© Islamic Online University

Arabic Reading & Writing

Islamic
Online
University

http://www.islamiconlineuniversity.com

© Islamic Online University

Arabic Reading & Writing

by

Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips

http://www.islamiconlineuniversity.com

2

© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing Module 1 ‫درسن‬ Lesson One http://www.com 3 .islamiconlineuniversity.

com 4 .islamiconlineuniversity.© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing TRANSLITERATION Consonants ‫ء‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ز‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ص‬ ’ b t th j h kh d th r z s sh s ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ d t th ‘ gh f q k l m n h w y Vowels َ i ‫َ ا‬ ‫ُ و‬ ‫ِ ي‬ aw ‫ي‬ ‫َ ْي‬ a ُ u ِ aa oo ee Dipthongs ‫َو‬ ay http://www.

http://www. The significance of the King Saud University text is that it does not require the learner to memorize all 28 letters of the alphabet. I have taught Arabic reading and writing to adults and highschool students using a number of different books and methods. plus their 112 variations before learning to read and write.© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing FOREWORD T his book is based on the third edition of the Arabic for non-Arabs textbook published by King Sa„ud University‟s Language Institute.islamiconlineuniversity. I compiled notes on the letters from descriptions used in Elementary Modern Standard Arabic 1. modifications to the King Saud University book and experience in teaching it through the medium of English. as well as an appendix of Arabic selections for reading practice for those who 1 Prepared by Naasif „Abdul. ‫ وحروفها‬1‫ أصىاتها‬:‫ العربية‬al-‘Arabeeyah: Aswaatuhaa wa Huroofuhaa . a graduate of Georgetown University. It was prepared under the supervision of Dr.A. I also modified many of the drills and vocabulary. I have added an introduction on the Arabs and Arabic for the interest of the readers. From 1991-3. South America. The book was designed to be taught by Arabs to non-Arabs of varying backgrounds without any intermediary language.S. Mahmoud Seenee. Philippines in 1993 and taught Arabic teachers at the college how to use it. edited by Peter F. U.„Azeez and Mustafaa Sulayman and first published in 1981. it continues to be the standard text used. It is ideal for adults and older youths. as well as the distribution of some of the letters and reading rules. Even today. In contrast to the traditional methods based on al-Qaa‘idah al-Baghdaadeeyah used throughout the Muslim world. I successfully taught the King Saud University book to officers of the American and British Airforce at Saudia Arabian Airforce Headquarters in Riyadh using English as the intermediary language. This text is the product of my teaching notes. The Qaa‘idah was developed many centuries ago for Arab primary school children. Abboud. Over the past fifteen years. The third edition as in 1990. In the course of teaching the King Saud University text using English as the medium of instruction. I also introduced the book to Sharif Kabunsuan Islamic University. because it develops reading and writing skills gradually and logically. it is completely in Arabic. but was adopted by madrasah’s (religous institutions) throughout the non-Arab Muslim world.com 5 . Mindanao. The text employs the latest developments in the science of linguistics related to the Arabic language. from the Philippines to Guyana. Cotabato City. However.

1995 http://www. I thank Allaah for giving me this opportunity to help others learn the language of the last revelation. at two hours per week. Before closing.A. some sayings of Prophet Muhammad (). linguistic descriptions and her valuable suggestions regarding the overall presentation of the lessons. Sakeenah. the Qur‟aan and I pray that He record this effort in my favor. Most of all.E. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips Sharjah.islamiconlineuniversity. for revising my English explanations. Dr. I would like to thank Ahmad Fat-hi for his diligence in typing the basic Arabic text and my wife.© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing have completed the course. October. The selections are from a grade three Arabic reader used in the U. and the last nine chapters of the Qur‟aan. The letters of the alphabet and reading principles are distributed over eight lessons which are designed to be easily taught over a period of three months. U.com 6 ..A.E.

