This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Fracture Analysis Consultants, Inc www.fracanalysis.com
Revised: September 2010
Table of Contents:
1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 2 2.0 Tutorial 1: Crack Insertion and Growth in a Cube .............................................................. 2 2.1 Step 1: Creating the ABAQUS Model ............................................................................ 3 2.2 Step 2: FRANC3D Crack Insertion and Analysis ........................................................... 9 3.0 Tutorial 2: Center Through-Crack in a Plate Sub-Domain ................................................ 23 3.1 Step 1: Creating the uncracked model using ABAQUS ............................................... 24 3.2 Step 2: Crack insertion and remeshing with FRANC3D .............................................. 30 3.3 Step 3a: Merging the cracked, local part with the global part using FRANC3D and analysis using ABAQUS........................................................................................................... 35 3.4 Step 3b: Merging the cracked, local part with the global part in ABAQUS and analysis using ABAQUS ........................................................................................................................ 38 3.5 Step 4: Calculate fracture parameters using FRANC3D ............................................... 42 4.0 Tutorial 3: Automated Crack Growth in a Plate, with Crack Face Tractions ................... 43 4.1 Step 1: Creating the uncracked model using ABAQUS ............................................... 43 4.2 Step 2: Crack insertion with FRANC3D ....................................................................... 47 4.3 Step 3: Applying crack face traction ............................................................................. 51 4.4 Step 4: Automated crack growth analyses .................................................................... 53
This manual contains tutorials that introduce the modeling capabilities available through the interface of FRANC3D Version 5 and ABAQUS Version 6.6 (or later). The first tutorial describes a model where the entire domain is remeshed during crack insertion and crack growth. The second tutorial describes a model where only a local subdomain is remeshed during crack insertion and growth. The second tutorial provides somewhat more detailed instructions for the ABAQUS portion because of the increased modeling effort. The third tutorial describes the process of applying crack face tractions along with the process of automated crack growth. It is intended that the user perform the operations as they are presented, but you should feel free to experiment and consult the other reference documentation whenever necessary.
Menu and dialog box selections are indicated by bold text, such as File. Model and corresponding file names will be indicated by italic text and window names and window regions are underlined. So, selections that need to be made are indicated by bold text and the windows and regions of windows where these selections are made are underlined.
2.0 Tutorial 1: Crack Insertion and Growth in a Cube
This tutorial contains an example for FRANC3D with ABAQUS 6.6. The capabilities of the program are illustrated by analyzing a surface crack in a simple component (a cube). Note that the ABAQUS CAE user interface generally changes with each new version, so the images of icons or the menu layout might be different if you are using later versions (6.7 - 6.10).
First, all the steps needed to create the model geometry using ABAQUS are briefly described in Section 2.1. It is assumed that the user is somewhat familiar with ABAQUS. Once the model is created in ABAQUS, the FRANC3D steps necessary to read the mesh information, insert a crack, rebuild the mesh, perform the ABAQUS analysis, and compute stress intensity factors are described in Section 2.2.
but we provide enough details in the steps below for a novice user to create the simple cube model. alternatively right-click on Parts in the model tree window and select Create. 2. Select Continue… and a grid will be displayed in the main CAE window – this is the Sketcher Window. Start with the ABAQUS graphical user interface (ABAQUS CAE). this is the default when you start ABAQUS CAE. The part should appear as in Fig 2. Select the Rectangle tool from the toolbar on the left side of the Sketcher Window.1) (you can start at any of the corners). we create a cube model using ABAQUS.-1) to (1. The cube is created by first creating a square in the Sketcher Window. and create a square that goes from (-1.Note that ABAQUS generally provides a number of different ways to access menu and dialog entries. 2. the Type should be Deformable and the Shape should be Solid. The Create Part dialog box will appear (Fig 2. 3 .1).3. select Part and then select Create (or select Create from the Part Manager dialog). cube) and set Approximate size to 10. 1.2). The Modeling Space should be 3D. provide a name (e. We assume that the user knows how to use ABAQUS. select Part to enter the Part Module: .1 Step 1: Creating the ABAQUS Model First. In the Module list located under the toolbar (Fig 2.g. Figure 2.1: ABAQUS/CAE tool bar and main menu. From the main menu (the top menu bar). you can use your favorite shortcuts or follow the tutorial.
Figure 2.2: Create Part dialog.Figure 2.3: ABAQUS Sketcher with a square 4 .
The Edit Base Extrusion window will be presented after pressing Done (Fig 2. enter a name for the section (e.3) and select OK. The Material should be the material created in Step 5 (e. select Property . From the main menu.3. Save the model by selecting File and Save As. cube) and select OK to save the . Provide a name for the material (e.g. Figure 2. select icon.g. The Edit Section window is displayed next. Click on the red X or middle-click in the Sketcher Window so that the Done button appears in the lower prompt area: . Select OK to finish. 5. cube_section) and select Continue. or select the Create Material Material dialog box is displayed (Fig 2. The square will be extruded to create a cube.4: Edit Base Extrusion dialog.g. 6. select Section and Create. Enter values for the Young‟s modulus and Poisson ratio (e.g. icon. 10000 and 0. 5 . or select the Create Section The Create Section dialog will be presented.g. enter 2 for the depth and select OK. steel) and then select Mechanical – Elasticity – Elastic from the list.5). From the main menu.cae file. steel). The Edit Material and then select Create.4). 4. From the Module list. Enter a file name (e.
