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Aerodynamika vysokch rychlost - semestrln prce

Robert Kulhnek

20. ledna 2012

Obsah
1 loha - nporov oteplen nbn hran

2 loha - adiabatick zvukov elipsa

3 loha - Proudn v konvergentn divergentn trysce

4 loha - Statick tlak raketovho motoru

5 loha - Aerodynamick tunel

6 loha - Nporov motor

7 loha - Kolm rzov vlna

10

8 loha - Intenzita rzov vlny

10

9 loha - Intenzita rzov vlny

10

10 loha - Proudc plyn

10

11 loha - Tlakov pomry na rychlomrnch sondch

11

12 loha - Zmna entropie

11

13 loha - Rychlostn pomry pi nestlaitelnm a stlaitelnm proudn

11

14 loha - Aerodynamick charakteristiky prol

14

15 loha - Kritick machovo slo

22

1 loha - nporov oteplen nbn hran


1. urete
hran a vypracujte zvislost 4T = f (v) pro h = 0 [m] dle MSA a
 zmnu teploty 4T na nbn

v=

50

100

150

200

300

[m/s]

2. vypotte oteplen SR-71 Blackbird pro M = 3.5, h = 25000[m], a = 294 [m/s]


Pi vpotu prvn sti lohy jsem vyel ze zkona o zachovn energie
v2
v2
+ CP T = Cp T0 4T = T0 T =
2
2CP

mrnou tepelnou kapacitu pi konstantnm tlaku jsem uvaoval CP = 1004.5 [J/kgK]


45
40
35

T [C]

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
50

100

150

200

250

v rychlost [m/s]

Obrzek 1: 4T = f (v)
Druhou st lohy jsem eil obdobn.
2

4T =

v2
(M a)
(3.5 294)
= 527 [C]
=
=
2CP
2CP
2 1004.5

300

2 loha - adiabatick zvukov elipsa


Letoun let v h = 3000[m] dle MSA pi v =

800

1400

2100

[Km/h] .

1. Urete: e, a, vkr , vm , M, , p, , T , p0 , 0 , T0
2. graf zvukov adiabatick elipsy
3. zvislost T na rychlosti proudu
Pi vpotu jsem pouil nsledujch vztahy

a=

e=
q

v2
2

+ CP T
v2
2

M=

vkr =

( 1)

v
a

2e
(+1)
(1)

vm =

v
vkr

2e


p= 1

(1) 2
(+1)

 1


 1
2 1
= 1 (1)

 (+1)

2
T = 1 (1)

(+1)

p0 =

p
p

0 =

T0 =

T
T

a vypoetl vsledky pro zadan rychlosti.


e

m2/s2

29456
34549
44001

a [m/s]

vkr [m/s]

vm [m/s]

p0

T0

328
328
328

313
339
382

767
831
938

0.67
1.18
1.78

0.7
1.15
1.52

0.74
0.42
0.18

0.8
0.54
0.3

0.9
0.78
0.6

95253
166450
388040

0.9844
1.4666
2.4847

293
344
438

450
400
350

a rychlost zvuku [m/s]

rychlost [km/h]
800
1400
2100

300
250
200
150
100
v1=800 [km/h]
v2=1400 [km/h]

50

v3=2100 [km/h]
0

0.5

1.5

rychlostni parametr []

Obrzek 2: zvukov adiabatick elipsy

2.5

500
450
400

Teplota [K]

350
300
250
200
150
100

v1=800 [km/h]
v2=1400 [km/h]

50
0

v3=2100 [km/h]
0

200

400

600

800

rychlost [m/s]

Obrzek 3: zvislost T na rychlosti proudu

1000

3 loha - Proudn v konvergentn divergentn trysce


Dno:

h = 0[m]dle MSA tj. p = 101400 [P a], = 1.225 [kg/m3 ], T1 = 288.3 [K], v1 = 120 [m/s], D1 = 0.48 [m],
M2 = 0.75