which names the descendants of Noah.4 It was the former who were the „Arabs‟ mentioned in ancient records. According to Arab tradition.L. vol. and seven thousand and seven hundred she-goats‟..© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing INTRODUCTION : Who are the Arabs? I n prehistoric and pagan times two races inhabited Arabia: one was largely nomadic and wandered with their flocks over the great deserts which lie between the Euphrates river and the centre of the peninsula. Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions refer frequently to Aribi or Arabu. like Arabic. In the Bible the name Arab is the first word used in the second book of Chronicles 17:117 to refer to nomads from the east bank of the river Jordan in the time of King Jehosophat (c. one of whom is referred to as „Gindibu the Aribi‟. has no written vowels. p. 4 The New Encyclopaedia Britannica.. Schlozer in 1781. 5 This term was first used by the German historian A. Shem. the word first appears in an inscription of the Assyrian King Shalmaneser III announcing his victory over a group of rebellious chieftains.. al-‘Arab al-‘Aaribah. The Jews acknowledge that Ishmael was the son of Abraham by his second wife Hagar. (See N.islamiconlineuniversity.) 7 „. is regarded as the ancestor of the Hebrews. seven thousand and seven hundred rams. An Arab was therefore a nomadic inhabitant of the central and northern Arabian peninsula. 3 http://www.and the Arabians brought him flocks. London.6 So far as is known. first domesticated in Arabia between about 1500 and 1200 BC. 900-800 BC). and their tribute to their Assyrian overlords was usually in the form of camels. The earliest surviving account of the people of Arabia comes in the tenth chapter of Genesis.com 7 . But the term most frequently used for Arabs in the Bible is Ishmaelites. the speakers of „Semitic‟5 languages. But the term „Arab‟ is not mentioned in Genesis. They were a nomadic people living in the north Arabian desert. 813. p. 6 However it has been suggested that the „mixed multitude‟ (Hebrew erev) mentioned in Exodus xii.13. 1946. 38 as having accompanied the Israelites into the wilderness from Egypt could be a mistake for Arabs (Hebrew arav). Hebrew. From then on. Barbour. „Adnaan was believed to be a descendant of Prophet Ishmael. The word itself is probably derived from a Semitic root related 2 al-‘Arab al-Musta‘ribah. while the southern Arabians were „pure‟ or „genuine‟ Arabs3 descending from Qahtaan. Arabs and Aramaeans. northern Arabians were „Arabicized‟ Arabs2 descending from „Adnaan. Noah‟s eldest son. Jewish tradition regarded the Arabs as fellowdescendants of Prophet Abraham. The others were the inhabitants of the rain-fed uplands in the south— the Yemen. Nisi Dominus. 73.

which achieved high prosperity as a trading centre at a junction of caravan routes and ultimately as a great political power in the third century CE 12 under the astute Queen Zenobia. Their kindom was in the extreme southwest of the peninsula. nine miles southwest of present-day Yarim on the road from Aden to San„aa. the valley hidden among the bare mountains of south Jordan which in the second century BC became the centre of the powerful kingdom of the Nabataeans. 12 CE stands for „common era‟ or „Christian era‟ in place of AD. including the Yemenis of the south-west.© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing to nomadism. Inevitably. Qatabanians. the Greek writer Eratosthenes (3rd century BC) described Eudaimon Arabia (i. the wealthiest of these ancient civili-zations. Their capital was at Qarnaw (now Ma„een). 10 The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the Arabic language. The people who called themselves Saba’ (biblical „Sheba‟) are both the earliest and the most abundantly attested in the surviving written records. „Stony Arabia‟. The Minaean kingdom lasted from the 4th to the 2nd century BC and was predominantly a trading organization that.10 Already the term „Arab‟ was broadening. Syria: A Short History . Minaeans. some of the Arabian nomads began settling down around the oases. Herodotus and later Greek and Roman authors began to extend the terms „Arabia‟ and „Arab‟ to cover the whole peninsula and its inhabitants. It occupied the modern Dhofar province of the Sultanate of Oman. p. Yemen) as inhabited by four major peoples. who are mentioned in Assyrian annals of the late 8th and 7th centuries BC. The Romans referred to the comparatively fertile region in southwestern and southern Arabia (in present day Asir and Yemen) as Arabia Felix8 in contrast to Arabia Deserta in barren central and nothern Arabia and Arabia Petraea9 in northwestern Arabia. were responsible for impressive irrigational constructions. 61. One of these settlements was Yathrib in western Arabia. 1959. Aramaic in writing. Semitic in religion. Literally. In the south.1. p. London. being superficially Hellenic but basically Arabian. for the period. and Hellenistic in art and architecture. the word „araba means „to cross‟. east of present-day San„aa and on the edge of the sand desert. their culture was synthetic. Sabaeans. and Hadramites.e. vol.com 8 . 11 Philip Hitti. and they had their capital at Thafaar. another was Petra. or Flourishing Arabia‟. where a sedentary civilization was possible. In the last decades of the 3rd century CE a 8 Literally „Happy.islamiconlineuniversity. and so it remained. was based on the sale of frankincense and sea trade from India. Himyarites first appear in recorded history in Pliny‟s Naturalis Historia (latter half of the 1st century CE). Their centre was at Ma‟rib.. 9 http://www. monopolized the trade routes. 508. Although the Nabataeans were Arabic in speech.11 Still another settlement was Palmyra in the central Syrian desert. Sabaean rulers. The Hadramite kingdom. which became Madeenah after the time of the Prophet Muhammad ().