8. Assign the section properties to the cube by selecting Assign from the main menu and then Section from the available options. select Output and then Field Output Requests and then Manager.) 10.g. The Edit Step window is then displayed. The default ABAQUS output is okay..5: Edit Material dialog. The Field Output Requests Manager window is displayed. select OK to finish. Select Done from the lower prompt area once the cube has been highlighted. Type in a description of the loading and select OK to finish.Figure 2. From the main menu. From the Module list. From the main menu. General select Continue. select OK to finish. From the Module list. Click on the cell labeled Created and select Edit from the right side to view the output options. select Assembly. select Step and Create.. 9. CubeLoad) and choose Static. The Create Step window is displayed. 6 . Move the mouse over the cube and click the left mouse button. but if you want to see which results are available follow these steps. (You can examine the other tabs and fields at your leisure. select Step. The Create Instance window is displayed. provide a name (e. select Instance and select Create. From the main menu. 7. The Edit Section Assignment window is displayed.
From the Module list. 12. you will need to rotate the model to see the bottom face. 15. Leave the default Approximate global size at 0. From the Module list. you can create an independent instance in Step 8. Provide a name and choose Pressure and select Continue. Choose Part from the Object list: . select Mesh and then select Part. The boundary condition symbols are shown on the model. choose Quadratic for Geometric Order and leave 3D Stress for the Family. Choose Hex and Structured and select OK to finish. select Load and Create. The Create Boundary Condition window is displayed. The Edit Load window is displayed. select Load. 13. From the Module list. 14. but if you want to make sure. The Element Type dialog is displayed. Provide a name and choose Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre and select Continue.7. Structured hexahedral meshing is the default. The Mesh Controls window is displayed. Pick the bottom face of the cube and select Done from the lower prompt area. set the uniform pressure magnitude to be -1.0. From the main menu. 11. The resulting model should appear as in Fig 2. follow these steps. 16. provide a job name (cube_in_tension for example) and 7 . select Seed and then select Part. select Mesh and then Controls. Fig 2. select Mesh and then select Element Type. select Load (if you changed modules after Step 11).6. the symbols for the boundary conditions are shown. Select OK to finish. From the Module list. From the main menu. From the main menu. Select Yes from the command prompt area to the question: "Ok to mesh the part?". leave Standard for Element Library. select BC and then select Create. select Job and Create.2 and select OK to finish. The Edit Boundary Condition window will be presented. The Create Job dialog is displayed. The part will be meshed with brick elements. Alternatively. choose PINNED and select OK. Pick the top surface of the cube and select Done from the lower prompt area. From the main menu. The Create Load window is displayed. From the main menu. select Job. From the main menu. select Mesh. From the main menu.Select OK or Cancel to close the Edit dialog and then select Dismiss to finish with the Output Request Manager. 17.
) Figure 2.6: ABAQUS cube with boundary conditions Figure 2. Type in a description and select OK to finish. (You can peruse the other tabs and fields at your leisure.select Continue.7: ABAQUS brick mesh for a cube 8 . The Edit Job window is displayed.
2. 19. Note that a number of files will be created automatically as ABAQUS runs. Fig 2. The next set of wizard panels allows you to choose the data that will be 9 .Special Note: Click on the tab below the Modeling Window (at the very bottom) and type: mdb. and select File and Open. etc. You can skip these steps and simply Write Input by rightclicking on the job name under Analysis and Jobs in the model tree window.19. Switch File Filter in the Open Model File window. Don‟t forget to save the . Select OK or double click on the file name.9.inp) and select the file name for the model. and then press “Enter”.inp file that FRANC3D requires. Included in the set of files should be an . You can Exit from ABAQUS CAE now. Fig 2. Note that the purpose of Steps 18 and 19 is not merely to create the .inp file created by ABAQUS during Step 1. 18. This is the file that will be read by FRANC3D.8. The Job Manager window is displayed. This initial analysis provides baseline results and ensures that we have created a correct model.inp file with the Job name as the prefix. The analysis will start and should complete successfully.inp here. called cube. This is required because FRANC3D doesn‟t read Parts. but to perform an analysis and look at the results to make sure the displacement and stress results are as expected. Select the Results option on the right side to view the results.cae model file in case you wish to return to this model and modify properties.models['model_name']. We will use the . Save the model using the File and Save As menu options.2 Step 2: FRANC3D Crack Insertion and Analysis We need to start with a pre-existing mesh for FRANC3D. Start with the FRANC3D graphical user interface. 2. From the main menu. 1. to Abaqus Files (*. select Job and Manager. Select Submit on the right side.setValues(noPartsInputFile=ON) where „model_name‟ is the actual model name you are using.