Urete:

e, vm , vkr , m
, v2 , 2 , 2 , p2 , T2 ,p1,2 ,T 1,2 ,1,2 ,0 ,T0 ,p0 ,D0

v M
1 1

v M
2 2

Obrzek 4: konvergentn divergentn tryska


Pro vpoet jsem pouil nsledujc vztahy
s

 2 
v2
e=
+ CP T = 296800 m /s2
2

vm = 2e = 770 [m/s]
s
2e
vkr =
= 314 [m/s]
(+1)

1 =

( + 1) M12
= 0.3815
( 1) M12 + 2


( 1) 2 1
p1 = 1
= 0.917

( + 1) 1

 1
( 1) 2 1

1 = 1
= 0.94
( + 1) 1


( 1) 2
T1 = 1
1 = 0.976
( + 1)
p1
p0 =
= 110500 [P a]
p1
1
0 =
= 1.3025 [kg/m3 ]
1


(1)

D12
m
= v1 1
= 26.6 [kg/s]
4
s
( + 1) M22
2 =
= 0.779
( 1) M22 + 2
v2 = vkr 2 = 245 [m/s]


( 1) 2 1
p2 = 1

= 0.689
( + 1) 2

 1
( 1) 2 1
2 = 1

= 0.766
( + 1) 2


( 1) 2
T2 = 1
2 = 0.899
( + 1)

a1 = RT = 340 [m/s]
v1
M1 =
= 0.35
a1

T0 =

T1
= 295.5 [K]
T1

p2 = p0 p2 = 76086 [P a]
2 = 0 2 = 0.9978 [kg/m3 ]
T2 = T0 T 2 = 265.6 [K]
 
1 v1 D12
= 0.108 m2
42 v2
r
4S2
D2 =
= 0.372 [m]

S2 =

4 loha - Statick tlak raketovho motoru


Dno:

J
Kg
h = 11000[m]
 dle
 MSA = 1.26 (H2 + O2 ), R = 8314.3 [ /KKmol], TSK = 2650 [K], M = 9.5 [ /Kmol],
2
Skr = 0.07 m , pSK = 25p

Urete:

e, vm , vkr , m
, v , pv , Tv , dv , Mv ,v ,Sv ,T AH ,Dv

V
SK
kr

Obrzek 5: tryska raketovho motoru


Pro vpoet jsem pouil nsledujc vztahy
R=

R
= 875 [J/kgK]
M

vv = Mv av = 3303 [m/s]

vm = 2e = 4741 [m/s]

= 4241.3 [J/kgK]
1
 2 
e = cP TSK = 11239000 m /s2
cP = R

kr = 1

( 1) 2 1

p= 1
= 0.553
( + 1) kr

 1
( 1) 2 1
= 1

= 0.625
( + 1) kr


( 1) 2
T = 1
kr = 0.885
( + 1)


p0 = pSK = 565800 [P a]
T0 = TSK = 2650 [K]
p0
0 =
= 0.244 [kg/m3 ]
RT0
p
p=
= 0.04
p0
s
1
+ 1 p ( + 1)
= 2.054
v =
1


( 1) 2
Tv = 1
= 0.52 [K]
( + 1) v

pkr = pkr p0 = 312920 [P a]


kr = kr 0 = 0.1525 [kg/m3 ]
Tkr = T kr T0 = 2345 [K]
p
akr = RTkr = 1608 [m/s]
vkr = akr

Tv = T v T0 = 1364 [K]
p
av = RTv = 1226.4 [m/s]

m
= kr vkr Skr = 17 [kg/s]
T AH = mv
kr = 56688 [N ]

5 loha - Aerodynamick tunel


Dno:

h = 0[m]dle MSA , rozmry tunelu bM P = 0.5 [m], hM P = 0.5 [m], bKR = 0.5 [m] , v mcm
prostoru proud vzduch rychlost MM P = 2.5

Urete:

e, vm , vkr , m
, hkr a pro stav KR a MP, p, T , v , a,

Pro vpoet jsem pouil nsledujc vztahy a


postupy
pM P

MKR = KR = 1 []

1
 1
( 1) 2
MM P
= 0.1317
M P = 1
2

1
( 1) 2
= 0.4
T MP = 1
MM P
2



( 1) 2 1

= 0.528
= 1
( + 1) kr

pKR


1

KR =


T KR =

( 1) 2

( + 1) kr

1
 1

( 1) 2
1

( + 1) kr


 1
( 1) 2
= 1
MM P
= 0.0585
2

= 0.634

pM P = pM P p0 = 5930 [P a]

