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Electronic, Microprocessor, Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students, Hobbyiest and R&D persons

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Electronics for Beginners / Basic Electronic
General Theory Test and Measurement Digital Circuits Batteries / Battery Tutorials Components DC Theory Block Diagrams Switches Tutorial

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Electronic Tutorials - Circuits - Schematics - Hobby Projects Resource

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Diodes Transistor Fault Finding Field Effect Transistor Bels, Decibels and DB Multivibrators The Schmitt Trigger 2 Phasors and Resonance Combination Logic Sequential Logic Oscilloscope Tutorial Robots / Robotic Tutorials - ( Plain & Simple ) Dictionary of Units / List of Measurements / Categories of Units Formula / Formulae used in Electronics Online Calculators & Conversions which are used in common use Radio Terminology Bibliography Microcontroller Tutorials 8051 / 8052 Microcontroller DALLAS 80C320 / DS80C320 Reference links to Quality Microcontroller based Schematics & Resource Microprocessor Tutorials 8085 Instruction Set for Reference
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Junction Transistors Unijunction Transistor Operational Amplifier Thyristor Triac and Diac The Schmitt Trigger 1 Reactance and Impedance in AC Circuits Microprocessor Systems Flip Flop ASCII Table

RF / Radio Frequency Allocations Table to 30 MHz

PIC Microcontroller

Electronic Tutorials - Circuits - Schematics - Hobby Projects Resource

Electronic Components Manufacturers & Data Sheets CMOS - CD4000 Gal's Pal's, PIC Data Sheets CMOS 74HCxxx Diodes, Diac etc. Data Sheets FET, JFET, MOSFET Voltage Regulators, Liner Series IC's 74xxxx Series Opto-electronics Transistors

Computer Dictionary Quick Reference links to some very useful CIRCUITS / SCHEMATICS

Tutorials on other Topics will be added shortly, Keep on visiting....

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Electronic, Microprocessor, Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students, Hobbyiest and R&D persons Products Sitemap

Dear Visitor Hobbyprojects.com is a collection of links to 1000's of Electronic Circuits, schematics, online tutorials to find quick solution for electronic design problems. New circuits and/or links are added regularly as a resource for beginners, hobbyists, engineers, inventors and consultants. Let us know what is missing or if you have a circuit to include in this collection.

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AC Power Controls AC to AC Converters AC to AC Power Supplies AC to DC Converters AC to DC Power Supplies Acceleration Sensors / Monitors Acoustic Circuits Active Antenna Active Filters s Band-pass s High-pass s Low-pass s Notch Acquisitions Data Circuits Adder Circuits Air Conditioner (HVAC) Circuits Air Flow Monitors Aircraft Receivers Alarm Circuits AM (Amplitude Modulation) Circuits AM Receiver Circuits AM Transmitter Circuits Amp Meters Amplifiers s Audio s Buffer s Differential s High Frequency s High Gain s High Impedance s High Speed s Instrumentation s Intermediate Frequency s Limiting s Logarithmic s Low Noise s Microwave s Operational s Power s RF (Radio Frequency) s Trans impedance s Variable Gain s Video Audio Mixers Audio Oscillator Circuits Amplitude Modulation (AM) Circuits
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Balance Controls Band-Pass Filters s Active s Passive Battery Backup Circuits Battery Chargers Battery Monitors Battery Testers Barometer (Atmospheric Pressure) Beeper & Buzzer Circuits Biomedical Circuits Bistable Multivibrators Bridge Circuits Buffer Circuits Bug "Electronic" & Detectors Bug/Insect Killers Burglar Circuits Buzzer Circuits

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Camera Flashers Camera Circuits Capacitance Sensors Capacitance Switches Capacitors (Super) Circuits Carrier Current Transceivers Cell Phones Charge Pump Circuits Chopper Circuits Clock Circuits Code Practice Circuits Color Organ Circuits Colpits Oscillators Compandor Circuits Comparator Circuits Computer Cables Computer Interface Conductivity Sensors Contact Bounce Suppression Circuits Control Circuits Converters – s AC to AC s AC to DC s Analog to Digital (A/D) s Current to Voltage s DC to AC

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Analog to Digital (A/D) Circuits Analog Multipliers Analog Switches Anemometer Circuits Annunciator Circuits Antenna Circuits Aquarium Circuits Astable Circuits Attenuators Audio Amplifiers Audio Circuits s Accessories s Intercom s Level, Tone and Balance Controls s Mixers s Power Amplifiers s Preamplifiers s Stereo s Surround Sound Audio Mixers Audio Oscillator Circuits Automatic Frequency Controls Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Circuits Automatic Level Control Circuits Automotive Circuits

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DC to DC Digital to Analog (D/A) s Frequency s Frequency to Voltage s Period to Voltage s RF (Radio Frequency) s Sine to Square Wave s Voltage s Voltage to Current s Voltage to Frequency s Wide Band Constant Current Circuits Cooling Fan Controls Cosine Counters and Timer Circuits Crystal Oscillators Cube Root Current Limiters Current Loop Circuits Current Meters Current Mirrors Current Sensors / Monitors Current Source/Sink Circuits Current to Voltage Converter
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Alarms & Timers - Medical Instruments - Automation - Intercom - Fetal Heartbeat Monitor - High Resolution Animated LED Sign Boards

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High Quality Bright "PIZZA" Animated Sign Boards High Brightness "OPEN" LED SignBoards

Medical Instruments
Fetal Heartbeat Monitor (Ultrasonic Doppler) Digital Pulse Meter with Infra-Red Finger Clip / Earlobe Sensor

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Alarms & Timers - Medical Instruments - Automation - Intercom - Fetal Heartbeat Monitor - High Resolution Animated LED Sign Boards

Intercom Systems
FM Wireless Duplex Interphones FM Wireless Touch & Talk Interphone Hands free Remote Monitoring Intercom connects upto 99 locations

Door Talking Bell

Duplex 2 Wire Intercom

Duplex Hands free Interphone

Home / Office Automation Systems
Token Number Displays Moving Message Displays Caller-ID Displays

Automatic Water Level Controllers

Automatic Water Level Indicators

Automatic Phone Call Recorder

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Alarms & Timers - Medical Instruments - Automation - Intercom - Fetal Heartbeat Monitor - High Resolution Animated LED Sign Boards

Alarms & Timers
Vibration Sensor Alarm Automatic Timer Switch Single Digit Clock

Electronic Test Instruments
Telephone Analyzer/Caller-ID Tester Frequency Counters up to 100MHz

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Electronic, Microprocessor, Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students, Hobbyiest and R&D persons Products Sitemap Online Calculators Circuits (A-C) Circuits (D-O) Circuits (P-Z) Tutorials Beginners Advance Microprocessor Microcontroller
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Abbreviations Dictionary of Electronic Terms Dictionary of List & Measurements / Category of Units Formula/Formulae used in Electronics Online Calculators, Conversions & Converters Quick Reference links to some very helpful Circuits / Schematics Reference links to Quality Microcontroller based Schematics Resources Radio Terminology Bibliography

Microcontroller Tutorials q 8051 / 8052 Microcontroller Tutorial q PIC Microcontroller Tutorial q DS80C320 (DALLAS) Microprocessor Tutorials q 8085 Instruction Set for Reference

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Tutorials
Electronic for Beginners
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General Theory q Amplifiers q Averages q Circuit Symbols q Conductors and Insulators q Electromagnetism q Filters q Frequency Modulation q Graphs and Waveforms q Heat q Magnetism q Mixer q Percent and Tolerance q Pulse Modulation q Semiconductor Materials q Sound q The Differentiator q The R.F. Spectrum q Ohms and Kirchhoff's q Amplitude Modulation q Circuit Diagrams q Clippers and Limiters

Oscilloscope Tutorial Diodes
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Introduction to Diodes Barrier Diode Characteristic Curves Diode Connections Diode Voltages Forward Biased Junction Half Wave Rectifier Reservoir Capacitor Semiconductor Materials Steering Diode Varicap Diode Zener Diode Diode Puzzle Diode as a Gate Diode Clippers and Limiters Diode Protection Circuits Forward and Reverse Biased Diodes Full Wave Rectifier P-N Junction

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Difference Amplifier Feedback Frequency Changer Generator Principle Harmonics Light Motor Principle Oscillators Pulses Rms and Peak To Peak Source and Load The Integrator Time Constants What is Phase

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Reverse Biased Junction Seven Segment Display Using the Light Emitting Diode Voltage Doubler

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Components q 7 Segment Displays q Batteries q Circuit Symbols q Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) q Electromagnetic Relay q Inductors q Loudspeaker q Reed Switch q Selecting Capacitors q Semiconductor Data q Transformer q Using Led's q Active and Passive q Capacitors q Diode q Fuses q Integrated Circuits q Printed Circuit Boards q Resistors q Resistor Colour Code q Switches q Transformer Types q Value Multipliers q Wires and Cables Test and Measurements q Continuity Testing q Fault Finding Algorithms q Logical Fault Finding q Measuring Resistance q Signal Generators q Tracing a Schematic q With Respect to q Effect of Meter Resistance q Frequency Response q Measuring Current q Measuring Voltages q Testing Transistors q Using a Scope DC Theory q What is Electric Current q Ohm's Law q Resistor Networks q Resistors in Parallel q Voltages in a Circuit q Watts and Joules q Current in Circuits q Potential Dividers q Resistors in Series q Series / Parallel Batteries q Wheatstone Bridge

Junction Transistors q Junction Transistor q Junction Transistor Biasing q Transistor Operation q Transistor as a Switch q Class A, B and C Bias q Transistor Small Signal Amplifier q Biasing a Transistor q Emitter Stabiliser Resistor q Load Resistor q Typical Circuit Values q Amplifiers in Cascade q Tuned Amplifier q Common Emitter Amplifier q Common Base Amplifier q Common Collector Amplifier q Phase Splitter q Class a Power Amplifier q Push-Pull Amplifier q Complementary Push-Pull Amplifier q Directly Coupled Amplifier q Darlington Pair Transistor Fault Finding q Collector Load Resistor Open Circuit q Emitter Resistor Open Circuit q Upper Base Bias Resistor Open Circuit q Emitter Capacitor S/C And O/C q Lower Base Bias Resistor Open Circuit Unijunction Transistors Field Effect Transistors q Junction FET q Mosfet (Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET) q Junction FET as an Amplifier q Mosfet Circuit Symbols Operational Amplifiers q The Basic Opamp q Setting Opamp Gain q Non Inverter with Gain q Temperature Alarm q Opamp as an Audio Mixer q Opamp Characteristics q Unity Gain Non Inverter q Comparator q Opamp as a Timer q Opamp Dual Power Supplies Bels, Decibels and DB Thyristor, Triac and Diac q Thyristor q Phase Triggering the Thyristor q Triac and Diac q Burst Triggering the Thyristor q Full Wave Control of the Thyristor q Thyristor as a Crowbar Multivibrators q Astable q Bistable

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Monostable / Schematic Trigger 2

Digital Circuits q AND Gates q Binary 7 Segment Decoder q Exclusive OR q Logic Gates q NAND Gates q NOT Gates q The 7490 Decade Counter q Binary q Bistable as Divider q Hexadecimal q Multivibrators q NOR Gates q OR Gates Block Diagrams q Block Diagrams q A.M. Transmitter q Computer q Digital Clock q F.M. Transmitter q Mono T/V Receiver q Phase Locked Loop q Tape Recorder q A.M. Receiver q Colour T/V Camera q DC Motor Speed Control q F.M. Receiver q Mono T/V Camera q Oscilloscope q Power Supply Units

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Schematic Trigger 1

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Reactance and Impedance in AC Circuits q Resistance in an AC Circuit q Inductive Reactance q Capacitive Reactance q Impedance Phasors and Resonance q Phase and Phasors in AC Circuits q Capacitance in AC Circuits q L, C and R in Series in AC Circuits q L, C and R in Parallel in AC Circuits q Series Resonance in AC Circuits q Parallel Resonance in AC Circuits q Resistance in AC Circuits q Inductance in AC Circuits Microprocessor System s Bits, Bytes Etc. s Microprocessor System Diagram s Arithmetic / Logic Unit s Microprocessor Architecture s Read Only Memory s Input and Output s Instructions and Programs s Flow Chart Symbols s System Flags s Interrupts s Buses s System Clock s 6502 CPU s Random Access Memory s Memory Map s Fetch / Execute s Addressing Modes s Typical Flow Chart s Stack Combination Logic s Truth Tables for Logic Gates s Diode Transistor Logic s An Intruder Alarm s Making Gates Using NANDs s Making Gates Using NORs s Recording Circuit Levels s Boolean Expressions s DE Morgan's Theorem s Applying De Morgan s The Half Adder s 3 Bit Adder s Decoders s Tri-State Logic s Diode Logic s Transistor Transistor Logic s Coffee Machine s Traffic Lights s Low Level Activated Gates s The Full Adder s Encoders s The 7447a Decoder Flip Flop s A Transistor R-S Flip-Flop s Switch Debouncing s Low Activated Flip-Flop s Clocked D Type Flip-Flop

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Toggle Flip-Flop J-K Master Flip-Flops NOR Gate Flip-Flop High Activated R-S Flip-Flop Clocked R-S Flip-Flop Edge Triggered Flip-Flops Master/Slave D Type Flip-Flop J-K With Set and Preset

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Sequential Logic s Asynchronous Up Counters s Asynchronous Down Counters s Analogue to Digital Conversion s Synchronous Counters s The Decade Counter s The SISO Shift Register s The PISO Shift Register s The SIPO Shift Register s The PIPO Shift Register s Digital to Analogue Conversion s Multiplexers and Demultiplexers s Dividers s The 7490 Counter/Divider ASCII Table

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16 function Scientific Calculator 5 Function Calculator 555 Timer - Frequency and Duty Cycle Calculator 8051 Microcontroller Peripheral Timing Calculator Ad Calculator Adjusted Cost Base Calculator Advanced Calculator
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EZ Calculator Factors Calculator Fahrenheit to Celsius Converter Fibonacci Calculator Field Depth Calculator Functional Calculator Gasoline Usage Calculator GCD/LCM Calculator GPA Calculator Graphing Function Calculator Greatest Common Factor Calculator Group Work Calculator

Age / Birth date Calculator Airport Calculator Area Calculator

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FREE Online Calculators - Conversions - Converters Encyclopedia

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Percent calculate calculator Percent increase calculator Photography - Depth of field calculator Polygon angle finder calculator Prime Number Calculator Prime Number Searcher Calculator Prime Number Tester Calculator Pythagorean Theorem Calculator

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FREE Online Calculators - Conversions - Converters Encyclopedia

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more calculators will be updated shortly.....
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Electronic Circuits - Electronics Science Projects & Circuit - Resource

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Electronic Bugs & Detectors Electronic Locks Electric Fence Circuits Emergency Light Circuits Encoder Circuits ECG Moniter using PIC Microcontroller

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Game Circuits Gas Detectors Gate Arrays Geiger Counter Circuits Geophone Circuits Ground-Fault Interrupter (GFI) Ground Current Monitors

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FAX Circuits FET Circuits Fiber Optic Circuits Field Strength Meters Flashers and Blinkers Flip/flop Circuits Flyback Circuits Fluid Level Monitors Fluorescent Lamp Circuits FM (Frequency Modulation) Circuits Freespace Communications Freezer Alarm Frequency Converters Frequency Counters Frequency Divider Circuits Frequency Doublers Frequency Meters/Monitors Frequency Multipliers Frequency Shift (FSK) Circuits Frequency Synthesizer Circuits Frequency to Voltage Converters Frost/Freeze Alarm Function Generators

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Indicator Circuits Infrared Circuits Instruments Instrumentation Amplifiers Intercom Circuits Interface Circuits Inverter Circuits Ion Generator Circuits

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Electronic Circuits - Electronics Science Projects & Circuit - Resource
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Hall Effect Circuits Hartley Oscillators High Impedance Circuits High Gain Amplifier Circuits High-Pass Filters s Active s Passive High Speed/Frequency Circuits High Voltage Generators Hour Meters Holiday Circuits Human Motion Detectors Human Proximity Detectors Human Touch Detectors Humidity Sensors and Monitors

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Joysticks Jacab's Ladder Circuits

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Ladder Networks Lamp/Light Control Circuits Laser Circuits Latch Circuits LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Circuits LED (Light Emitting Diodes) Circuits Level, Tone and Balance Controls Lie Detector Circuits Light Dimmers Light Dependent Resistor Circuits Light Detectors Light Flashers Light-Beam Communications Limiter Circuits Limiting Amplifiers Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) Liquid Detectors / Sensors Liquid Level Monitors Lock Circuits Logarithmic Circuits Logic Circuits Low Noise Amplifiers Low-Pass Filters s Active s Passive LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) Circuits

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Magnetic Sensors Math Functions s Cosine s Cube Root s Differentiator s Integrators s Log s Square Root Medical Electronics Circuits Metal Detectors Metronomes Microphone Circuits Micro Power Circuits Microprocessor Circuits Microwave Amplifiers Microwave Detectors Millivolt Meters Milliamp Meters Miscellaneous Circuits Mixer Circuits Model Circuits Model Train Circuits Model Airplane Circuits Modem Circuits Modulator Circuits Moisture Monitors Monostable Morse-Code Circuits MOSFET Circuits Motion Sensor Motor Controls Mouse Circuits Multiplexers Multivibrator Circuits Musical Circuits

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Noise Generator Circuits Noise Reduction Filters Notch Filters s Active s Passive

One Shot Circuits Operational Amplifier Circuits Opticity Circuits Optical Fiber Circuits Optic Circuits Optical Sensors Opto-Isolator Couplers Oscilloscope Circuits Oscillators s Astable s Audio s Colpits s Crystal s Hartley s RF s Pierce s Sine wave s Square wave s Triangle wave s Voltage Controlled s Wein bridge

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PA (Public Address) Circuits Passive Infrared Circuits Passive Filters s Band-pass Filter s Notch Filter s High Pass Filter PDA Circuits Pedeometers Peak Detectors Period to Voltage Converter Pest Control Circuits Phase Detector Phase Locked Loop (PPL) Circuits Phase Shifting Keying (PSK) Circuits Phase Modulation (PM) Circuits Photo Cell Circuits Photoelectric Circuits Photo-Flash Circuits Photography Circuits Photovoltaic Circuits Pierce Oscillators Piezoelectric Circuits Pink Noise Generator Circuits Position Monitors Potentiometer Circuits Power Amplifiers Power Control Circuits Power Failure Alarm Power FET Circuits Power Line Circuits Power Meters/Monitors Power Supplies s AC to AC s AC to DC s DC to AC s DC to DC s High Voltage s Low Voltage Drop
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Safety Circuits Sample and Hold Circuits Sawtooth Generator Circuits Scanner Circuits Schmitt Trigger SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) Circuits Security Circuits Seismic Monitors Sensors / Detectors s Accelerations s Air Flow s Automotive s Biomedical s Capacitance s Current s Conductivity s Distance s Frequency s Flame s Gas s Human Motion s Human Proximity s Human Touch s Humidity s Light s Liquid s Magnetic s Metal s Microwave s Moisture/Water s Motion s Peak s Phase s Position s Pressure s Proximity s Radar s Radiation s Resistance s RF (Radio Frequency) s Rotation s Seismic s Solar Energy s Smoke s Temperature s Vibration s Voltage s Water/Moisture s Wind Speed Servo Circuits Shunt Regulators Signal Adders Signal Generators Sine to Square Wave Converters

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TR (Transmitter/Receiver) Switch Circuits Tachometer Circuits Telemetry Circuits Telephone Circuits Telephone Ringers Television Circuits Television/VCR Remotes Temperature Alarms Temperature Compensation Circuits Temperature Control Circuits Temperature Sensors Tesla Coil Testers Theremin Circuits Thermistor Circuits Thermocouple Circuits Thermometers Three Phase Circuits Tilt Meters Time Delay Circuits Timers and Counters Tone Controls Torque Circuits Touch Switch Circuits Track and Hold Circuits Train (Model) Circuits Transceiver Circuits Transformer Circuits Transimpedance Amplifiers Transistor Circuits Transmitter Circuits Triac Circuits Triangle Wave Generators Triangle Wave Oscillators Triggering Circuits Tunnel Diode Circuits

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UHF (Ultra High Frequency) Circuits Ultraviolet Lamp Circuits Ultrasonic Circuits Unijunction Transistor Circuits UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supplies)

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Vacuum Tube Circuits Vapor Detector Variable Gain Amplifiers VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) Circuits Very High Frequency (VHF) Circuits Video Amplifiers Video Circuits Voltage Comparators Voltage Converters Voltage Monitors Voltage Multipliers Voltage References Voltage Regulators Voltage to Frequency Converters Voltmeters VU (Volume Unit) Meters

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Electronic Circuits - Microcontroller Based Projects - Electronic Resource
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Microprocessor Tutorials - 8085 Microprocessor Tutorial Resource - 8085A

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Microprocessor Tutorials - 8085 Microprocessor Tutorial Resource - 8085A

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Microcontroller Tutorials - PIC - 8051 - 8051 Microcontroller Tutorial Resource - DALLAS 80C320

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8051 Tutorial
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Cybot Robot Overview Introduction to PIC Connect to the PIC Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 4 Tutorial 5 Tutorial 6 Tutorial 7 Tutorial 8 Tutorial 9 Tutorial 10 Tutorial 11 Tutorial 12 Tutorial 13

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Microcontroller Tutorials - PIC - 8051 - 8051 Microcontroller Tutorial Resource - DALLAS 80C320
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Timed Access Protection

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Microcontroller Tutorials - PIC - 8051 - 8051 Microcontroller Tutorial Resource - DALLAS 80C320

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Electronic Component Data Sheets & Manufacturers - CMOS, Transistors, IC's - Semiconductor Datasheets Resource

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Electronic Circuits - AC Power Control Circuits - Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Electronic Circuits Tutorials

AC Power Control Circuits
CHARGE COUPLED BI-DIRECTIONAL POWER MOSFET RELAY The circuit uses an inexpensive C-MOS inverter package and a few small capacitors to drive two power MOS transistors from a 12v to 15v supply. Since the coupling capacitor values used to drive the FETs are small, the leakage current from the power line into the control circuit is a tiny 4uA. Only about 1.5mA of DC is needed to turn on and off 400 watts of AC or DC power to a load. Published in Electronic Design, Nov. 8, 1990. SOLID STATE RELAY REQUIRES ONLY 50uA DRIVE CURRENT This circuit demands a control current that is 100 times smaller than that needed by a typical optically isolated solid state relays. It is ideal for battery-powered systems. Using a combination of a high current TRIAC and a very sensitive low current SCR, the circuit can control about 600 watts of power to load while providing full isolation and transient protection. Published in Electronic Design, Dec 2, 1996. Circuit level shifts ac signals: AC signals can emanate from many sources, and many of these sources are incompatible with the most popular interface voltages, such as TTL. A temptation always exists to capacitively couple the ac signals because capacitive coupling strips off the dc level. Capacitive coupling sometimes doesn't work, because the coupled signal's voltage swings around ground, so you have to add dc offset to make.... Why limit your power supply's input range?: EDN-Design Ideas / Taking only a cursory look at the input-voltage ratings of your power-supply IC can limit the usable input-voltage range. With careful examination of an IC's operating specifications and circuit topology, you may be able to work around that inputvoltage limitation. Click here for Other Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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AC to AC Converters - AC to AC Power Supplies and Transformer Circuits

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Electronic Circuits Tutorials

AC to AC Converters AC to AC Power Supplies and Transformer Circuits
ISOLATED AC CURRENT MONITOR This circuit uses a small AC current transformer from Magnetek to produce an isolated voltage proportional to the AC current in the primary winding. The transformer contains a single turn primary with a low 0.001-ohm resistance. It can easily handle 30 amps of AC current and provides at least 500vac of isolation. With the components shown, the output AC voltage is scaled so 1 amp of current produces 100mv of AC voltage. Everything you wanted to know about wideband, low-frequency transformers: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits - scroll to find this circuit. External Isolation Transformer Box: designed for Mackie and other Mixers Eliminates RFI Problems Grounding & Shielding: describes basic audio transformer uses like balanced in/out and signal splitters High CMRR Balanced Interface: Uses for Crystal18 or20 Bit A/D Converters. This is a PDF file High Output Line Driver for Single Ended Power Supply: PDF file IC Mic Preamp uses Jensen Twin Servo topology: Interconnection of Balanced & Unbalanced Equipment: 4 page booklet in PDF format Internal Modification to Mic Inputs of the Mackie 1604 Mixer Eliminates RFI Problems: adding transformer isolation increases common mode rejection and eliminates RF interference, PDF document Isolation Transformer Passes millihertz Signals: EDN-Design Ideas IT 4 Four Channel Isolation Transformer unit: audio signal isolation transformer, product datasheet with circuit diagram in PDF format IT one inline 600 / 600 Ohm Line Transformer: audio signal isolation transformer, product datasheet with circuit diagram in PDF format Jensen Direct Box Transformers: data sheets have example circuit diagrams Jensen Transformers Application Schematics: includes many microphone preamplifier related JP 11P 1 Input Transformer Improvement for Electronically balanced Input: JS 11SPP 6M 600 Ohm Line Isolator with Line termination Switch: for used with long 600 ohm lines that need termination JS 11SSP 6M 150 Ohm Line to 600 Ohm Load application: isolation transformer with impedance conversion JT 10B D Used in Line Level 2 Way Splitter / Isolator: active line level splitter circuit with input and output isolation JT 10KB D & JT 6110K B "Pro" to "Consumer" Interfaces: from +4dBu balanced output to -10dbV consumer equipment input

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AC to AC Converters - AC to AC Power Supplies and Transformer Circuits

JT 10KB D & JT DB E Provide "J Box" Consumer to Studio Interfaces: from -10dBV unbalanced to150 ohm balanced microphone level -45dBu signal and from +4dBu balanced signal to -10dBV unbalanced signal JT 10KB D Isolates & Converts Speaker Drive to Line Level: JT 11 BM High Level Differential IC Output Stage with DC Servo: JT 11 BM High Level High Current Differential Output Stage with DC Servo: JT 11 DM Basic Hum Stopper Transformer Isolation Box: simple isolator for 600 ohm balanced audio lines JT 11 DM Converts Unbalanced Output to Balanced: JT 11 FL Isolates & Converts Guitar Amp Speaker Out to Line Output: JT 11 FL provides Isolated Line Output from Guitar Amplifier: JT 11 YZPC in Unbalanced Long Line Driver / Isolator: JT 11B 1 + "Phantom" Buffer Provide Balanced Guitar Output: JT 11P 1 as "Phase Splitter" with Symmetrical Outputs: JT 11P 1 Balanced Tube Line Input Stage: JT 11P 1 Conversion of Unbalanced Input to Balanced: JT 11P 1 in 2 Way Passive "Guitar Splitter": from one guitar to2- guitar amplifiers JT 11P 1 in 4 Way Active "Guitar Splitter": from one guitar to up to4 guitar amplifiers JT 11P 1 Unbalanced Automotive or Consumer Application: isolation transformer box for unbalanced consumer audio line signals JT 11P 1 used as Unbalanced Polarity Inverter: passive transformer based audio signal inverter circuit JT 11SSP 6M 600 Ohm Line Isolation Application: isolation transformer for 600 ohm balanced audio line JT 11SSP 6M as Input Transformer for Crystal CS5367 A / D Converter: transformer balanced passive input circuit for CS5367 A/D converter, PDF file JT 11SSP 6M Bi-Directional Lo Z Long Line Application: this circuit isolated and impedance matches less than100 ohm source to long cable line and that to over10 kohm input JT 11SSP 6M Passive Stereo Matrix for M S Mic Technique: JT 11SSP 6M Universal Patchbay Isolation Application: for use with professional low impedance sources and high impedance loads JT 123 BL High Level Low Impedance Differential Output Stage with DC Servo: JT 123 S Line Driver with Feedback Around the Transformer: JT 13K6 C in Simple 1 IC Stage Mic Preamp: 15KB PDF JT 16 A Improves Performance of SSM2017 Mic Preamp IC: JT 6110K B at Input Stage for Crystal a to D Converters: high performance transformer balanced input stage for Crystal A/D converters, PDF file JT 6110K B Isolates "70 Volt" Line & Converts to Line Level: JT DB E "Direct Box" for very High Level Signals: takes high level line signal and outputs balanced microphone level signal JT DB E Converts Consumer Stereo Inputs to Mono Balanced Mic Output: JT DB E Full featured "Direct Box" Application Schematic: JT DB E Standard Musical instrument or Synthesizer "Direct Box": JT MB C "Real" Mic Inputs & Phantom Power for Sony DAT: JT MB C in Low Noise, High Isolation Line Receiver for Low Z Sources: JT MB C Isolates both Mic & Line Inputs of inexpensive Mixer: JT MB C Mic Input Isolation for Mackie Mixers: JT MB C Used to "Phantom" Power the Realistic PZM Mic: JT MB D Converts 600 Ohm Unbalanced Mic to 150 Ohm Balanced Mic Line: JT MB D Passive Stereo Matrix for M S Mic Technique: Method sets voltage in multiple-output converters: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits - scroll to find this circuit. Mixed Feedback Drive for Audio Output Transformers: Technical paper from Lundahl Transformers in PDF format Power Supplies & Transformers: Basic structures of power supplies Power Supplies and Regulators: new low power discrete switcher