Hausa. The Arabic alphabet has 28 letters. The Arabic script has been adapted to such diverse languages as Persian. and the remaining six letters represent sounds not used in the language written in the earlier alphabet. was developed in Kufah. Arabic language was carried across much of the Eastern Hemisphere by the spread of Islaam. and the whole of the Yemen was united under his rule. is the direct ancestor of modern Arabic writing. Others believe that this epigraph shows characteristics of Arabic but is essentially Aramaic and that the earliest extant example of Arabic is a trilingual inscription in Greek. Subsequently. the name „Arab‟ came to be used by these Muslims themselves and by the nations with whom they came in contact to indicate all people of Arabian origin. a city in Mesopotamia. Urdu. http://www. toward the end of the 7th century CE. It originated in Makkah and Madeenah at an early date and exists in many complex and decorative variant forms. except in cases in which more cursive scripts cannot be used. and is written from right to left. 8. 815-7.© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing Himyarite ruler named Shammar Yur„ish ended the independent existence of both Saba‟ and Hadhramaut.islamiconlineuniversity. but was sometimes also employed to write manuscripts of the Qur‟aan. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. all representing consonants. He and his successors were called the Tubba„ kings and their rule continued until shortly before the rise of Islaam. vol. Koofee. Syriac. Although it probably developed in the 4th century CE as a direct descendant of the Nabataean alphabet. pp. modified only in letter form. 509-10. Turkish. pp. 1. the term „Arab‟ came to refer to anyone who spoke Arabic as their native language.13 Some time after the rise of Islaam in the first quarter of the 7th century CE and the emergence of the Arabian Muslims as the founders of one of the greatest empires of history. Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet is the second most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world (the Latin alphabet is the most widespread). Spanish. Even though Koofee is a very handsome monumental script. and Arabic dating from CE 512. its origins and early history are vague. It was used chiefly for inscriptions in stone and metal. when Arabic replaced the local languages in many countries of the Middle-East and North Africa. it has passed out of use. vol. Twenty-two of the letters are those of the Semitic alphabet from which it descended. Malay. Two major types of Arabic script exist.com 9 . Some scholars believe that the earliest extant example of Arabic script is a royal funerary inscription of the Nabataeans dating from CE 328.14 13 14 The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Naskh. a cursive script well adapted to writing on papyrus or paper. and Swahili. bold monumental style. a thick.

For example. while the letter called jay is “j” and zed or zee is “z”. Writing Arabic is written and read from right to left. they do not follow a uniform rule like Arabic.islamiconlineuniversity.com 10 . the formation of the letters must match the direction in which the words are written. the letter called daal (‫)د‬ is pronounced as “d” and the letter called raa (‫ ) ر‬as “r”.© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing LESSON ONE : ‫س األَ َّو ُل‬ ُ ‫اَل َّد ْير‬ Connecting Form ‫سـ‬ ‫نـ‬ Name of the Letter Sound of the Letter ‫ د‬daal ‫ ر‬raa ‫ س‬seen ‫ ن‬noon d r s n Pronunciation In the Arabic alphabet there are 28 consonants and they are pronounced according to the first letter of their names. however. In English there is also a distinction between the names of letters and their pronunciation. the complete opposite of English. The letter called aitch is “h” and the letter em is “m”. ‫د‬ daal http://www. Consequently.