9: Open Model File dialog box 10 .retained from the ABAQUS .12). We will retain all the material and boundary conditions as this is a full-model and both the material and boundary conditions will be transferred to the new mesh once the crack is inserted. Select Next and then select Finish in the final wizard panel (Fig 2. in addition to the nodes and elements. The first panel. Fig 2. lets you choose to select all or individual items.8: FRANC3D graphical user interface Figure 2. choose selected items and select Next to get to the panel shown in Fig 2.11.10.inp file. Figure 2.
which shows that the mesh on the upper surface is retained because we chose to retain the pressure boundary conditions. The model should appear as in Figs. You can turn on the surface mesh and manipulate the view. Figure 2. The model will be read and displayed in the modeling window. 2.13 and 2. Figure 2.10: ABAQUS Model retain wizard panel.12: Finish to proceed wizard panel. the mesh on the bottom surface should also be retained.11: Select items to retain wizard panel.Figure 2. 11 .14.
3. so select Next.16.13: ABAQUS model converted to FRANC3D showing retained facets on the pressure surface 12 .15. select Cracks and New Flaw Wizard. The first panel of the wizard should appear as in Fig 2. From the FRANC3D menu. or a user-defined shape. allows us to choose the type of crack. Figure 2. either an elliptical crack. The default flaw type is Crack (zero volume flaw) and this is what we want. a through-crack. Fig 2.We will now insert a half-penny surface crack into the model. The next panel of the wizard. which is what we want. The default shape is the ellipse. so select Next. 4.
Figure 2.14: ABAQUS model converted to FRANC3D showing retained facets on the bottom fixed surface Figure 2.16: Flaw wizard panel to choose zero volume flaw type 13 .15: New flaw wizard first panel to choose flaw type Figure 2.
5. Enter 0.17: Flaw wizard panel to set size of ellipse 14 . 6. The next panel of the wizard. Enter 90 for the 1st Rotation Angle and set the rotation axis to X and set the Z axis Translation to 2.18. The flaw is displayed along with the model and should appear as in Fig 2. Figure 2.17. The next panel of the wizard.2 for both a and b and select Next. allows us to specify the size of the ellipse. select Next when ready.18. Fig 2. Fig 2. allows us to specify location and orientation of the flaw.
19.19: Flaw wizard panel to set crack front template parameters 15 . When the meshing is completed. allows us to specify the crack front template parameters. The next panel of the wizard. Fig 2. The program begins the process of inserting the flaw into the original model and then meshes the resulting cracked model.Figure 2. The progress of the operations is displayed on the screen.21. select Finish when ready. Figure 2. Fig 2. Fig 2.20. We will leave all values at their defaults.18: Flaw wizard panel to set location and orientation 7. the Flaw Insertion Status window will disappear and the newly meshed cracked model will be displayed.
Figure 2.20: Flaw Insertion Status window Note that the default mesh that is generated will have about 16,500 elements. The number of elements can be reduced by increasing the Surface Refinement Factor from 1.2 to 1.3 and increasing the Surface Boundary Factor from 0.3 to 0.4. These factors are displayed in the Meshing Parameters dialog box that is displayed by selecting Meshing Parameters button in the flaw template wizard panel (Fig 2.19).
Figure 2.21: Meshed model with crack We will now perform the stress analysis using ABAQUS.
8. From the FRANC3D menu, select Analysis and Static Crack Analysis. The first panel of the wizard should appear as in Fig 2.22. We will specify the file name for the
FRANC3D database first. We called it cracked_cube.fdb here; select Next once you enter a File Name. 9. The next panel of the wizard, Fig 2.23, allows us to specify the solver; choose ABAQUS. 10. The next panel of the wizard, Fig 2.24, allows us to specify some of the ABAQUS output options. We want to use all quadratic elements, we do not have nodal temperatures, and the model is a full-model and will NOT be combined with a global model; uncheck the Connect to global model and select Next. 11. The next panel of the wizard, Fig 2.25, allows us to specify the boundary conditions. This is a full model and we will transfer all boundary conditions from the original model to the crack model; the other options should remain unchecked. 12. The next panel of the wizard, Fig 2.26, allows us to specify the ABAQUS executable. If you wish to only check the data in the resulting .inp file, choose datacheck. Select Next. 13. The next panel of the wizard, Fig 2.27, allows us to add additional ABAQUS commands to the .inp file. Select Next. 14. The final panel of the wizard, Fig 2.28, displays the command line that will be used to invoke ABAQUS. The line can be edited. Select Finish when ready. If ABAQUS is available and the settings are correct, ABAQUS should start in batch mode. If ABAQUS fails to start, the command line is saved in a .txt file and can be used to start the analysis outside of FRANC3D (from a cmd/terminal window). You should check the FRANC3D terminal window for the runtime status.
If you cannot run ABAQUS from FRANC3D, then you will have to submit your job from a cmd/terminal window before proceeding to step 15.
Figure 2.22: Static Analysis wizard first panel – File Name
Figure 2.23: Static Analysis wizard second panel – solver
Figure 2.24: Static Analysis wizard third panel – ABAQUS output options
Figure 2.25: Static Analysis wizard third panel – ABAQUS boundary conditions
28: Static Analysis wizard fifth panel – ABAQUS command line Special Note: if ABAQUS fails to run due to error messages related to poor element quality.Figure 2.26: Static Analysis wizard fourth panel – ABAQUS executable Figure 2. you can add the following to your .27: Static Analysis wizard fourth panel – ABAQUS inp script Figure 2.env file (this worked up to Version 6.6): 19 .