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AC to AC Converters - AC to AC Power Supplies and Transformer Circuits

Step Down Rectifier makes a Simple DC Power Supply: 04/09/98 EDN-Design Ideas - A simple and useful nonisolated rectifier features voltage step-down operation, acceptable Class A line-current harmonics, inherent short-circuit protection, and, optionally, a regulated output Theory & Construction of Mic "Splitters": 5 page booklet in PDF format Transformer Coupled Splitter: Active amplified transformer isolated signal splitter that enables hum-free connection of1-guitar to more than1-amp as well as having a direct output Transformers for Audio Interfacing: Discussion on using audio transformers in equipment interconnections, read also Line-level transformers in High-End Audio Click here for Other Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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AC to AC Power Supplies - AC to AC Converters - Transformer Circuits

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Electronic Circuits Tutorials

AC to AC Converters AC to AC Power Supplies and Transformer Circuits
ISOLATED AC CURRENT MONITOR This circuit uses a small AC current transformer from Magnetek to produce an isolated voltage proportional to the AC current in the primary winding. The transformer contains a single turn primary with a low 0.001-ohm resistance. It can easily handle 30 amps of AC current and provides at least 500vac of isolation. With the components shown, the output AC voltage is scaled so 1 amp of current produces 100mv of AC voltage. Everything you wanted to know about wideband, low-frequency transformers: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits - scroll to find this circuit. External Isolation Transformer Box: designed for Mackie and other Mixers Eliminates RFI Problems Grounding & Shielding: describes basic audio transformer uses like balanced in/out and signal splitters High CMRR Balanced Interface: Uses for Crystal18 or20 Bit A/D Converters. This is a PDF file High Output Line Driver for Single Ended Power Supply: PDF file IC Mic Preamp uses Jensen Twin Servo topology: Interconnection of Balanced & Unbalanced Equipment: 4 page booklet in PDF format Internal Modification to Mic Inputs of the Mackie 1604 Mixer Eliminates RFI Problems: adding transformer isolation increases common mode rejection and eliminates RF interference, PDF document Isolation Transformer Passes millihertz Signals: EDN-Design Ideas IT 4 Four Channel Isolation Transformer unit: audio signal isolation transformer, product datasheet with circuit diagram in PDF format IT one inline 600 / 600 Ohm Line Transformer: audio signal isolation transformer, product datasheet with circuit diagram in PDF format Jensen Direct Box Transformers: data sheets have example circuit diagrams Jensen Transformers Application Schematics: includes many microphone preamplifier related JP 11P 1 Input Transformer Improvement for Electronically balanced Input: JS 11SPP 6M 600 Ohm Line Isolator with Line termination Switch: for used with long 600 ohm lines that need termination JS 11SSP 6M 150 Ohm Line to 600 Ohm Load application: isolation transformer with impedance conversion JT 10B D Used in Line Level 2 Way Splitter / Isolator: active line level splitter circuit with input and output isolation JT 10KB D & JT 6110K B "Pro" to "Consumer" Interfaces: from +4dBu balanced output to -10dbV consumer equipment input

http://www.hobbyprojects.com/A/ac_to_ac_power_supplies.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:37:08 PM]

AC to AC Power Supplies - AC to AC Converters - Transformer Circuits

JT 10KB D & JT DB E Provide "J Box" Consumer to Studio Interfaces: from -10dBV unbalanced to150 ohm balanced microphone level -45dBu signal and from +4dBu balanced signal to -10dBV unbalanced signal JT 10KB D Isolates & Converts Speaker Drive to Line Level: JT 11 BM High Level Differential IC Output Stage with DC Servo: JT 11 BM High Level High Current Differential Output Stage with DC Servo: JT 11 DM Basic Hum Stopper Transformer Isolation Box: simple isolator for 600 ohm balanced audio lines JT 11 DM Converts Unbalanced Output to Balanced: JT 11 FL Isolates & Converts Guitar Amp Speaker Out to Line Output: JT 11 FL provides Isolated Line Output from Guitar Amplifier: JT 11 YZPC in Unbalanced Long Line Driver / Isolator: JT 11B 1 + "Phantom" Buffer Provide Balanced Guitar Output: JT 11P 1 as "Phase Splitter" with Symmetrical Outputs: JT 11P 1 Balanced Tube Line Input Stage: JT 11P 1 Conversion of Unbalanced Input to Balanced: JT 11P 1 in 2 Way Passive "Guitar Splitter": from one guitar to2- guitar amplifiers JT 11P 1 in 4 Way Active "Guitar Splitter": from one guitar to up to4 guitar amplifiers JT 11P 1 Unbalanced Automotive or Consumer Application: isolation transformer box for unbalanced consumer audio line signals JT 11P 1 used as Unbalanced Polarity Inverter: passive transformer based audio signal inverter circuit JT 11SSP 6M 600 Ohm Line Isolation Application: isolation transformer for 600 ohm balanced audio line JT 11SSP 6M as Input Transformer for Crystal CS5367 A / D Converter: transformer balanced passive input circuit for CS5367 A/D converter, PDF file JT 11SSP 6M Bi-Directional Lo Z Long Line Application: this circuit isolated and impedance matches less than100 ohm source to long cable line and that to over10 kohm input JT 11SSP 6M Passive Stereo Matrix for M S Mic Technique: JT 11SSP 6M Universal Patchbay Isolation Application: for use with professional low impedance sources and high impedance loads JT 123 BL High Level Low Impedance Differential Output Stage with DC Servo: JT 123 S Line Driver with Feedback Around the Transformer: JT 13K6 C in Simple 1 IC Stage Mic Preamp: 15KB PDF JT 16 A Improves Performance of SSM2017 Mic Preamp IC: JT 6110K B at Input Stage for Crystal a to D Converters: high performance transformer balanced input stage for Crystal A/D converters, PDF file JT 6110K B Isolates "70 Volt" Line & Converts to Line Level: JT DB E "Direct Box" for very High Level Signals: takes high level line signal and outputs balanced microphone level signal JT DB E Converts Consumer Stereo Inputs to Mono Balanced Mic Output: JT DB E Full featured "Direct Box" Application Schematic: JT DB E Standard Musical instrument or Synthesizer "Direct Box": JT MB C "Real" Mic Inputs & Phantom Power for Sony DAT: JT MB C in Low Noise, High Isolation Line Receiver for Low Z Sources: JT MB C Isolates both Mic & Line Inputs of inexpensive Mixer: JT MB C Mic Input Isolation for Mackie Mixers: JT MB C Used to "Phantom" Power the Realistic PZM Mic: JT MB D Converts 600 Ohm Unbalanced Mic to 150 Ohm Balanced Mic Line: JT MB D Passive Stereo Matrix for M S Mic Technique: Method sets voltage in multiple-output converters: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits - scroll to find this circuit. Mixed Feedback Drive for Audio Output Transformers: Technical paper from Lundahl Transformers in PDF format Power Supplies & Transformers: Basic structures of power supplies Power Supplies and Regulators: new low power discrete switcher

http://www.hobbyprojects.com/A/ac_to_ac_power_supplies.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:37:08 PM]

AC to AC Power Supplies - AC to AC Converters - Transformer Circuits

Step Down Rectifier makes a Simple DC Power Supply: 04/09/98 EDN-Design Ideas - A simple and useful nonisolated rectifier features voltage step-down operation, acceptable Class A line-current harmonics, inherent short-circuit protection, and, optionally, a regulated output Theory & Construction of Mic "Splitters": 5 page booklet in PDF format Transformer Coupled Splitter: Active amplified transformer isolated signal splitter that enables hum-free connection of1-guitar to more than1-amp as well as having a direct output Transformers for Audio Interfacing: Discussion on using audio transformers in equipment interconnections, read also Line-level transformers in High-End Audio Click here for Other Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

http://www.hobbyprojects.com/A/ac_to_ac_power_supplies.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:37:08 PM]

Power Supplies - AC to DC Converters - Linear - Inverters

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Electronic Circuits Tutorials

Power Supplies: AC to DC Converters / Linear / Inverters
MINIATURE ISOLATED AC/DC POWER SUPPLY This circuit uses a novel approach to produce a fully isolated and regulated 5 volts @30ma from the 120vac power line. It uses two tiny SCRs that alternately discharge two capacitors through a miniature high frequency transformer. The voltage spikes produced through the transformer are rectified, filtered and regulated. A very common 8 ohm audio impedance matching transformer can be used for the transformer. Published in EDN, Feb. 17, 1992 CAPS PROVIDE VOLTAGE BOOST TO SERIES REGULATOR This circuit adds some capacitors and diodes to a traditional transformer type series regulator circuit to extend the normal operating range. It can insure regulation during low line voltage conditions or it can squeeze a few more watts out of a plug-in-the-wall power adapter power supply. LOW POWER 12,000 VOLT POWER SUPPLY If you need about 12,000 volts DC for an ion generator this circuit might be the ticket. It draws power from the 120vac power line but it uses a small 6KV camera flash trigger coil. The output signal is isolated from the power line. Although the circuit can only deliver about 5uA of current it can produce dangerous shocks, so be careful. 240VAC TO 5VDC POWER SUPPLY This is simple way to power some 5v logic from a 240vac source. If a 120vac power adapter is used, the circuit will also work for 120vac power lines. 12 Volt to 9 Volt DC Converter: Car Converter for12 Volt to 9V 2 Watt Switching Power Supply: from 6V to14V 5 Volt DC From RS232 Signals: The circuit of Figure1 produces a semiregulated5-Volt output from an RS-232 port. Unlike a PC-mouse supply or comparable that rely on the modem-control signals DTR and RTS, this one operates with a3-wire port GND, Rx, and TX, and obtains power only from the TX line. The output current-about 8mA-is sufficient for CMOS microcontrollers and other low-power . 6 to 12 Volt Converter: This circuit can provide up to 800mA of12V power from a 6V supply. The circuit is simple, about 75% efficient and quite useful.

http://www.hobbyprojects.com/A/ac_to_dc_power_supplies.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:37:11 PM]

+33V: This circuit is based on MAX1044 is a charge pump converter.Linear . usable for low power applications Fast Rectifier Circumvents Input Level Effects: 12/22/94 EDN-Design Ideas Full Wave Rectifier uses Current Feedback Amps: 03/27/97 EDN-Design Ideas Full Wave Rectifier uses Current Feedback Amps: 07/20/95 EDN-Design Ideas High Speed Rectifier uses No Diodes: 03/30/95 EDN-Design Ideas Method provides self timing for synchronous rectifiers: 05/16/2002 EDN Design Ideas / Synchronous rectifiers are MOSFETs. They often take the place of diodes in the output-rectification stage of switching power converters. acceptable Class A line-current harmonics. Note that the low voltage output is directly connected to the mains. and.. but it is the cheapest and most compact solution for a small power supply. PC. +25.AC to DC Converters . With the component values of the schematic. In power circuits. driven in such a way as to perform a rectifying function. DC to DC Converter: will produce a 85-Volt voltage from +3V. inherent short-circuit protection.Power Supplies . You can combine a diode and a load resistor to create a half-wave rectifier.6V). Transformerless Power Supply: True RMS Detector: National Semiconductor Application Notes.. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. you can't use this method to rectify signals that are smaller than a diode drop.. optionally.com/A/ac_to_dc_power_supplies.hobbyprojects. provided that the amplitude of the ac source is much larger than the forward drop of the diode (typically 0. Unfortunately. One 9 Volt Battery gives +18. because of their lower on-state power loss. it cannot be used when the low voltage part can be touched.Inverters Circuit offers improved active rectification: EDN-Design Ideas / Rectifiers convert ac signals to dc. synchronous rectifiers are often complicated to use because of timing issues.28-Jun-1996 Two OpAmps Make Fast Full Wave Rectifier: 03/14/96 EDN-Design Ideas Two Watt Switching Power Supply: from 6V to14V Unregulated Power Supply: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:37:11 PM] . a regulated output Transformerless Mains Power Supply: This power supply does not really excel in power efficiency.28Jun-1996 Precision Rectifier is Glitch Free to 1 MHz: 05/12/94 EDN-Design Ideas Precision Rectifier Reduces Ripples: 03/03/97 EDN-Design Ideas Step Down Rectifier Makes a Simple DC Power Supply: EDN-Design Ideas A simple and useful nonisolated rectifier features voltage step-down operation. the circuit can supply12V /15mA max. OpAmp Rectifier Signals Input State: 07/21/94 EDN-Design Ideas Output Adjustable Flyback Converter: Precision AC / DC Converters: National Semiconductor Application Notes.

Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Electronic Circuits Tutorials Sensors / Detectors: Acceleration Monitors Accelerometer Schematic: ADXL202 Accelerometer to C Volt Output: The Air Whammy is a simple dual control voltage generator that uses a 2 axis accellerometer as the source.com/A/acceleration_sensors_monitors.. In Figure 1 . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Acceleration Monitors Sensors Monitors Electronic.You can implement a simple control loop with a constant setpoint over a wide range of control by using a switched-capacitor filter.000 rpm. PC. The circuit controls motor speed over 1 to 200 Hz or 60 to 12. and is powered from a 12V AC plugpack.. PC. a National LMF40CIWM four-pole lowpass. Switched-capacitor IC controls feedback loop: 02/17/00 EDN-Design Ideas .Electronic Circuits .html [1/17/2007 4:37:13 PM] . The whole circuit fits into a small project box (approximately 65x40mm).

Hobby Projects Electronic.Acoustic Circuit .html [1/17/2007 4:37:15 PM] . PC. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Electronic Circuits Tutorials Acoustic Circuits MPS430based Ultrasonic Rangefinder: Ultrasonic Range Finder EDN: Ultrasonic Remote Control & Alarm: Ultrasonic Transducer Oscillator Circuit: Ultrasonic Parking Sonar: Ultrasonic Dog Whistle: Ultrasonic Motion Detector : Ultrasonic Generator: Ultrasonic Sound Receiver: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Electronic Circuits .Acoustic Circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.hobbyprojects.com/A/acoustic_circuits.

Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. such as inexpensive units and car radios. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Active Antennas Electronic Circuits Tutorials Active Antenna I : Active Antenna II : Active Antenna III : Active Antenna With gain: Active Antenna: AM / FM / SW Active Antenna: This circuit shows an active antenna that can be used for AM.Hobby Projects Electronic.Active Antenna .Active Antennas . PC. This circuit uses receivers that use untuned wire antennas.html [1/17/2007 4:37:19 PM] . and shortwave SW. L1 can be selected for the application AM Broadcast Band Active Antenna: AM/FM/SW Active Antenna: Crossed Dipole GPS Antenna: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. On the shortwave band this active antenna is comparable to a20 to30 foot wire antenna. PC.hobbyprojects. FM.com/A/active_antenna.Electronic Circuits .

PC.com/A/active_filters.Electronic Circuits .hobbyprojects.Active Filter Circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Active Filter Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials q Band-pass High-pass Low-pass Notch q q q Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Active Filter Circuit .Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.html [1/17/2007 4:37:24 PM] . PC.

passive and switched capacitor filters. Inversal Notch and Bandpass Filter: L Band PHEMT LNfor GPS. Electronic Circuits Tutorials 24db / Octave Linkwitz Riley : The type of filter (Butterworth. The circuit shown on this page produces a 10-volt peak-to-peak signal into a 50-ohm load. however.7071 the amplitude of the pass band.01%.) indicates the shape and roll off of the filter. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Active Filters: Band Pass ULTRA PURE 125KHz SINE WAVE SIGNAL SOURCE For some RFID systems operating at 125KHz. is in the bandpass response (VOUT/VIN)..Band Pass Filter .Electronic Circuits Electronic.Ideas for Design / Analog signal processing has conventionally been viewed as a voltage-dominated form of design. Linkwitz-Riley ect. and lowpass responses.Active Filter . But voltagemode processing can restrict the system's dynamic range. highpass. An.. PC. in which it's easy to achieve high gain (G) and high Q. There is also a limitation on the input range of signals for linear operation. The Linkwitz-Riley has its cut off frequency at the -6db point. The range of frequencies to be passed is called the passband and extends from a point below the center frequency to a point above the center frequency where the output voltage falls about 70% of the output voltage at the center frequency. HighQ Bandpass Filter Is Well Suited To CurrentMode Signal Processing : Electronic Design . with a distortion of only 0.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:37:26 PM] .Design Ideas / The three-amplifier implementation of the state-variable filter in Figure 1 provides for second-order bandpass. This point is .hobbyprojects.. a very low distortion signal source reference is needed.Band Pass .85 MHZ Bandpass Filter Schematic: Active 2nd Order Filters: Active Bandpass Filters: Bandpass Filter (Single OpAmp) : A band pass filter passes a range of frequencies while rejecting frequencies outside the upper and lower limits of the passband. Inmarsat Etc: Multiple Feedback Bandpass Filter: Multiple Feedback Bandpass Filter: Narrow Band Audio Bandpass Filter: Click here for Other Circuits http://www. The more common Butterworth has its cut off frequency at the -3db point. The strength of the circuit. Bandpass Filters: Bandpass Filters: Basic Introduction to Filters : Application notes on active.com/A/band-pass. 29. These two characteristics are important in applications in which selectivity is a key parameter in the filter. document in PDF format Biquad Active Bandpass Filter Schematic: Chebyshe Volt / Butterworth Filters: Chebyshe Volt Bandpass Filter: DPPs program key parameters of bandpass filter: EDN .

Electronic Circuits Electronic.Band Pass Filter .Band Pass . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. PC.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:37:26 PM] .com/A/band-pass.Active Filter .hobbyprojects.

com/A/high-pass.Electronic Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.scroll to find this circuit. PC.High Pass Filter . I included one. The circuits should be used to select the needed resistor and capacitor components for a particular frequency knee and slope. PC.hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 4:37:29 PM] . You can change the component value ratios shown to achieve any frequency cut-off you may need. two three.High Pass . passive and switched capacitor filters.Active Filters . document in PDF format Butterworth Filters: Chebyshe Volt / Butterworth Filters: Chebyshe Volt Bandpass Filter: Highpass Filters use Modified Equalelement Design: EDN-Design Ideas / (added 5/03) PDF contains multiple circuits . Active 2nd Order Filters: Basic Introduction to Filters: application notes on active. The circuit does not specify an operational amplifier. four and six pole filter circuits. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Electronic Circuits Tutorials Active Filters: High Pass HIGH PASS ACTIVE FILTER COLLECTION This is a collection of inverting and non-inverting active high pass filter circuits.

.6. The circuit amplifies and filters the voice audio signals from an electrets microphone. you usually select m to equal 0. However. You can change the component value ratios shown..Design Ideas / In recent years. (this link is off-site) AUDIO AMP + 3KHz FILTER This circuit is the audio amp section for a complete optical transmitter. The circuit does not specify an operational amplifier. The circuits should be used to select the needed resistor and capacitor components for a particular frequency knee and roll-off slope. passive and switched capacitor filters. The system can detect human and animal motion by the electric fields they disturb. in which the cable that is carrying the analog signal is exposed to a wide spectr..scroll to find the one of interest Basic Introduction to Filters: application notes on active. (this link is off-site) ELECTRIC FIELD DISTURBANCE MONITOR This schematic is the power supply and front-end sections of the field monitor that is discussed in more detail at Electric Field Disturbance Monitor.com/A/low-pass. The composite lowpass filter uses interior constant-k full sections terminated by mderived half-sections.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:37:31 PM] . LOW PASS ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN COLLECTION This is a collection of inverting and non-inverting active low pass filter circuits. The circuit is described in more detail in the receiver section of Dave Johnson's Handbook of Optical Through the Air Communications. four and six pole filter circuits. Electronic Circuits Tutorials Active 2nd Order Filters: Active Filter has Wideband Tuning Range: EDN-Design Ideas Adjustable Filter Provides Lowpass Response: EDN-Design Ideas PDF contains multiple circuits . PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Active Filters: Low Pass 3KHz LOW PASS FILTER PLUS AUDIO AMP This circuit uses a switched capacitor filter IC from National Semiconductor to filter signals with frequencies higher than the 3KHz needed for voice audio. The circuit is described in more detail in the transmitter circuit section of Dave Johnson's Handbook of Optical Through the Air Communications. in which it is desirable to remove all but the lowest frequency components from a signal to effectively yield a dc voltage. to achieve any frequency cut-off you may need. http://www.Active Filters . The schematic includes an audio amplifier that is designed to drive a standard audio head phone.5 can still give useful filter performance while reducing the number of component values.Low Pass . particularly with control systems.. two. For best passband response. m=0. This voltage may. Active RC Lowpass Filter: Low Pass Active Filter: Lowpass filter discriminates step input from noise : EDN-Design Ideas / Numerous applications exist in industry. imageparameter design of LC filters has received new consideration (references 1 and 2). serve as a setpoint to a PID controller in a process-control or an HVAC application.Low Pass Filter .hobbyprojects. three.. document in PDF format Butterworth Filters: Chebyshe Volt / Butterworth Filters: Chebyshe Volt Bandpass Filter: DC Accurate.Electronic Hobby Circuits Electronic. for example. Lowpass filter uses only two values: EDN .. I included one.

But the lowpass implementation in Figure 1 provides for wide-range cutoff-frequency control using only a single variable resistor. In addition to the resistor.com/A/low-pass. second-order. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. C1 and C2.Active Filters ..html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:37:31 PM] .. active RC-filter section requires at least two thoroughly matched variable resistors. IC2.Electronic Hobby Circuits Single resistor tunes lowpass filter : EDN-Design Ideas / Any tunable.Low Pass . .Low Pass Filter .hobbyprojects. which serves as a unity-gain buffer.. R.. PC.. two capacitors. Single Supply Twin T Butterworth Low Pass Filter: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. this filter comprises an operational amplifier.

Notch . 2. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. resistor-programmable switched-capacitor filters that are configurable as notch filters. They are also a vital component of pulse-shaping networks. Single Supply Sallen Key Notch Filter: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. and 3).Design Ideas / Notch filters remove a single unwanted frequency from an input signal.Active Filters . You can tune a statevariable filter over a wide range by changing the time constants of its integrating amplifiers (references 1. . CW Filters: Helical Resonator Notch Filter: High Q Notch Filter: National Semiconductor Application Notes first published28Jun-1996 Inversal Notch and Bandpass Filter: Notch Filter is DC Accurate: EDN Design Ideas Notch Filter uses only Lowpass Filters: EDN Design Ideas RC Notch Filter Twin T: The twin T notch filter can be used block an unwanted frequency or if placed around an op-amp as a bandpass filter.85 MHZ Notch Filter Schematic: Adjustable 60Hz Filter: to filter out any HUM that may be picked up by a noisy power supply or long wire connection Adjustable Audio Notch Filter: Audio Notch Filter: Basic Introduction to Filters: application notes on active.hobbyprojects. Electronic Circuits Tutorials 29. document in PDF format Build an adjustable high frequency notch filter: EDN-Design Ideas / Although you can obtain universal.com/A/notch. PC. PC. such as time-averaging filters.Notch Filter . Further. The system can detect human and animal motion by the electric fields they disturb.Electronic Circuits .Hobby Projects Electronic. the attenuation can be very high and the notch frequency virtually eliminated. passive and switched capacitor filters.html [1/17/2007 4:37:33 PM] . The notch frequency occurs where the capacitive reactance equals the resistance Xc=R and if the values are close. the typically 16 Closing the loop deepens notches: EDN . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Active Filters: Notch ELECTRIC FIELD DISTURBANCE MONITOR This schematic is the power supply and front-end sections of the field monitor that is discussed in more detail at Electric Field Disturbance Monitor. most cannot operate at bandwidths higher than 100 kHz.

Electronic Circuits .Hobby Projects Universal Flight Controllers / Data Logger: Water Level Sensor: Webbased thermometer Project: Wireless Liquid Level Sensing for Restaurant Applications: Wireless Weather Station: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Acquisition Data Logging Circuits .com/A/acquistions_data_circuits.hobbyprojects. PC.Acquisition Data Logging Circuit .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:37:36 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.

Adder Circuits .com/A/adder_circuits. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.scroll to find this circuit Video emitter uses battery power: EDN . The system allows users to walk from booth to booth at an exhibition to interview people and to display the interviews in real time on three screens at key locations.Hobby Projects Electronic.scroll to find this circuit RISC µP implements fast FIR filter: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . You can use the small and simple system each time you need to capture image and sound on the run. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Adder Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Model Fixed Point DSP Arithmetic in C: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . PC.html [1/17/2007 4:37:38 PM] .Design Ideas / The block diagram in Figure 1 shows how to make a cable-free.hobbyprojects. direct-video system.Adder Circuit .Electronic Circuits . Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.

Air Conditioning Circuits . the lights Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.) It happens to almost everyone that an apparatus or system should have been turned off a moment ago.html [1/17/2007 4:37:40 PM] . the air conditioner.Air Conditioning Products Electronic.com/A/air_conditioner_havc_circuits.Offering the highest quality Portable Air Conditioners & swamp coolers for home and commercial air conditioning or server room air conditioning Anticipating timer switches before you push the button: EDN-Design Ideas / (Editor's note: This Twilight Zone-worthy circuit will be the subject of an upcoming network sitcom. PC.Electronic Circuits . PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Air Conditioning Products / Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Portable Air Conditioners . The device in question could be the car heater.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. My Big Fat Anticipating Timer.

With the filament exposed to air. A comparator is used to detect this difference and light an LED. the resistance increases. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Sensors / Detectors: Air Flow Detectors Electronic Circuits Tutorials Air Flow Detector #1: This simple circuit uses an incandescent lamp to detect airflow.html [1/17/2007 4:37:43 PM] . Air Flow Detector #2: Airflow Monitor Protects Components: EDN-Design Ideas Electronic air flow detector: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.com/A/air_flow_monitors.Air Flow Sensor Electronic. PC. As air flows over the filament it cools down. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. the circuit can be connected to a meter or ADC to provide an estimation on the amount of airflow.hobbyprojects. a constant current source is used to slightly heat the filament.Electronic Circuits . As it is heated.Air Flow Detectors . thus lowering its resistance. With a few changes. PC.

html [1/17/2007 4:37:45 PM] .Aircraft Receiver Circuit Electronic. PC.Electronic Circuits .com/A/aircraft_receivers. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Aircraft Receiver Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Aircraft Receiver: AM Receiver for Aircraft Communications: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.hobbyprojects. PC.Aircraft Receiver Circuits .

printers or some test equipment that shouldn't be left on all night.hobbyprojects. It is powered directly off the 120vac power line to remind you that a device connected to the circuit is turned on.Alarms Circuit . A metal chain attached to a box holding the electronics is placed around the inside doorknob of a wood door. The circuit uses a cheap but accurate thermistor as the temperature sensor.Electronic Circuits . DOORKNOB ALARM Many companies offer simple alarm devices for personal use in bedrooms or hotel rooms. It sounds an alarm when the temperature exceeds a certain point. Anyone grabbing the knob from the outside is detected by the electrical capacitance change that occurs from the human hand contact between the knob and the box. It is simple enough to be packaged inside a small plastic box. The beeper is powered from a 9v battery and requires the machine to have a power switch with a third set of contacts. It might be ideal for computers. A small 1. This circuit schematic should dramatically reduce the cost of the device and allows it to operate for many years from one set of batteries.5v N cell. MACHINE POWER LOSS BEEPER For some medical equipment it is important for an operator when power is lost to the machine. It is powered by a single 1. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Electronic Circuits Tutorials Alarm Circuits MICRO POWER OVER-TEMPERATURE ALARM The circuit is powered for years by a single 3 volt lithium battery.html (1 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:37:52 PM] . ELECTRIC FIELD DISTURBANCE MONITOR This schematic is the motion discriminator alarm and battery monitor sections of the field monitor that is discussed in more detail a Electric Field Disturbance Monitor. POWER REMINDER BEEPER This circuit produces a short beep once each minute.5v button battery will also work. WATER SEEPAGE ALARM This simple circuit sounds a beeper when its electrodes detect water. With some minor changes the circuit could also be configured for an under temperature (freeze) alarm. (this link is off-site) The system can detect human and animal motion by the electric fields they disturb. Almost all of the commercial devices sold use a more expensive and power consuming radio frequency circuit approach to detect the capacitance change. ELECTRIC FIELD DISTURBANCE MONITOR This schematic is the power supply and front-end sections of the field monitor that is discussed in more detail at Electric Field Disturbance Monitor.com/A/alarm_circuits.Alarm Circuits . PC.Hobby Projects Electronic. But. (this link is off-site) http://www. a very inexpensive and micro power technique can also work.

hobbyprojects.Up Alarm can be used to provide a audible alarm for when the sun comes up or it can be used in a dark area and detect when a light comes on.Alarms Circuit . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Hobby Projects RF Alarm: Security Alarm: Simple Alarm System: Single Button Lock Provides High Security: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .Electronic Circuits . headlights etc. TinyTwo Zone Alarm: Touch Activated Alarm: Touch Activated Switch: Touch Triggered Alarm: Toxic Gas Detector: Turn Signal Alarm: Ultimate Battery Low Voltage Alarm: Ultrasonic Motion Detector: Ultrasonic Remote Control & Alarm: Universal Alarm System: Wailing Alarm: Warning Strobe Flasher for Alarm Systems: Water Activated Alarm: Water Level Alarm: Water Level Controller: Water Level Indicator With Alarm: Wire Loop Alarm: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Alarm Circuits . It can also be used to detect a light beam.html (4 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:37:52 PM] . The circuit works as follows. This will cause another NAND gate to oscillate which will drive another gate to output a100hz tone.scroll to find this circuit. The phototransistor is very sensitive to light. The transistor provides drive for the speaker.com/A/alarm_circuits. PC. (Any phototransistor will work fine) The sun shining on this device will provide a high to one of the NAND gates. Single Zone Alarm: Snore Alarm Electronic Device: Speed Limit Alarm: Sun Up Alarm: The Sun .

a 74HC14 hex Schmitt trigger inverter is used as a square wave oscillator to drive a small signal transistor in a Class C amplifier configuration.Electronic Circuits .AM Transmitter Circuits .hobbyprojects. PC.html [1/17/2007 4:37:59 PM] . The oscillator frequency can be either fixed by a crystal or made adjustable (VFO) with a capacitor/resistor combination. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.com/A/am_transmitter_circuits. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students AM Transmitter Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials AM Transmitter: Micro Power AM Broadcast Transmitter: In this circuit. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.AM Transmitter Circuit Electronic.