.... It is similar to the American English pronunciation of „t‟ or „tt‟ between vowels (e........................................ It should rest on the line and not below the line. .....................15 The Arabic „r‟ is a consonant produced by tapping the tip of the tongue quickly behind the upper teeth.g.. The letter ‫ د‬daal is pronounced like the „d‟ in the English word „deed‟ and is written with a single curved stroke from the top to the bottom.. 16 The Arabic „r‟ may be practised by saying phrases like „a lotta water‟............. The raa is written as a continual stroke which begins above the line and extends below it.............© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing 1.. 15 English „r‟ is the vowel „u‟ in „but‟ pronounced with the tip of the tongue turned back and with rounded lips.. „I gotta go‟.com 11 . ‫ر‬ raa 2... a rapid succession of several flaps.........16 However............... ....................... „butter‟.) as a tongue flap rather than a stop consonant as in „tea‟ or „eat‟.................. „pretty‟........islamiconlineuniversity........... http://www............ which is more a vowel than a consonant.......... etc... „waiter‟....... the Arabic „r‟ is a trill.................... The letter ‫ ر‬raa is quite different from the English „r‟.

.g........ These letters are referred to in this book as „non-connectors‟....................... The Arabic ‫ س‬seen corresponds to the high-pitched „s‟ in English words like „see‟ except that the tip of the tongue in Arabic is in contact with the upper teeth. giving the „s‟ a slightly lower-pitched sound....................... However......... ............................ daal ‫ د‬and raa ‫) ر‬.......... six letters do not connect to letters following them (e..... ‫ ـد‬، ‫ ـر‬، ‫ ـس‬، ‫) ـن‬......... The letter ‫ ن‬noon is pronounced like the „n‟ in the English word „none‟..............© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ‫س‬ seen 3.............com 12 ... The remaining 22 letters are http://www......... Letter Connection All letters of the Arabic alphabet can be connected to letters preceding them by the addition of an extension (e...............................islamiconlineuniversity.... ‫ن‬ noon 4............................................ It is written below the line as a circular „u‟ with a dot between the upper arms of the „u‟............ . It is written like a cursive „w‟ beginning from the right on the line followed by a large circular „u‟ written below the line.... while in English the tip of the tongue is slightly behind the teeth...g........

. seen ‫س‬ and noon ‫)ن‬.......... ..... seen ‫ س‬becomes ‫ سـ‬and noon ‫ ن‬becomes ‫ نـ‬. It is written as a single horizontal stroke from top to bottom and rests on the line..... The pronunciation of vowels in Arabic does not change as much as they do in English.... bat and comma.islamiconlineuniversity.....g... For example.............. However..... http://www.. if they are among the connecting letters.. as in the word “father” and will be written in this book as “aa”.... For example...... if seen precedes daal it is written as ‫ سـد‬and if noon precedes raa it becomes ‫ نـر‬. Reading Reading in Arabic is merely the addition of the letters and their vowels while reading from right to left.....© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing called „connectors‟ because they connect to letters following them (e. The vowel alif is a non-connector...... LONG VOWELS ُ‫اَ ْيل َح َركاتُ الطَّ ِى ْييلَة‬ ‫ا‬ alif The vowel ‫ ا‬alif is equivalent to a long “a” in English.. late........... they are written separately as follows: ‫دس‬ and ‫ رن‬. E..... That is..... but if daal precedes seen or raa precedes noon. letters which precede it may be joined to it.................. the “a” in English has four different pronunciations in the following words: father..g. Thus...com 13 ................. ‫ن‬+‫ا‬+‫ د‬daal + alif + noon = d + aa + n = ‫دان‬ daan.. The letters which do connect all have modified forms for connecting............ it does not connect to letters following it..

. http://www..... ........ ........................................................................... Dictation 1 At this point and submit before proceeding. ......... ......... ... .................. ..................... ............................ .... ................. ..................... ..... .... ‫نان‬ ‫ناد‬ ‫ناس‬ ‫نار‬ ........................................... ‫ساس‬ ‫سان‬ ‫سار‬ ‫ساد‬ ...© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ‫داد‬ ‫داس‬ ‫دار‬ ‫دان‬ .................................... ‫رار‬ ‫ران‬ ‫راد‬ ‫راس‬ ................. ........ Reading Exercise 1 2............. .. ........ Writing Exercise 1 3........................... ..........com 14 .............islamiconlineuniversity.. .............. ................................ ..................... ........... .. ......................... ................................. ......... 1 2 3 4 Attempt: 1.... ..... ........... .....