M P = M P 0 = 0.161 [kg/m3 ]

= 0.83

TM P = T M P T0 = 128 [K]
pKR = pKR p0 = 53528 [P a]
KR = KR 0 =

aKR
e=

s
M P =

0.776 [kg/m3 ]

TKR = T KR T0 = 239 [K]


p
= vKR = RTKR = 310 [m/s]
2
vKR
2

+ 1 pMP ( 1)
= 1.826
1

vM P = M P vKR = 567 [m/s]


aM P =

+ Cp TKR = 289447

vm =

/s2

vM P
MM P

= 227 [m/s]

m
= M P vM P bM P hM P = 22.9 [kg/s]

2e = 760 [m/s]

hKR =

KR vKR bKR

= 0.19 [m]

6 loha - Nporov motor


Stanovte tah nporovho motoru
Dno:

T = 283.15 [K], p = 0.1 [M P a], v = 500[m/s], ped SK 1 = 1.4, d1 = 0.5 [m] za SK


2 = 1.33, T2 = 2073 [K], d2 = 0.8 [m], v2 = 85.5[m/s]

Urete:

S1 , S2 , S3 , SKR a TAH

Pro vpoet jsem pouil nsledujc vztahy


a postupy
e1 =

2
v
2

1
1 1 RT

r
vKR1 =

2e1

1 =
q

M1 =

= 409520

/s

m
= 1 v1 S1 = 111.53 [kg/s]
m

v2 S2

2 =

v22
2


p2 = e1

= 1.35

21
1 +1(1 1)21

e2 =

v22
2

r
2e2

2 =
M2 =

 11

(1 1) 2
= 1
= 0.402

(1 + 1) 1


(1 1) 2
1 = 0.695
T = 1
(1 + 1)
1

p0 =
0 =

v2
vKR2

pKR

p2
p2

e2

TKR =

p0
= 334624 [P a]
H

p01
p0 0

= 303300 [P a]

2

 1
2
(2 1) 2
= 1

= 0.5404
(2 + 1) KR

01 =

= 0.0961

pKR = pKR p02 = 163892 [P a]

(1 1)M12 +2

v1 =

= 0.1036

MKR = KR = 1

 111
M12 1
= 1.069
1
 1
2

2
vKR
v

2 1
= 825 [m/s]
2 + 1

22
2 +1(2 1)22

p02 =

pomr stagnanch tlak za kolmou rzovou


vlnou

p01 =

2
vKR2
2

= 2017 [K]

Cp2
pKR
RTKR

KR =

= 0.283 [kg/m3 ]

= 273 [m/s]
SKR =
= 2.646 [kg/m3 ]

KR vKR

 
= 0.4786 m2

p3 = p = 100000 [P a]
T0 = T01 = 409 [K]
1 =

v
v1

S1 =

d21
4


 1
(2 1) 2 2 1
= 0.9954
1
2
(2 + 1)


(2 1) 2
2 = 0.9985
T2 = 1
(2 + 1)

T
= 409 [K]
T

1
1 + 2
p0
1 +1
H=
=

p01
(1 +1)M1

m2/s2

2 =

1 RT
=
= 2.829 [kg/m3 ]

= 301444 [P a]


 2
(2 1) 2 21 1
p2 = 1

= 0.9939
(2 + 1) 2

p
= 357714 [P a]
p

T0 =

1 1
1 2

= 1.48


 1
(1 1) 2 1 1
= 1

= 0.28
(1 + 1) 1


= 2.6 [kg/m3 ]

+ Cp2 T = 2402498

vKR2 =
p

 
= 0.503 m2

1 1
= 370 [m/s]
1 + 1

v
vKR1

d22
4

S2 =

T3 = TKR

= 2.0843 [kg/m ]
3

3 =

 
= 0.196 m2

v3 =

p3
pKR

p3
RT3

2
 1
2

= 1548 [K]

= 0.225 [kg/m3 ]