You can view the three stress intensity factor (SIF) modes and export the data. you can start from this step. Fig 2.environment['ABA_SKIPSTRICTGEOMCHECK']='YES' del os We will now compute the stress intensity factors for this crack.30. the SIFs Plot window is displayed. 16. select File and Open. 15. When you select Finish. There are no thermal or crack face pressure terms. Choose the cracked_cube. The Stress Intensity Factor wizard is displayed.29.31.import os os. Fig 2. From the FRANC3D menu. and select OK. From the FRANC3D menu. select Cracks and Compute SIFs. If you are able to run ABAQUS from FRANC3D. Fig 2. Note that if you close the previous model or restart FRANC3D.29: Open Model File dialog 20 . then the model already exists and the displacement file will be read automatically and you can skip to Step 16. but you can check that the Displacement Correlation results are similar.fdb file. Figure 2. You should use the M-integral.
17. The curve is plotted from A to B along the crack front.30. From the FRANC3D menu.32 is displayed. We use all the defaults for this model and select Next.30: Compute SIFs panel Figure 2. Note that the Advanced Propagation options are not needed for this model. select Cracks and Grow Crack… The wizard panel shown in Fig 2.31: Stress Intensity Factor dialog Note that the SIF values are computed at the midpoints as specified in Fig 2. 21 . We will now grow the crack one step. but one can step through these panels also.Figure 2.
Select Finish when ready. The crack front mesh template shown in the right panel extends beyond the model surface.18.33allow one to specify the crack front point fitting and mesh template parameters. which is necessary. We specify a Fixed Order Polynomial fit with order set to 4 and extrapolation set to 5 and 6%. The next two panels shown in Fig 2.32: Crack growth wizard panels 22 . Figure 2.
This analysis technique exploits the fact that the cracked region of a model (local model) is generally small compared to the entire model (global model) by minimizing the part of the model that undergoes remeshing during crack insertion and growth. For this approach. 2.33: Crack growth wizard panels The resulting new mesh model can be analyzed as was done for the initial crack (see Step 8 above). global and local models will be created in ABAQUS. Merging the cracked. Loading analysis results to calculate fracture parameters in FRANC3D.0 Tutorial 2: Center Through-Crack in a Plate Sub-Domain In this tutorial. 3.Figure 2. 23 . Creating the uncracked global/local geometry and mesh using ABAQUS. 3. Automated crack growth analyses are described in Tutorial 3. so that you don‟t overwrite the initial crack model files. Importing the local model to FRANC3D for crack insertion and remeshing. 4. Note that you will want to give this model a different name. perhaps cube_step_2. only the local model will be remeshed in FRANC3D. The tutorial is divided into 4 major steps: 1. local part with the global part for analysis in ABAQUS. we detail the steps to complete a global/local crack growth analysis using FRANC3D and ABAQUS.
1 Step 1: Creating the uncracked model using ABAQUS Start by creating a simple plate model using ABAQUS: 1. 2. Click Continue Young‟s Modulus = 2. extra work is required of the user – see Step 22. Also. create a rectangle with dimensions: x = 20 and y = 50 with the bottom left corner at (-10. 5. In particular. click OK. 6.Although it is not explicitly stated in the steps below. The unfamiliar user is referred to “Getting Started With ABAQUS” (part of the ABAQUS documentation). icon and specify quadratic hex elements (ABAQUS element type C3D20R). Expand cracked_part in the Model Tree (as shown in Fig 3.0E6 and Poisson‟s Ratio = 0. Click OK. icon in the Part Module and specifying the options shown in Fig 3. Click Continue… In the Edit Section window. 8. Select the 10. click OK. save the . In the Edit Section window. 4. Click OK. Create a new part named cracked_part by clicking the … 3. (Note that if linear elements are used. Select the icon to assign a global mesh seed size of 2. Click Done at the bottom of the sketch window and Extrude a depth of 5.-25).cae file throughout and at the end of Step 1. When the Sketch Window appears. Switch to the Property Module and select the icon to define the material properties. 9. Select the icon and define a Solid.1 (set approximate size to 100). Click OK.) 24 . 7. it is assumed that the user has some basic knowledge of ABAQUS. Select the icon and assign the section to the cracked_part by selecting it in the modeling window. 3. Open the ABAQUS CAE and select Create Model Database.2) and double-click Mesh. Homogeneous section with the material created in the previous step.30. make sure to SAVE your work throughout the modeling process. Click Done.
Select the icon to mesh cracked_part.1: Create part options Figure 3. The meshed cracked_part is shown in Fig 3.3.11. Figure 3. Click Yes at the bottom of the Modeling Window.2: Model tree expanded under cracked part 25 .
Figure 3.3: Meshed plate model in ABAQUS 12. ABAQUS names the model Model-1 by default. This is required because FRANC3D doesn‟t read Parts. Switch to the Assembly Module and select the OK in the Create Instance window. 14. Special Note: model_name should be replaced with whatever you chose to name the model.models['model_name']. If you didn‟t rename. Name the job orphan and click Continue… Click OK in the Edit Job window. Access the command line interface by clicking on the tab below the Modeling Window (at the very bottom). 26 .setValues(noPartsInputFile=ON) and press “Enter”. Switch to the Job Module and select the icon to create a job. icon to instance cracked_part. enter mdb. At the command prompt. Click 13.