The differential voltage across the sense element is generally small and is often riding on a commonmode voltage that is considerably .Amp Meters and Current Monitors . configuration. It can easily handle 30 amps of AC current and provides at least 500vac of isolation.Sensors & Detectors .. Moreover.001ohm resistance.Design Ideas / The simple circuit design in Figure 1 lets you measure all components of a current flowing in a dc servo motor. current-sense circuit does not use a dedicated. the output AC voltage is scaled so 1 amp of current produces 100mv of AC voltage. . this design takes only one pin from the microcontroller to operate. Using just five surface-mount parts. which is approximately half the cost of a single-chip-ADC approach in the same volume. However. or boost. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Sensors / Detectors: Amp Meters and Current Monitors ISOLATED AC CURRENT MONITOR This circuit uses a small AC current transformer from Magnetek to produce an isolated voltage proportional to the AC current in the primary winding.. R1.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:01 PM] . Current Sense Amplifier Handles High Voltages: EDN-Design Ideas Current Sense IC Prevents Overcurrent Damage: EDN-Design Ideas Current sensing scheme improves PFC on/off sequences: EDN . The transformer contains a single turn primary with a low 0.Electronic Circuits Electronic.. this topology requires the output voltage to be higher than the input voltage.scroll to find this circuit.com/A/amp_meters. PC. When this condition is not the case—for example. high-side. Analog input circuit serves any microcontroller: EDN .. Circuit Breaker Monitors Leakage Current: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . With the components shown. as some other schemes do. because this type of converter is relatively easy to implement (Figure 1). The rectified output of the circuit uses ground as a reference. isolated supply voltage. so you can measure the output by using a single-ended A/D converter.. Circuit Measures Small Current in DC Servo Motor: EDN-Design Ideas Circuit Senses High Side Current: 03/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / (One of several circuits in PDF) The accurate.Design Ideas / PFC (power-factor-correction) preconverters typically use the step-up. The current-sense resistor. http://www. Electronic Circuits Tutorials AC Line Current Detector: Active feedback IC serves as current sensing instrumentation amplifier: EDNDesign Ideas / High-speed current sensing presents a designer with some significant challenges. you can assemble it for less than 50 cents (1000).. Circuit measures currents in dc servo motor: EDN . such as a resistor or a Hall-effect device. has a value of 0. Most techniques for sensing current involve measuring the differential voltage the current produces as it flows through a sense element.hobbyprojects.Design Ideas / The simple ADC in Figure 1 is perfect for getting analog signals into a purely digital microcontroller. with on/off sequences or under load conditions—some inrush current flows thro.. .

2001 .. HighAccuracy CurrentSense Amplifier Enables Current Sensing and Current Sharing: Maxim APP 391: Mar 01. tight tolerances for current sharing have made discrete currentsense circuit designs a formidable challenge.hobbyprojects. Two Sensors Measure Three Line Currents: EDN-Design Ideas Voltage Reference improves JFET: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits ..com/A/amp_meters. and the de facto loop standard within the process-control industry.Sensors & Detectors .Current sharing between DC/DC converter modules enables several modules to be paralleled.Current sharing between DC/DC converter modules enables several modules to be paralleled. tight tolerances for current sharing have made discrete current-sense circuit designs a formidable challenge. robust. a simple. GND. In recent years.Electronic Circuits CurrentSensing for Crossbars: Maxim APP 391: . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. High Side Current Sensor has Period Output 1: Maxim APP 1084: High Side Current Sensor has Period Output 2: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .scroll to find the one of interest High side current sensor monitors negative rail: EDN-Design Ideas / All dedicated current-sense amplifiers provide high-side sensing on a positive supply. These manufacturing variations limit the initial accuracy of the current setpoint that the circuit can obtain with a. PC.. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. VEE. and commonly used interface is the 4 to 20-mA loop. This application note describes a low-cost.scroll to find this circuit Solar Current Meter: Transmitter accurately transfers voltage input:EDN-Design Ideas / When you connect remote sensors to a central process controller.scroll to find this circuit The common JFET current-source in Figure 1a has average output impedance and depends heavily on the JFET's V P and I DSS variations.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:01 PM] . The positive-supply pin.Amp Meters and Current Monitors .. The advantages of this current loop include the simplicity of just two twisted wires that share both power and signal. the loop's high noise immunity in harsh environments. That arrangement monitors the negative supply and provides a positive output voltage for the extern. space-saving and accurate current sensing and sharing scheme using MAX4372. and the ground pin.. This application note describes a low-cost. connects to the negative supply. connects to the system's positive supply. Integrator Forms Picoammeter: EDN-Design Ideas MOSFET Current Sensing: Method of mirror current sensing a MOSFET Simple circuit provides high side current sensing: 10/12/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . V+. space-saving and accurate current sensing and sharing scheme using MAX4372. In recent years. but you can adapt such circuits for monitoring a negative supply (Figure 1).

Hobby Projects Electronic.Amplifiers Circuit .com/A/amplifiers. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Electronic Circuits Tutorials Amplifier Circuits q q q q q q q q Audio Differential High Frequency High Gain High Impedance High Speed q q q q Instrumentation Logarithmic q q q Low Noise Microwave Operational RF (Radio Frequency) Trans impedance Variable Gain Video Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:38:03 PM] .Electronic Circuits .Amplifier Circuits .hobbyprojects. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. PC. PC.

PC.10-Amp power supply. 15 Watt 6V6 Guitar Amp (valve): 15 Watt Amplifier: 16 Watt Amplifier: 2 Channel Power Amplifier: The2-Channel Power Amplifier based on NTE1606.Audio Circuits .com/A/audio. built using discrete transistors 1. When I originally built this thing.5-Volt DC and can directly drive32 Ohms impedance mini-earphones 1.Amplifier Circuit .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.5 Volt Amplified Ear: Useful to listen in faint sounds1.) Electronic Circuits Tutorials 1 Watt 2. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifiers: Audio Circuits AUDIO AMP + 3KHz FILTER This circuit is the audio amp section for a complete optical transmitter.html (1 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:38:08 PM] .5 Watt Audio Amplifier: 10 Watt Amplifier: 10 Watt Power Amplifier: Simple Class A Amplifiers 100 Watt Amp Circuit: 100 Watt Audio Amplifier #1: 100 Watt Guitar Amplifier #2: 100 Watt Guitar Amplifier Mk2: 100 Watt RMS Amplifier: This is a100-Watt basic power amp that was designed to be (relatively) easy to build at a reasonable cost. It has better performance (read: musical quality) than the standard STK module amps that are used in practically every mass market stereo receiver manufactured today.5 Volt AF Amplifier: A small single battery cell AF amplifier able to drive a Low impedance 8-Watt load up to15mW.45 GHz Linear Amplifier: 1. The circuit amplifies and filters the voice audio signals from an electrets microphone.5 Watt 12 Volt Audio Amplifier: 1.3 GHz RF Amplifier Using a MRF2001: 1 Watt 2.5-Volt Battery operation. it was because I needed a100 WPC amp and didnt want to spend any money.Amplifiers . (this link is off-site. includes electret microphone preamplifier which runs from1.hobbyprojects. The circuit is powered by a12V. The circuit is described in more detail in the receiver section of Dave Johnson's Handbook of Optical Through the Air Communications. The power of the output channels is4 W connected to 8-ohm loudspeakers 2 Transistor Amplifier: 2 Watt Amplifier 1: 2 Watt Amplifier 2: Low distortion amplifier using discrete components 2 Wire Remote Microphone Amplifier: uses special amplifier module from OpAmp Labs http://www. So I designed around parts I had in the shop.

3 GHz Power Amplifiers: 20 DB Amplifier & High Current Balanced Line Driver: 20 Watt / Channel Stereo Power Amplifier: 20 Watt ClassPower Amplifier: 20 Watt GaAaFET Power on 2.3 GHz: 20 Watt Power Amplifier: Designed to be used as car amplifier 200 Watt Amplifier: 22 Watt Audio Amplifier: Simple stereo amplifier based on TDA1554 220 Watt Power Amplifier: This is a building plan for an audio amplifier with2 x220-Watt output power.html (2 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:38:08 PM] . Text is in Finnish. high hum rejection and variable gain with a single rotary pot. 2304 and 3456 MHz Power Amplifiers: 250 Watt Stereo Power Amplifier: 25L6 Amp: design without a power transformer 3 Band Equaliser: 3 Band Equalizer: 3 High Accuracy. similar to that used in many professional grade mixing desks Basic FM Radio Transmitters: BiDirectional 2.4 GHz One Watt Amplifier: BiDirectional 900Mhz One Watt Amplifier: Binaural MICs: http://www. from Borbely Audio AM Oscillator for Wireless Microphones: Amplified Ear: Audio Amp Output Power Limiter: Audio Amp. RIA/ IEC.Amplifiers . MC & MM Phono Preamplifiers: 3 Transistor Audio Amp 50 Milliwatt: Here is a little audio amplifier similar to what you might find in a small transistor radio.Electronic Hobby Projects 2.hobbyprojects. Ultra High Gain: Audio Amplifier Circuits: Audio Amplifier Output Relay Delay: Audio Amplifier: 2-Transistor Audio Amp Audio Compressor: A circuit for a single-channel audio compressor using a JFET to control the gain of a virtual earth amplifier.Amplifier Circuit .com/A/audio.2dB.Audio Circuits . Audio Level Control Device: compressor circuit based on LED and photodiode Audio Preamplifier: Balanced Low Noise Microphone Preamp: very low noise. uses commonly available parts and is stable and reliable 60 Watt Power Amplifier : 75 Watt Power Amplifier: AKSA is a highly refined push pull solid state stereo amplifier of 75-Watt per channel 8 Watt Amplifier: 8 Watt Audio Amp Based on LM383: 80 Watt Amplifier #1: 80 Watt Amplifier #2: Uses the LM12 chip Active Subwoofer & Controller: Active Subwoofer: ALL FET MC Phono Preamp: Phono preamp with54 and 64 dB gain and RIAA accuracy is better than0. close to the theoretical minimum. 30 Watt Power Amplifier: Ultra-Low distortion30-Watt Power Amplifier 300 Watt Subwoofer Power Amplifier: 4 Watt Amplifier: 45 Watt Single Chip Amplifier With Tone Controls: 50 Watt Amplifier: 55 Watt (Originally 75W) Power Amplifier: 60 Watt Into 8 Ohms Power Amplifier: A simple amp to build.

Audio Circuits .1073.com/A/audio. similar to that used in many professional grade mixing desks Low Power Audio Amplifier Based on LM386: Making a Rugged. and1272 all used a similar gain building block like the BA283AV shown here.Electronic Hobby Projects LM380 Power Audio Amplifier: National Semiconductor Application Notes.Amplifiers .scroll to find this circuit Parabolic dish mic amplifier : Paradoxical Sound Synthesizer: Parametric & Subwoofer Equalizer: Phono Preamp (valve): Pocket Equalizer for Headphone: many circuit examples Portable headphone Amplifier: Portable Microphone Preamplifier: High headroom input circuitry. 9V Battery powered. Mono Audio Equalizer : MOSFET Power Amp: DIY high power MOSFET amplifier200 Wrms 8 ohms 350 Wrms4 ohms MS 2 Mic Splitter: Send signal from1-microph1-to two mixers.3 GHz RF Amplifier Using a MRF2001: One Watt 2.04Nov-1995 LM383 12 Volt Amplifier: Low Cost Audio VChas High Performance: EDN-Design Ideas Low Level Audio Amp: Low Noise Balanced Microphone Preamp: very low noise. product datasheet with circuit diagram in PDF format MS 82P Microphone Splitter With Phantom Power Buss: 8 channel microph1splitter that can inject phantom power to microphone.45 GHz Linear Amplifier: One Watt Class C Amplifier: OTP µC controls Boomer amplifier: EDN-Design Ideas /PDF contains multiple circuits .hobbyprojects. high hum rejection and variable gain with a single rotary pot. product datasheet with circuit diagram in PDF format Neve BA283Volt Class a Circuit: The famous Neve Class A recording series modules such as the1066. close to the theoretical minimum.html (4 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:38:08 PM] . Power Amp Schematic: Push Pull Class a 2A3 Stereo Amp (valve): Push Pull Class a Amp using type 5687 Dual Triodes: http://www. Connectorized Microphone From a Panasonic Microphone Capsule: Mega phone circuit 9v: Micro Spy With FETs: Micro Spy With TTL: Micro Spy With USW: Microphone Amplifier: Microphone Mixer: Designed for3-dynamic microphones Microphone Polarity Tester: Microphone Preamp: Very simple two transistor circuit MIDI Passthrough Circuit: Mike Pads & Other Small Gadgets: Includes Active Direct Box circuit Miniature FM Transmitter #1: Miniature FM Transmitter #2: Miniature FM Transmitter #3: Miniature FM Transmitters #4: Modification of Panasonic Backelectret Capacitor Microphone (WM GOAT DigiKey P9967 ND): This drawing describes the conventional hookup and option where FET is connected as source follower with3 wires to preamp. This circuit consists of two stages of amplification on a single printed circuit board with an input voltage gain stage and a line driver output stage.Amplifier Circuit . NHT Subwoofer Amp: Octave Screamer: One Watt 2.

Audio Circuits . VOX AC30 Guitar Amplifier Simulator: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Amplifiers .Electronic Hobby Projects Voice Over Circuit: Switches automatically from sound source to microph1when enough sound comes in from microphone.com/A/audio.html (6 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:38:08 PM] .hobbyprojects.Amplifier Circuit . PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.

or CMOS-level outputs.28-Jun-1996 Low-power CMOS oscillator has push-pull output: 04/01/04 EDN Design Ideas Digital oscillators often generate TTL. four 1. In this design. Simple deadband generator targets push-pull drivers: 07/12/99 Electronic Design .scroll to find this one] Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Electronic Circuits Tutorials Amplifier Circuits . LM110 to An Improved IC Voltage Follower : National Semiconductor Application Notes..Amplifier Buffer Circuit Resource Electronic. Generating a symmetric bipolar output with respect to ground presents a challenge. 5 V.. Negative Flyback. . The output power is 79. Buck with Vin of -36 V to -72V.5 W.Amplifier Buffers . PC. Dual Sync.. Push-Pull.com/A/buffer. referred to ground.hobbyprojects. Sync. Negative Flyback.Ideas for Design / In typical push-pull driver applications. Buck.5 V and -5 V. Dual Sync. 3. Push-Pull. Single Resistor Betters inexpensive Buffer: 07/04/94 EDN-Design Ideas / [file contains multiple circuits .5V flashlight cells create ±3V voltage sources. Buck Reference Design: Hot Swap. Buck.html [1/17/2007 4:38:09 PM] . and the midpoint of cells acts as the ground reference (Figure 1). 2. Sync. Vout of 8 V. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. A simple driver circuit uses an inverter between the V1 and V2. .Amplifiers Buffer Circuits . the npn-pnp transistor pair is alternately turned on and off using a square-wave signal.3 V.Buffers Hot Swap. PC.

Traditional instrumentation amplifiers that use two or three op amps in their internal structure find common use in these applications. In Figure 1.Design Ideas / You sometimes need to measure a small signal in the presence of a large common-mode signal.. IC2.com/A/differential. It would also improve on common-mode performance. but when you don't need high precision.Differentials . PC. a Maxim MAX319 analog switch.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. feeds the power from the coaxial signal cable to .28-Jun-1996 Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:38:11 PM] . The circuit in Figure 1 presents an alternative approach that is useful when low cost and low drift are important. would be a better choice than a unipolar.Amplifier Circuits . Differential amp needs no power source: EDN .. Differential Amp Drives highspeed ADC: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .. PC.to 20-mA device. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Differential Electronic Circuits Tutorials Difference amplifier uses digital potentiometers: EDN . with its bipolar output. high-input-impedance amplifier with bipolar output would present distinct advantages in remote devices. Fully Differential Input Voltage Amplifier : National Semiconductor Application Notes.. power-source-free. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. 4. Such an amplifier.scroll to find this circuit.hobbyprojects.Design Ideas / A truedifferential.Differential .

This circuit outlines some the features to expect from different inverter ICs.High Frequency Circuit . PC. It has good ambient light immunity. FET INPUT HIGH SPEED LIGHT DETECTOR This circuit is yet another design that converts current from a PIN photo diode to a voltage. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: High Frequency / High Speed Circuits Wide Band Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials BROAD BAND 5MHz OPTICAL FIBER RECEIVER This circuit is a simple broad band light detector that uses a very inexpensive IC and a PIN photodiode that is packaged for use with plastic optical fibers.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:18 PM] . I have used this circuit beyond 2MHz. The output current is only limited by the rating of the transistors. It is great for experimenting with various modulated light sources. http://www. 20MHz VCSEL 3mW LASER TEST CIRCUIT This circuit takes advantage of some new vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) that don’t require light output control circuits. C-MOS INVERTER MAKES LOW POWER AMP With the addition of one resistor and a capacitor. The circuit can easily be modified to transmit signals from kilohertz to about 50MHz. The unique change pump action allows the voltage of the upper P-ch device to range from millivolts to hundreds of volts. It has a bandwidth that extends beyond 50MHz. N-CH AND P-CH TRANSISTORS FORM PUSH-PULL DRIVER This circuit can produce high speed output signals with fast rise and full times. 10MHz TO 20MHz LASER LIGHT DETECTOR This circuit was originally designed to detect laser light pulses for an optical Ethernet communications system.Wide Band Circuits Electronic. BROAD BAND 2MHz OPTICAL FIBER RECEIVER If you need more sensitivity than the above circuit this circuit provides about ten times more gain. It has a bandwidth from 1KHz to over 5MHz.hobbyprojects.com/A/high_frequency. some common logic ICs can be transformed from digital to analog duties. It too is designed around an inexpensive plastic optical fiber detector. The circuit shows how to drive the device from a single high speed CMOS IC.High Speed Circuits .

Ideas for Design / (added 5/03) Engineers often need dc voltage sources with very high precision and good resistive and/or capacitive load-driving capability for industrial applications.High Speed Circuits .com/A/high_frequency. Wideband Filter uses image Parameters: 10/26/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . resistor-programmable switchedcapacitor filters that are configurable as notch filters. In this design idea. A.24-Oct-2001 Wideband.Wide Band Circuits WIDE BAND ZERO CROSS DETECTOR This circuit was designed to convert a low amplitude 40KHz signal into a clean square wave signal.. However. Further. The input frequency can range from a few kilohertz to about 150KHz. PC.High Frequency Circuit . Build an adjustable high frequency notch filter: EDN-Design Ideas / Although you can obtain universal. HF Signal Generator: Wideband AGC has 60 DB Dynamic Input Range: EDN-Design Ideas Wideband Filter Only Has Two Different Components : Electronic Design Ideas for Design / Wideband filters with bandwidths in excess of an octave can be created by cascading a high-pass filter and a low-pass filter.. the typically 16 Composite Amp Provides High Gain & Bandwidth: EDN-Design Ideas Composite Amplifier Boosts Precision Of Programmable Voltage Source : Electronic Design .hobbyprojects. most cannot operate at bandwidths higher than 100 kHz..html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:18 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. It will work with inputs as small as 5mv peak-topeak or as large as 3 volts peak to peak. nine-pole high-pass and low-pass filters have been constructed using a modified equal-element design. precision benchtop power supplies can be very expensive if high accuracy also is.scroll to find this circuit Wideband OpAmp Capable of MicroPower Operation : National Semiconductor Application Notes.. Low Noise Amplifier Drives 50 Ohm Loads: EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.

Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.hobbyprojects.Amplifier Circuits .com/A/high_gain. PC.High Gain .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:21 PM] .Amplifiers Gain . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.

PC. Links to Other Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. The system can detect human and animal motion by the electric fields they disturb.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. PC.html [1/17/2007 4:38:23 PM] .hobbyprojects.com/A/high_impedance.High Impedance Circuit . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Electronic Circuits Tutorials Amplifier Circuits: High Impedance Circuits ELECTRIC FIELD DISTURBANCE MONITOR (64) (efield1a) This schematic is the power supply and front-end sections of the field monitor that is discussed in more detail at Electric Field Disturbance Monitor.High Impedance Circuits .

some common logic ICs can be transformed from digital to analog duties.High Speed Circuit .High Speed Circuits . The circuit can easily be modified to transmit signals from kilohertz to about 50MHz. http://www. The unique change pump action allows the voltage of the upper P-ch device to range from millivolts to hundreds of volts. 10MHz TO 20MHz LASER LIGHT DETECTOR (61) (20mrvr2) This circuit was originally designed to detect laser light pulses for an optical Ethernet communications system. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: High Frequency / High Speed Circuits Wide Band Circuits BROAD BAND 5MHz OPTICAL FIBER RECEIVER (30) (5mhzfbvr) This circuit is a simple broad band light detector that uses a very inexpensive IC and a PIN photodiode that is packaged for use with plastic optical fibers.hobbyprojects. The output current is only limited by the rating of the transistors. N-CH AND P-CH TRANSISTORS FORM PUSH-PULL DRIVER (66) (pushpul) This circuit can produce high speed output signals with fast rise and full times. WIDE BAND ZERO CROSS DETECTOR (109) (zerocross1) This circuit was designed to convert a low amplitude 40KHz signal into a clean square wave signal. The circuit shows how to drive the device from a single high speed CMOS IC. It has good ambient light immunity. It has a C-MOS INVERTER MAKES LOW POWER AMP (95) (invertamp1) With the addition of one resistor and a capacitor. It is great for experimenting with various modulated light sources.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:26 PM] .com/A/high_speed. BROAD BAND 2MHz OPTICAL FIBER RECEIVER (31) (2mhzrvr1) If you need more sensitivity than the above circuit this circuit provides about ten times more gain. This circuit outlines some the features to expect from different inverter ICs. It will work with inputs as small as 5mv peak-to-peak or as large as 3 volts peak to peak. 20MHz VCSEL 3mW LASER TEST CIRCUIT (58) (20mhzlsr) This circuit takes advantage of some new vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) that don’t require light output control circuits. I have used this circuit beyond 2MHz. The input frequency can range from a few kilohertz to about 150KHz.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. FET INPUT HIGH SPEED LIGHT DETECTOR (69) (fetamp0) This circuit is yet another design that converts current from a PIN photo diode to a voltage. bandwidth that extends beyond 50MHz. It too is designed around an inexpensive plastic optical fiber detector. It has a bandwidth from 1KHz to over 5MHz.

. the typically 16 Composite Amp Provides High Gain & Bandwidth: EDN-Design Ideas Composite Amplifier Boosts Precision Of Programmable Voltage Source : Electronic Design . Low Noise Amplifier Drives 50 Ohm Loads: EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.High Speed Circuit .com/A/high_speed.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:26 PM] .Ideas for Design / Engineers often need dc voltage sources with very high precision and good resistive and/or capacitive loaddriving capability for industrial applications.hobbyprojects. However. nine-pole high-pass and low-pass filters have been constructed using a modified equal-element design.24-Oct-2001 Wideband. resistor-programmable switchedcapacitor filters that are configurable as notch filters. Further...scroll to find this circuit Wideband OpAmp Capable of MicroPower Operation : National Semiconductor Application Notes. HF Signal Generator: Wideband AGC has 60 DB Dynamic Input Range: EDN-Design Ideas Wideband Filter Only Has Two Different Components : Electronic Design Ideas for Design / Wideband filters with bandwidths in excess of an octave can be created by cascading a high-pass filter and a low-pass filter. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.High Speed Circuits . most cannot operate at bandwidths higher than 100 kHz. PC. Wideband Filter uses image Parameters: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . In this design idea.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic Circuits Tutorials Build an adjustable high frequency notch filter: EDN-Design Ideas / Although you can obtain universal.. A. precision benchtop power supplies can be very expensive if high accuracy also is.

The primary benefit of such a component is its ability to reject common-mode signals while amplifying a differential-input.com/A/instrumentation. The circuit has two properties that may be undesirable in same applications: It necessarily inverts. A Texas Instruments TL2272. precision benchtop power supplies can be very expensive if high accuracy also is.28-Jun-1996 Instrumentation Amplifier has 290 MHz Gain Bandwidth Product : EDN-Design Ideas / very high frequency instrumentation amplifier based on video-difference amplifier Instrumentation Amplifiers : National Semiconductor Application Notes. swings outputs to within100 mV of the rails. The characteristics of such a circuit depend first on the instrumentation amp you use. medical. and100-dB min common-mode rejection. Composite Amp Provides High Gain & Bandwidth: EDN-Design Ideas Composite Amplifier Boosts Precision Of Programmable Voltage Source : Electronic Design .0. resistor-programmable switchedcapacitor filters that are configurable as notch filters. and it requires a split-supply or midsupply reference.hobbyprojects. 8 Channel.25-µV/°C max offset drift. Engineer's Assistant: Frequency Counter: Inclinometer: Inductance Meter: Instrumentation amp makes noninverting integrator: EDN . most cannot operate at bandwidths higher than 100 kHz. Instrumentation Amp Swings Rail to Rail: EDN-Design Ideas . how close the output swings to the power supplys rail depends on which rail-to-rail op amp you use. HF Signal Generator: Wideband AGC has 60 DB Dynamic Input Range: EDN-Design Ideas http://www. for example..You can combine an instrumentation amplifier and an inexpensive CMOS op amp to get the better of two worlds: the precision of a bipolar instrumentation amp and the5V single-supply operation of the CMOS op amp. The INA131 delivers50-µV max voltage offset.Ideas for Design / Instrumentation amplifiers are the building blocks commonly used in industrial.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:30 PM] .28-Jun-1996 Isolated.. 12bit. and military systems. the typically 16.1% Accuracy: OpAmp Doubles As Instrumentation Amp: EDN-Design Ideas Reflectometer: Simple PH Meter: Electronic Circuits Tutorials Build an adjustable high frequency notch filter: EDN-Design Ideas / Although you can obtain universal.Ideas for Design / Engineers often need dc voltage sources with very high precision and good resistive and/or capacitive loaddriving capability for industrial applications. Further.. a / D Converter With PC Interface & 0. Next. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Instrumentation Composite Instrumentation Amp Extends CMRR Frequency Range 10 Times : Electronic Design .Design Ideas / Figure 1a shows the classic implementation of an integrator...Amplifier Circuits . However. Instrumentation Amplifier : National Semiconductor Application Notes. Figure 1b shows an implementation of an integrator that uses an LT1789 instrumentation amplifier. PC.Amplifiers Instrumentation .Instrumentations Electronic.

Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. nine-pole high-pass and low-pass filters have been constructed using a modified equal-element design..html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:30 PM] .scroll to find this circuit Wideband OpAmp Capable of MicroPower Operation : National Semiconductor Application Notes. A.24-Oct-2001 Wideband. Wideband Filter uses image Parameters: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . In this design idea..Amplifier Circuits .Instrumentations Wideband Filter Only Has Two Different Components : Electronic Design Ideas for Design / Wideband filters with bandwidths in excess of an octave can be created by cascading a high-pass filter and a low-pass filter.Amplifiers Instrumentation . PC. Low Noise Amplifier Drives 50 Ohm Loads: EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.com/A/instrumentation.hobbyprojects.

PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Limiting Electronic Circuits Tutorials Limiting Amplifier is Digitally Programmable: EDN-Design Ideas Limiting Amplifier makes efficient A / D Converter Driver: 0EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:38:35 PM] .com/A/limiting. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. PC.Limiting .Amplifiers .hobbyprojects.Amplifier Circuits .