... from right to left............... ........................ ..... It is added in the same way as alif was in the previous section.............. http://www.. It should be noted that.......................... the vowel waaw does not join to letters following it..................... ‫نىد‬ ‫نىس‬ .............. . ................ .......... ............g...... like alif... E... ..................... as in the word “brute” and the “oo” in “room”............... .......com 15 ......... .© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ‫و‬ The vowel waaw ‫ و‬waaw is equivalent to a long “u” in English............... In this book it will be written as “oo”............... It is written in one stroke consisting of a circle beginning on the line. and ending with a tail extending below the line.................................... ............ ................................. ....................islamiconlineuniversity. ‫س‬+‫و‬+‫ر‬ ‫دور‬ 1 ‫نىن‬ ‫نىر‬ 2 ............................. raa + waaw + seen = r + oo + s = ‫ روس‬roos ‫دوس‬ ‫دون‬ ‫دود‬ .......

....... ............................................... .... Reading Exercise 2 2.......... It is written like an „s‟ whose head is stretched to the right and whose tail is stretched to the left and curved upward....... .................. Writing Exercise 2 At this point and submit before proceeding...... ........ ...................................... .............................. ‫سىن‬ ‫سىد‬ ‫سىر‬ ‫سىس‬ ........ ... The head of the „s‟ is written above the line and the tail below the line.. ............... 3 4 Attempt: 1........ ..............islamiconlineuniversity......... ..........com 16 ................. .......................... ‫يـ‬ ‫ي‬ yaa The long vowel ‫ ي‬yaa is equivalent to the “ee” in the English word “meet” and is written in this book as “ee”. ............................... .© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ‫رون‬ ‫رود‬ ‫رور‬ ‫روس‬ ............................................ http://www... ................................................... .........

‫ ند‬، ‫ يد‬and ‫ نس‬، ‫) يس‬ . .................................. ............ the peak of the yaa is commonly joined directly to the top of the raa or noon................... ...... That is...... The connecting form is written on the line......g...........g.. ..... ................................ ‫ن‬+‫ي‬+‫ س‬seen + yaa + noon = s + ee + n = ‫ سيـن‬seen.............. .......................................... ...... ....... ‫ديد‬ ‫ديس‬ ‫دين‬ ............ E............... ........ it connects to letters which follow it.............. ‫ريد‬ ‫ريس‬ ‫رين‬ ‫رير‬ http://www...............................................islamiconlineuniversity............ Yaa is added to consonants in the same way as the other two vowels....... e.............. .. ‫ نيـر‬becomes ‫ نير‬and ‫ سيـن‬becomes ‫سين‬ ‫نيد‬ ‫نيس‬ ‫نين‬ ‫نير‬ ..g.............. .com 2 3 17 . like that of noon except that it has two dots below it........... ...... ......... Note: When ‫ ي‬yaa is followed by ‫ ر‬raa or ‫ ن‬noon and preceded by a connector........... ‫دير‬ 1 ................© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing Note that this vowel is a connector....... (e................

TWO OR MORE LONG VOWELS A single word in Arabic may contain two or more long vowels..© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ................................... ................. .................... ‫سيس‬ ‫سير‬ ‫سيد‬ ‫سين‬ .............. .. ...... Dictation 2 At this point and submit before proceeding........ 4 Attempt: 1.......... ........... ..........com ‫دارا‬ 1 ‫رونا‬ 2 18 ....................... ..... .................... ‫ي‬+‫ر‬+‫ا‬+‫ د‬daal+alif+raa+yaa = d+aa+r+ee = ‫ داري‬daaree ‫رينا‬ ‫سىرا‬ ....................................... ............ ....... ........................... ‫سارا‬ ‫ديرا‬ http://www...... Writing Exercise 3 3......................... For example.. .. .......... Pronunciation of such words follows the same principles used in reading words with only one long vowel. ....... ....................................... Reading Exercise 3 2............................ ..islamiconlineuniversity...... ....