Click OK. At the bottom of the Modeling Window. As shown in Fig 3. From the File menu. So. select Import and Model and then select orphan. Select the icon to display the Job Manager. 27 . leaving only the global portion unselected (most easily done by viewing the 1-2 plane).15. In the Edit Mesh window.4. select the portion of the model that corresponds to the local model. Click Dismiss. 17. Select orphan and click Write Input at the right. which will automatically regenerate the instance.inp. Special Note: ABAQUS doesn‟t allow creation of node sets from a part created in CAE. select Element in the Category region and select Delete in the Method region. Special Note: since the global model region is being defined first. 19. A new model is created in the Model Tree at the left. Switch to the Assembly Module. the portion of the model that will be used for local crack insertion needs to be deleted first. Repeat the previous step and name the copied model local. We need some node set definitions to inform FRANC3D which surfaces will be used to glue the local model back into the global model so that the mesh on those surfaces will remain unaltered. 16. with Delete associated unreferenced nodes selected. we must now read in the orphan mesh created in the previous steps to define the local and global models. and Object: Part at the top of the modeling window and select Mesh and Edit from the upper toolbar. Click OK. Right click on the orphan model and select Copy Model … and name the new model global. 18. global Model. Click OK. 20. Switch to the Mesh Module. click Done.
which will define the local surface that merges the local model to the global model. 23.Figure 3. Switch to the Step Module and global Model and click the step. so click Continue… and OK. expand the local model as shown in Fig 3. Click Done. 24. icon to generate a load 28 . Repeat the previous two steps for the local model with the exception of deleting exactly the opposite of what was deleted in the global model. The default values are ok. Select by angle in the drop-down selector at the bottom of the Modeling Window and then gather the nodes on the top and bottom surface of local (hold down the shift key to continue adding to selected nodes).5 and double-click Sets to create a node set named Cut_Surf_Local. Click Continue… Special Note: if you use linear elements. 22. you must specify a Cut-Surf node set for the local AND for the global model and you will need to specify these surfaces later in FRANC3D when merging the local and global pieces back together.4: Selection of local portion of the model to be deleted 21. Any sets that already exist can be ignored. In the Model Tree.
5: Model tree expanded under local 25. 26. icon and select Pressure in the Types for Selected Step region. At the bottom of the Modeling Window.6: Loaded surface selection 29 .Figure 3. select by angle in the drop-down menu and then select the top surface of the model as shown in Fig 3. enter -10 in the Magnitude box and click OK. Click Done.6. Select the Continue. In the Edit Load window. 27. Click Figure 3. Switch to the Load Module and global Model to begin applying loads and boundary conditions.
We have saved the two inp files as: local . Click Continue… With individual selected in the drop-down selector at the bottom of the Modeling Window. Repeat for local. 33. select the middle node on the bottom face.inp. In the Edit Boundary Condition window. Before exiting ABAQUS CAE. In the Create Boundary Condition pop-up window enter: face_y for the Name. Repeat for local with local highlighted in the Create Job window. In the Edit Boundary Condition window. In the next step. Inside the local file. 30. we will use the local model for crack insertion/remeshing in FRANC3D. Click Continue… With by angle selected at the bottom of the Modeling Window. 3. Click the icon and rotate the model so that the bottom surface is visible. Select global and click Write Input at the right.28. select U2 and enter 0. select the bottom face of the model. Copy the local .inp and global . 32. 29. U3 and enter 0 in both. Step-1 for the step. Switch to the Job Module and select the icon to create a job. Step-1 for the step. 1. Click OK. Select the icon to display the Job Manager. 31. name the job global and click Continue… and OK.inp and global . select U1. At this point in the tutorial. In the Create Boundary Condition window enter: point_xz for the Name. 34. Click Done. Click OK. click the icon. Click Done. 30 . we have finished Step 1 in which the global and local portions of the model have been defined.inp files from the ABAQUS working directory to the FRANC3D working directory. Mechanical in the Category region and Displacement/Rotation in the Types for Selected Step region. With global highlighted. Once again. Click Dismiss. Mechanical in the Category region and Displacement/Rotation in the Types for Selected Step region.2 Step 2: Crack insertion and remeshing with FRANC3D The next step is to read the local model into FRANC3D and insert a crack. there is a node set called Cut_Surf_Local that defines the nodes of the mesh facets in local that are to be retained. save your work.
Select File and Open. Follow the wizard through the panels shown in Fig 3.8.inp file and Click OK. We select the Cut_Surf_Local node set to be retained.7: Wizard panels showing selections for local. Figure 3. The resulting FRANC3D model is shown in Fig 3. In the Open Model File window.inp 31 . There are no boundary conditions on this local model. 4. choose the Abaqus (*. We choose selected items and then choose all materials and select mesh facets.7. 3.2.inp) file filter and select local. Start FRANC3D.
9 through 3. Fig 3. orientation and template parameters used for this crack.inp showing retained facets on top cut surface 5. In the next wizard panel select the bottom-right crack type. In the Flaw Insertion window select Crack (zero volume flaw) and click Next. 32 .12 shows the Flaw Insertion Progress window that is displayed while inserting the crack and meshing. Insert the crack into local by selecting Cracks and New Flaw Wizard. The meshed crack model is shown in Fig 3.9).11. For the remaining wizard windows. with two crack fronts (Fig 3. 6.Figure 3.13.8: FRANC3D local. which show the crack shape. location. follow the panels in Figs 3.