Ideas for Design / Small or embedded systems often require a delicate measurement in the presence of high noise or interference. with an applied voltage of VIN.Logarithmic Amplifiers . you can vary the gain of the stage logarithmically with respect to a linear resistance or conductance Software Filter Boosts Signal Measurement Stability. Log Converters : National Semiconductor Application Notes.scroll to find this circuit Simple Algorithm Transforms Filter Coefficients: 01/21/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:37 PM] . Precision: 02/03/03 Electronic Design . C.. to reach a voltage (VIN-VK) from 0V.04-Nov-1995 Logarithmic A/D Encoder: Logarithmic Amplifier: Logarithmic amplifier uses the log caracteristic of PN (diode.com/A/logarithmic. Without fancy filtering hardware. polynomial-time)-complete) problems. A relaxed version of the problem tries to identify a subset of numbers that adds up to a maximum value no greater than a given value..scroll to find this circuit PIC µC implements CRC16 Algorithm: 02/18/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . or digital signal processing.Design Ideas / The novel logarithmic amplifier in Figure 1 relies on the exponential charging characteristics of a simple RC circuit.. Model Fixed Point DSP Arithmetic in C: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Theory & Applications of Logarithmic Amplifiers : National Semiconductor Application Notes.. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Logarithmic Electronic Circuits Tutorials Algorithm Extracts Roots of Decimal Numbers: EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . it can be difficult to extract a stable signal of.scroll to find this circuit Log amp uses capacitor charging law: EDN . The expression for the time.. is VINVK=VIN (1-e-T/RC). It asks whether a subset of numbers in a set of positive integers adds up exactly to a given value. transistor) to implement logarithmic function. . high-speed processing.24-Feb-1999 Click here for Other Circuits http://www. Software snippet provides improved subset sum algorithm : 09/25/03 EDNDesign Ideas / The subset-sum problem is one of the most frequently occurring NP (nondeterministic.Logarithmic .Amplifier Circuits Electronic. The second transistor is used as refference and with the PTK resistor minimizes the dT/dV coeficient. required for a capacitor. T.hobbyprojects. PC. where VK is a fixed voltage.scroll to find this circuit Single Stage gives Logarithmic Gain Steps : 03/03/94 EDN-Design Ideas / By placing a variable component in the positive feedback loop of an op amp. when charged through a resistor.scroll to find this circuit Primer on Binary Arithmetic Rounding: 01/21/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . R.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:38:37 PM] .hobbyprojects.Logarithmic . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Amplifier Circuits Electronic. PC.com/A/logarithmic.Logarithmic Amplifiers .

close to the theoretical minimum. Low Noise Balanced Microphone Preamp: very low noise. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Amplifier Circuits Electronic. similar to that used in many professional grade mixing desks Low Noise Microphone Preamplifier: Low Noise Variable Gain Amplifier: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Low Noise Amplifiers . high hum rejection and variable gain with a single rotary pot. PC.hobbyprojects. PC. However it draws more power supply current Electronic Circuits Tutorials Composite Amplifier Improves Noise : 08/04/94 EDN-Design Ideas Low Noise Amplifier for Phase Noise Measurements: features less input noise than a 50 ohmresistor.com/A/low_noise.Low Noise Circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Low Noise Circuits 40KHZ LIGHT RECEIVER AMP (122) (40khzamp1) This circuit is similar to number 121 but provides more gain and operates up to 40KHz.html [1/17/2007 4:38:39 PM] .

Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Detectors.com/A/microwave.Microwave Amplifiers .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Radar Circuits: Amplifiers.html [1/17/2007 4:38:41 PM] . Electronic Circuits Tutorials 2 Transistor Amplifier: 4W FM Transmitter: Crystal Radio With Amplifier: Crystal Radio: One Transistor FM Transmitter: Pulse Width to Voltage Converter: R / C Circuit: Radio Control Electric Switch: Two Transistor Amplifier: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.hobbyprojects.Microwave Radar Circuits . Microwave etc. PC. PC.

and produced a negative output voltage.Operational Amplifiers . . many modern DACs operate with a single supply rail and an inverted R-2R ladder network. PC. Amplifier-output-saturation limitations normally preclude such operation.5 H.B. 04-Nov-1995 Applying a New Precision OpAmp : National Semiconductor Application Notes.04-Nov-1995 Applying Dual & Quad FET OpAmps : National Semiconductor Application Notes.A. such as the MAX7837/7847 and the MAX523.Design Ideas / Early DACs contained standard R-2R ladder networks. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Operational Electronic Circuits Tutorials 1 in/4 out Audio Distribution Amplifier : 2 wire Remote Microphone Amplifier : 25 Hz Peaking Amplifier : 30Hz to 90Hz Adj P. Figure 1's power-supply bootstrapping scheme achieves the desired characteristics with minimal parts count Bridging Line Amplifier : Circuit Provides Inverting / Noninverting Gain: 11/09/95 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit Provides Linear Volt to I Conversion: 01/18/96 EDN-Design Ideas Constant current Amplifier : Constant current Power Amplifier : Current Feedback Amplifiers : National Semiconductor Application Notes. Driver : 4 in/1 out Summing Power Amplifier : 4. ACN (Active Combining Network) : Application Guide for OpAmps: Bitmap Bitmap National Semiconductor Application Notes. Tape Bias Oscillator : AC and op amp provide variable control voltage: 12/06/2001 EDN .html (1 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:38:54 PM] . These early DACs. Ampl. however.hobbyprojects.10-May-1996 Audio Level Meter Amplifier : Basic OpAmp Circuits: Bootstrapping allows single rail op amp to provide 0V output: 02/06/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Many single-supply-powered applications require amplifier-output swings within 1 mV—or even submillivolts—of ground.scroll to find this circuit http://www.Amplifier Circuits .Electronic Circuits Electronic. Magnetic P. 04-Nov-1995 Applications of the LM392 Comparator OpAmp IC: National Semiconductor Application Notes. Circuit : 60 to 100KHz Adj.05Aug-1995 DAC & OpAmp Provide Variable Control Voltage: 12/06/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Head Preamplifier : 44 Audio Dist. With the transition to single-supply ICs. require both positive and negative supply rails to accommodate their negative output.com/A/operational.

where A=R2/(R1+R2). require both positive and negative supply rails to accommodate their negative output. LM118 OpAmp Slews 70 Volt / Microsecond : National Semiconductor Application Notes. The TL072 and the5532. A. numbers that will be immediately familiar to anyone involved in audio electronics. have dominated the small-signal scene for many years.html (2 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:38:54 PM] .04-Nov-1995 Linear power driver works from single supply: 07/25/2002 EDN .hobbyprojects. VOUT. The circuit in Figure 1 allows you to amplify the input voltage. With t. single-supply analog applications. some of which can be very useful.Operational Amplifiers .04-Nov-1995 Monolithic Power OpAmp : National Semiconductor Application Notes. which resistors R1 and R2 set. and a selected range is covered here.04-Nov-1995 Monolithic OpAmp the Universal Linear Component : National Semiconductor Application Notes.com/A/operational.01May-1998 Multi track Recording System : http://www. it is often desirable to maintain precise control of voltages much greater than the positive-supply rail.04-Nov-1995 / Offer High Speed at Low Power Consumption Low Distortion Wideband Power OpAmp : National Semiconductor Application Notes. Designing An OpAmp Headphone Amplifier: many circuit examples Designing With a New Super Fast Dual Norton Amplifier : National Semiconductor Application Notes..Amplifier Circuits . equals AVIN..04-Nov-1995 Designing With OpAmp: Audio design has for many years relied on a very small number of Op-Amp types. and produced a negative output voltage.04-Nov-1995 Low Noise Precision OpAmp : National Semiconductor Application Notes. Using the Model 425 OPAMP : Dual OpAmp Doubles Output Current: 09/12/96 EDN-Design Ideas Dual Polarity Amplifier has Digital Control: 09/12/96 EDN-Design Ideas Feedback & Amplification #1: 01/06/94 EDN-Design Ideas Feedback Network Silences OpAmp Resistor Noise: 09/12/96 EDN-Design Ideas Feedforward Compensation Speeds OpAmp : National Semiconductor Application Notes.28-Jun-1996 Film Optical Record Amplifier w/ Noise Reduction Circuit : FM Radio Transmitters With OpAmp : Frequency Dependant Negative Resistor (Using OpAmps): Head set Intercom : I Feedback Amplifier Puts Parasites to Work: 11/09/95 EDN-Design Ideas IC OpAmp Beats FETs on Input Current : National Semiconductor Application Notes. by a factor.28Jun-1996 Low Power Op Amp Audio Amp (Intercom): Main Principles of Amplifier Wiring : How to wire operational amplifier MicroPower using the LM4250 Programmable OpAmp : National Semiconductor Application Notes.28-Jun-1996 LM3900New Current Differencing Quad of Plus or Minus Input Amplifiers: National Semiconductor Application Notes. The output voltage.Design Ideas / (added 10/03) In low-power.04-Nov-1995 IFB Intercom : Ignore Input Range Limits in Wideband OpAmp: 07/16/98 EDN-Design Ideas Inductors 6mH to 1600mH : LH0024 & LH0032 High Speed OpAmp Applications : National Semiconductor Application Notes.04-Nov-1995 LM6361 / LM6364 / LM6365 Fast OpAmps: National Semiconductor Application Notes. Digital Quality Microphone Pre Ampl. VIN. These early DACs.. There are however other Op-Amps. such as the MAX7837/7847 and the MAX523.Electronic Circuits DAC and op amp provide variable control voltage: 12/06/01 EDN-Design Ideas / Early DACs contained standard R-2R ladder networks.

. in the noninverting amplifier..scroll to find this circuit. the gain is the ratio of the feedback and input resistances.04Nov-1995 OpAmp Design & Test Board: OpAmp Doubles As Instrumentation Amp: 09/15/94 EDN-Design Ideas OpAmp Linearizes Attenuator Control Response: 07/25/02 EDN-Design Ideas / Professional-audio equipment commonly uses Analog Devices (www. quad-voltage-controlled SSM2164 attenuator. A control voltage applied to the gate sets the channel resistance and overall circuit gain. with0V producing unity gain. Whereas in the inverting configuration. New OpAmp Ideas : National Semiconductor Application Notes.04-Nov1995 Noninverting op amp circuit has simple gain formula: 11/28/2002 EDN Design Ideas / Basic textbooks describe inverting and noninverting amplifiers based on operational amplifiers.analog.. http://www. with 0V producing unity gain. the gain ratio has an added term.Design Ideas / Fets find common use in VCAs (voltage-controlled amplifiers) and attenuators. Attenuation increases as the applied control voltage increases in the positive direction. quad-voltage-controlled SSM2164 attenuator. handheld applications.3 to -4V using a precision5V reference and one op amp as a supply splitter OpAmp Oscillators Simplify RF Designs: 10/10/96 EDN-Design Ideas OpAmp Radio: OpAmp Rectifier Signals Input State: 07/21/94 EDN-Design Ideas Optical Magnetic Projection Booth System: Party line Intercom : Phonograph Disc Playback Preamplifier : Phonograph Disc Record Amplifier : Piecewise Linear Amplifier Eschews Diodes: 10/12/95 EDN-Design Ideas Portable Mixer for Nagra Recorder : PWM Circuit uses one OpAmp: 07/06/00 EDN-Design Ideas / circuit delivers a rectangular signal with duty cycle varying between0 and100% in response to an input signal varying from0 to5V dc Railtorail op Amp Provides Biasing in RF Amp: 01/20/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . OpAmp Linearizes Response of FET VCA: 09/05/02 EDN-Design Ideas / Fets find common use in VCAs (voltage-controlled amplifiers) and attenuators. in which the FET serves as a variable resistance.hobbyprojects. A control voltage applied to the gate sets the channel resistance and overall circuit gain.09-Apr1996 OpAmp Circuit Collection : National Semiconductor Application Notes.Electronic Circuits Negative Resistor Cancels opamp Load: 05/24/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . The control response is -30 dB/V.scroll to find this circuit.analog. The control response is -30 dB/V. Op Amp improves Power Supply's Regulation: 06/05/96 EDN-Design Ideas Op amp linearizes attenuator control response: 07/25/2002 EDN .Operational Amplifiers . OpAmp Makes Precise 9 Volt Battery Splitter: 07/17/97 EDN-Design Ideas / Alkaline 9V batteries are ideal for many portable. this circuit generates a bipolar supply of5V and -2. OpAmp Basics: OpAmp Booster Designs : National Semiconductor Application Notes.Design Ideas / Professional-audio equipment commonly uses Analog Devices' (www.Amplifier Circuits .com/A/operational. in which the FET serves as a variable resistance. These amplifiers have different gain equations.com) high-performance. The circuit in Figure 1 extends the range of applications for this versatile chip by providing a simple..com) high-performance.. Op amp linearizes response of FET VCA: 09/05/2002 EDN . You frequently need to select individual FETs because of wide spreads in FET characteristics.html (3 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:38:54 PM] .

.02-Apr-1999 Two OpAmps Make Fast Full Wave Rectifier: 03/14/96 EDN-Design Ideas Two wire Remote Microphone Amplifier : Use the LM158 / LM258 / LM358 Dual.Amplifier Circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.. Single Supply OpAmp : National Semiconductor Application Notes.Operational Amplifiers . a resistance that is not constant with video level and that appears in series with the signal. Wideband OpAmp Capable of MicroPower Operation : National Semiconductor Application Notes..04-Nov-1995 V 44 Video Distribution Amplifier Schematic : Versatile ShiftKeying Generator Uses CurrentFeedback Amplifiers : 06/24/02 Electronic Design . Low-end consumer products use CMOS analog switches and multiplexers.05-Aug-1995 Transformerless Microphone Preamplifier : Tutorial on Applying OpAmps to RF Applications : National Semiconductor Application Notes. a symmetrical emitter follower (Figure 1). Its basic block diagram shows that its input stage is a voltage follower—in practice.24-Oct-2001 Working With High Impedance OpAmps : National Semiconductor Application Notes. converts it to voltage across a large impedance. these devices have a series onresistance that ranges from approximately 100O to 1 kO. digital microwave communication. such as the 4066 and 4051. and others. Unfortunately. lowoutput-impedance amplifier.. The configuration samples the output current. Video multiplexer uses high speed op amps : 08/21/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Video multiplexers route video from several sources to a single channel..com/A/operational.04-Nov-1995 Click here for Other Circuits Electronic..html (4 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:38:54 PM] . digital cellular phones.Ideas for Design / Digital information often must travel through analog channels in applications like satellite communication.hobbyprojects. PC. Simple Op Amp Radio: Simple Timer Exploits OpAmp Bias Current: 07/21/94 EDN-Design Ideas Single NiCd Cell Drives OpAmp: 12/05/96 EDN-Design Ideas Single Polarity Powe Supply Circuit for 400 series Amplifiers : Slow OpAmp Makes Fast Multivibrator: 01/01/98 EDN-Design Ideas SwOpAmp Makes Square Wave Generator: 02/15/96 EDN-Design Ideas TO 3 Case Low Power Amplifier : Topics on using the LM6181New Current Feedback Amplifier : National Semiconductor Application Notes.Electronic Circuits RF oscillator uses current feedback op amp: 10/03/2002 EDN . and amplifies it to the output using a high-power.Design Ideas / A current-feedback amplifier is a well-known component with many uses. This transmission is made possible by the sinusoidal signalmodulation.

PC. PC.html [1/17/2007 4:38:56 PM] .special common-drain MOSFETbased power op amp circuit TO 3 Case Low Power Amplifier : Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Power Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials High power 12v amplifier : High Power Amp Includes Disable: 03/03/97 EDN-Design Ideas Power Amplifier has Transient Rail to Rail Swing: 09/29/94 EDN-Design Ideas / Has transient rail-to-rail swing .Amplifier Circuits .com/A/power.Power Circuits .Amplifiers .hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.

RF Amplifiers .hobbyprojects.Radio Frequency .com/A/rf_radio_frequency. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: RF (Radio Frequency) Electronic Circuits Tutorials 500W HF Linear Amplifier: Generic VHF Power Amplifier: RF Sniffer : Simple Wireless Radio Data Link: T Volt Antenna Amplifier: Covers the frequencies from40 to 900 MHz UHF T Volt Preamplifier: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.html [1/17/2007 4:38:59 PM] .Amplifier Circuits Electronic. PC.

com/A/variable_gain. when you configure them as gain blocks..Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. most common amplifiers have both gain errors and offset drift.Amplifiers . Variable Gain Stage uses Voltage Output DAC: 08/01/97 EDN-Design Ideas Variable Regulator Output: 0 –28 volts at3 amps Video Circuits Collection : Linear Technology Application Note #57 / January1994 /includes Video transmission over UTP Voltage Controlled Panner: Variable gain amplifier circuit Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. The typical two-resistor gain-setting arrangement found in many op-amp circuits has serious accuracy and drift limitations. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Variable Gain Electronic Circuits Tutorials Automatic gain Control (AGC) Circuits: Digitally Control Gain over a ±40 DB Range: 09/12/97 EDN-Design Ideas digitally control an amplifiers gain over a ±40-dB range gain Resolution of1. PC. Unfortunately.html [1/17/2007 4:39:04 PM] . PC.Variable Gain . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.hobbyprojects..25 dB High Frequency VGhas Digital Control: 07/18/96 EDN-Design Ideas Low Noise Variable Gain Amplifier: Single IC provides gains of 10 and –10 : 08/07/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Real-world data-acquisition systems require amplifying weak signals to match the full-scale input range of an A/D converter.Amplifier Circuits ..

Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. sync stripper and DC restorer in PDF format.com/A/video. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. including sync pulses.html [1/17/2007 4:39:10 PM] .Video Amplifiers .Amplifier Circuits .hobbyprojects.Video . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Video Inverter: This is a simple one-transistor circuit to invert the whole video signal. This circuit takes normal composite video signal and outputs it to up to3-monitors. includes video transmission over UTP Video Clock Superimposer: Video Distribution Amplifier: This is a useful circuit for amplifying and distribution of video signals. PC. Video Circuits Collection: many video amplifier circuits in PDF format. Video Amplifier #2: Video Amplifier Circuit From Discrete Transistors: Video Amplifier With Sync Stripper & PC Restore: This document is an application note of200 MHz video amplifier. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Video Electronic Circuits Tutorials Video Amplifier #1: This is a Video amplifier that has been constructed by a single special IC LH0024. PC.

hobbyprojects. passive circuit Microphone Mixer: Designed for3-dynamic microphones Six Channel Mixer and Amplifier: Sound Mixer/Amplifier: Stereo Mixer : Can mix four separate audio inputs to mono or stereo output signal Two Input Mixer: Two Line Output Combiner: Convert consumer equipment stereo signal to mono or combine audio signal from two different equipments to1-input Unbalanced Mute Circuit for Audio Mixing Channels: application note in PDF format Voice Over Circuit: Switches automatically from sound source to microph1when enough sound comes in from microphone. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Audio Circuits: Mixers Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 2 Input Mixer: 2 Line Output Combiner: Convert consumer equipment stereo signal to mono or combine audio signal from two different equipments to1-input 4 INPUT MIXER: This is a very simple 4 input audio mixer using op amps. read also Noise & Headroom in Mixers Audio Mixer: Ever Amplifier Bridging: a design for a simple add-on bridging adapter for stereo power amplifiers FET Audio Mixer: High Quality Sound Mixer: very ambitious and expected to be very expensive mixer project.html [1/17/2007 4:39:14 PM] .Audio Mixers Circuits . PC. includes separate volume controls for both signals. decoupling caps on the inputs and the whole unit has a balanced output good little circuit.com/A/audio_mixers.Audio Mixer Circuit . potentiometers resistors. PC. 6 Input Mixer: 3 line inputs and3 mic inputs Advanced Mixer Design: good article on large audio mixer design. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Voltage Controlled Mixer with Modulator: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Audio Circuit .Hobby Projects Electronic. modular design line Mixer: mix two line level sources to one-signal.

Audio Oscillator Circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 4:39:15 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Audio Oscillator Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 2 Tone Audio Oscillator (use for SSB Tests): 2 Tone Train Horn: Audio Oscillators: CMOS IC Audio oscillator: Transistor Organ: Two Tone Audio Oscillator (use for SSB Tests): Two Tone Train Horn: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Oscillators Audio Circuit .com/A/audio_oscillator_circuits. PC.

Mic Pre Pan Pot Circuit: Mono Audio Equalizer : http://www. Tone and Balance Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 2 Watt Amplifier 2: 3 Band Equalizer: 3 Band Equalizer: 300 Watt Subwoofer Power Amplifier: 45 Watt Single Chip Amplifier With Tone Controls: Active Subwoofer & Controller: Active Subwoofer: Audio Analyzer: Audio Graphic Equalizer: simple 7 band equalizer Audio Level Meter: Audio Output Level Meter: Audio Tone Control: Bass Amplifier: Battery Powered Stereo Balance Control Features Low Distortion : 06/23/03 Electronic Design .Balance Circuits .com/B/balance_controls.Ideas for Design / low-power.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Design Ideas / Digital potentiometers provide a compact and convenient way to attenuate audio-amplifier signals. PC. Silicon diodes have an offset of approximately 0. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Audio Circuits: Level.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:23 PM] . Better Volume Control: how to create a log pot that is better than the "real" thing Designing With the LMC835 Digital Controlled Graphic Equalizer: National Semiconductor Application Notes. benefit from a rectifier with a low offset voltage. However... To avoid this problem. Digital Volume Control: based on DS1669 Digital Pot IC Dual Channel Digital Volume Control: Electronic level : Graphic Equalizer #1: Graphic Equalizer #3: Improved PL tone Decoder: Inverted bipolar transistor doubles as a signal clamp: 06/07/01 EDN-Design Ideas / A number of circuits. a user must usually step. most such potentiometers suffer from at least one flaw: a nonlogarithmic step increment. A Schottky diode is a bit better.6V and do not work well in low-level circuitry.Audio Circuits Balance Circuit . such as level detectors and AM demodulators.hobbyprojects. low-distortion circuit that can be used to balance the left and right headphones or speakers in batterypowered automotive or computer applications.04-Nov-1995 Digital Delay Unit for Surround Sound: Digital volume control has log taper: 04/11/2002 EDN .

Plus Peaks & Notches: Soft Switching Amplifier With Tone Controls: Stereo Width Controllers: Subwoofer Equalizer: The Linkwitz transform circuit is a hugely flexible way to equalize the bottom end of a sealed loudspeaker enclosure. Digital potentiometers are often advertised as replacements for rotary volume controls.. Subwoofer Filter: 12 dB/octave low pass filter for subwoofer. includes subsonic filter Three Band Active Tone Control: Three Band Equalizer: Tone Control #2: Tone Controls With 2x NE 5532: check also PCB design and notes Tone Detector: Tone Generator: Tremolo: Use Rotary Potentiometer To Drive Solid State Volume Control: 01/20/03 Electronic Design . PC. The low frequency roll off point is determined by the parameters of the transform circuit.. To simulate these controls.hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects Musical Instrument (Expandable) Graphic Equalizer: standard equalizer plus bonus distortion unit NHT Subwoofer Amp: One Pot to Control Two Channels: Parametric & Subwoofer Equalizer: Passive Filters Fill the Bill At Audio Frequencies: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .Audio Circuits Balance Circuit .Ideas for Design / This design idea details how a standard volume control can be replaced by its solid-state equivalent. Note that there is also a separate spreadsheet calculator available for calculating component values for different situations not handled by the original circuit.scroll to find this circuit. Should the enclosure size be too small and cause a lump in the response before roll off. Voltage Controlled Panner: variable gain amplifier circuit Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Easy Parametric & Graphic EQ's. many circuits employ up/down. A conventional active crossover network is then used to divide the subwoofer signal from the main channel signals. this is also corrected.Balance Circuits . PC Speaker Volume Control Circuit: Pocket Equalizer for Headphone: Simple. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:23 PM] . A speaker that is corrected using this method is flat from below resonance to the upper limit of the selected driver.com/B/balance_controls.

Inversal Notch and Bandpass Filter: L Band PHEMT LNfor GPS. with a distortion of only 0. The strength of the circuit. document in PDF format Biquad Active Bandpass Filter Schematic: Chebyshe Volt / Butterworth Filters: Chebyshe Volt Bandpass Filter: DPPs program key parameters of bandpass filter: 12/12/2002 EDN . however. Linkwitz-Riley ect. Bandpass Filters: Bandpass Filters: Basic Introduction to Filters : Application notes on active.. This point is . HighQ Bandpass Filter Is Well Suited To CurrentMode Signal Processing : 03/04/02 Electronic Design . The Linkwitz-Riley has its cut off frequency at the -6db point. 29.Ideas for Design / Analog signal processing has conventionally been viewed as a voltage-dominated form of design.Active Filters .01%. is in the bandpass response (VOUT/VIN). in which it's easy to achieve high gain (G) and high Q. and lowpass responses. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Design Ideas / The three-amplifier implementation of the state-variable filter in Figure 1 provides for second-order bandpass.hobbyprojects.) indicates the shape and roll off of the filter.7071 the amplitude of the pass band.. passive and switched capacitor filters.Active Bandpass Filter . There is also a limitation on the input range of signals for linear operation.com/B/active.Electronic Circuits Electronic. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Active Filters: Band Pass Electronic Circuits Tutorials ULTRA PURE 125KHz SINE WAVE SIGNAL SOURCE (104) (125ksine1) For some RFID systems operating at 125KHz. But voltage-mode processing can restrict the system's dynamic range.85 MHZ Bandpass Filter Schematic: Active 2nd Order Filters: Active Bandpass Filters: Bandpass Filter (Single OpAmp) : A band pass filter passes a range of frequencies while rejecting frequencies outside the upper and lower limits of the passband. The range of frequencies to be passed is called the passband and extends from a point below the center frequency to a point above the center frequency where the output voltage falls about 70% of the output voltage at the center frequency. An.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:28 PM] . The more common Butterworth has its cut off frequency at the -3db point.Band Pass .. highpass. Inmarsat Etc: Multiple Feedback Bandpass Filter: Multiple Feedback Bandpass Filter: Narrow Band Audio Bandpass Filter: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. PC. a very low distortion signal source reference is needed. 24db / Octave Linkwitz Riley : The type of filter (Butterworth. These two characteristics are important in applications in which selectivity is a key parameter in the filter. The circuit shown on this page produces a 10-volt peak-topeak signal into a 50-ohm load.

Active Bandpass Filter .Electronic Circuits http://www.hobbyprojects.Active Filters .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:28 PM] .Band Pass .com/B/active.

.Passive Band Pass Filter Resource .Passive Filters . PC. In this design idea.html [1/17/2007 4:39:32 PM] . Values for the 40 meter band are shown.Ideas for Design / Wideband filters with bandwidths in excess of an octave can be created by cascading a high-pass filter and a low-pass filter.Electronic Circuits Electronic.scroll to find this circuit Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. The circuit consists of a shunt capacitor at the termination followed by a series capacitor connecting to the high Z end of a parallel tuned circuit. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.com/B/passive_bandpass_filter. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Passive Filters : Band Pass Electronic Circuits Tutorials Bandpass Filter: This circuit is taken from the Progressive Communications Receiver in most of the recent ARRL Handbooks.Band Pass . PC. Band-pass filters: Components of a simple bandpass filter: Notch Filter Is DC Accurate: Maxim Application Notes / #138 Regarding Tapped Capacitor Impedance Transformation in LC Bandpass Filters: We often use a pair of capacitors to match impedances at the termination ends of LC bandpass filters.hobbyprojects. A. nine-pole high-pass and low-pass filters have been constructed using a modified equal-element design. Wideband Filter Only Has Two Different Components: 01/21/02 Electronic Design . . Wideband Filter uses image Parameters: 10/26/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .

Battery Backup Circuit Electronic. they stop execution if that supply drops.Battery Backup Circuits . but. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Battery Backup Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Buck converter handles battery backup system: 04/24/03 EDN-Design Ideas / A synchronous buck converter is inherently bidirectional. transferring power from output to input. it transfers energy from input to output as a buck regulator when the output voltage is low..com/B/battery_backup_circuits. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. This Design Idea shows how to use this bidirectional energy transfer to automatically recharge a battery when the mai.. Microcontrollers seldom find use in power-switching applications.. when the output voltage is high. PC. Because microcontrollers typically operate from the primary power supply.. Microcontroller provides SRAM battery backup: 06/26/03 EDN-Design Ideas / To maintain content in the event of power loss. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. thereby making it impossible.html [1/17/2007 4:39:35 PM] . many designs that include SRAM require a dedicated device that can automatically switch from a standard power supply to battery operation.. PC.Electronic Hobby Projects .hobbyprojects. That is.. the converter acts as a boost regulator..