.................................... ‫ناران‬ ‫سىدان‬ ‫دينار‬ ......... .................................... ... ........................... ................ ............... ......................................... ................................................................islamiconlineuniversity................................................. ......... ... ............... ..... ‫نىدي‬ ‫داري‬ ‫سينـي‬ ............................... ................. ‫سىرو‬ ‫رادو‬ ‫دينى‬ ...... ...... ............. http://www................................................. ..... .................... ..................com 3 4 5 6 7 19 .... ................................................................................................... ‫ديري‬ ‫سىني‬ ‫نادي‬ .. ................. ......... ‫دانى‬ ‫سيرو‬ ‫رودو‬ ..........................© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ................. ................ . . ............. ............................................................................................... ........... ..........

.............................. ...................... ...................................................... ‫نيرانىسي‬ ‫دوسيرانا‬ ......................................................... .islamiconlineuniversity...... ‫ديناران‬ ‫سىداني‬ ‫نىراني‬ ...............................© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ................................................................ . ............. Writing Exercise 4 3... .............................. . .. .......................... .. ... 8 9 ‫ سانىديرو‬10 Attempt: 1.................................... ........ . ..................................................... ‫ناسين‬ ‫نيسان‬ ‫رادون‬ ......com 20 ............. Reading Exercise 4 2.......... ....... ... http://www....................... Dictation 3 At this point and submit before proceeding. .........

...... They are pronounced like the „a‟ in “pat”...© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing SHORT VOWELS ُ‫ص ْيي َرة‬ ِ َ‫اَ ْيل َح َركاتُ ا ْيلق‬ In Arabic. the „u‟ in “put” and the „i‟ in “pit”.......... ‫س‬ ُ ‫س‬ َ ِ ‫س‬ si su sa ‫ِد‬ ‫َد ُد‬ di du da ‫َن ُن ِن‬ ‫َر ُر ِر‬ ni ri nu na ru ra The short vowels are added to consonants in the same way that long vowels were in the previous examples...... http://www... oo.............. ..... .......... u......... ee).. ‫س‬ َ +‫ َر‬+‫ َد‬daal + fat-hah + raa + fat-hah + seen + fat-hah = d + a + r + a + s + a = ‫س‬ َ ‫َد َر‬ darasa ‫سنِ َد‬ ُ ‫نَ َد َر‬ ‫س ِر َد‬ ُ .....com ‫س‬ َ ‫َد َر‬ 1 21 .... ............. i)......islamiconlineuniversity.. Each one corresponds in pronunciation to one of the three long vowels (aa..... ....... The short vowel „i‟ is called kasrah and is written as a short right-slanting line below the letter ( ِ ‫) ــ‬....g. E... there are only three short vowels (a. .... The short vowel „u‟ is called dammah and is indicated by a small waaw written above the letter ( ُ ‫) ــ‬. The short vowel„a‟ is called fat-hah and is indicated by a short right-slanting line ( َ ‫ ) ـ‬above the letter it follows.

.............................................com 22 ................... ....... .......... ............ ................... .... ‫سنُ ِد‬ ِ ‫نُ ُد َر‬ ‫س ِر َد‬ َ ‫س‬ ُ ‫ِد َر‬ ...... .................... . . . Dictation 4 At this point and submit before proceeding...............islamiconlineuniversity.... ........................ ................ . Reading Exercise 5 2.................................................. ............ ..... ............................................. 2 3 4 Attempt: 1.......... ..... ...................© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ‫سنَ َد‬ َ ‫نُ ِد َر‬ ‫س َر َد‬ َ ‫س‬ َ ‫ُد ِر‬ ......... ‫سنُ ُد‬ َ ‫نُ َد ِر‬ ‫س ِر ُد‬ ِ ‫س‬ َ ‫َد ُر‬ ............................. Writing Exercise 5 3... http://www.............. ..... ............ ................

because in modern written Arabic.g. ‫ دار‬daar. e.com 23 . there would have been no difference in pronunciation.g. However. For example. Therefore. If the sukoon was added. This might appear strange. The sukoon only confirms that there is no short vowel on the ‫ْي‬ consonant.islamiconlineuniversity. ‫دار‬ daar. short vowels are often deleted. since the number of possible short vowel combinations in three letter words are 18. http://www. e. ( ‫ ) ـ َ ْيد‬is pronounced as ad. for example ( ‫ ) ْيد‬is pronounced as “d”. In the first part of this lesson involving long vowels. the consonants following long vowels were pronounced without vowels. in English. only a few are actually used and the context in the sentence will determine which ones are intended. Sukoon causes the sound of the letter to be joined to the vowel before it.© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing SUKOON ‫س ُك ْيى ُن‬ ُّ ‫اَل‬ ِ ُ ‫س‬ ‫ـ َ ْي‬ ‫س‬ ‫س ْي‬ ‫ْي‬ ‫ـ َ ْيد ُ ْيد ِ ْيد‬ is us as id ِ ُ ‫ـَنْي‬ ‫نْي نْي‬ in un an ud ad ‫ـ َ ْير ُ ْير ِ ْير‬ ir ur ar The sukoon ( ‫ ) ـْي‬is a special symbol written over a consonant to indicate that the consonant does not have a short vowel on it.