2e2 2Cp2 T3 = 1105 [m/s]

S3 =

v3 3

 
= 0.4834 m2

T AH = m
(v3 v ) = 72833 [N ]

7 loha - Kolm rzov vlna


Dno:

M1 = 3 [], p1 = 50662.5 [P a], T1 = 200[K], = 1.4, 1 = 0.5 [kg/m3 ], R = 287 [J/kgK]

Urete:

M2 , p2 , T2 , v2


p2 = p1 1 +

2
+1

M12



r
= 523510 [P a]

M2 =

(+1)M 2

a2 =

1
2 = 1 (1)M 2 +2
= 3.4059 [kg/m3 ]
1

2
M12 + 1
2
2
1 M1 1

= 0.4752

RT2 = 464 [m/s]

v2 = M2 a2 = 220.5 [m/s]

T2 = T1 pp12 21 = 535.8 [K]

8 loha - Intenzita rzov vlny


Kter z plyn (vzduch i hlium) m vt intenzitu rzov vlny?
Dno:


p2
p1


vz

Intenzita

vz = 1.4 [], He = 1.67 [], M = 5



2
vz
= 1 + 2
M

1
= 29
+1
vz

p2
p1

2He
He +1

=1+
He


M 2 1 = 31.0225

rzov vlny je vt u hlia.

9 loha - Intenzita rzov vlny


Urete intenzitu rzu vzduchu a helia.
Dno:

vz = 1.4 [], He = 1.67 [], T = 288 [K] , v = 1700 [m/s]

vzduch

helium

R = 287 [J/kgK]

a = RT = 340 [m/s]

R = 8.314 [J/molK]

M=
p2
p1

=1+

v
a

2vz
vz +1

M = 0.004 [mol/Kg]

= 4.9974

M 2 1 = 28.97

R
M

R=
a=

= 2078.5 [J/kgK]

RT = 999.837 [m/s]

M=
p2
p1

=1+

v
a

2vz
vz +1

= 1.7


M 2 1 = 3.36

10 loha - Proudc plyn


Dno:

M1 = 3 [], p1 = 1 atm = 101325 [P a], T1 = 288[K], = 1.4, 1 = 1.225 [kg/m3 ], R = 287 [J/kgK]

Urete:

M2 , p2 , T2 , 2 , p02 , T02
i
2
2
M

1
p1 = 1047025 [P a]
1
+1

h
p2 = 1 +
2 =

(+1)M12
(1)M12 +2

T2 =

 p2

p1

v2 = M2 a2 = 264.67 [m/s]

1 = 4.725 [kg/m3 ]

p2
p2 =
=
p02


/ 21 T1 = 772 [K]

a2 = RT2 = 557 [m/s]


r
2
M12 + 1
M2 =
= 0.4752
2
( 1 )M12 1



(1 1) 2 1
1
M2
= 0.8568
2

T2
T2 =
=
T02

(1 1) 2
1
M2
2

p02 =

p2
p2

T02 =

10

1

= 1222100 [P a]

T2
T2

= 806.96 [K]

= 0.9568

11 loha - Tlakov pomry na rychlomrnch sondch


Dno:

H = 5000[m] dle MSA tzn. T = 255.66 [K], = 0.73598 [kg/m3 ], p = 54056.2 [P a]

Urete:

pro rychlosti v = [40 250 500] [m/s] tlakov pomr na sond 4p =

rychlost zvuku na hladin:

p
p0

a=

RT = 320.562 [m/s]

machova sla jso upro zadan rychosti tedy:


M=

v
= [0.1248 0.7799 1.5598]
a

v prvnm ppad mohu uvaovat proudn jako nestlaiteln, v druhm jako stlaiteln a ve tetm jako stlaiteln nadzvukov.
ppad 1

p0 =

1
v + p = 54635 [P a]
2
p
= 0.9892
4p =
p0

ppad 2

4p =

p
= p =
p0


1+

(1 1) 2
M
2

 1

= 0.6691

ppad 3

1+

4p =

1
 1
2
1
M
= 0.2744

+1
2 1
M

2
+1

12 loha - Zmna entropie


Na prandtlove sond byly nameny tlaky p0s = 405300 [P a] a p = 40530 [P a]
urete

M1 , S2 S1

s


p0s
2
+1
1+
= 3.16
p
+1
2


p0s
S2 S1 = R ln
= 660.8 [J/kgK]
p

M1 =

13 loha - Rychlostn pomry pi nestlaitelnm a stlaitelnm proudn


Urete rozloen rychlost po prolu ze zadanch tlakovch souinitel CP . Rozloen rychlost potejte pro

v1 = 50 [m/s] a v2 = 200 [m/s].