Charge Li Ion Batteries From AC Line Voltage: 03/03/98 EDN Design Ideas / Converts energy from120 Volt AC to a regulated voltage or Current as necessary to charge two Li ion Cells in series Charge Monitor for 12 Volt Rechargeable Lead Acid Battery: Charger Selects Between Full & Trickle Charge: 06/18/98 EDN Design Ideas Charger Serves Load While Charging Battery: 07/03/97 EDN Design Ideas Chargers Delivers 2. automatically turns charging off when ready Car NiCd Charger: This circuit provides up to20-Volt output from a regular13.2V (18V total).2V automotive battery. proper charging is achieved by placing the unit in the sun for a known amount of Time. You can charge from1 to20 +/.NiCads at a constant current of from20 to200 ma +/-.Battery Charger Circuits . I have used it to keep my Palm Pilot and walkman radio running perpetually. to enable constant current charging of NiCd battery packs up to15 cells @1.hobbyprojects. This is an unregulated charger. Car Battery Charger: quickly and easily charge most any lead acid battery.com/B/battery_chargers..html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:39:39 PM] . AA Battery Solar Charger 2: AC Powered NiCad Battery Charger: Alkaline battery charger : Automatic 9 Volt NiCd Battery Charger: Automatic Charger for Battery Operated Hi Fi Preamps: Battery Charger Takes on Two Roles: 01/01/98 EDN Design Ideas Battery Chargers indicates Rate of Charge: 05/25/95 EDN-Design Ideas / A single LED indicates whether the battery Chargers s delivering a trickle charge or a fast charge.Electronic Hobby Projects .au AA Battery Solar Charger 1: This almost trivial circuit may be used to charge a pair of AA or AAA sized cells in the sun. PC. circuit designed to charge2-14 cells Battery Chargers: Battery Discharge Monitor: Buck Converter Chargers Also Provides System Power: 05/22/97 EDN Design Ideas / Switching Regulator provides the charge voltage setpoint with Current regulation.electronic-parts. DC Input Controls Efficient Battery Charger: 03/02/95 EDN Design Ideas Deluxe Battery Charge Rate Monitor: Gel Cell Charger #2: http://www. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Battery Charger Circuits / Parts Electronic Circuits Tutorials Australia Online Electronic Parts & Batteris Shopping: www.com. and second Switching Regulator provides5V System Power Build a Smart Battery Charger Using a SingleTransistor Circuit : 11/25/02 Electronic Design . It starts charging.Battery Chargers Electronic.Ideas for Design / The following automatic battery-charger design is created with a circuit that could qualify as the simplest window comparator ever built around a single transistor (see the figure).. this Time varies according to the battery type.5With 96% Efficiency: 10/12/95 EDN Design Ideas Constant Current Battery Charger: Constant Current NiCd Charger: The schematic for this charger is pretty simple.

hobbyprojects.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:39:39 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects . PC.Battery Chargers Temperature Controlled NiCd Charger: Trickle Charger: Explains what trickle charging is.com/B/battery_chargers. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. uses the uc3906 chip Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Battery Charger Circuits . Typical Rechargeable Flashlight Schematics: VK3EM Sealed Lead Acid Battery Charger MK II: A high-tech lead acid charger. contains some basic trickle charging circuits.

For a 9V. these devices can be used in multiplecell applications. When the battery voltage drops below a certain point the circuit flashes the LED. you must disconnect its Load before the discharge is complete Circuit Protects Battery From Overdischarge: 04/12/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Although designed mainly for use in the single cell applications.. 1997 12 Volt Lead Acid Battery Monitor: This simple circuit makes it possible to monitor the charging process to a higher level.hobbyprojects. In the off state the circuit draws only 1uA. 12B Battery Condition Indicator: Battery condition indicator12v : Battery Monitor in MultipleCell Applications: Maxim APP 405: May 04. Published in EDN. while in the active flashing state it draws 20uA.Battery Sensor .scroll to find the one of interest / In some applications. Circuit Prevents Deep Discharge of Batteries: 09/26/96 EDN Design Ideas to avoid the deep discharge that can destroy or shorten the life of a rechargeable Battery. An example circuit is shown along with recommended device configuration of the DS2760 or DS2761 battery monitors. This circuit protects a single NiMH (nickel-metal-hydride) cell by disconnecting the load from the battery when it gets discharged enough. 450-mAhr alkaline battery. Low Battery Voltage Cutoff Consumes just 1 MA: 09/11/98 EDN Design Ideas MicroAmps Monitor Dual Supply Batteries: 03/03/98 EDN Design Ideas / to Low Power Circuit monitors two 9V Batteries in a dual Supply configuration and turns on the Battery Low LED if either Battery Voltage drops below its limit Overload & Reverse Current Circuitry Protects Battery & Load: 03/01/96 EDN Design Ideas / There are numerous Circuits can protect against backward installation of Batteries and other Overcurrent causing conditions Phantom Power Battery Test Circuit: LED will light when battery is over42 volts Simple Circuit Disconnects Load From Battery: 03/14/96 EDN Design Ideas http://www. it is undesirable to Overdischarge the battery. PC..com/B/battery_monitors. This application note demonstrates to the user how to use the DS2760 or DS2761 in a multiple-cell application including necessary circuit modifications and limitations in functionality of the devices in the multiple-cell environment.. LED Flasher indicates Low Battery Condition: 01/02/97 EDN Design Ideas Low battery indicator uses fleapower : 09/04/03 EDN-Design Ideas / It is always desirable to use a low-battery indicator that consumes as little power as possible. Jan 2.Battery Monitors . Battery-powered devices that need to run continuously for a long time require battery indicators that consume minimal power. because it could irreversibly reduce the batterys capacity and the number of discharge/charge cycles. 2001 / The DS2760 and DS2761 battery monitor and protector are battery management ICs geared mainly for single-cell Li-Ion battery pack applications.Electronic Circuits & Hobby Projects Electronic.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:41 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Battery Monitors Electronic Circuits Tutorials THREE VOLT LOW BATTERY VOLTAGE FLASHER (9) (undervol) This circuit is designed to monitor two alkaline cells (3v) that form the battery often used in portable electronic equipment. It use an inexpensive IC from Panasonic that is connected to an efficient LED flashing circuit. a 50-µA low-battery indicator can by itself run the battery down in a little more than a year.

Battery Monitors .com/B/battery_monitors.hobbyprojects. PC.Electronic Circuits & Hobby Projects Simple Circuit Monitors Battery Voltage: 11/11/96 EDN Design Ideas Simple Circuit Safely Deepdischarges NiCd Battery: 04/29/99 EDN-Design Ideas 5/03) PDF contains multiple circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.scroll to find this circuit Solar Car Battery Monitor Schematic: Voltage Monitor Prevents Deep Discharge of Battery: 05/07/98 EDN Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:41 PM] .Battery Sensor .

Battery simulator provides current limiting : 08/01/97 EDN-Design Ideas Phantom Power Battery Test Circuit: LED will light when battery is over42 volts Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:39:44 PM] .Battery Testers . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Battery Testers Electronic Circuits Tutorials 12 Volt Battery Capacity Tester: This circuits makes the amp-hour test simple and cheap.hobbyprojects. PC.Battery Tester Electronic. The amp-hour reading obtained should be accurate to within10% if the load resistor (lamp) is properly calibrated.com/B/battery_testers.Electronic Circuits & Hobby Projects .

Electronic Hobby Projects . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Barometer Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Electronic Barometers: Liquid Barometers: Small.scroll to find this circuit. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. PC.html [1/17/2007 4:39:46 PM] .Barometer Atmospheric Pressure Electronic.com/B/barometer_atmospheric_pressure. Portable Altimeter operates From a Single Cell: 06/21/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . PC.Barometer Circuits . Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.hobbyprojects.

Beeper & Buzzer Circuits . VERY LOUD BEEPER CIRCUIT (51) (beeper3) This circuit is similar to circuit number 7. It is simple enough to be packaged inside a small plastic box. The circuit delivers about 110db (12 inches away) from a 9v battery using a single inexpensive C-MOS IC. It sweeps the drive frequency slightly to produce a very annoying sound. It cranks out an ear splitting 120db when measured at 12 inches. 12 Volt DC Electronic Door Chime: 3 Tone Gong: Suitable for use as a door bell 555 Tone Generator 8 Ohm Speaker: Audio MilliVoltmeter: Battery Low Voltage Beeper: Bells Ring Generator: 3-Circuit options Can be synchronized to Christmas tree flashing lights http://www. PC. but generates a continuous tone instead of a pulsing one. The beeper is powered from a 9v battery and requires the machine to have a power switch with a third set of contacts. An off-theshelf piezoelectric beeping device is driven at resonance to insure maximum efficiency. the circuit sounds a beeper whenever the main door chime is activated. Using a simple current transformer technique. It is powered directly off the 120vac power line to remind you that a device connected to the circuit is turned on. the same circuit can operate from 3v and 1. By changing the control IC to a 74AC14. This circuit takes advantage of the 24vac power source located near the furnace.Buzzer & Beeper Circuit . Aug 5.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:47 PM] .5v batteries.hobbyprojects. It might be ideal for computers. ANOTHER VERY LOUD PIEZO ALARM BEEPER (67) (beeper4) This is yet another beeper circuit that really draws attention. It uses a transformer to increase the drive voltage across the piezoelectric device to more than 200 volts peak to peak. MACHINE POWER LOSS BEEPER (40) (powerlos) For some medical equipment it is important for an operator when power is lost to the machine.com/B/beeper_&_buzzer_circuits. Published in Electronic Design. An off-the-shelf piezoelectric beeping device is driven at resonance to insure maximum efficiency. BASEMENT DOORBELL BEEPER (39) (doorbell) If you can't hear your doorbell when you are in your basement try this circuit.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. this circuit delivers about 110db (12 inches away) from a 9v battery using a single inexpensive C-MOS IC. 1993 POWER REMINDER BEEPER (20) (beeper2) This circuit produces a short beep once each minute. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Beeper & Buzzer Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials HIGH SOUND OUTPUT BEEPER CIRCUIT (7) (beeper) I you need a real loud beeper. printers or some test equipment that shouldn't be left on all night.

Two tone Siren: Under / Overvoltage Beep for Manual Stabiliser: Wailing Alarm: You've got Mail: 08/19/99 EDN-Design Ideas / Many e-mail programs provide a "beep" or a pop-up message box signaling the user that a new e-mail message has arrived. PC.5 seconds after a preset Time Adjustable Time settings:15 sec.com/B/beeper_&_buzzer_circuits.hobbyprojects. The simple circuit in Figure1 latches on an LED and an audio sounder when an appropriate new audible e-mail signal occurs.Beeper & Buzzer Circuits . Remarkable R Beeper: Remote Doorbell Indicator: Speaking Doorbell: SpeDoB was designed and built to gain experience with the PIC microcontroller. then you miss the new-mail audible and visual signals.Electronic Hobby Projects Birdie Doorbell Ringer: Bull Horn: Buzzer: Controller Provides Multiple Alarm Driver Formats: 01/15/98 EDN-Design Ideas Curious C Beeper: Ding Dong Bell: Doorbell for the Deaf: Doorbell With Counter: Electronic Siren 1: Electronic Siren 2: Electronic Whistle: Inexpensive LED Drives Flash & Beep Circuit: 06/05/97 EDN-Design Ideas Personal Alarm: Small portable.wav file of any valid recorded dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) sound Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. You can vary the duration of each tone by changing the 10k resistor or 100MF capacitor at IC1 or changing resistors and capacitors at IC1/2 for higher or lower tone. This doorbell uses a speech recorder integrated circuit (ISD series) to play back3 pre-recorded "theres someone knocking on the door" messages. ideal for beginners! Timed Beeper: Beeps 7. Beep.2 min.30 sec. & others Turn Signal Alarm: Two Tone Generator: This two-tone generator includes 3 ICs . Its a very easy and simple project to build.1 min.wave file with a . Also suitable for Doors and windows control Piezo Device Generates Buzz.NE555 Astable Multivibrators. anti-bag-snatching unit. The method replaces the normal email sound.Buzzer & Beeper Circuit . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. If you are too far from the computer to hear the audible signal or if the monitor is turned off.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:47 PM] . It makes use of two 555 timer ICs used as astable multivibrators. or Chime : 04/23/98 EDN-Design Ideas Plane Locator Beeper #2: Plane Locator Beeper: Police Siren: This circuit produces a sound similar to the police siren.

portable set Pain Field Generator: PC Based Biofeedback Monitor: PC Thermometer: Pedometer: Radiation Dosage Rate Meter: Radiation Dosage Rate Meter: Accurately measure and display RADS/MIN with this circuit and a V meter! Respiration System: Self Contained Electromyograph (EMG): Simple Lie Detector: Simple Lie Detector: Sleeping Aid : Based on electromagnetic-field radiation Place it under the pillowBuilt-in Timer Snore Alarm Electronic Device: Tan Timer: Six Timing positions suited to different skin types Timing affected by sunlight intensity Vital Signs Monitor Consumes Less than 50 µA: 02/02/98 EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits http://www.com/B/biomedical_circuits.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Medical Electronics / Biomedical Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials ECG Amplifier #1: ECG Amplifier #2: ECG Project Page: EEG Preamp.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:51 PM] .hobbyprojects.Medical Electronics .Biomedical Circuits . Anti Alias Filter and isolation Circuit: EKG/EEG Circuit: Electronic Auto Stethoscope: Electronic stethoscope: Electronic Stethoscope: ESP SIM (Sound Impairment Monitor): Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) Schematic: Heart Rate Monitor: Heartbeat Monitor: Heartbeat Transducer: Inexpensive XRay Machine #1: Inexpensive XRay Machine #2: Lie Detector: Lie Detector: Muscular Bio Stimulator: Particularly suitable for cellulites treatment3V battery supply.Biomedical & Medical Circuit Resource . PC.

Medical Electronics .hobbyprojects.com/B/biomedical_circuits. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:39:51 PM] .Hobby Projects Electronic.Biomedical Circuits .Biomedical & Medical Circuit Resource . PC.

VREF.Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuits . the transducer gain for the circuit isTo ensure equal gain for the two ground-referenced volt. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Bridge Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 16w bridge amplifier: Circuit adds programmability to sensor amplifier: 03/21/2002 EDN .html [1/17/2007 4:39:56 PM] . .Bridge Circuits .. The circuit can operate from a single supply and uses only two op amps and 1% resistors. is 0V..com/B/bridge_circuits. If the reference voltage. Design Approach Simplifies Signal Conditioning: 12/22/1994 EDN Design Ideas Programmable Gain Amplifier is Low Cost: 03/17/1994 EDN Design Ideas RC Network Eliminates Precision Reference: 08/04/94 EDN Design Ideas Signal Chopping Enhances Bridge Performance: 06/22/95 EDN Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. PC.Design Ideas / The pressure-sensor amplifier circuit of Figure 1 offers a number of advantages over the traditional approach using the classic three-op-amp instrumentation amplifier. PC.Bridge Circuit Resource Electronic.hobbyprojects.

. Push-Pull.Electronic Projects Electronic. 2. Buck with Vin of -36 V to -72V.3 V.Ideas for Design / In typical push-pull driver applications. 28-Jun-1996 Single Resistor betters inexpensive Buffer : 7/4/94 EDN-Design Ideas Hot Swap. A simple driver circuit uses an inverter between the V1 and V2. Dual Sync.28-Jun-1996 Low-power CMOS oscillator has push-pull output: 04/01/04 EDN Design Ideas Digital oscillators often generate TTL. The output power is 79. Push-Pull. LM110 to An Improved IC Voltage Follower : National Semiconductor Application Notes. PC. the npn-pnp transistor pair is alternately turned on and off using a square-wave signal.Amplifier Buffer Circuits . Single Resistor Betters inexpensive Buffer: 07/04/94 EDN-Design Ideas / [file contains multiple circuits . PC.hobbyprojects. .. Negative Flyback. four 1. and the midpoint of cells acts as the ground reference (Figure 1). Vout of 8 V. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Amplifier Circuits: Buffers Electronic Circuits Tutorials 300V PEAK TO PEAK SIGNAL GENERATOR (54) (300vpp) This circuit converts a square wave signal to a +-150 volt output signal with fast 100nS rise and fall times. referred to ground.5 V and -5 V. 3.5 W. Buck Reference Design: Hot Swap..html [1/17/2007 4:39:59 PM] . 04-Nov-1995 LM110 to an Improved IC Voltage Follower : National Semiconductor Application Notes.5V flashlight cells create ±3V voltage sources. Applications for a New Ultra High Speed Buffer : National Semiconductor Application Notes.Amplifier Circuits .or CMOS-level outputs. Sync.scroll to find this one] Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. . Generating a symmetric bipolar output with respect to ground presents a challenge. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. 5 V. Dual Sync. Negative Flyback. In this design. Simple deadband generator targets push-pull drivers: 07/12/99 Electronic Design . Sync.com/B/buffer_circuits. Buck. Buck.Buffers Circuit .

com/B/bug_electronic_&_detectors.Electronic Bugs Sensor Circuits & Projects Electronic. and nothing will be heard. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Too much sensitivity and it will respond to radio broadcasts. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Bugs Electronic & Detectors .hobbyprojects. too little. PC. The problem in making a suitable a detector is to get its sensitivity just right.html [1/17/2007 4:40:00 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Bugs (Electronic) & Detectors Electronic Circuits Tutorials Bug Detector #1: Bug Detector #2: FM Radio Bug: FM Radio Telephone Bug: Simple Phone Tap: Surveillance Transmitter Detector: This circuit can be used to "sweep" an area or room and will indicate if a surveillance device is operative.

Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Bug / Insect Killers Electronic Circuits Tutorials Bug Zapper #1: Bug Zapper #2: Insect Repellant: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:40:02 PM] .Insect Killer .Insect Repellant Electronic.com/B/bug_insect_killers. PC.Bug Killers .Electronic Bug Zapper . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. PC.hobbyprojects.

Burglar Security Circuits . ELECTRIC FIELD DISTURBANCE MONITOR (65) (static2) This schematic is the motion discriminator alarm and battery monitor sections of the field monitor that is discussed in more detail a Electric Field Disturbance Monitor.hobbyprojects. The Timers will allow you to leave the car without sounding the horn.S4. PC. open S2 ( it is normally closed ) this will give you about5 seconds to get out and close the door. If anyone opens the doors for more then two seconds the horn will sound until power is removed from the circuit. the relay is put into action. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Burglar / Security Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials ELECTRIC FIELD DISTURBANCE MONITOR (64) (static1) This schematic is the power supply and front-end sections of the field monitor that is discussed in more detail at Electric Field Disturbance Monitor.Electronic Projects & Circuits . The sequence used in this circuit is S1. as an answer to the password. This very basic circuit could be used for a home also. The alarm will sound your car horn if anyone opens the car door while the circuit is armed. The2 second Time is set by R2 and C2. you must press each momentary switch in the correct sequence.S2. To open a the lock which is connected to the K1 Load. At the Time when the base gets a correct answer (which means that the key has been introduced). 4 Digit Keypad: 5 Zone Alarm Circuit: A Basic RF Transmitter for PIR Sensors: Active IR Motion Detector: Alarm Control keypad: Alarm Loop Sensor (LM3915): Almost Ultrasonic Motion Sensor: Anti Theft Motorcycle Alarm: Anti Theft Security for Car Audios: Auto Burglar Alarm: This alarm circuit is based on two555 Timers.com/B/burglar_circuits. To set the alarm. Depending on how you wire the switches. and it can command a number of consumers. If you open the door. you can use any4 switch combination Cut Phone Line Detector #1: Can be used to alarm security system http://www. To turn the circuit on S1 must be closed.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:40:04 PM] . The system can detect human and animal motion by the electric fields they disturb.Burglar Security Circuit Electronic. If any of the other switches are pressed the circuit will reset and you will need to start over. you must deactivate the alarm by closing S2. The key checks the sequence and -if it recognizes it -sends to the base another data sequence. (link is off-site) 12C508 Smart Lock: The base sends a data sequence (the password) which is recognized by the key. Automatic Entry Control System: Car Burglar Alarm: Combination Lock (PIC16F84): Combination Lock (Simple Version): Combination Lock: This circuit is very basic to build. The exit delay Time is set by R1 and C1.S3.

Burglar Security Circuit Digital Combination Lock: Digital Entry Lock: Door/window sensor resists tampering: 01/21/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .. this circuit can be remotely positioned. Single Zone Alarm: TinyTwo Zone Alarm: Touch Activated Alarm: Touch Activated Switch: Touch Triggered Alarm: Toxic Gas Detector: Ultrasonic Motion Detector: Ultrasonic Remote Control & Alarm: Universal Alarm System: Warning Strobe Flasher for Alarm Systems: Wire Loop Alarm: http://www.. The mic is an ordinary dynamic mic insert and should be housed in a waterproof enclosure with the rest of the circuit..html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:40:04 PM] . The circuit is simply a crude. Passive Infrared Pyroelectric Infrared Motion Sensor: Perimeter Monitor: Using a single cable such as speaker wire or doorbell cable. The cable can be buried in a hosepipe or duct and is concealed out of sight.. this design uses only one analog microcontroller (MCU) input to scan numerous keys. at the bottom of a garden or garage.Electronic Projects & Circuits . plus one resistor per key and another resistor and capacitor.com/B/burglar_circuits. Personal Silent Alarm System: PIR Motion Detector Light Controller: PIR Motion Detector: Proximity Alarm: Proximity Switch: Pyroelectric Infrared Motion Sensor: RF Alarm: Simple Alarm System: Simple Electronic Lock Uses Single-Transistor Circuit: 05/26/03 Electronic Design Ideas for Design / Building on the recent Design Brief theme of one-pin keypads.Burglar Security Circuits .hobbyprojects. a dynamic variable. and used to detect all sound in that area.scroll to find this circuit Electronic Card Lock System: Electronic Door Codelock: Electronic Lock: Enhanced Alarm Keypad: Fridge Door Alarm: Gate Alarm Circuit: Home Security Project: Infrared gate for Door: Intruder Radio Alert System: Low Power RFID Transponder: Luggage Security System: Micropower Wireless Motion Detector Transmitter: Miniature Loop Alarm: Modular Burglar Alarm: Moisture Alarm: Motorcycle Alarm: Novel Buzzer: Oscillating output improves system security: 02/06/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Many electronic-control systems have digital outputs that use transistors. Single Button Lock Provides High Security: 03/04/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . can drive the circuit shown in Figure 2.scroll to find this circuit. for example. This type of signal. One method of improving the security in these outputs is to use an oscillating signal to represent a logic-high state instead of a fixed voltage level (Figure 1).

PC.Burglar Security Circuit Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:40:04 PM] .com/B/burglar_circuits.hobbyprojects.Burglar Security Circuits .Electronic Projects & Circuits .

Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Beeper & Buzzer Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 12 Volt DC Electronic Door Chime: 3 Tone Gong: Suitable for use as a door bell 555 Tone Generator 8 Ohm Speaker: Audio MilliVoltmeter: Battery Low Voltage Beeper: Bells Ring Generator: 3-Circuit options Can be synchronized to Christmas tree flashing lights Birdie Doorbell Ringer: Bull Horn: Buzzer: Controller Provides Multiple Alarm Driver Formats: 01/15/98 EDN-Design Ideas Curious C Beeper: Ding Dong Bell: Doorbell for the Deaf: Doorbell With Counter: Electronic Siren 1: Electronic Siren 2: Electronic Whistle: Inexpensive LED Drives Flash & Beep Circuit: 06/05/97 EDN-Design Ideas Personal Alarm: Small portable. anti-bag-snatching unit.Beeper & Buzzer Circuits . Its a very easy and simple project to build. Remarkable R Beeper: Remote Doorbell Indicator: Speaking Doorbell: SpeDoB was designed and built to gain experience with the PIC microcontroller.2 min.NE555 Astable Multivibrators.30 sec.Buzzers Electronic.5 seconds after a preset Time Adjustable Time settings:15 sec. Beep. It makes use of two 555 timer ICs used as astable multivibrators. PC. & others Turn Signal Alarm: Two Tone Generator: This two-tone generator includes 3 ICs .1 min.com/B/buzzer_circuits.Electronic Projects & Circuits . This doorbell uses a speech recorder integrated circuit (ISD series) to play back3 pre-recorded "theres someone knocking on the door" messages. You can vary the duration of each tone by changing the 10k resistor or 100MF capacitor at IC1 or changing resistors and capacitors at IC1/2 for higher or lower tone. Also suitable for Doors and windows control Piezo Device Generates Buzz.hobbyprojects.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:40:07 PM] . or Chime : 04/23/98 EDN-Design Ideas Plane Locator Beeper #2: Plane Locator Beeper: Police Siren: This circuit produces a sound similar to the police siren. ideal for beginners! Timed Beeper: Beeps 7. Two tone Siren: Under / Overvoltage Beep for Manual Stabiliser: Wailing Alarm: http://www.

this circuit can be remotely positioned. The cable can be buried in a hosepipe or duct and is concealed out of sight.Electronic Projects & Circuits . plus one resistor per key and another resistor and capacitor. PC.. This type of signal. The mic is an ordinary dynamic mic insert and should be housed in a waterproof enclosure with the rest of the circuit. The circuit is simply a crude. Passive Infrared Pyroelectric Infrared Motion Sensor: Perimeter Monitor: Using a single cable such as speaker wire or doorbell cable.scroll to find this circuit. One method of improving the security in these outputs is to use an oscillating signal to represent a logic-high state instead of a fixed voltage level (Figure 1). this design uses only one analog microcontroller (MCU) input to scan numerous keys..hobbyprojects. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. and used to detect all sound in that area..Buzzers Motorcycle Alarm: Novel Buzzer: Oscillating output improves system security: 02/06/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Many electronic-control systems have digital outputs that use transistors. a dynamic variable.com/B/buzzer_circuits. for example. Personal Silent Alarm System: PIR Motion Detector Light Controller: PIR Motion Detector: Proximity Alarm: Proximity Switch: Pyroelectric Infrared Motion Sensor: RF Alarm: Simple Alarm System: Simple Electronic Lock Uses Single-Transistor Circuit: 05/26/03 Electronic Design Ideas for Design / (added 8/03) Building on the recent Design Brief theme of onepin keypads.Beeper & Buzzer Circuits . Single Button Lock Provides High Security: 03/04/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Single Zone Alarm: TinyTwo Zone Alarm: Touch Activated Alarm: Touch Activated Switch: Touch Triggered Alarm: Toxic Gas Detector: Ultrasonic Motion Detector: Ultrasonic Remote Control & Alarm: Universal Alarm System: Warning Strobe Flasher for Alarm Systems: Wire Loop Alarm: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. can drive the circuit shown in Figure 2. at the bottom of a garden or garage..html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:40:07 PM] .

The transmitter launches powerful 1000-watt light pulses that last about 20 microseconds.Photo Flash Circuits Electronic. It has an optical isolator to allow the flash to be safely triggered from some remote device.com/C/Camera_Flashers. Mini Pocket Strobe Circuit: works from two1. A neon lamp is included to indicate when the system is ready to flash. there are better ways to do this.hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:40:10 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Camera Flashers / Photo Flash Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 9v POWERED XENON PHOTOFLASH CONTROLLER This 9v battery powered circuit is designed for remote control flash needs. This is very good idea if you dont want to mess with direct mains voltage connected circuit or you want to run the Strobe from batteries. LINE POWERED XENON FLASH TRANSMITTER This line-powered xenon flash circuit drives a small camera type flash tube. AIR TRANSPARENCY MONITOR. based on modified camera flash unit Mini Strobe Light using LED: adjustable for flash rates between40 Hz and166 Hz. based on555 Timer Miniature Strobe Light: Photo Flash Charger Minimizes Parts Count: 10/22/98 EDN-Design Ideas Pulsed Double heterostructure Laser Driver: Slave Flash Trigger Circuit: Strobe Controller: Simple controller for professional stroboscopes. adjust the flash rate in1. It does this by "seeing" the first flash (using a phototransistor) and triggering the other flashes a few microseconds later. up to20 Hz flash rate Beat Tracking Strobe: project description using AT90S8515 microcontroller and some electronics Disco Style Strobe Light: low power. XENON FLASH TRANSMITTER This is the matching transmitter for the above receiver. works on110VAC Easy Xenon DC to DC Converters!: Emergency Strobe Flasher Generates 250V: 08/05/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . A charge control circuit turns off the high voltage generator when the photoflash capacitor is fully charged.Camera Flashers . Hacking the Kodak Max Single Flash Camera Into a Self Repeating Strobe: this approach is recommended mainly for homebrewing a strobe that is powered by a single1. PC. If you can use a higher supply voltage. Flash Slave Trigger: Flash slaves are used when you need to supplement1-flash unit with1-or several more. The sensitivity of the circuit is adjustable to compensate for ambient light or dimmer than usual master flashes. This slave trigger simply triggers those other units. Adjustable Strobe Light: 120-Volt mains power source.15 Hz range Strobe Light: http://www. A flash rate of 2Hz is possible with the circuit.5 volt battery.scroll to find this circuit. 12 Volt Strobe Circuit: this circuit uses12V DC instead od mains AC.5-Volt AA batteries.

Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Camera Flashers .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:40:10 PM] .com/C/Camera_Flashers. PC.Photo Flash Circuits Trigger Circuit for Strobes: circuits which can be used for triggering stroboscopes from external signals Variable Intensity Variable Frequency Strobe: Welch Scientific Model 2153C Stroboscope: a schematic for a typical line operated variable rate Strobe used for the visualization of moving parts as well as rotation speed or frequency determination of rotating or vibrating machinery White LED Flashlight: Xenon Flash & Strobe Page: Xenon Strobe Light #1: Xenon Strobe Light 3: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.hobbyprojects.

Camera Flashers . designers must contend with expensive commercial cameras supported with complex interfaces that can't be easily adapted for a wide range of. Automatic camera shutter releases: Camera remote Control system using Basic Stamp: Delayed shutter Control for Kodak DC-20: Infrared remote Control shutter release system: Interface cable for Casio QV-200 digital camera: Photo Flash at 1. PC.Photo Flash Circuits Electronic.CameraAndPhotoStore Cameras and Digital Cameras and Camera Accessories of All Brands.Ideas for Design / A linear CCD camera is an essential component in many engineering and consumer applications.com/C/camera_circuits. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Camera Circuits / Products Electronic Circuits Tutorials Camera.5 volts : This model is very simple and charges as long as you hold the pushbutton Photo Flash Charger Minimizes Parts Count: 10/22/98 EDN-Design Ideas / [file contains multiple circuits . PC. . Accessories and Printers .hobbyprojects.scroll to find this one] Photo timer circuit: R/C digital camera Controller: R/C helicopter camera: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:40:11 PM] . . Usually. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Acquire And Control Linear CCD Sensors Using EPP Protocol: 03/20/00 Electronic Design .