.............. e................. ........... .......... „Thus as tha bay‟s rod beak‟..... ....... The long vowel aa is actually produced by a fat-hah plus alif ‫ َ ا‬... oo and ee for beginning Arabic readers............. ‫س ْين َد‬ َ ‫نَ ْيد ِر‬ ‫س ْير ُد‬ َ ‫س‬ َ ‫َد ْير‬ .. ..... .. e.............. ..... alif. ‫سنِ ُد‬ ‫نُ ْي‬ ‫نَ ْين ُد ُر‬ ‫س ُر َد‬ ‫نَ ْي‬ ‫س‬ ُ ‫نَ ْيد ُر‬ . ..... .... ...............com 1 2 3 24 ................ .......................... However... .......islamiconlineuniversity.. ‫س ْين ْيد‬ َ ‫نَد ْيْير‬ ‫س ْير ْيد‬ َ ‫س‬ ‫َد ْير ْي‬ .. ُ Consequently................. ....... Can easily be read as „This is the boy‟s red book‟ by a native speaker of English....... ... or an educated non-native speaker... http://www........................................................... .. .....g..............© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing the sentence: Th_s _s th_ b_y‟s r_d b_ _ k............... ....... like that of the Qur‟aan and the prophetic traditions....... the preceding short vowels will be written............ the short vowels are not written in modern vowelled Arabic texts... waaw and yaa may be considered equivalent to the long vowels aa....... ‫سى َدانِي‬ soodaanee... oo by dammah plus waaw ‫ ُ و‬and ee by kasrah plus yaa ‫ ِ ي‬.... waaw by dammah 90% of the time and yaa by kasrah 90% of the time......... ................. some of which made words while others did not..... ....... ........... Even though it could have been many other combinations of the six English vowels............ ....... ...g................ in ancient texts.. Since alif is always preceded by fat-hah.....

.. 17 ‫نار ـ نَ ْير‬ ‫ْي‬ ‫سار‬ ‫س ْير ـ ْي‬ َ ‫دار ـ َد ْير‬ ‫ْي‬ . Although such differences do not affect the meaning of words in English...........com 25 ................ .. .... in rapid speech............................... http://www...... ‫ َد َرسا‬darasaa means „both of them studied‟ and ‫اس‬ َ ‫ َد َر‬daraasah17 means „studying‟............... Distinguishing Between Long and Short Vowels The long vowel is held twice as long as the short vowel in classical speech.. ................... Conse-quently......... .. ........ Dictation 5 At this point and submit before proceeding.... long vowels are shortened...............islamiconlineuniversity..... in Arabic they do... .... ... Writing Exercise 6 3.... Reading Exercise 6 2................. only a slight difference in pronunciation of the two types of vowels distinguishes between them............... However.... .............. ‫س‬ َ ‫ دا َر‬daarasa means „he studied with someone‟.. 4 Attempt: 1..© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ‫س ْين ُد‬ َ ِ‫ن‬ ‫نَنِ ْيد ِر‬ ‫س ْير َد‬ ُ ِ‫ن‬ ‫س‬ ِ ‫نُ َد ْير‬ ....................... ....... ........... ...... Actually ‫سة‬ َ ‫دَرا‬ 1 daraasah which to non-Arabs sounds exactly the same as daraasa........... ................ For example. the word ‫س‬ َ ‫ َد َر‬darasa means „he studied‟.................