10: Through-crack location and orientation within the model 33 .Figure 3.9: Through-crack dimensions Figure 3.
Figure 3.11: Crack front template parameters Figure 3.12: Flaw insertion progress dialog 34 .
In cases where model attributes need to be changed/updated during crack growth. the user is directed to Step 3a for merging/analysis using ABAQUS batch from within FRANC3D. 1. 3. The following steps detail the procedure of merging these two models and analysis of the resulting merged model.Figure 3. and FRANC3D is not capable of performing such functions. local part with the global part using FRANC3D and analysis using ABAQUS FRANC3D can merge the local and global models and subsequently call ABAQUS to analyze in batch mode. the user is directed to Step 3b for merging/analysis using the ABAQUS CAE. we can use either FRANC3D or ABAQUS to merge this model with the rest of the model (global).13: Meshed crack model The next step is to write the inp file for the cracked local model. If the model needs no change. At this stage. Select Analysis and Static Crack Analysis.3 Step 3a: Merging the cracked. 35 .
and cracked_plate_00. 36 . 4. you can run ABAQUS from a cmd/terminal window using the .g.inp must not be overwritten as this file corresponds to the meshed crack model.inp. Click Finish to begin the analysis of the merged model. the cracked_plate_00_full. The final panel displays the command line. Ignore the Global node set/surface(s) to merge/constrain box (as long as you used second-order elements). Specify a file name in the first wizard panel (e. select the ABAQUS batch file if needed and make sure the analysis button is pressed and click Next. 6. 7.inp. Click Next. cracked_plate_00. Click Next.inp corresponds to the merged model. 8. so leave the Transfer all retained bc‟s checked. Choose to Connect to global model in the following wizard panel and specify global.inp as the Global model filename. The next panel requires no changes for this model. Click Next. choose the Cut_Surf_Local node set. Choose to Merge local and global nodes and in Local node set/surface(s) to merge/constrain. Step through the Analysis wizard as shown in Fig 3. 5. In the next panel. The cracked_plate_00. There are no boundary conditions on the local model. The following files are created by FRANC3D: cracked_plate_00. Click Next. but because we are merging with the global model. Choose ABAQUS from the next wizard panel. proceed to Step 4.2.txt. we want to transfer all the boundary conditions from the original global model to the new combined crack model. cracked_plate_00_full. cracked_plate_00). Click Next. If the ABAQUS analysis fails to start from FRANC3D or if you need to transfer the files to a different computer.14: 3.inp as input.fdb. Click Next. When the analysis has completed.
Figure 3.14: Static Analysis wizard panels 37 .
Choose ABAQUS from the next wizard panel. 1. we can merge the global and the cracked version of local in ABAQUS CAE. Or you can add the following to your .inp. cracked_plate_00. Click Next.15: Static Analysis wizard panels The following files are created by FRANC3D: cracked_plate_00.6. Step through the Analysis wizard panels shown in Fig 3.6): import os os.fdb. 2.inp files. 38 . and cracked_plate_00.4 Step 3b: Merging the cracked. cracked_plate_00).txt.15 with only a few changes from Step 3a: do not Connect to global model and select write inp rather than analysis.env file (this worked up to Version . Specify a file name in the first wizard panel (e. local part with the global part in ABAQUS and analysis using ABAQUS If there is a need to modify the model in ABAQUS. Select Analysis and Static Crack Analysis.Note that if the analysis fails to run in ABAQUS due to errors associated with element volume shape measures. you can redo the crack insertion and meshing after modifying the Meshing Parameters. Figure 3.g. Be careful not to overwrite any of these or the local/global uncracked .environment['ABA_SKIPSTRICTGEOMCHECK']='YES' del os 3. Click Next.
By default. 6. Click OK. Copy the global model to a new model named merged_1 by right-clicking on global and selecting Copy… as was done in Step 1. Click OK. This creates a new model in the Model Tree named local_1. Select the . Open the ABAQUS CAE and select Open Model Database. 7. rename Part-1 by right-clicking on it and selecting Rename and typing local_1 in the Rename Part window. make a copy of cracked_plate.16. 4.inp and name it local_1. you will have to manage section properties and boundary conditions and parts on your own to get the model to run. 5.inp to ensure we do not overwrite cracked_plate. select Import and Model and then select local_1. ABAQUS named the imported part Part-1. In your working directory. 39 .16: Copy Objects window and selections Now that both parts are in the same model they can be merged. 3.cae file created in Step 1. From the File menu.NOTE: this section is not complete. In the Copy Objects window. Click OK. 8. Figure 3. This will copy the local_1 part to the merged_1 model where the boundary conditions reside. 9. select the models and parts shown in Fig 3. From the Model menu.inp. Keeping global separate allows us to use it for merging in subsequent crack growth steps.inp. Expand local_1 in the Model Tree and then expand Parts. select Copy Objects… to merge merged_1 with local_1.