x
Cph
Cpd

0
1
1

0.02
-0.33
0.62

0.03
-0.404
0.51

0.05
-0.51
0.34

0.1
-0.66
0.105

0.2
-0.8
-0.07

0.3
-0.86
-0.14

0.4
-0.85
-0.055

0.5
-0.825
-0.14

0.6
-0.705
-0.1

0.7
-0.49
-0.04

0.8
-0.235
0.03

0.9
-0.001
0.095

1
0.15
0.15

Tabulka 1: zadan hodnoty tlakovho souinitele


Pi rychlosti v1 = 50 [m/s] lze zanedbat vliv stlaitelnosti (M=0.14, h=0 MSA). Proto lze pout vztah znm
pro vpoet CP v nzkch rychlostech.

Cp = 1

vi
v1

2
99K

11

vi = v 1

p

1 CP

pi rychlosti v2 = 200 [m/s] ji nelze vliv stlaitelnosti zanedbat (M=0.59, h=0 MSA) a proto se mus pro vpoet
lokln rychlosti postupovat nsledovn.

a=
e=
p

RT = 340 [m/s]

 2 
v22
a2
+
= 3.0955 105 m /s2
2
1


1 2 1
= 0.7915
= 1+
M2
2

ze souinitele tlaku vyplv


Cp =

a lokln rychlost je tedy

p
p 1

2
2 M

99K

h
i
2
p (x) = Cp M
+ 1 p
2

v 

u
u 2e p (x) 1

1
u
vi = t
1
p (x)

70
vH
vD

60

vH, vD [m/s]

50

40

30

20

10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

x
Obrzek 6: rychlostn pomry na prolu pi v1 = 50 [m/s]

12

300
v

vH, vD [m/s]

250

200

150

100

50

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

x
Obrzek 7: rychlostn pomry na prolu pi v2 = 200 [m/s]

1.4

1.2

vi/v

0.8

0.6
v50 h

0.4

v50 d
v200 h

0.2

v200 d
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

x
Obrzek 8: rychlostn pomry na prolu

13

0.8

14 loha - Aerodynamick charakteristiky prol


Z namench tlaku po hloubce prolu vypotejte aerodynamick charakteristiky prolu GAW-1. Tlakov
men jsou pro 0 a -4.1 hlu nbhu. Vyneste zvislosti Cp (x)do grafu, pouijete metodu Prantl-Glauerta a
korekc dle Laitona, Christianovie a Krmn-Tsiena.
x
ph
pd

0
102955
102955

0.025
102038
99405

0.05
101479
99804

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
101080 100841 100681 100570
100123 100410 100570 100634
0.8
0.9
0.95
1
101001 101272 101479 101559
101591 101782 101782 101559

0.5
100522
100729

0.6
100522
100921

0.7
100726
101320

0.6
100251
101160

0.7
100570
101400

Tabulka 2: zadan hodnoty namench tlak = 4.1


x
ph
pd

0
102995
102995

0.025
100602
101660

0.05
100203
101080

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
100139 100139 100139 100139
101048 101033 101033 101017
0.8
0.9
0.95
1
100921 101240 101400 101523
101719 101878 101878 101523

0.5
100139
101001

Tabulka 3: zadan hodnoty namench tlak = 0


Namen hodnoty (M1 = 0.15) se brala pi vpotu jako nestlaiteln proudn. Pi vpotu aerodynamickch charakteristik se uvaovali dle dva ppady a to M2 = 0.25 a M3 = 0.45.
M=0.15 - nestlaiteln proudn

Podmnky men byly dle h=0 MSA tzn a = 340 [m/s] z toho vyplv
v = M1 a = 51.04 [m/s]

z Bernoulliho rovnice lze vyjdit


1 2
1
p + v
= pi + vi2
2
2

s 

2
1 2
vi =
p pi + v

99K

a tlakov souinite jsem vypoetl podle znmho vztahu.