..‬‬ ‫‪..................‬‬ ‫‪..................................................................‬‬ ‫‪.......‬‬ ‫‪....‬‬ ‫‪.......................................‬‬ ‫‪..‬‬ ‫‪http://www.........‬‬ ‫‪...........‬‬ ‫نير ـ نِ ْير‬ ‫ْي‬ ‫ِد ْير ـ د ْيير‬ ‫س ْير‬ ‫ْي‬ ‫سير ـ ِ‬ ‫‪........‫‪Arabic Reading & Writing‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫س ْيد ـ سا ْيد‬ ‫َ‬ ‫را ْيد ـ َر ْيد‬ ‫داس‬ ‫سـ‬ ‫ْي‬ ‫َد ْي‬ ‫‪..‬‬ ‫‪..‬‬ ‫ِد ْن ـ دين‬ ‫سنْي‬ ‫سين ـ ِ‬ ‫س ْيد ـ سيد‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪...............‬‬ ‫‪...........................‬‬ ‫‪................................................................‬‬ ‫‪...........‬‬ ‫‪..........................................‬‬ ‫‪....................‬‬ ‫‪.........‬‬ ‫‪.....................‬‬ ‫نىر‬ ‫نُ ْير ـ ْي‬ ‫س ْيد‬ ‫سى ْيد ـ ُ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن ـ دو ْ‬ ‫ُد ْ‬ ‫‪........................‬‬ ‫‪..com‬‬ .......................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫‪......‬‬ ‫‪....................‬‬ ‫‪.........................................................‬‬ ‫‪................................‬‬ ‫‪.......islamiconlineuniversity.....‬‬ ‫‪......................‬‬ ‫س‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫روس ـ ُر ْي‬ ‫ْي‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪26‬‬ ‫‪© Islamic Online University‬‬ ‫سا َر‬ ‫نِري‬ ‫رو ُد‬ ‫ِدسي‬ ‫‪.....‬‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ُد ْير ـ ْي‬ ‫س ْير‬ ‫ْي‬ ‫سىر ـ ُ‬ ‫‪...‬‬ ‫‪......‬‬ ‫‪...................‬‬ ‫‪.............................‬‬ ‫‪.....‬‬ ‫‪..........................................

...........‬‬ ‫‪.............‬‬ ‫‪......‬‬ ‫‪.......................‬‬ ‫‪......‬‬ ‫‪.......‬‬ ‫‪.............‬‬ ‫سارا‬ ‫نِ ِر‬ ‫رودو‬ ‫س‬ ‫ِد ِ‬ ‫‪...............‬‬ ‫نُدي َر‬ ‫نُديرا‬ ‫نى ِدرا‬ ‫نُ ِدرا‬ ‫‪http://www.....‬‬ ‫‪.............‬‬ ‫‪.....................‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪......‬‬ ‫‪......com‬‬ ........................................‬‬ ‫نادا َر‬ ‫نا َدرا‬ ‫نادارا‬ ‫نَدارا‬ ‫‪.......‬‬ ‫‪...................‬‬ ‫‪............‬‬ ‫‪..........‬‬ ‫‪.......................‫‪Arabic Reading & Writing‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪27‬‬ ‫‪© Islamic Online University‬‬ ‫‪...........................................‬‬ ‫‪...‬‬ ‫‪............‬‬ ‫‪.........................‬‬ ‫‪........‬‬ ‫‪..‬‬ ‫‪................................‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫نُ ِد َر‬ ‫نى ِد َر‬ ‫نىدير‬ ‫َ‬ ‫نىديرا‬ ‫‪......‬‬ ‫‪....‬‬ ‫‪..‬‬ ‫‪...............................................‬‬ ‫‪...............‬‬ ‫‪..‬‬ ‫نَ َد َر‬ ‫نا َد َر‬ ‫دار‬ ‫نَ َ‬ ‫نَ َدرا‬ ‫‪........‬‬ ‫‪...............‬‬ ‫‪..............................................‬‬ ‫‪...........................................‬‬ ‫‪..............................‬‬ ‫‪....islamiconlineuniversity..................‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪.............................‬‬ ‫‪............................................‬‬ ‫سرا‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ني ِر‬ ‫ُردو‬ ‫س‬ ‫دي ِ‬ ‫‪.................‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪.........................................

. ..... ................ ....... Reading Exercise 7 2.................... .. ...................islamiconlineuniversity.. http://www.............. Attempt: 1......com 28 ........... . .... Writing Exercise 7 and 8 At this point and submit before proceeding...............© Islamic Online University Arabic Reading & Writing ....................

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