Merge local_1-1 and Part-1-1 by selecting the icon to icon.17: Merge/Cut window and selections 40 .10. Figure 3. make the selections to create the merged assembly as shown in Fig 3. 11. In the Merge/Cut Instances window. Accept the merged mesh by clicking Yes. Switch to the Assembly Module and merged_1 Model and select the instance the local_1 part. Click Done and accept the merged nodes shown in magenta in the Modeling Window. At this point ABAQUS CAE has suppressed the Part-1-1 instance. Click OK in the Create Instance window.17. Click Continue… and select the entire model for merging by dragging a box around it. 12. In order to use the boundary conditions previously defined on this part we must resume the instance by right-clicking the PART-1-1 instance under Assembly in the merged_1 model in the Model Tree and selecting Resume as shown in Fig 3.18.
You should monitor the job. Finally. ASCII *NODE FILE. highlight merged_1 and click Submit.18: Resuming the suppressed instance 16. Select the merged_1 model and name the job merged_1 and click Continue… and the OK. issue the command to write the displacements to the .Figure 3. Analyze merged_1 by clicking the icon to open the Job Manager. FREQUENCY=1 U Click OK. This can be done by selecting Model and Edit Keywords and selecting merged_1 and pasting the following snippet just before the *End Step keyword: *FILE FORMAT. 17. If there is an error related to section/material properties. Switch to the Job Module and select the icon to create a job.fil file. 18. 41 . check the section assignments for the merged part and assign if necessary.
Select Cracks and Compute SIFs… 4. selecting the results.fil file manually.fil.5 Step 4: Calculate fracture parameters using FRANC3D 1.fil file to the FRANC3D directory. 42 . 2. Note that you might have to select the cracked_plate_full. Note that a step of crack growth can be done easily by: 1. opening the cracked_plate. Start FRANC3D and open the cracked_plate_00.3.fdb file saved during Step 3. Automated crack growth can be attempted once the user is familiar with the manual crack growth procedure. Copy the ABAQUS generated . 3.fdb file in FRANC3D. 2. Note that there are two fronts. Figure 3. 3. if it‟s not there already. Note that you might want to rename the file to cracked_plate.fil file and. This completes the local/global modeling tutorial using the FRANC3D and ABAQUS interface. selecting Cracks and Grow Crack … and specifying the desired crack growth parameters in the wizard panels.19: Mode I stress intensity factor plot. Make required selections in the dialog box and view the plotted SIFs for the crack fronts.
Create the Assembly. 43 . 3.25 for the depth. including the application of crack face tractions from an uncracked ABAQUS stress analysis. 2.4. 4. Applying the crack face tractions. Click the red X at the bottom and click Done and specify 0.General analysis load step. we describe the steps to complete an automated crack growth analysis using the FRANC3D and ABAQUS interface. Define the section and assign the material to the section and attach to the geometry. The tutorial is divided into 4 major steps: 1. Define an elastic material with properties: E=10. 3. 4. For this tutorial. Click Continue … to display the Sketch window. specifying the name and setting approximate size to 10.0.1). Creating the uncracked geometry and mesh using ABAQUS. Static crack analysis and subsequent automatic crack growth analysis. Importing the model to FRANC3D for crack insertion and remeshing.1 Step 1: Creating the uncracked model using ABAQUS Start by creating a simple plate model using ABAQUS: 1. 4. with Crack Face Tractions In this tutorial.5 and y=1.0 with dimensions x=0. the mesh can be indepenedent. A rectangular bar will be created (Fig 4. an initial uncracked model will be created and analyzed in ABAQUS.000 and nu=0. Create a new part named rectangular_bar by clicking the icon in the Part Module. 5. Open the ABAQUS CAE and select Create Model Database. Create a rectangle starting at 0. 2.3.0 Tutorial 3: Automated Crack Growth in a Plate. Create the Step as a Static.
Define y-constraints on the bottom surface and then define x-constraint for the edge shown as a red line in Fig 4. 44 . and fully constrain the point at the origin by adding a z-constraint at that point.Figure 4. Define the Loading using applied displacement.2.01.1: Rectangular bar geometry 6. Define an applied displacement to the upper surface with y-displacement=0.
edit the Model keywords. Define the mesh using a mesh seed of 0. Frequency=1 S 9. This is the data that is expected by FRANC3D when applying stress as crack face tractions. position=averaged at nodes. Submit the job for analysis. Add the following lines just before the *End Step: ** output displacements and stress to fil results file *File Format.fil file will be created that contains the stress components at the nodes.Figure 4. 45 . 8. Before submitting the job for analysis. The resulting mesh should appear as in Fig 4. A . Frequency=1 U *El File.1 and using hexahedral elements. ASCII *Node File.2: Applied displacement and constraints 7.3.
inp files and a . We can delete the boundary condition that contains the applied y-displacement on the upper surface of the bar and then rewrite the . you should verify that the deformation and stress are correct. The purpose of this tutorial is to illustrate: 1) how to apply crack face tractions and 2) how to perform automated crack growth analyses. 12. no_disp. created in step 12. 11.inp file (without submitting the job for analysis). We have named the original .fil file. The stress should be 100.inp.inp and . Once the analysis has finished.fil file applied_disp and have named the . You should save the model before proceeding to step 12.10. We can now exit ABAQUS CAE and proceed with FRANC3D.inp file. 46 . but no loads so that we can apply the uncracked stress as crack face tractions and compare SIFs to the case where only the far-field loads are applied. We want a model that has constraints.3: Hexahedral mesh We should now have two . Figure 4.0 everywhere in the model.