Cpi = 1

vi
v

2

Souinitele vztlaku Cy a momentu mz . jsem ve vech metoudch potal z rozdl tlakovho souinitele.

4Cp dx

Cy =

4Cp xdx

mz =
0

Prangtl-Glauertova metoda

Cpc = p

Cpi
2
1 M

Laitoneova metoda

Cpc = p


2 +
1 M

Cpi

2 1+ 1 M 2
M
( 2 )
2

14

2
1M

Cpi

Krmn-Tsienova metoda

C
 pi p

Cpc = p
2 + 1 1
2 C
1 M
1

M
pi
2
Christinovi

Nejdve jsem pepoetl M ,c dle


s
,c =

2 ( + 1)
M
2 ( 1)
2 + M

z grafu jsem odeetl ,c ,i . Pak jsem dopoetl lokln rychlostn pomry


i = ,i

a tlakovy souinitel dle

1 Cpi

p
p 1

2
2 M

Cpc =

kde



1 2 1
= 1+
M
2


p=

1 2
1+
M
2

 1

lokln machova sla jsem eil numerickou metodou z


12
# 12 q +1

1 M2
1 +
1 1 M2
q

i = c

+1
2
1 + 1 M2

M
1
"

+1
1

kde pro vzduch = 1.4 a c = 0.75763

Vsledky

Vsledn grafy jsou piloeny ne. Vzhledem k tomu e tlaky byly nameny lokln v nkolika mstech, pouil
jse pro integraci lichobnkovou metodu. Vpoet probhl pomoc programu MATLAB.
Z vslednch graf je patrn, e nejvce nadhodnocuje sn Laitoneho metoda.

15

Obrzek 9: CP (x)

16

CP

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.1

0.2

0.3

nestlacitelne Cy= 0.505, mz=0.235


PrandtlGlauert Cy= 0.522, mz= 0.243
Laiton Cy= 0.532, mz= 0.246
KarmanTsien Cy= 0.527, mz= 0.245
Christianovic Cy= 0.524, mz= 0.243

0.4

Pi

d (Laiton)

0.5
x

CPc d (Christianovic)

CPc h (Christianovic)

CPc d (KarmanTsien)

CPc h (KarmanTsien)

Pc

CPc h (Laiton)

0.6

CPc d (PrandtlGlauert)

CPc h (PrandtlGlauert)

CPi d

C h

=0 M=0,25

0.7

0.8

0.9

Obrzek 10: CP (x)

17

CP

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

nestlacitelne Cy=0.010, mz=0.0921


PrandtlGlauert Cy= 0.010, mz= 0.0951
Laiton Cy= 0.013, mz= 0.0954
KarmanTsien Cy= 0.012, mz= 0.0953
Christianovic Cy= 0.012, mz= 0.0946

0.4

Pi

d (Laiton)

0.5
x

CPc d (Christianovic)

CPc h (Christianovic)

CPc d (KarmanTsien)

CPc h (KarmanTsien)

Pc

CPc h (Laiton)

0.6

CPc d (PrandtlGlauert)

CPc h (PrandtlGlauert)

CPi d

C h

=4.1 M=0,25

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.6

0.5

0.4

Cy

0.3

0.2

0.1
nestlacitelne
PrandtlGlauert
Laiton
KarmanTsirn
Christianovic

0.1
4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

Obrzek 11: Cy M=0.25

0.08
nestlacitelne
PrandtlGlauert
Laiton
KarmanTsirn
Christianovic

0.1
0.12
0.14

0.16
0.18
0.2
0.22
0.24
0.26
4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

Obrzek 12: mz M=0.25

18

0.5

Obrzek 13: CP (x)

19

CP

1.5

0.5

0.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

nestlacitelne Cy= 0.505, mz=0.235


PrandtlGlauert Cy= 0.565, mz= 0.263
Laiton Cy= 0.607, mz= 0.277
KarmanTsien Cy= 0.588, mz= 0.271
Christianovic Cy= 0.597, mz= 0.274