Measure open circuited cables using a multimeter: 09/26/2002 EDN . Touch Activated Alarm: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. If you know th. Negative Impedance Improves Capacitive Sensors: 03/30/95 EDN-Design Ideas RS232C Link Monitors Animal Activity: 11/06/97 EDN-Design Ideas Solve low frequency cutoff problems in capacitive sensors: 11/28/2002 EDN Design Ideas / One of the first problems a capacitive-sensor analog designer must face is the low-frequency cutoff. The capacitance of a pair of wires (or a wire to a shield) is directly proportional to the length of the wire.scroll to find this circuit Capacitance Meter: Capacitive Sensor "likes" Parasitics: 09/24/98 EDN-Design Ideas Dual Comparators Stabilize Proximity Detector: 02/16/98 EDN-Design Ideas Femto Capacitance Meter: This meter measures into the low femtofarad area. Measuring in the femto area allows the smallest capacitors to be measured with precision.hobbyprojects. you must fulfill just one simple requirement: a sufficiently large input resistance of the preamplifier's first stage. many problems lurk behind the seemingly straightforward design rules. PC. PC.Capacitance Sensors .Electronic Circuits & Projects Electronic.com/C/Capacitance_Sensors. Such capacitors are commonly used to compensate for input and stray capacitance in amplifiers. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Electronic Circuits Tutorials Sensors / Detectors: Capacitance Sensors Audio Acquires the "write" touch: 02/20/03 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . however.. Theoretically.html [1/17/2007 4:40:13 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Design Ideas / You can use a multimeter with capacitance-measurement capability to measure the length of wire or cable to an open circuit. In practice.

Touch Activated Alarm: Touch Dimmer: Touch Switch #2: Touch Switch #3: Touch Switch #4: This is achieved using a jugfet. Read also the circuit description. it is a very simple circuit and very effective to with a minimum component count working via a 1. triggered by ambient ac fields that are picked up by the human body. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Capacitance Switches Electronic Circuits Tutorials 3 Way Touch Lamp: A three-way switch to control a lamp (off-dim-bright. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Capacitance Switches . PC.hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuits & Projects Electronic. Read also the circuit description.com/C/Capacitance_Switches. Touch Switch using Transistors: Touch Switches: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Alarm Touched Triggered: Capacitance Proximity Alarm: Capacitive Sensor: Special design for shop-windows animation Useful for many types of touch controls Fastest Finger First Indicator: Proximity Alarm: Three Way Touch Lamp: A three-way switch to control a lamp (off-dim-bright.) uses an NE555 Timer to generate a1-second pulse. PC. etc.) uses an NE555 Timer to generate a1-second pulse.html [1/17/2007 4:40:15 PM] . etc.5v cell. triggered by ambient ac fields that are picked up by the human body.

Super Capacitor Circuits . PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuits & Projects Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:40:16 PM] . PC.com/C/Capacitors_(Super)_Circuits. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Super Capacitor Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Solar cells implement low-cost illuminator : 9/12/97 EDN-Design Ideas Super capacitor powers audio amp: 3/14/97 EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.

Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. PC.Design Ideas / Many applications require the design of custom analog filters (Reference 1). where low power consumption is a crucial factor.html [1/17/2007 4:40:17 PM] .com/C/Carrier_Current_Transceivers. Figure.hobbyprojects. PC.Carrier Current Transceivers . The application for this design required simple and low-cost I/O filters for PLC (power-line communications).Electronic Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Carrier Current Transceivers Electronic Circuits Tutorials Passive filter cleans up power line communications: 09/20/2001 EDN . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.

scroll to find this circuit. Powered by one 1.Wireless Cell Phones Circuit Resource Electronic.com/C/cell_phones_circuits.hobbyprojects. PC. PC.Wireless Phones Circuits .5V cell Cordless Phone Backup: Dualvoltage Supply Powers SIM Card: 01/20/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Mobile Cellphone Charger: Tiny Efficient High Power LED Camera Flash Solutions for Cell Phone Applications: Linear Technology Design Note 1009 Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:40:20 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Cell Phones / Wireless Phones Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Cell-Phone-Controlled Audio/Video Mute Switch: Cellular Phone calling Detector: Flashes a LED when detecting an incoming call. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Cell Phones .

scroll to find this circuit Charge Pump Converts Volt in to± Volt OuT: 09/02/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Regulated Charge Pump Delivers 50mA: Maxim Application Note #35 Regulated Step Up Converter Provides High Efficiency Without Inductors: Maxim Application Note #44 Simple Circuit Provides +5 Volt Gate Bias From 48 Volt Input: Maxim Application Note #1803 http://www.Charge Pump Circuits . +33V: This circuit is based on MAX1044 is a charge pump converter. Precision Negative Reference Requires No Precision Resistors: Maxim Application Note #824 One 9 Volt Battery gives +18.com/C/Charge_Pump_Circuits.5 Volt Input: Maxim Application Note #1021 Charge Pump and Step Up DC DC Converter Solutions for Powering White LEDs in Series or Parallel Connections: Maxim Application Note #1037 Charge Pump Circuit Divides By Two: 02/18/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuits & Projects Electronic. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Charge Pump Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Boost Converter Generates Three Analog Rails: Maxim Application Note #2026 Buck/Boost Charge Pump Regulator Powers White LEDs From a Wide 1.6 Volt to 5.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:40:24 PM] . +25. Inductorless Boost Circuit Regulates White LED Bias Current: Maxim Application Note #1116 Controlling a Variable Voltage Power Supply Using the DS1809 (Pushbutton Control): Maxim Application Note #1035 DAC Powered Charge Pump Varies Negative Rail: Maxim Application Note #203 DC/DC Conversion Without Inductors: Maxim Application Note #725 Design Case Study: Designing a Power Supply for a Portable.scroll to find this circuit Charge Pump Doubles Negative Voltage: Maxim Application Note #782 Choosing the Right Power Supply IC for your Application: Maxim Application Note #737 Compact. Wireless Contact Manager : Maxim Application Note #1014 Doubler/Inverter Charge Pumps Divide By Two: Maxim Application Note #1876 Driving LEDs in Battery Operated Applications: Controlling Brightness Power Efficiently: Maxim Application Note #1804 High Power Voltage Regulator Has Low Dropout Voltage: Maxim Application Note #52 Inductorless Switching Regulator Boosts Input Voltage: Maxim Application Note #5 Inductorless Voltage Converter Boosts a Single Lithium Cell: Maxim Application Note #1791 Low Battery Monitor Delays System Shutdown: Maxim Application Note #134 Low Noise Audio Power Supply Circuit: Maxim Application Note #169 Lower Operating Frequency Improves ICL7660 Voltage Conversion Efficiency: Maxim Application Note #10 (added 7/03) Miniature.

Design Ideas / A small and simple circuit derives 5V from the -48V rail that telecomm applications typically use (Figure 1). IC2. Simple Methods Reduce Input Ripple for All Charge Pumps: Maxim Application Note #2027 Supplying Power Via the 1 Wire Bus: Maxim Application Note #949 Tiny Charge Pump Provides Highly Reliable Low Cost Solution to Negative Reference Voltage: Maxim Application Note #348 Trading Performance for Cost in Portable Power Supplies: Maxim Application Note #269 ( Triple Capacitive Voltage Inverter With the MAX871: Maxim Application Note #1875 Tripler Converts 5 Volt to 15V: Maxim Application Note #297 Voltage Inverter IC Forms High Efficiency Rail Splitter: Maxim Application Note #218 Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Electronic Circuits & Projects Simple circuit provides 5V gate bias from –48V: 09/19/2002 EDN . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. the 5V supply delivers as much as 5-mA output current. A shunt reference.Charge Pump Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:40:24 PM] . The charge pump doubles this 5V difference between system ground and charge-pump ground to produce 5V with res.com/C/Charge_Pump_Circuits. defines -5V as ground reference for a charge pump.hobbyprojects.. IC1... Useful for gate bias and other purposes. PC.

html [1/17/2007 4:40:25 PM] . PC.hobbyprojects. PC.com/C/Chopper_Circuits.Electronic Projects & Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Chopper Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Chopped Amplifier exacts only 5 µA: 5/22/97 EDN-Design Ideas Chopping reduces reference’s Supply Current: 4/10/97 EDN-Design Ideas Signal Chopping enhances bridge performance: 6/22/95 EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Chopper Circuits .

A limited range of available delays (2 to 100 nsec per tap) further limits their use.Design Ideas / In theory.com/C/Clock_Circuits. Longer delay is available with one-shot multivibrators of standard digitallogic families.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:40:27 PM] . Delay Line implements Clock Doubler: 12/19/96 EDN-Design Ideas Dynamic Clock Provides for Zero Wait States: 07/18/96 EDN-Design Ideas Edge Detector Runs off of Single Supply: 03/27/97 EDN-Design Ideas Mains Clock Controller using AT89C2051 1: Mains Clock Controller using AT89C2051 2: 12/04/97 EDN-Design Ideas MM58174Real Time Clock in a Battery Backed Up: Design Provides Reliable Clock and Calendar Functions : National Semiconductor Application Notes. giving the illusion of a larger array. It uses pure discrete logic ICs (4000 series) and a4-digit LCD display with backlight. The flexibility of such a configuration allows for clock multiplication by any rational number Circuit Conditions Variable Duty Cycle Clock: 01/05/95 EDN-Design Ideas Clock Divider: 02/17/97 EDN-Design Ideas Clock Doubler for CMOS Logic: Clock Generator: Use4093 oscillator Clock Recovery PLL Fits Into Single PLD: 11/23/95 EDN-Design Ideas Delay line has wide duty cycle range: 06/27/2002 EDN .Clock Circuits .Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Clock Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 28 LED Clock Timer 72 LED Clock: programmable clock Timer circuit that uses individual LEDs to indicate hours and minutes 4 Bit Binary Clock: 72 LED Clock: AT89C2051 Digital Thermometer & Clock: Big LED Clock: Car Clock: CaClo was designed and built to be used in an automobile. A simple PLL with two digital dividers—one inserted just after the VCO (voltage-controlled oscillator) and the second one placed directly at the input of the phase detector—may do the job.000:1 Propeller Clock: a few light emitting diodes spin...000.hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuits . precisely controlled by a PIC microprocessor. synchronous clock multiplication is an easy task.Design Ideas / Today's digital delay lines can process pulses no shorter than their delay times. plus a few SMD ICs for the LCD driver. PC. frequency could be varied over1. but those devices do not retain duty-c. and that restriction confines the devices to applications in which the duty cycle remains near 50%. Cheap 40KHz Clock: Circuit allows high speed clock multiplication: 05/02/2002 EDN .04-Nov-1995 More Accurate PC / AT Clock: Nixie Tube Clock Nixie Tube Clock: PIC Tock Video Clock 1: PIC Tock Video Clock 2: Programmable Clock Oscillator: PIC-Tock video clock using a PIC16C61 Programmable Clock Oscillator: voltage controller oscillator that was designed as a wide range oscillator to generate clock pulses for a stepper motor drive system. http://www..

Hobby Projects Simple FSK Modulator: Single Gate Synchronizes Clock: 10/27/94 EDN-Design Ideas Speaking Clock using PIC & ISD Device: SpeClo was designed and built to be used by the blind. PC.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:40:27 PM] .Electronic Circuits . The circuit works as follows. headlights etc. and can be configured to speak English or German! Sun Up Alarm: The Sun .com/C/Clock_Circuits.hobbyprojects. (Any phototransistor will work fine) The sun shining on this device will provide a high to one of the NAND gates. The transistor provides drive for the speaker. The phototransistor is very sensitive to light. This will cause another NAND gate to oscillate which will drive another gate to output a100hz tone. Its purpose is to provide a relatively easy way for ascertaining the Time of day by whistling. It can also be used to detect a light beam. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Up Alarm can be used to provide a audible alarm for when the sun comes up or it can be used in a dark area and detect when a light comes on. Time / Date / Message Video Overlay Generator!: video text overlay circuit VCG01 PAL / NTSC Video Clock / Message Generator: Video text overlay circuit Video Clock Superimposer: Video Message & Clock Generator: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Clock Circuits .

Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. PC. PC.Electronic Projects & Hobby Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Code Practice Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 2 Way Morse Practice Set: The system consists of a pair of Morse practice oscillators connected by a piece of 2-conductor cable Morse Adaptor for your VHF / UHF FM Rig: Morse Code Beacon Keyer: Morse Code Practice Keyer #1: Morse Code Practice Keyer #2: Morse practice oscillator : Two Way Morse Practice Set: The system consists of a pair of Morse practice oscillators connected by a piece of2-conductor cable Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:40:29 PM] .Code Practice Circuits .com/C/Code_Practice_Circuits.hobbyprojects.

Color Organ Circuits . PC.Hobby Projects Electronic. PC.hobbyprojects. connects to speaker outputs Color Organ #2: one lamp color organ Color Organ #3: makes3 Light to blink and flash to music Stereo Compressor: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Color Organ Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Color Organ #1: make different colored bulbs light at different frequencies of music.com/C/Color_Organ_Circuits. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Electronic Circuits .html [1/17/2007 4:40:30 PM] .

hobbyprojects.Collpits Oscillators .Colpits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Oscillators: Collpits Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 4 Transistor Transmitter: Colpitts 1 to 20 MHz Crystal Oscillator: Four Transistor Tracking Transmitter: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:40:32 PM] . PC. PC.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.com/C/Colpits_Oscillators.Oscillators .Electronic Circuits .

com/C/Compandor_Circuits. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Compador Circuits .html [1/17/2007 4:40:33 PM] .Electronic Projects & Hobby Circuits Electronic. PC. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Compador Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Stereo Compressor: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.hobbyprojects.

Set the low-temperature trip point at 2. The circuit in Figure 1 uses three fewer components than most absolute-value circuits require.04-Nov-1995 Comparator Adds Current Limit to V2 Controller: 05/21/98 EDN-Design Ideas Comparator Detects Failed Telecomm Supplies: 06/22/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Applications of the LM392 Comparator OpAmp IC: National Semiconductor Application Notes.hobbyprojects.. This circuit's output voltage is an accurate representation of the absolute value of the input signal. PC..com/C/Comparator_Circuits.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:40:35 PM] .Electronic Circuits & Hobby Projects Electronic. Using only ideal components eases the design. VL. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Comparator Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Absolute value circuit delivers high bandwidth: 05/15/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Most absolute-value circuits have limited bandwidth and high component count. Design low duty cycle timer circuits: 08/22/2002 EDN . you must overcome the many pitfalls of low-duty-cycle circuits to arrive at a desired result.. you must ensure that when the power-supply voltage fluctuates to the minimum permissible level.scroll to find the one of interest Comparator Improves Regulator's Efficiency: 04/28/94 EDN-Design Ideas Comparator Provides Stable Hysteresis: 03/18/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Dual Comparator: forms temperature-compensated proximity Detector Dual Comparators Stabilize Proximity Detector: 02/16/98 EDN-Design Ideas http://www. However. Dual comparator thermally protects lithium ion battery : 09/18/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Most manufacturers recommend that you don't change lithium-ion batteries at temperatures lower than 0°C or higher than 50°C. Also. You can monitor both thresholds by adding a thermistor and dual (window) comparator to a lithiumion battery charger (Figure 1)..... but the components themselves are hard to obtain. when you switch on the power supply. and they require several matched resistors.24-Jan-1999 Design an efficient reset circuit: 05/01/03 EDN-Design Ideas / When you work with microprocessors. and only two of the resistors must have 1% tolerance to obtain 1% accuracy. uses an isolated comparator to monitor two48V telecomm supplies (of either polarity) / PDF contains multiple circuits . VH.. that the processor's ALU continues to operate normally.Comparator Circuits .scroll to find the one of interest / Detects when telecomm power supplys48V output drops below its nominal value..scroll to find this circuit Comparator uses Signal Dependent Hysteresis: 03/26/98 EDN-Design Ideas Comparators Form 3 to 5 Volt or 5 to 3 Volt Translator / Tranceiver: 09/02/96 EDNDesign Ideas Comparing the High Speed Comparators: National Semiconductor Application Notes. the ALU must operate normally when the supply voltage equals or exceeds a certain high level..Design Ideas / Designing astable circuits using the industry-standard 555 timer is a straightforward process when duty cycles are 50% or greater.

the difficulty in testing the"no.. because the insertion of a battery often causes significant ringing or glitching on the supply line (Figure 1).04-Nov-1995 Quad Comparator Regulates Temperature: 10/26/95 EDN-Design Ideas Reset supervisor waits for stable supply: 04/17/03 EDN-Design Ideas / The powerup cycle of the supply voltage in embedded-system applications is sometimes not a clean event.... and data regeneration. according to your project requirements. you can release one of the switches without the relay'.. if the noise level is high. In products with on-off switches. but it suffers from serious inaccuracy that stems from the diode's forward-voltage drop. You have a choice of two classic solutions to this problem: One is to add hysteresis to the comparator. To fully guarantee no missing codes for a 16-bit ADC requires testing all 2 16-1 possible output..hobbyprojects.Design Ideas / The original application for the circuit in Figure 1 was to check the number of revolutions of an engine with only one LED as an indicator. At that point... The circu.Comparator Circuits ..Design Ideas / The visualization aid that a previous Design Idea describes allows only the expansion of the upper end of the scale (Reference 1). the circuit actuates the relay. Using this circuit lets you avoid the bother of stocking and replacing fusible links.28-Jun-1996 Filter allows comparison of noisy signals: 02/06/03 EDN-Design Ideas / When you need to compare the dc level of a noisy signal with a reference for further processing. Precision IC Comparator Runs From Plus 5 Volt Logic Supply: National Semiconductor Application Notes. A voltmeter comprises a 100-µA dc meter and a series resistor Fast Voltage Comparators With Low Input Current: National Semiconductor Application Notes.24-Jan-1999 Low Voltage Alarm: NE555 Low Voltage Battery Disconnect Circuit Microvolt Comparator: National Semiconductor Application Notes.Electronic Circuits & Hobby Projects Electronic fuse emulates fast or slow blow fuses: 11/09/00 EDN-Design Ideas / The electronic-fuse circuit in Figure 1 combines the properties of a current transducer and a solid-state relay to disconnect low power at preset levels. Frequency Window Comparator has hysteresis: 11/07/96 EDN-Design Ideas High speed peak detector uses ECL comparator: 09/26/2002 EDN . automatic gain control. but. you need to expand the middle region of the scale? Figure 1a illustrates the challenge.28-Jun-1996 Missing codes tester checks 16 bit ADC in 7 sec: 06/10/99 EDN-Design Ideas / As the resolution of ADCs increases from 12 to 16 bits and higher.Design Ideas / Professional electronics designers often use peak-detector circuit sin such applications as amplitude measurement.. But what can you do if. Expanded scale indicator revisited: 08/08/2002 EDN . Light Sensor With Hysteresis: LM139 / LM239 / LM339 a Quad of Independently Functioning Comparators: National Semiconductor Application Notes. Frequency Comparator Draws 8 µA: 03/03/97 EDN-Design Ideas Frequency comparator has status output: 12/26/2002 EDN . You can build a simple and fast peak detector from a serial diode and a shunt capacitor.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:40:35 PM] . the contact bounce of the switch can cause an unclean power-up. Voltage Comparator Forms Pulse Demodulator: 11/19/98 EDN-Design Ideas Voltage Comparator Switch: http://www.com/C/Comparator_Circuits. This fact holds especially true in battery-operated systems. Synchronized Window Comparator Eliminates Error: 05/11/95 EDN-Design Ideas Two buttons provide safe start: 07/06/00 EDN-Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1 provides a safety interlock that checks the actuation of two pushbuttons before enabling a relay... When you push both buttons.missing-codes"specification grows proportionately. usi.. The measurement of the number of revolutions usually involves sensors with a frequency output proportional to the number of revolutions. The circuit compares the frequency output of such a sensor with a lower and upper limit and gives a visual result.... the output of the comparator changes in a chaotic way when the dc level approaches that of the reference. the hysteresis must be correspondingly high.

Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:40:35 PM] . PC.com/C/Comparator_Circuits.hobbyprojects.Comparator Circuits .Electronic Circuits & Hobby Projects Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.

PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:40:37 PM] .hobbyprojects.Computer Cables .Electronic Circuits .Hobby Projects Electronic.com/C/Computer_Cables.

Modern instrumentation requires digital control signals. Data families such as ECL. Designers can replace the resistors of the analog design with digital potentiometers.. PECL. and LVDS send data over a pair of traces known as a balanced tra.Hobby Projects Parallel port controls arbitrary waveform generator: 06/13/2002 EDN . The accuracy specification is only 2°C. triangle. Multi Drop RS422 / 485 type Ne2 Rk for Interconnecting PIC Nodes: PC / XS Transfer: (PDF) A circuit and C code for bidirectional transfer of data between an XS40 Board and a PC.scroll to find this circuit -. By running simple software code on the PC.. These signals come from a central microprocessor or.hobbyprojects. . digital potentiometers have eliminated the hassles from this interface for the analog section. in modern context. digital potentiometers have eliminated the hassles from this interface for the analog section. to a constant value-typically. 1A. Z0. 50U-and to terminate the line with the same impedance. amplitude. The Dallas Semiconductor (www.com/C/Computer_Interface. In recent times. PC Controlled Current Source Supplies 100V... In these lines..or frequency-modulated.. the popular parallel or serial PC ports.scroll to find the one of interest - http://www..Ideas for Design / Ballistics is an ancient art PC Based 7 Segment Rolling Display: PC Based Biofeedback Monitor: PC based configurable filter uses no digital potentiometers: 01/23/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Modern instrumentation requires digital control signals. To do so. or exponential decay) by simply entering its characteristic equation. highpass. designers become aware of the need to treat pc-board traces as RF transmission lines. you can generate any waveform (for example.dalsemi. sinusoid.. but you can improve this figure by careful calibration. PC and LongBaseline Chronography Measure Ballistic Parameters Acoustically : 07/22/02 Electronic Design .com) DS1722 digital thermometer allows measurement resolution as fine as 0.html (6 of 10) [1/17/2007 4:40:47 PM] . PC Based Configurable Filter uses No Digital Potentiometers: 01/23/03 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . These signals come from a central microprocessor or.Design Ideas / As digital techniques move to higher speeds. thus providing the necessary .0625°C in digital form and with linear response. In recent Times.Design Ideas / You can use the parallel port of your PC and a few additional components to generate a powerful.. the popular parallel or serial PC ports.. PC Controls inexpensive Waveform Generator: 06/05/96 EDN-Design Ideas PC Controls Light Dimmer: 08/19/99 EDN-Design Ideas / Circuit design idea from EDN Magazine to control one light dimming from PC PC hardware Monitor Reports the Weather: 01/18/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .Electronic Circuits . you can configure a single robust design to work as a lowpass.Ideas for Design / The current source shown in the figure is designed to support toroidal-cavity nuclear-magnetic-resonance electrophoresis (TCNMRE) measurements of molecular electrical mobility in chemical samples... PBUS. 16Bit Pulses : 04/29/02 Electronic Design . you strive to hold the line impedance.Computer Interfaces . By using a Visual Basic program with the circuit in Figure 1... PC configurable RLC resonator yields single output filter : 08/07/03 EDN-Design Ideas / This Design Idea presents a versatile filter circuit for low-powerconsumption instrumentation that you can program from your PC using the parallel port. or b. Parallel port provides high resolution temperature sensing: 10/03/2002 EDN Design Ideas / High-resolution temperature sensing at low cost is possible using only one chip attached to the PC's parallel port (Figure 1). easy-to-use arbitrary-waveform generator... The circuit uses analog switches and latches instead of digital potentiometers for the digital control (figures 1 and 2). in modern context. PC Based Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSOA): PC Based Digital Storage Oscilloscope Mk3: PC Based EFI Programmer: PC Based Lighting Control: short pointer to each of the available commercial PC based lighting console systems PC Based Lighting Control: short pointer to each of the available commercial PC based lighting console systems PC Based Oscilloscope: PC board layout eases high speed transmission: 11/08/2001 EDN .

A microcontroller can calculate the rotation direction and keep track of angular movement.scroll to find this circuit. so that it can enable or disable functions... PSX Controller to PC MIDI Converter: Rounding Off' a Square Wave: RS232 / 485 Converter has Automatic Flow Control: 04/12/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . This circuit an RS-232/485 converter that uses the transmitted signal itself to control the flow.Design Ideas / The costeffective design in Figure 1 provides control for CMOS switches without the need for an external power supply.hobbyprojects. as well as multidrop capability. such as those on the Zilog Z86C90. Practical Limits of RS485: National Semiconductor Application Notes. It is often advantageous to field a single PLD programming file that works for several generations of physical hardware. They are preferable to electromechanical relays in automatic test equipment or other applications in which you need current switching. Printer port activates CMOS switches: 05/02/2002 EDN .Electronic Circuits .scroll to find this circuit. of Queensland) PC's IRQ7 and INT1Ch measure currents. PC Mouse Implementation using CoP800: National Semiconductor Application Notes first published05-Aug-1995 PC Mouse Implementation using CoP800: National Semiconductor Application Notes first published05-Aug-1995 PC Parallel Port Output Capabilities: includes instructions how to connect a relay to PC parallel port PC SmartCard Reader: PC Speaker Volume Control Circuit: PC Thermometer: PC to SRAM Interface: for the XSV Board (Univ. RS-485 requires flow control. Analog switches such as those in the MAX4663 are ideal for use in low-distortion applications. RS-232/485 converters often use one of the RS-232 handshaking lines to control direction. charges: 10/12/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Port Interface: Post Tray Email Service: PoTrES is a small stand-alone 8-bit embedded system capable of sending emails to several recipients on an Ethernet network (corporate intranet. pi. Many microcontrollers' interrupt inputs.html (7 of 10) [1/17/2007 4:40:47 PM] .Design Ideas / The PLD (programmable-logic-device) code in Listing 1 implements a pc-board-level revision-detection system that detects whether PLD pins are shorted together on a pc board.scroll to find this circuit PIC Based Keyboard Emulator: PIC Project #1 RS232 to I2C Interface: PIC16F84 Debugging Terminal: PIC16F84 Serial I / O Expander With PicBasic: Playing a Mac through a Standard Telephone Line: how to get sound from computer to Telephone line PLD code reveals pc board revisions: 10/17/2002 EDN . but several communicationssoftware packages do not support flow control.. RS232 Port Monitor: RS232 Serial Port Buffer Circuit: http://www.Hobby Projects PC Infrared Remote Control #1: PC Infrared Remote Control #1: PC IR Remote Control: PC Monitors twoway RS232 Transmission: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits ..05 Oct1998 Preprocessor for rotary encoder uses PAL: 08/02/2001 EDN . can detect only a falling edge.scroll to find the one of interest / RS-485 communications can provide longer range and better noise immunity than RS-232.com/C/Computer_Interface.Computer Interfaces . The PLD needs to understand what the board revision is.Design Ideas / Rotary encoders usually provide quadrature pulses that indicate both the amount of rotation and the direction (Figure 1). It uses a minimal TCP/IP implementation consisting of several network protocols.. Printer Sharer: Program Predicts VSWRmismatch RF uncertainties: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . world-wide internet). Because it does not have separate transmit and receive lines.

com/C/Computer_Interface. In many applications.Design Ideas / A simple and inexpensive circuit ( Figure 1 ) and a simple C program ( Listing 1 ) are all you need to turn your PC's printer port into a programmable frequency generator. September1998 Use a PIC for automatic baud rate detection: 08/22/2002 EDN . . Use Power Line for Baudrate Generation: 08/16/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . The device simply connects to the parallel port of your PC.. the goal is to configure a simple circuit.scroll to find this one Use printer port as programmable frequency generator: 10/11/2001 EDN .. but the application requires a stable clock source for baud-rate generation or event timing. You can also use this circuit to analyze the waveform from any Infrared remote control. Tricks increase utility of parallel port: 09/27/2001 EDN ..html (9 of 10) [1/17/2007 4:40:47 PM] . Port Powered RS232 to RS 242 Converter: information on commercial product. VCRs. This circuit was originally published in Electronics Australia. meaning that you can simultaneously and actively drive both sides.Design Ideas / Automatic baud-rate detection is desirable in many applications. The protocol in this application is an SPI (MISO/MOSI/SCK) type. Using a few low-cost and readily available components. Chandler.Design Ideas / Linear Technology's recently introduced LTC4300 chip buffers I2C clock and data lines to and from a hot-swappable card. http://www. you can replace a complicated circuit by a simple one without much loss of performance. TTL to RS232 Interfacing: Two Channel. You can independently program each I/O line as either an input or an output. . Take Power Out of PC RS232 Port: The Wire Between MultiIO Card and joystick Connector: Thermocouple Interfaces to Serial Port: 11/09/95 EDN-Design Ideas Tricks improve on Excel LCD initialization: 04/11/2002 EDN . as is sometimes the case. This task is difficult because the IC must work bidirectionally. the circuit occupies little space and is easily attachable to the printer port. .Design Ideas / One cost-saving measure associated with 8-bit embedded microcontrollers is to use a resistor-capacitor oscillator. which you can use as a remote I/O for a PC.com) standard USART module that the company embeds in most of its PIC microcontrollers lends itself to a simple and easily implemented automatic baud-detection scheme.05 Oct1998 Universal Infrared Controller for a PC: This simple circuit allows you to record any Infrared remote control signal on your PC. Then some pretty simple hardware is needed for rest of the signal conversion. driven by any LPT parallel-printer port. These RC oscillators are inexpensive. Two Transistor Circuit Replaces IC #2: Linear Technologys recently introduced LTC4300 chip buffers I2C clock and data lines to and from a hot-swappable card.Computer Interfaces .625 kHz horizontal frequency on most SVGA cards its possible to re-program CRT Timing and generate output signals outside the normal specification range. datasheet includes full circuit diagram Two transistor circuit replaces IC #1: 02/07/2002 EDN . from your computer.Design Ideas / In this simple application of the 68HC68 microcontroller's serial-I/O utility.Electronic Circuits . CDs etc. using synchronous serial communications. appended-clock output from an asynchronous input-data stream T Volt RGB Signal Output From a SVGgraphics Card: To achieve a CCInfrared conform TV signal with50 Hz vertical interlaced refresh and15. This task is difficult because the IC must work bidirectionally Understanding Power Requirements in RS232 Applications: National Semiconductor Application Notes.microchip. AZ) provides both bit-rate detection and a synchronous. This is particularly useful if you want to control appliances such as TVs. and then play it back. but the trade-off is low stability with temperature and voltage.Hobby Projects Synchronizing Controller Detects Baud Rate: 03/03/98 EDN-Design Ideas / A simple and inexpensive implementation using an eight-pin12C508 controller (Microchip Technology. It appears that it would take a minimum of six keystrokes or mouse strokes from one character to a. However. The PIC18FXX2 data sheet defines the following baud rate in bits per second: where X is the value for the baud-rate generator and FOSC .hobbyprojects. Use power line for baud rate generation: 08/16/2001 EDN . Microchip's (www.Design Ideas / A previous Design Idea on using Excel for LCD initialization relies on the user for cutting and pasting from Excel into an editor (Reference 1).. the low cost of an RC oscillator is alluring.