Insert the crack into the model by selecting Cracks and New Flaw Wizard. the ellipse.msg files along with the FRANC3D terminal window for messages. select the top-left crack type. 4.10. Perform a static crack analysis on this model to compute the SIFs for far-field loading. 1.inp file and Click OK. In the following window. 7.9.inp) file filter and applied_disp. choose the ABAQUS FILES (*. In the Open Model File window. orientation and template parameters used for this crack. 2. In the Flaw Insertion window select Crack (zero volume flaw) and click Next. Analyze the model using ABAQUS. 47 . Follow the wizard through the panels shown in Fig 4. Select File and Open. follow the panels in Figs.8. 4. If the ABAQUS analysis fails to run to completion.inp files from the ABAQUS working directory to the FRANC3D working directory – if they are different.4. all boundary conditions. compute the SIFs. 6. There is no global model to connect. location. The elements should be second order. The meshed crack model is shown in Fig 4.5. Start FRANC3D. Once the analysis finishes.2 Step 2: Crack insertion with FRANC3D The next step is to read the model into FRANC3D and insert a crack. examine the .dat and . 5. All boundary conditions should be transferred. For the remaining wizard windows. and no mesh facets. We choose selected items and then choose all materials. which show the crack shape.6 – 4. Copy the . they should be as in Fig 4.4. 3. The resulting FRANC3D model is shown in Fig 4.
inp Figure 4.5: FRANC3D model showing retained facets for the applied y-displacement on top surface 48 .Figure 4.4: Wizard panels showing selections for applied_disp.
7: Crack orientation and location 49 .6: Elliptical-crack dimensions Figure 4.Figure 4.
8: Crack front template parameters Figure 4.9: Crack model surface mesh 50 .Figure 4.
and compare the resulting SIFs with those from Step 2. Click on Add in the dialog box shown in Fig 4. Insert the same crack as shown in Figs 4. Select the applied_disp inp and fil files and click Finish and then Accept. Once the crack model has been meshed.inp ABAQUS file. 2.fil file. 3.11. Select Loads and Crack Face Pressure/Traction. Start FRANC3D or close the existing model and read the no_disp. we will start from the no_disp. 4.10: Mode I SIFs for far-field applied displacement 4. Choose Residual Stress Defined on a Mesh. Follow the wizard panels in Fig 4.4 again as we want to retain all of the boundary conditions.8. we will apply the crack face traction.3 Step 3: Applying crack face traction In this step.inp file.6-4.Figure 4.inp model into FRANC3D and insert a crack. The first step is to read the no_disp. which are constraints only. apply crack face tractions using the stress from the applied_disp. 51 . 1.
Figure 4.12. The elements should be second order. Perform a static crack analysis on this model to compute the SIFs. examine the . 5.11 Crack face tractions dialog.msg files along with the FRANC3D terminal window for messages. compute the SIFs. There is no global model to connect. If the ABAQUS analysis fails to run to completion. 52 . Analyze the model using ABAQUS.dat and . they should be as in Fig 4. Once the analysis finishes. All boundary conditions should be transferred.
we illustrate the process of automated crack growth starting from the initial crack model in Section 4.Figure 4.4 Step 4: Automated crack growth analyses In this step.3.12b: Mode I SIFs for crack face tractions using Displacement Correlation. 4.12a: Mode I SIFs for crack face tractions using M-Integral Figure 4. 53 .
Follow the wizard panels in Figs 4. select Analysis and Crack Growth Analysis. When you select Finish on the final wizard panel. FRANC3D reads the resulting fil file and grows the crack.01 units at each step (this is the growth for the point along the crack front with the median Mode I SIF value – crack growth at other points along the front are scaled accordingly). This should continue for the specified 5 steps. Figure 4. with the base name and “_STEP_1” appended.13: Automated propagation first wizard panel 54 . We will do 5 steps of crack growth using ABAQUS as the solver and growing 0.21. this is a repeat of the solution from Section 4.1. and writes out the ABAQUS input files for the next step.3. Continuing in FRANC3D with the existing model from Step 4. the automated analyses should start by writing the ABAQUS input file. ABAQUS should then start in batch mode to solve the current model (in this case.3). 2.13-4. remeshes. Once ABAQUS finishes.
15: Automated propagation third wizard panel 55 .14: Automated propagation second wizard panel Figure 4.Figure 4.
16: Automated propagation fourth wizard panel Figure 4.Figure 4.17: Automated propagation fifth wizard panel 56 .
18: Automated propagation sixth wizard panel Figure 4.19: Automated propagation seventh wizard panel 57 .Figure 4.
Figure 4.20: Automated propagation eighth wizard panel Figure 4.21: Automated propagation ninth wizard panel 58 .
This is the end of the tutorial! 59 .Once the 5 steps of automated crack growth are complete. you can read in the model and results for any of the steps and compute SIFs. The SIF history can be extracted by computing and exporting SIFs for each of the steps.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?