The flow in which flow characteristics (depth, velocity) at one section does not remain same over a period of time i,e dv/dt, dy/dt does not equal to zero. There are two main types of unsteady flow 


the water level (or velocity) in reservoir is gradually rising or falling. So that the flow rate varies continuously but slowly.  Where the velocity in a pipe line is changed rapidly or instantaneously by the fast closing or opening of a valve.

Consider the fig. the rate of discharge will continuously vary. Let us consider the situation depicted in fig. where Q1 = inflow rate to the reservoir Q2= out flow fro the reservoir or flow through pipe 


steady flow Q1=Q2 but for unsteady flow Q1=/=Q2

The change in vol. during small time interval ³dt´ can be expressed as; Q1dt-Q2dt=A.dh dt-

(Q1-Q2)dt=A.dh dt = A.dh/(Q1-Q2 ) t= Where t = time required for the head to change from h1 to h2.

The open wedge shaped tank in the fig. has a length of 4.5m perpendicular to the sketch. It is drained with a 7.5 cm dia. Pipe of length 3m whose discharge end is at elevation zero. The coefficient of loss is .20 and f for pipe is .018. find the time required to lower the water level from 2.4m to 1.5m ?

Apply energy eqn.b/w section 1 and 2.

z1= +p1/r+v2/2g z2 +p2/r+v2/2g+hL h+0+0 = 0+0+v2/2g + hL h ± hL = v2/2g h ± [kev2/2g + kbv2/2g + flv2/2gd ] = v2/2g h ± [ke + kb + fl/d ] v2/2g = v2/2g h ± [ 0.50 + 0.2 + .018*3/.075 ] * v2/2g =v2/2g

v = 2.847¥h 847¥h Q2 = a.v = /4(.075)2 * 2.847¥h (.075) 847¥h 1.258*10-2 ¥h 258*10Area of water surface; A = 4.5bh = 4.5 k h At the top of tank; A = 4.5*1.8 =8.1 m2 So 4.5*3k = 8.1 K = .60 .60 Thus A = 4.5*.6*h = 2.7 h *.6

Now , t= A.dh/ (Q1-Q2) (Q1t= 269 sec


A tank 3m long and 1.5m wide is divided into two parts by partition so that the area of one is three times the area of other. The partition contains a square orifice 7.5cm size through which water may flow from one part to another. If the water level in the smallest division is 3m above that of the larger. Find the time to reduce diff. of water level from 0.6m. Take Cd=0.62


As Cd = 0.62 A = 3*1.5 = 4.5 m2 A1 = A2 A1 + A2 = A 3A2 +A2 = A 7A2 = 4.5 A2 = 1.125 m2 A1 = 3.375 m2 a = .075*.075 5.625*10-2 m2

h1 = 3m ,

h2 = 0.6m

t= 2A1. (¥h1 -¥h2 ) / Cd.a.¥2g(1+A1/A2) (¥h t= 104.60sec


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