0.4

Pi

d (Laiton)

0.5
x

CPc d (Christianovic)

CPc h (Christianovic)

CPc d (KarmanTsien)

CPc h (KarmanTsien)

Pc

CPc h (Laiton)

0.6

CPc d (PrandtlGlauert)

CPc h (PrandtlGlauert)

CPi d

C h

=0 M=0,45

0.7

0.8

0.9

Obrzek 14: CP (x)

20

CP

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

nestlacitelne Cy=0.010, mz=0.0921


PrandtlGlauert Cy= 0.011, mz= 0.1032
Laiton Cy= 0.024, mz= 0.1040
KarmanTsien Cy= 0.018, mz= 0.1036
Christianovic Cy= 0.023, mz= 0.1032

0.4

Pi

d (Laiton)

0.5
x

CPc d (Christianovic)

CPc h (Christianovic)

CPc d (KarmanTsien)

CPc h (KarmanTsien)

Pc

CPc h (Laiton)

0.6

CPc d (PrandtlGlauert)

CPc h (PrandtlGlauert)

CPi d

C h

=4.1 M=0,45

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.7
0.6
0.5

Cy

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

nestlacitelne
PrandtlGlauert
Laiton
KarmanTsirn
Christianovic

0
0.1
4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

Obrzek 15: Cy M=0.45

0.05
nestlacitelne
PrandtlGlauert
Laiton
KarmanTsirn
Christianovic

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3
4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

Obrzek 16: mz M=0.45

21

0.5

15 loha - Kritick machovo slo


Urete zvislost kritickho machova sla Mkr na tlakovm souiniteli (Cpi )min . Kritick stav je charakterizovn M = 1 v mste max. nadrychlosti. V tomto mste bude nsledujc zlakov souinitel
Cpckr =

pkr
p 1

2
2 M

0.5283
p

2
2 M

tento pomr se me dosadit do jednotlivch een korekce tlakovho souinitele.


Prangtl-Glauertova metoda

(Cpi )min

#
"
p


 1
2
1 Mkr
1 2
1
0.5283 1 +
=
Mkr

2
2
2 Mkr

Krmn-Tsienova metoda

0.5283 1 +

1
2
2 Mkr

2
2 Mkr

 1

=p

2
Mkr

1
2

(Cpi )min


p
2
1 1 Mkr
(Cpi )min

Laitoneova metoda

0.5283 1 +

1
2
2 Mkr

2
2 Mkr

 1

=p

(Cpi )min
1

2
Mkr


+

2 1+ 1 M 2
M
(
2
kr )

2
1Mkr


(Cpi )min

Christinoviova metoda


(Cpi )min =

0.7576
i

kde i je
21
# 12 q +1 p
p
2
2
+
1

M
kr
1 1 Mkr

q 1 p
p
=c
2
+1
2
1 + 1 Mkr

M
kr
1
"

+1
1

kde pro vzduch = 1.4 a c = 0.75763

Vsledky

Vypoten zvislosti Mkr a (Cpi )min jsem vynesl do grafu ne. Z minul lohy kde se zpracovvalo men z
prolu GAW-1 vyli nsledujc hodnoty (Cpi )min . K nim byla z grafu odetena hodnota kritickho machova
sla Mkr . Pi = 0 dochz ke kritickmu stavu na sac stran prolu a pi = 4.1 na petlakov stran
prolu.

sac strana
petlakov strana

-4.1
-0.503
-1.203

0
-0.743
-0.203

Prandtl-Glauert
Krmn-Tsien
Laitone
Christinovi

Tabulka 4: hodnoty (Cpi )min

-4.1
0.57
0.56
0.54
0.52

0
0.65
0.63
0.61
0.59

Tabulka 5: hodnoty odetench Mkr

22

2
Prandtl Glauert
Karman Tsien
Laiton
Christianovic

1.8
1.6
1.4

(Cpi)min

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Mkr
Obrzek 17: zvislost machova krit. sla a tlakovh souinitele

23