coordinate system (GDM 2000) is a system whose origin (0. and GPS data [Bock.By definition. . y Computation of the new geocentric datum coordinates at a specific epoch. which is defined by adopting the geocentric Cartesian coordinates and velocities of global tacking stations derived from the analysis of VLBI. 1998]. y Data processing and adjustment of Zero Order Geodetic Network. The International Earth Rotation Services (IERS) maintains this present day terrestrial reference system through an International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The implementation of geocentric datum for Malaysia will required the connection to such reference frame (ITRF). y Determination of velocity model for Malaysia. The adoption of geocentric datum will definitely lead to a homogeneous national coordinate datum across the country. The following stages of realization of the geocentric datum have been planned and carried out: y GPS data collection for the Zero Order Geodetic Network.0. and will ensure that coordinates are directly compatible with GPS coordinate output and with international mapping and charting standards.

Malayan Revised Triangulation Peninsular Malaysia GPS Scientific Network 1994 Figure 3: Geocentric Datum .