Electronic Circuits Electronic. PC.Sensors & Detectors Electronic Circuits Tutorials Salt-Taster: Detects the amount of salt contained in liquid foods Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Conductivity Sensors . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.hobbyprojects.com/C/conductivity_sensors.html [1/17/2007 4:40:50 PM] .Sensors & Detectors . PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Conductivity Sensors .

Contact Bounce Suppression Circuits . Moreover.Electronic Circuits Electronic.Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1 produces a single debounced pulse each time you press S1. PC. You can use the circuit to detect when a key is pressed in a nonenergized device.hobbyprojects. the circuit uses only logic power from the remote pull-up resistor.html [1/17/2007 4:40:52 PM] .com/C/Contact_Bounce_Suppression_Circuits. such as a device in a system that's just coming up from standby Toggle Switch Debounced Pushbutton: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. R2. PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Contact Bounce Suppression Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Debouncing Networks Make Reliable Selector: 06/05/97 EDN-Design Ideas Pushbutton Switch Debouncer: Switch debouncer uses only one gate: 05/30/2002 EDN .

IC1.com/C/Control_Circuits. fan speed necessary for cooling is less at low ambient temperatures. A diode-OR connection (Figure 1. and the airflow hence.. Audio Level Control Device: compressor circuit based on LED and photodiode Auto Trigger Circuit for Light Chasers: Automated Traffic Signal Controller: Automatic Control Starts Loads Softly: 10/13/94 EDN-Design Ideas Automatic Power off Circuit Saves Battery: 12/05/96 EDN-Design Ideas BangBang Heater: BangBang Thermostat is Simple & Efficient: 11/06/97 EDN-Design Ideas BASIC Stamp Thermoelectric Cooler 1: BASIC Stamp Thermoelectric Cooler 2: 12/07/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . It forms a precision current source with the addition of a unity-gain buffer (IC2A) and resistor R1.html (1 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:40:59 PM] .scroll to find the one of interest Battery Saver: Worth the effort! Boost Converter Controls 12 Volt Fan From 5 Volt Supply: 12/12/97 EDN-Design Ideas / Temperature-controlled PWM boost converter allows operation of a12V brushless dc fan from a5V supply Build a precision deadband circuit: 02/20/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Deadband circuits find applications in servo-control systems. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Control Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 0 to 10 Volt Control for RC Servos: 12 Volt Strobe Circuit: this circuit uses12V DC instead od mains AC. A precision current source and a half-wave inverting rectifier form a positive deadband circuit (Figure 1). a fan can run slower. When the system disconnects from the USB supply. Because ambient temperature is lower than the upper design point most of the time.Hobby Projects Electronic. http://www.Design Ideas / Fan noise is becoming a significant issue as electronic equipment increasingly enters the office and the home. Circuit Automates Switch over Between Battery & Source: 12/12/97 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit generates fan speed control: 03/21/2002 EDN . Unlike transistors. a battery takes over and supplies current via a dc/dc converter. Build a UPS for USB devices: 04/11/2002 EDN .hobbyprojects. . the power dissipation in a relay coil may render the device unattractive in batterypowered applications. RF Remote Control System: Adaptive Windscreen Wiper Control: Analog switch lowers relay power consumption: 12/20/2001 EDN .Control Circuits . making it easier on the ears. This is very good idea if you dont want to mess with direct mains voltage connected circuit or you want to run the stroboscope from batteries. is a precision 10V voltage reference. PC. Noise is proportional to fan speed. 12 Volt Sump Pump Control: 2 wire Remote Microphone Amplifier : 300 MHz AM.Design Ideas / Designers often use relays as electrically controlled switches. You can lower this dissipation by adding an analog switch that allows the relay to operate at a lower voltage (Figure 1).Design Ideas / Portable systems often include circuitry that derives power from an external source. However.. such as USB. The REF01. their switch contacts are electrically isolated from the control input.Electronic Circuits .

You can implement a resonant buck or boost converter using a single switch.. http://www. Circuit provides Class D motor control: 05/01/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Class D audio amplifiers provide a dual benefit for battery-powered portable devices.Design Ideas / The two-chip circuit in Figure 1 provides fan control and overtemperature warning and shutdown signals to protect systems from excessive heat. The rectified output of the circuit uses ground as a reference. so you can measure the output by using a single-ended A/D converter.com/C/Control_Circuits. The current-sense resistor. bidirectional motor controller with speed adjustment may be helpful... These devices can require tracking I/O and core voltages. and overvoltage conditions. power-up sequencing of these devices is critical.Control Circuits . R1. Those features make Class D amplifiers ideal candidates for controlling speed and direction in small electric motors. ASICs.Hobby Projects Circuit manages power up sequencing: 10/31/2002 EDN . Convert Hauppauge Infrared Remote Control to IRMAN: How to modify Hauppauge Infrared remote control receiver to work as IRMAN compatible remote control receiver. To address those problems. Fully Customizable RF Remote Control: Computerized Infrared Remote: control your stereo. or another IC with an on-chip temperature-sensing transistor. and power..Electronic Circuits ..html (2 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:40:59 PM] . Switchers for high efficiency produce high-frequency switching noise that can propagate through the rest of the system and cause problems. and DSP chips. You may need a large EMI filter to meet FCC emission requirements. has a value of 0. Circuit provides laser diode control: 09/19/2002 EDN . the simple laser-diode controller in Figure 1 has several functions.Design Ideas / Power sequencing poses a unique problem in power management. Figure 1 shows such a controller.hobbyprojects.Design Ideas / EMI from offline switching power supplies typically causes all sorts of problems for power-supply designers. Because improper sequencing may cause damage to many types of processors. CMOS Gate implements Reverse Phase Control: 05/21/98 EDN-Design Ideas CO2 Controller for Planted Tanks: Combination Controlled. The circuit monitors the temperature of the pc board and the die temperature of a CPU. . rapid turn-on currents. D1 that forms the heart of a constant-voltage source for the laser diode. includes schematic and software Constant Temperature Circuit: Controller IC and one shot form resonant controller: 11/28/2002 EDN .Design Ideas / Laser diodes are sensitive to ESD.Design Ideas / The simple circuit design in Figure 1 lets you measure all components of a current flowing in a dc servo motor.Design Ideas / Resonant power supplies are popular because of high efficiency. The circuit uses everyday components whose tolerances and ratings are unimportant as long as they sustain the required voltage. Circuit protects system from overheating: 11/08/2001 EDN .. Circuit measures currents in dc servo motor: 12/06/2001 EDN . and compactness. variable speed motor control: 05/16/2002 EDN Design Ideas / During the development of systems that include small motors. an FPGA. They enhance battery life. The regulation of the output in such a converter derives from using a constant on or off time and a variable frequency. The UC1864 controller IC (Texas Instruments. Controller Provides Closed Loop Temperature Regulation: 05/08/97 EDN-Design Ideas Controller Provides Constant Power DC Load: 03/14/96 EDN-Design Ideas Controller Provides Multiple Alarm Driver Formats: 01/15/98 EDN-Design Ideas Controlling a Light With Two Switches: a light or lights can be controlled by more than1-switch Controlling Relays With Logic Voltages: Controlling slew times tames EMI in offline supplies: 11/14/2002 EDN . Circuit provides bidirectional. The text is in Finnish. www.. . current. and they produce much less power dissipation than do their linear cousins. a simple. Devices that may require power-up sequencing control include FPGAs. low noise.. The first part of the circuit comprises an 8. TV and VCR from Windows.2V zener diode.

and the result is a change in power dissipation for elements receiving drive from a fixed voltage or current source. Silicon diodes have an offset of approximately 0.6V and do not work well in low-level circuitry. These elements include such devices as positive-temperaturecoefficient heaters and thermoelectric coolers. Controls AC Power: 06/22/95 EDN-Design Ideas . Isolated Driver Forms Solid State Circuit Breaker: 03/03/98 EDN-Design Ideas / This circuit allows standard TTL logic levels to safely drive a high-power dc load.html (4 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:40:59 PM] . such as level detectors and AM demodulators. usually 25 V. benefit from a rectifier with a low offset voltage. Inverted bipolar transistor doubles as a signal clamp: 06/07/01 EDN-Design Ideas / A number of circuits. Their resistance can change more than 100% during operation.com/C/Control_Circuits. text in Finnish Light Processor 434 Piano Touch Panel: circuit diagram in PDF format.circuit allows an isolated microcontroller to both sense and control ac power to an externally plugged-in device MOSFET switch provides efficient AC / DC conversion: 02/17/00 EDN-Design Ideas Novel Circuit Controls AC Power: 01/07/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .Design Ideas / For the heating and cooling elements common in industrial systems. A Schottky diode is a bit better. and VOFF. gives 8-20 ft of wireless control Microcontroller Watches. Power source is insensitive to load changes: 04/04/2002 EDN . resistance is not a fixed quantity. ..Electronic Circuits . VON.scroll to find this circuit Peltier Element Controls itself: 10/27/94 EDN-Design Ideas PMOS Transistor Guarantees Accurate Power Up Sequencing: 03/31/03 Electronic Design . in PDF format. Precision Digital AC Power Controller: Provide 4 to 20 MPWM Control: 09/01/98 EDN-Design Ideas / Are useful when you use4... powers the video signal path. OTP µC Controls Boomer Amplifier: 03/18/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . VDD.hobbyprojects. circuit provides also overcurrent circuit breaker functionality Light Controlled Switch #1: switch that will be activated by light falling on a sensor Light Controlled Switch #2: output a control signal suitable for relay depending on the light level Light Operated Switch: Originally published in Everyday Practical Electronics.Ideas for Design / A TFT LCD panel requires three voltages: VDD... supplies the turn-on gate drive bias voltage for the TFT cell. typically 13 V.Control Circuits . check also power supply circuit diagram Linux Infrared Remote Control (LIRC): LM3911 Temperature Controller: Load Switcher Draws only 6 µA: 07/04/96 EDN-Design Ideas Long Range Infrared Remote: by Boondog Automation.Hobby Projects Infrared Remote Control Repeater: Infrared Remote Control Shutter Release System: Infrared Remote Control Tester #1: measures the relative intensities of different Infrared light sources Infrared Remote Control Tester #2: Infrared Remote Home Control: software Remocon Con for Windows98 able to fire remote control signal through built in infrared port (IrDA) that is of notebook personal computer standard equipment Infrared Switch: Infrared Toy Car Motor Controller: enables on/off remote switching of battery operated toy cars. December1995 Light Organ for Car: flashes3 low voltage lights. operates at10-25-Volt voltage. VON.scroll to find this circuit.to20-mA current-loop signals to control a PWM signal Pushbutton Switch Controls Power Supply & µC: 09/25/97 EDN-Design Ideas Radio Control Electric Switch: Remote Control Encoder/decoder With PIC16C620 & PIC12C508: http://www.

Electronic Circuits .Hobby Projects Temperature Controlled Ovens: Temperature controller : Temperature Controller keeps IR Detector At 8ºK: 06/08/95 EDN-Design Ideas Temperature Monitor: Temperature Programmer uses Digital Control: 07/18/96 EDN-Design Ideas Temperature Regulator #1: Temperature Regulator #2: Temperature Sensitive Oscillator: Temperature controlled based on AT89CX051 Thermo Cooling Fan: fan controller. from your computer. which controls fan based on temperature Thermoelectric Controller (scriptable Thermometer): Traffic Light Controller: controls on3 LED traffic light sequence Triac Light Controller: Two wire Remote Microphone Amplifier : Universal Infrared Controller for a PC: This simple circuit allows you to record any Infrared remote control signal on your PC. September1998 Welch Scientific Model 2153C Stroboscope: a schematic for a typical line operated variable rate stroboscope used for the visualization of moving parts as well as rotation speed or frequency determination of rotating or vibrating machinery Wideband AGC Amplifier As a Differential Amplifier: National Semiconductor Application Notes.10-Apr-2000 Wideband AGC has 60 DB Dynamic Input Range: 10/10/96 EDN-Design Ideas Wireless Remote Control System: Zilog Z80 thermostat Embedded Web Server: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.hobbyprojects. The device simply connects to the parallel port of your PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Control Circuits .html (6 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:40:59 PM] .com/C/Control_Circuits. This circuit was originally published in Electronics Australia. VCRs. and then play it back. This is particularly useful if you want to control appliances such as TVs. PC. You can also use this circuit to analyze the waveform from any Infrared remote control. CDs etc.

com/C/Converters.html [1/17/2007 4:41:01 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. PC.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters Electronic Circuits Tutorials q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q AC to AC AC to DC Analog to Digital (A/D) Current to Voltage DC to AC DC to DC Digital to Analog (D/A) Frequency Frequency to Voltage Period to Voltage RF (Radio Frequency) Sine to Square Wave Voltage Voltage to Current Voltage to Frequency Wide Band Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Electronic Circuits .hobbyprojects. PC.Converters .

hobbyprojects.AC to AC Converters . PDF document Isolation Transformer Passes millihertz Signals: 08/04/94 EDN-Design Ideas IT 4 Four Channel Isolation Transformer unit: audio signal isolation transformer.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:41:06 PM] . External Isolation Transformer Box: designed for Mackie and other Mixers Eliminates RFI Problems Grounding & Shielding: describes basic audio transformer uses like balanced in/out and signal splitters High CMRR Balanced Interface: Uses for Crystal18 or20 Bit A/D Converters. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students AC to AC Converters AC to AC Power Supplies and Transformer Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Everything you wanted to know about wideband.scroll to find this circuit. low-frequency transformers: 11/23/00 EDNDesign Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . PC.AC to AC Power Supplies and Transformer Circuits Electronic. product datasheet with circuit diagram in PDF format IT one inline 600 / 600 Ohm Line Transformer: audio signal isolation transformer. This is a PDF file High Output Line Driver for Single Ended Power Supply: PDF file IC Mic Preamp uses Jensen Twin Servo topology: Interconnection of Balanced & Unbalanced Equipment: 4 page booklet in PDF format Internal Modification to Mic Inputs of the Mackie 1604 Mixer Eliminates RFI Problems: adding transformer isolation increases common mode rejection and eliminates RF interference.com/C/AC_to_AC. product datasheet with circuit diagram in PDF format Jensen Direct Box Transformers: data sheets have example circuit diagrams Jensen Transformers Application Schematics: includes many microphone preamplifier related JP 11P 1 Input Transformer Improvement for Electronically balanced Input: JS 11SPP 6M 600 Ohm Line Isolator with Line termination Switch: for used with long 600 ohm lines that need termination JS 11SSP 6M 150 Ohm Line to 600 Ohm Load application: isolation transformer with impedance conversion JT 10B D Used in Line Level 2 Way Splitter / Isolator: active line level splitter circuit with input and output isolation JT 10KB D & JT 6110K B "Pro" to "Consumer" Interfaces: from +4dBu balanced output to 10dbV consumer equipment input JT 10KB D & JT DB E Provide "J Box" Consumer to Studio Interfaces: from -10dBV unbalanced to150 ohm balanced microphone level -45dBu signal and from +4dBu balanced signal to -10dBV unbalanced signal JT 10KB D Isolates & Converts Speaker Drive to Line Level: JT 11 BM High Level Differential IC Output Stage with DC Servo: JT 11 BM High Level High Current Differential Output Stage with DC Servo: JT 11 DM Basic Hum Stopper Transformer Isolation Box: simple isolator for 600 ohm balanced audio lines http://www.

optionally.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:41:06 PM] .hobbyprojects. acceptable Class A line-current harmonics. PDF file JT 6110K B Isolates "70 Volt" Line & Converts to Line Level: JT DB E "Direct Box" for very High Level Signals: takes high level line signal and outputs balanced microphone level signal JT DB E Converts Consumer Stereo Inputs to Mono Balanced Mic Output: JT DB E Full featured "Direct Box" Application Schematic: JT DB E Standard Musical instrument or Synthesizer "Direct Box": JT MB C "Real" Mic Inputs & Phantom Power for Sony DAT: JT MB C in Low Noise. PDF file JT 11SSP 6M Bi-Directional Lo Z Long Line Application: this circuit isolated and impedance matches less than100 ohm source to long cable line and that to over10 kohm input JT 11SSP 6M Passive Stereo Matrix for M S Mic Technique: JT 11SSP 6M Universal Patchbay Isolation Application: for use with professional low impedance sources and high impedance loads JT 123 BL High Level Low Impedance Differential Output Stage with DC Servo: JT 123 S Line Driver with Feedback Around the Transformer: JT 13K6 C in Simple 1 IC Stage Mic Preamp: 15KB PDF JT 16 A Improves Performance of SSM2017 Mic Preamp IC: JT 6110K B at Input Stage for Crystal a to D Converters: high performance transformer balanced input stage for Crystal A/D converters.AC to AC Power Supplies and Transformer Circuits JT 11 DM Converts Unbalanced Output to Balanced: JT 11 FL Isolates & Converts Guitar Amp Speaker Out to Line Output: JT 11 FL provides Isolated Line Output from Guitar Amplifier: JT 11 YZPC in Unbalanced Long Line Driver / Isolator: JT 11B 1 + "Phantom" Buffer Provide Balanced Guitar Output: JT 11P 1 as "Phase Splitter" with Symmetrical Outputs: JT 11P 1 Balanced Tube Line Input Stage: JT 11P 1 Conversion of Unbalanced Input to Balanced: JT 11P 1 in 2 Way Passive "Guitar Splitter": from one guitar to2. and. inherent short-circuit protection. read also Line-level transformers in High-End Audio Click here for Other Circuits http://www. a regulated output Theory & Construction of Mic "Splitters": 5 page booklet in PDF format Transformer Coupled Splitter: Active amplified transformer isolated signal splitter that enables hum-free connection of1-guitar to more than1-amp as well as having a direct output Transformers for Audio Interfacing: Discussion on using audio transformers in equipment interconnections. Mixed Feedback Drive for Audio Output Transformers: Technical paper from Lundahl Transformers in PDF format Power Supplies & Transformers: Basic structures of power supplies Power Supplies and Regulators: new low power discrete switcher Step Down Rectifier makes a Simple DC Power Supply: 04/09/98 EDN-Design Ideas / A simple and useful nonisolated rectifier features voltage step-down operation.scroll to find this circuit.AC to AC Converters .com/C/AC_to_AC. High Isolation Line Receiver for Low Z Sources: JT MB C Isolates both Mic & Line Inputs of inexpensive Mixer: JT MB C Mic Input Isolation for Mackie Mixers: JT MB C Used to "Phantom" Power the Realistic PZM Mic: JT MB D Converts 600 Ohm Unbalanced Mic to 150 Ohm Balanced Mic Line: JT MB D Passive Stereo Matrix for M S Mic Technique: Method sets voltage in multiple-output converters: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .guitar amplifiers JT 11P 1 in 4 Way Active "Guitar Splitter": from one guitar to up to4 guitar amplifiers JT 11P 1 Unbalanced Automotive or Consumer Application: isolation transformer box for unbalanced consumer audio line signals JT 11P 1 used as Unbalanced Polarity Inverter: passive transformer based audio signal inverter circuit JT 11SSP 6M 600 Ohm Line Isolation Application: isolation transformer for 600 ohm balanced audio line JT 11SSP 6M as Input Transformer for Crystal CS5367 A / D Converter: transformer balanced passive input circuit for CS5367 A/D converter.

AC to AC Converters . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.AC to AC Power Supplies and Transformer Circuits Electronic.com/C/AC_to_AC.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:41:06 PM] . PC.hobbyprojects.

+33V: This circuit is based on MAX1044 is a charge pump converter. because of their lower on-state power loss.6V). and obtains power only from the TX line. One 9 Volt Battery gives +18. you can't use this method to rectify signals that are smaller than a diode drop. and TX. PC. but it is the cheapest and most compact solution for a small power supply. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Power Supplies: AC to DC Converters / Linear / Inverters Electronic Circuits Tutorials 12 Volt to 9 Volt DC Converter: Car Converter for12 Volt to 9V 2 Watt Switching Power Supply: from 6V to14V 5 Volt DC From RS232 Signals: The circuit of Figure1 produces a semi-regulated5-Volt output from an RS-232 port. 6 to 12 Volt Converter: This circuit can provide up to 800mA of12V power from a 6V supply. the circuit can supply12V /15mA max.Design Ideas / Synchronous rectifiers are MOSFETs. OpAmp Rectifier Signals Input State: 07/21/94 EDN-Design Ideas Output Adjustable Flyback Converter: Precision AC / DC Converters: National Semiconductor Application Notes.Inverters Electronic. DC to DC Converter: will produce a 85-Volt voltage from +3V. acceptable Class A linecurrent harmonics. about 75% efficient and quite useful. synchronous rectifiers are often complicated to use because of timing issues. inherent short-circuit protection. usable for low power applications Fast Rectifier Circumvents Input Level Effects: 12/22/94 EDN-Design Ideas Full Wave Rectifier uses Current Feedback Amps: 03/27/97 EDN-Design Ideas Full Wave Rectifier uses Current Feedback Amps: 07/20/95 EDN-Design Ideas High Speed Rectifier uses No Diodes: 03/30/95 EDN-Design Ideas Method provides self timing for synchronous rectifiers: 05/16/2002 EDN . a regulated output Transformerless Mains Power Supply: This power supply does not really excel in power efficiency. They often take the place of diodes in the output-rectification stage of switching power converters. Note that the low voltage output is directly connected to the mains. The circuit is simple.AC to DC Converters ..html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:41:09 PM] . driven in such a way as to perform a rectifying function. Circuit offers improved active rectification: 02/06/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Rectifiers convert ac signals to dc..28-Jun-1996 Precision Rectifier is Glitch Free to 1 MHz: 05/12/94 EDN-Design Ideas Precision Rectifier Reduces Ripples: 03/03/97 EDN-Design Ideas Step Down Rectifier Makes a Simple DC Power Supply: 04/09/98 EDN-Design Ideas / A simple and useful nonisolated rectifier features voltage step-down operation. The output current-about 8mA-is sufficient for CMOS microcontrollers and other low-power . Transformerless Power Supply: http://www. it cannot be used when the low voltage part can be touched. optionally. and. this one operates with a3-wire port GND.hobbyprojects.com/C/AC_to_DC. provided that the amplitude of the ac source is much larger than the forward drop of the diode (typically 0. +25. Unfortunately..Linear . In power circuits. Unlike a PC-mouse supply or comparable that rely on the modemcontrol signals DTR and RTS. Rx. You can combine a diode and a load resistor to create a half-wave rectifier. With the component values of the schematic.

AC to DC Converters - Linear - Inverters

True RMS Detector: National Semiconductor Application Notes,28-Jun-1996 Two OpAmps Make Fast Full Wave Rectifier: 03/14/96 EDN-Design Ideas Two Watt Switching Power Supply: from 6V to14V Unregulated Power Supply:

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Converters - Analog to Digital (A / D) Circuits

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Converters: Analog to Digital (A / D) Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials

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Converters - Analog to Digital (A / D) Circuits

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Converters - Analog to Digital (A / D) Circuits

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Current to Voltage Converters - Electronic Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Amplifier Circuits: Transimpedance Current to Voltage Converters
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
SINGLE IC FORMS SENSITIVE MODULATED LIGHT RECEIVER (4069rvr1) The circuit uses a very inexpensive C-MOS IC that is connected to a small photodiode. Using a unique inductive feedback network, the circuit provides high sensitivity under high ambient light conditions. It is a great circuit when you want to extend the range of an optical remote control transmitter. 40KHz LIGHT RECEIVER IS IMMUNE TO AMBIENT LIGHT (40krvr1) If you want even more sensitivity than the above circuit, try this design. When used with a one-centimeter square photodiode, you can achieve a range of several hundred feet with a standard TV or VCR remote control module.

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Current to Voltage Converters - Electronic Circuits

40KHz MODULATED LIGHT DETECTOR (40krvr2) This circuit uses a unique cascode amplifier circuit to convert the current from a PIN photo diode to a current without any feedback network. It is very stable and very sensitive. The circuit shown has the potential for a conversion factor of 10 volts per microwatt at 900nm. I included a simple JFET post-amplifier with a gain of about 20. 40KHz LASER BURST DETECTOR (40krvr3) This circuit was originally designed to detect weak flashed of laser light bounced off of a fabric video projection screen. It was used as part of a firearm training system. It generates a 100mS output pulse whenever it detects a 3ms to 5ms-laser burst, modulated at 40KHz. It is very sensitive and could be modified for long-range laser communications. 10MHz TO 20MHz LASER LIGHT DETECTOR (20mrvr2) This circuit was originally designed to detect laser light pulses for an optical Ethernet communications system. It has good ambient light immunity. FET INPUT HIGH SPEED LIGHT DETECTOR (fetamp0) This circuit is yet another design that converts current from a PIN photo diode to a voltage. It has a bandwidth that extends beyond 50MHz. AIR TRANSPARENCY MONITOR, XENON FLASH RECEIVER (airmon0) I designed this circuit many years ago to monitor the quality of a mile long column of air for future optical communications experiments. The transmitter system (circuit 72 below) uses a powerful xenon flash in conjunction with a large 12 inch Fresnel lens at the transmitter end and a matching 12-inch lens with a PIN photo diode at the receiver. The receiver system was connected to a weather station and a computer to collect the changes in intensity of the light flashes under different weather conditions. It has the potential for a 30+-mile range. I have also used this system to conduct cloud bounce experiments. LASER/LED LIGHT OUTPUT INTENSITY METER (laserpwr) This circuit uses a large 1cm X 1cm silicon PIN photo diode and a transimpedance amplifier to measure the light power output of infrared and visible LEDs and laser diodes. It can be modified to produce almost any milliwatts to volts scale factor. It can be connected to either a multi-meter or an oscilloscope. OPTICAL RFID TEST CIRCUIT (opiddemo) I designed this test the concept of using light techniques to send identification data instead of RF. A more detailed discussion on this scheme can be found in the Imagineered new products section. CASCODE LIGHT RECEIVER CIRCUIT (40krvr3a) This page provides a detailed explanation of how the modified cascode light receiver circuit operates. The cascode technique in conjunction with an inductive load provides very high current to voltage conversion as well as very high speed.

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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DC to AC Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Converters: DC to AC Circuits and Inverter Circuits DC to AC Power Supplies
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
12 Volt Automotive Inverter : This circuit will allow you to operate small devices like laptop computers inside your automobile without an expensive automobile power supply. The circuit takes advantage of the fact that power transformers are linear devices and can be used to step up as well as step down. 12 Volt DC to 120 Volt AC Inverter: this inverter should solve that problem. It takes12 VDC and steps it up to120 VAC. The-Wattage depends on which transistors you use for Q1 and Q2, as well as how "big" a transformer you use for T1. The inverter can be constructed to supply anywhere from1 to1000 (1 KW)Watts. DC to AC Inverter: Digital to Analog Centronics D / A & Filter: High Power 12 V to 300 V Inverters for High Repeat rate medium Power Strobes: runs on12 V, at up to 6 A, and can fire the tubes at a rate of about 8-10 Times per second. Tiny Tiny Inverter Design: little efficient circuit that runs off of3V, and charges up a little1 uf250-Volt cap all the way up in about30 seconds Click here for Other Circuits

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AD Circuit - Analog to Digital Converters - Electronic Circuits

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Converters: Analog to Digital (A / D) Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials

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AD Circuit - Analog to Digital Converters - Electronic Circuits

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AD Circuit - Analog to Digital Converters - Electronic Circuits

Universal LowJitter Level Shifter Drives HighPerformance ADCs : 09/16/02 Electronic Design - Ideas for Design / This idea describes a circuit that converts a low-phase-noise sinusoidal signal into a low-jitter square wave, suitable to drive analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The square wave's amplitude and average value are adjustable to comply with any... VCO Transforms Sound Card Into Precision DCCoupled ADC : 08/19/02 Electronic Design - Ideas for Design / Personal-computer sound cards are sometimes used for analog audio signal acquisition. Also, the Web features many free programs that implement virtual two-channel oscilloscopes by acquiring signals through the sound card. However, sound cards suffer... Zero Power a / D Converter uses Printer Port: 07/06/95 EDN-Design Ideas

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Analog Multiplier Circuits - Electronic Multipliers Circuits - Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Analog Multiplier Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
2 Quadrant Analog Multiplier uses no Log Amps: 10/10/96 EDN-Design Ideas Two Quadrant Analog Multiplier uses no Log Amps: 10/10/96 EDN-Design Ideas

Links to Other Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Analog Switches - Analog Switch Circuits - Electronic Circuits - Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Analog Switch Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
Analog Switch Acts As Dc/DC Converter: 01/20/00 EDN-Design Ideas PDF contains multiple circuits - scroll to find this circuit. Analog Switch Cuts Peak Detector Reset Time: 05/25/95 EDN-Design Ideas Analog switch expands I 2 C interface: 11/22/2001 EDN - Design Ideas / Perhaps the most effective way to gain board space and increase component density is to minimize wiring on the board. A widely used architecture that allows such miniaturization is the I2C bus. Comprising only a bidirectional data line, SDA, and a clock line, SCL, this bus requires no chip selects or other additional connections. . Analog switch frees stuck I²C bus: 06/26/03 EDN-Design Ideas / The dual-channel PCA9540 I2C multiplexer often breaks up an I2C or SM bus or allows you to use devices with the same addresses on the same bus. When the PCA9540 initially powers up, it comes up in a state in which both channels are deselected. The I2 C or SM-bus master can then address the control register in the PCA9540 to select either Channel 0 or Channel 1, connecting the master to the ap.... Analog switch lowers relay power consumption: 12/20/2001 EDN - Design Ideas / Designers often use relays as electrically controlled switches. Unlike transistors, their switch contacts are electrically isolated from the control input. However, the power dissipation in a relay coil may render the device unattractive in battery-powered applications. You can lower this dissipation by adding an analog switch that allows the relay to operate at a lower voltage (Figure 1). . MOSFETs reduce crosstalk effects on analog switches: 05/29/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Some cost-effective analog multiplexer/demultiplexer ICs, such as the CD4053 and CD4066, find frequent use as signal distributors. These digitally controlled analog switches have low on-resistance. However, with all channels in the same package, crosstalk can be annoying and unavoidable. Figure 1 provides a cost-effective and viable method of solving this problem.... Click here for Other Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Anemometer Circuits - Electronic Circuits - Wind Speed Direction Monitors

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Sensors / Detectors: Wind Speed Direction Monitors Anemometer Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
Low cost anemometer fights dust: 08/30/2001 EDN - Design Ideas / As higher levels of power dissipation underscore the need for cooling, more and more fans are finding their way into small electronic enclosures. The dust that fans pull into these enclosures can, however, cause major problems for high-reliability systems. By coating heat sinks and electrically charged components, the dust acts as a blanket that raises the effective thermal impedance betw... . Self Heated Transistor Digitizes Airflow: 03/14/96 EDN-Design Ideas Thermistors and a Microcontroller Simplify Anemometer Design : 10/14/02 Electronic Design - Ideas for Design / Typically, air flow is measured with a hotwire anemometer. Here's an alternative version of that concept using two thin-film platinum resistance temperature detectors. A high-performance mixed-signal microcontroller can make the measurement and drive... Transistor & FVCs Make Linear Anemometer: 09/26/96 EDN-Design Ideas

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Annunciator Circuit - Beeper & Buzzer Circuits - Electronic Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Beeper & Buzzer Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
12 Volt DC Electronic Door Chime: 3 Tone Gong: Suitable for use as a door bell 555 Tone Generator 8 Ohm Speaker: Audio MilliVoltmeter: Battery Low Voltage Beeper: Bells Ring Generator: 3-Circuit options Can be synchronized to Christmas tree flashing lights Birdie Doorbell Ringer: Bull Horn: Buzzer: Controller Provides Multiple Alarm Driver Formats: 01/15/98 EDN-Design Ideas Curious C Beeper: Ding Dong Bell: Doorbell for the Deaf: Doorbell With Counter: Electronic Siren 1: Electronic Siren 2: Electronic Whistle: Inexpensive LED Drives Flash & Beep Circuit: 06/05/97 EDN-Design Ideas Personal Alarm: Small portable, anti-bag-snatching unit. Also suitable for Doors and windows control Piezo Device Generates Buzz, Beep, or Chime : 04/23/98 EDN-Design Ideas Plane Locator Beeper #2: Plane Locator Beeper: Police Siren: This circuit produces a sound similar to the police siren. It makes use of two 555 timer ICs used as astable multivibrators. Remarkable R Beeper: Remote Doorbell Indicator: Speaking Doorbell: SpeDoB was designed and built to gain experience with the PIC microcontroller. This doorbell uses a speech recorder integrated circuit (ISD series) to play back3 pre-recorded "theres someone knocking on the door" messages. Its a very easy and simple project to build, ideal for beginners! Timed Beeper: Beeps 7.5 seconds after a preset Time Adjustable Time settings:15 sec.30 sec.1 min.2 min. & others Turn Signal Alarm: Two Tone Generator: This two-tone generator includes 3 ICs - NE555 Astable Multivibrators. You can vary the duration of each tone by changing the 10k resistor or 100MF capacitor at IC1 or changing resistors and capacitors at IC1/2 for higher or lower tone. Two tone Siren: Under / Overvoltage Beep for Manual Stabiliser: Wailing Alarm:

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Annunciator Circuit - Beeper & Buzzer Circuits - Electronic Circuits

You've got Mail: 08/19/99 EDN-Design Ideas / Many e-mail programs provide a "beep" or a pop-up message box signaling the user that a new e-mail message has arrived. If you are too far from the computer to hear the audible signal or if the monitor is turned off, then you miss the new-mail audible and visual signals. The simple circuit in Figure1 latches on an LED and an audio sounder when an appropriate new audible e-mail signal occurs. The method replaces the normal email sound.wave file with a .wav file of any valid recorded dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) sound. Click here for Other Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Antenna Circuits - Electronic Circuits - Antenna Circuit Resource

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Antenna Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
Active Antenna I : Active Antenna II : Active Antenna III : AM / FM / SW Active Antenna: This circuit shows an active antenna that can be used for AM, FM, and shortwave SW. On the shortwave band this active antenna is comparable to a20 to30 foot wire antenna. This circuit uses receivers that use untuned wire antennas, such as inexpensive units and car radios. L1 can be selected for the application AM Loop Antennas: AM/FM/SW Active Antenna: An End Fed Antenna, L Match Coupler and Resistive Bridge for HF: Antenna Extension Provides Open Door Policy: 02/16/98 EDN-Design Ideas Antennas: Includes longwire, loading coil, active ferrite antenna, active short antenna, vertical. ANTENNProjects: ATL3 Loop Antenna: Crossed Dipole GPS Antenna: General Purpose RF Amplifier: Long Loopstick AM Radio Antenna: Wound on a3-foot length of PVC pipe, the long Loopstick antenna was an experiment to try to improve AM radio reception without using a long wire or ground. It works fairly well and greatly improved reception of a weak station130 miles away. A longer rod antenna will probably work better if space allows. The number of turns of wire needed for the Loopstick can be worked out from the single layer, air core inductance formula: Pi Section Coupler: Q Multiplying Loop Antenna: QRP Antenna Tuner: RF Amplifier for Ferrite Bar Antennas: Small, 915 MHz antenna beats monopole: 05/15/03 EDN-Design Ideas / A 915MHz data-acquisition project required a small antenna, but the available antennas lacked the necessary characteristics: efficiency, compactness—that is, smaller than a standard 3-in. monopole—with adequate bandwidth, and with amenability to modeling by inexpensive NEC-2 antenna software... T Volt / Radio Antenna Cable Galvanic Isolator: Tesla Power Receiver: Unamplified Four Foot Box Loop: Yagi Uda Antenna :

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Antenna Circuits - Electronic Circuits - Antenna Circuit Resource

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Aquarium Circuits - Electronic Circuits - Aquarium Circuit Resource

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Aquarium Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
pH Meter with Calibration: pH Meter: Temperature Compensated pH Meter:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Astable Circuit Oscillators - Oscillator Astable Circuits - Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Oscillators: Astable Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
MICROPOWER C-MOS OSCILLATOR, DRAWS ONLY 0.5uA (6) (500na0) If truly low power oscillators interest you, this circuit draws a mere 2 watts (500nA) from a 6v battery. It uses a very inexpensive C-MOS IC to produce a frequency of 2Hz. However, by changing the component values you can push it to 300Hz. The circuit draws much less current than traditional CMOS oscillators using a Schmitt trigger inverter. It also produces fast leading edges. However, if you need more drive current, a C-MOS buffer should be included. Published in EDN, September 2, 1993. PRECISION ULTRA LOWER POWER OSCILLATOR (49) (10secosc) This circuit works much like the classic 555 timer, but draws only about 1.5 microamps from a 3 volt battery. It is highly stable under varying temperature and supply voltages. VERY LOW POWER ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR (53) (astable) This classic circuit draws only 200 nanoamps from a 1.5v supply. CHEAP LOW POWER 3V 2Hz OSCILLATOR (62) (2hzosc) This is yet another method to generate low frequency output pulses. The circuit uses an inexpensive under-voltage monitor IC and a couple of cheap MOSFETs. It could easily be modified to produce pulse frequencies from about one cycle per minute to a maximum of about 10KHz. It draws only about 1uA from a 3v battery. This circuit should not be used if frequency stability is important, since it will change as a function of supply voltage. CMOS SCHMITT TRIGGER IC MAKES VCO (124) (4584vco) By changing the supply voltage fed to a classic 4584 Schmitt trigger type oscillator, the oscillator frequency can be changed over a range of 50:1. A 74HCU04 inverter is used at the output of the 4584 to maintain a constant TTL logic level signal. Astable Multivibrator 1: Astable Multivibrator 2: Flip-Flop Flashers, Buzzers, Etc.:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Attenuators Circuits - Electronic Attenuator Circuit - Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Attenuators Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
Attenuators Nullify Temperature Deviations: 08/17/98 EDN-Design Ideas Digital Knobs: Digital Stereo Potentiometer: in PDF format, text in Finnish Passive RC Filters Afford Low Cost and High Selectivity: 02/03/03 Electronic Design - Ideas for Design / At audio frequencies, LC filters were undesirable because of expensive and bulky inductors. Prior to the advent of solid-state active devices, passive RC filters were an audio design option. During the last 30 years, analog active RC filters and... Precision Attenuator With Digital Control: Program Designs Tee Attenuator To Minimize Stress : 05/27/02 Electronic Design - Ideas for Design / Symmetrical Tee attenuators are designed on an image-impedance basis with RO ohms as the matching resistance. The figure(a) shows the attenuator for RA = RB, power input... Astable Multivibrator 1: Astable Multivibrator 2: Flip-Flop Flashers, Buzzers, Etc.:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Amplifiers - Audio Amplifier - Electronic Circuits - Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Amplifiers: Audio Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
1 Watt 2.3 GHz RF Amplifier Using a MRF2001: 1 Watt 2.45 GHz Linear Amplifier: 1.5 Volt AF Amplifier: A small single battery cell AF amplifier able to drive a Low impedance 8-Watt load up to15mW, built using discrete transistors 1.5 Volt Amplified Ear: Useful to listen in faint sounds1.5-Volt Battery operation, includes electret microphone preamplifier which runs from1.5Volt DC and can directly drive32 Ohms impedance mini-earphones 1.5 Watt 12 Volt Audio Amplifier: 1.5 Watt Audio Amplifier: 10 Watt Amplifier: 10 Watt Power Amplifier: Simple Class A Amplifiers 100 Watt Amp Circuit: 100 Watt Audio Amplifier #1: 100 Watt Guitar Amplifier #2: 100 Watt Guitar Amplifier Mk2: 100 Watt RMS Amplifier: This is a100-Watt basic power amp that was designed to be (relatively) easy to build at a reasonable cost. It has better performance (read: musical quality) than the standard STK module amps that are used in practically every mass market stereo receiver manufactured today. When I originally built this thing, it was because I needed a100 WPC amp and didnt want to spend any money. So I designed around parts I had in the shop. 15 Watt 6V6 Guitar Amp (valve): 15 Watt Amplifier: 16 Watt Amplifier: 2 Channel Power Amplifier: The2-Channel Power Amplifier based on NTE1606. The circuit is powered by a12V,10-Amp power supply. The power of the output channels is4 W connected to 8-ohm loudspeakers 2 Transistor Amplifier: 2 Watt Amplifier 1: 2 Watt Amplifier 2: Low distortion amplifier using discrete components 2 Wire Remote Microphone Amplifier: uses special amplifier module from Op-Amp Labs 2.3 GHz Power Amplifiers: 20 DB Amplifier & High Current Balanced Line Driver: 20 Watt / Channel Stereo Power Amplifier: 20 Watt ClassPower Amplifier: 20 Watt GaAaFET Power on 2.3 GHz: 20 Watt Power Amplifier: Designed to be used as car amplifier 200 Watt Amplifier: 22 Watt Audio Amplifier: Simple stereo amplifier based on TDA1554 220 Watt Power Amplifier: This is a building plan for an audio amplifier with2 x220-Watt output power. Text is in Finnish.

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Amplifiers - Audio Amplifier - Electronic Circuits - Hobby Projects

2304 and 3456 MHz Power Amplifiers: 250 Watt Stereo Power Amplifier: 25L6 Amp: design without a power transformer 3 Band Equaliser: 3 Band Equalizer: 3 High Accuracy, RIA/ IEC, MC & MM Phono Preamplifiers: 3 Transistor Audio Amp 50 Milliwatt: Here is a little audio amplifier similar to what you might find in a small transistor radio. 30 Watt Power Amplifier: Ultra-Low distortion30-Watt Power Amplifier 300 Watt Subwoofer Power Amplifier: 4 Watt Amplifier: 45 Watt Single Chip Amplifier With Tone Controls: 50 Watt Amplifier: 55 Watt (Originally 75W) Power Amplifier: 60 Watt Into 8 Ohms Power Amplifier: A simple amp to build, uses commonly available parts and is stable and reliable 60 Watt Power Amplifier : 75 Watt Power Amplifier: AKSA is a highly refined push pull solid state stereo amplifier of 75-Watt per channel 8 Watt Amplifier: 8 Watt Audio Amp Based on LM383: 80 Watt Amplifier #1: 80 Watt Amplifier #2: Uses the LM12 chip Active Subwoofer & Controller: Active Subwoofer: ALL FET MC Phono Preamp: Phono preamp with54 and 64 dB gain and RIAA accuracy is better than0.2dB, from Borbely Audio AM Oscillator for Wireless Microphones: Amplified Ear: Audio Amp Output Power Limiter: Audio Amp, Ultra High Gain: Audio Amplifier Circuits: Audio Amplifier Output Relay Delay: Audio Amplifier: 2-Transistor Audio Amp Audio Compressor: A circuit for a single-channel audio compressor using a JFET to control the gain of a virtual earth amplifier. Audio Level Control Device: compressor circuit based on LED and photodiode Audio Preamplifier: Balanced Low Noise Microphone Preamp: very low noise, close to the theoretical minimum, high hum rejection and variable gain with a single rotary pot, similar to that used in many professional grade mixing desks Basic FM Radio Transmitters: BiDirectional 2.4 GHz One Watt Amplifier: BiDirectional 900Mhz One Watt Amplifier: Binaural MICs: Boost 3.3V to 5V with tiny audio amplifier: 09/05/2002 EDN - Design Ideas / (added 10/03) This charge-pump circuit quietly converts a 3.3V source to 5V at 500 mA (figures 1 and 2). National's (www.national.com) LM4871LD power amplifier makes this design idea both possible and practical, thanks to its low output resistance, low cost, compact size, and high dissipation capability. Its output resistance has an average value of 0.. Boundary Layer Dish Microphone: ideas for a directional microphone assembly. Circuit combines power supply and audio amplifier: 12/20/2001 EDN Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1 can help if you must transfer dc power and audio over a pair of copper wires. One application for such a circuit is a low-cost door-opening system with speech input. The circuit uses only one IC, the well-known LM317, a low-cost power-supply regulator. ... .

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Amplifiers - Audio Amplifier - Electronic Circuits - Hobby Projects

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Amplifiers - Audio Amplifier - Electronic Circuits - Hobby Projects

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Amplifiers - Audio Amplifier - Electronic Circuits - Hobby Projects

Single Chip 50 Watt / 8 Ohm Power Amplifier: Uses LM3876 Hi-Fi amplifier IC from National Semiconductor Single Ended Class A2 SV811 10 Stereo Amp: Small Amplifier Circuit: Uses many amplifier ICs, from few-Watts to200Watt SoftStart Circuit for Power Amps: Sony C 37Condenser Microphone: information with circuit diagram Spatial Distortion Reduction Headphone Amp: Subwoofer Equaliser: Subwoofer Equalizer: The Linkwitz transform circuit is a hugely flexible way to equalize the bottom end of a sealed loudspeaker enclosure. A speaker that is corrected using this method is flat from below resonance to the upper limit of the selected driver. The low frequency roll off point is determined by the parameters of the transform circuit. Should the enclosure size be too small and cause a lump in the response before roll off, this is also corrected. A conventional active crossover network is then used to divide the subwoofer signal from the main channel signals. Note that there is also a separate spreadsheet calculator available for calculating component values for different situations not handled by the original circuit. Subwoofer Filter: 12 dB/octave low pass filter for subwoofer, includes subsonic filter Super Capacitor Powers Audio Amp: 03/14/96 EDN-Design Ideas / Micro power and low-voltage op amps allow you to build high-performance analogsignal processors that require no batteries or wall transformers, this simple mixer is powered using one large capacitor such as a Supercap or Dynacap for some Time TDA2030 8 Watt Amplifier: Theory & Construction of Mic "Splitters": ThermoFan To Keep Your Amp Cool: Three Band Equalizer: Three High Accuracy, RIA/ IEC, MC & MM Phono Preamplifiers: Three Transistor Audio Amp 50 Milliwatt: Here is a little audio amplifier similar to what you might find in a small transistor radio. Tube Amplifier: The unit is powered directly from the 120 volt AC line, with no power transformers. Filaments are wired in series, with the total adding up to 117 volts (35 + 35 + 35 + 12). The 35W4 forms a half-wave rectifier, which is filtered by a three-stage RC network. The B+ for the output stage plates and screens are taken from the second capacitor, and the B+ for the preamp and phase inverter from the third capacitor in the filter. Two Channel Power Amplifier: The2-Channel Power Amplifier based on NTE1606. The circuit is powered by a12V,10-Amp power supply. The power of the output channels is4 W connected to 8-ohm loudspeakers Two Transistor Amplifier: Two Watt Amplifier: Low distortion amplifier using discrete components Two Wire Remote Microphone Amplifier: uses special amplifier module from Op-Amp Labs Vacuum Tube Microphone Preamp : from January1997 EQ Column, includes phantom power supply Variable Amplifier Impedance: idea of being able to vary the output impedance of a power amplifier Voice Over Circuit: Switches automatically from sound source to microph1when enough sound comes in from microphone. VOX AC30 Guitar Amplifier Simulator:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Audio Circuits - Intercom - Mixers - Preamplifiers - Stereo Surround Sound

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Audio
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
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Circuits
Accessories Intercom Mixers Power Amplifiers Preamplifiers Level, Tone and Balance Controls Stereo Surround Sound

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Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Circuits - Audio Circuit - Audio Accessories - Electronic Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Electronic Circuits Tutorials

Audio Circuits: Audio Accessories
2 Channel Noise Gate: 2 Line Output Combiner: Convert consumer equipment stereo signal to mono or combine audio signal from two different equipments to1-input 3 Channel Spectrum Analyzer: This3 channel15 LED spectrum analyzer can be used as an addition to any audio amp project. It produces fantastic displays on three LED bars that can be individually adjusted for any particular frequency range. 30 DDm to +30 DDm Audio Level Meter: circuit with balanced input and adjustable gain to drive needle type VU meter, uses special amplifier module from Op-Amp Labs 300 Watt Subwoofer Power Amplifier: Acoustic Simulator for Headphone Amplifiers: a simple RC filter that creates a more realistic sound image in headphones by electronically mimicking spatial hearing with "shaded" interchannel cross feed Active Subwoofer & Controller: Active Subwoofer: Add On Stereo Channel Selector: Amplified Ear: Amplifier Phono Input As Line Level Input: Amplifier Thermal Protection: Anit RIAEqualizer for Line to Mag Phono Converter: Audio Amp Output Power Limiter: Audio Amp Timer: Turns-off your amplifier when idle for15 minutes Fed by amplifier tape-output Audio Amplifier Output Relay Delay: Audio Amplifier output relay delay Audio Auto Shutoff: purpose of this circuit is to automatically turn off any device plugged into its power outlets after a certain period of Time of silence Audio Level Meter: Audio Line Isolator #1: Audio Line Isolator #2: Audio Peak Reading Meters: Audio Transformer #1: application note article on audio transformers Audio Transformer #2: notes on using audio transformers for balanced signal interfacing Audio Trigger Circuit for Lamp Chasers: works with almost any light sequencer circuit with clock input, better working beat sync than in many commercial light controllers Audio VU Meter: Auto Shut off for Cassette Players & Amplifiers: Balanced Audio Input Circuit: 109KB PDF file

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Circuits - Audio Circuit - Audio Accessories - Electronic Circuits

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Circuits - Audio Circuit - Audio Accessories - Electronic Circuits

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Circuits - Audio Circuit - Audio Accessories - Electronic Circuits

Telephone Recorder #1: This circuit lets you record your ph1-conversations automatically, notice that this circuit does not provide isolation between Telephone line and the recorder Telephone Recorder #2: This circuit automatically records all incoming and outgoing phone-conversations with an ordinary cassette or tape recorder. The circuit below distills the audio signal from the phone-line and automatically starts/stops the cassette recorder. Telephone Recording Circuit #1: Telephone Recording Circuit #2: How they work and some example Telephone Tap #1: Amplify or record a telephone call with the simple circuit shown. The 8-W secondary winding of a miniature transistor output transformer is connected in series with either of the telephone lines. The1000-W primary winding can feed either a cassette recorder or an audio amplifier. Theremin Model #145: Three Channel Spectrum Analyzer: This Three channel15 LED spectrum analyzer can be used as an addition to any audio amp project. It produces fantastic displays on three LED bars that can be individually adjusted for any particular frequency range. Tone Detector: Tone Generator: Transistor Organ: Truth About Vocal Eliminators: Sometimes a vocal can be removed almost completely, but just as often the results are disappointing, just information without circuit diagrams Tube Active Crossover: Two Channel Noise Gate: Two Line Output Combiner: Convert consumer equipment stereo signal to mono or combine audio signal from two different equipments to1-input Use Multiplier Core for FM Stereo Multiplexed Transmission System : 09/02/02 Electronic Design - Ideas for Design / A versatile four-quadrant analog multiplier core from Analog Devices, the AD633, is widely used in applications like modulation and demodulation, automatic gain control, power measurement, and voltage-controlled amplifiers. This wide spectrum of... Voice feedback enhances engineering calculator: 07/11/2002 EDN - Design Ideas / The screen shot in Figure 1 represents a Microsoft Excel 2002 worksheet designed to implement VFI (voice-feedback interface) for an engineering calculator. The voice-interface technique has both practical and educational aspects. It automates the common task of finding the values of two resistors for a given ratio.. Voice Over Circuit: Switches automatically from sound source to microph1when enough sound comes in from microphone. Warbler: Weighting Filter for Audio Measurements: Wein Bridge Theremin: What Compressor: The What Compressor is a super transparent vocal and instrument compressor that you can build. Wireless IR headphone Receiver: Wireless IR headphone Transmitter:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Intercom Circuit - Intercom Circuits - Audio Circuits - Electronic Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Audio Circuits: Intercom Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
2 Line Intercom Cum Telephone Line Changeover Circuit: 2 Line Intercom With Telephone Line Changeover Circuit: The circuit presented here can be used for connecting two telephones in parallel and also as a2-line intercom. Creating your Own Telephone Ne2 Rk: you can easily create your own intercom system using two telephones, a 9-volt battery (or some other simple power supply) and a300-ohm resistor Door Phone Intercom: Doorphone Intercom: Head set Intercom : High Quality Intercom: IFB Intercom : Intercom Preamp: a convenient way of making an intercom is to use a loudspeaker as a microph1Intercom: Low Cost Transistorised Intercom: Old Phones As An Intercom: Old Telephones As Intercom: Party line Intercom : Remote Control using Telephone: Here is a tele-remote circuit which enables switching "on" and "off" of appliances through Telephone lines. The circuit described here can be used to switch up to nine appliances (corresponding to the digits1 through 9 of DTMF the Telephone keypad). The Telephone can be used to switch on or switch off the appliances also while being used for normal conversation. FAIR WARNING -- THIS SITE HAS ANNOYING POP UP ADS. Two Line Intercom Cum Telephone Line Changeover Circuit: Two Line Intercom With Telephone Line Changeover Circuit: The circuit presented here can be used for connecting two telephones in parallel and also as a2-line intercom. Using the Comrex Hotline or Vector on a Dry Pair: how to use simple pair of wires with no voltage, ringing signals to interconnect normal Telephone line devices.

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Audio Circuit Resource - Level Tone and Balance Circuits - Audio Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Audio Circuits: Level, Tone and Balance Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
2 Watt Amplifier 2: 3 Band Equaliser: 3 Band Equalizer: 300 Watt Subwoofer Power Amplifier: 45 Watt Single Chip Amplifier With Tone Controls: Active Subwoofer & Controller: Active Subwoofer: Audio Analyzer: Audio Graphic Equalizer: simple 7 band equalizer Audio Level Meter: Audio Output Level Meter: Audio Tone Control: Bass Amplifier: Battery Powered Stereo Balance Control Features Low Distortion : 06/23/03 Electronic Design - Ideas for Design / low-power, low-distortion circuit that can be used to balance the left and right headphones or speakers in batterypowered automotive or computer applications. Better Volume Control: how to create a log pot that is better than the "real" thing Designing With the LMC835 Digital Controlled Graphic Equalizer: National Semiconductor Application Notes,04-Nov-1995 Digital Delay Unit for Surround Sound: Digital volume control has log taper: 04/11/2002 EDN - Design Ideas / Digital potentiometers provide a compact and convenient way to attenuate audio-amplifier signals. However, most such potentiometers suffer from at least one flaw: a nonlogarithmic step increment. To avoid this problem, a user must usually step. Digital Volume Control: based on DS1669 Digital Pot IC Dual Channel Digital Volume Control:

Electronic level :
Graphic Equalizer #1: Graphic Equalizer #3: Improved PL tone Decoder: Inverted bipolar transistor doubles as a signal clamp: 06/07/01 EDN-Design Ideas / A number of circuits, such as level detectors and AM demodulators, benefit from a rectifier with a low offset voltage. Silicon diodes have an offset of approximately 0.6V and do not work well in low-level circuitry. A Schottky diode is a bit better... Mic Pre Pan Pot Circuit: Mono Audio Equalizer :

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Audio Circuit Resource - Level Tone and Balance Circuits - Audio Circuits

Musical Instrument (Expandable) Graphic Equalizer: standard equalizer plus bonus distortion unit NHT Subwoofer Amp: One Pot to Control Two Channels: Parametric & Subwoofer Equalizer: Passive Filters Fill the Bill At Audio Frequencies: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits - scroll to find this circuit. PC Speaker Volume Control Circuit: Pocket Equalizer for Headphone: Simple, Easy Parametric & Graphic EQ's, Plus Peaks & Notches: Soft Switching Amplifier With Tone Controls: Stereo Width Controllers: Subwoofer Equalizer: The Linkwitz transform circuit is a hugely flexible way to equalize the bottom end of a sealed loudspeaker enclosure. A speaker that is corrected using this method is flat from below resonance to the upper limit of the selected driver. The low frequency roll off point is determined by the parameters of the transform circuit. Should the enclosure size be too small and cause a lump in the response before roll off, this is also corrected. A conventional active crossover network is then used to divide the subwoofer signal from the main channel signals. Note that there is also a separate spreadsheet calculator available for calculating component values for different situations not handled by the original circuit. Subwoofer Filter: 12 dB/octave low pass filter for subwoofer, includes subsonic filter Three Band Active Tone Control: Three Band Equalizer: Tone Control #2: Tone Controls With 2x NE 5532: check also PCB design and notes Tone Detector: Tone Generator: Tremolo: Use Rotary Potentiometer To Drive Solid State Volume Control: 01/20/03 Electronic Design - Ideas for Design / This design idea details how a standard volume control can be replaced by its solid-state equivalent. Digital potentiometers are often advertised as replacements for rotary volume controls. To simulate these controls, many circuits employ up/down... Voltage Controlled Panner: variable gain amplifier circuit

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Audio Mixer Circuit - Mixers Circuits - Audio Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Audio Circuits: Mixers Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
2 Input Mixer: 2 Line Output Combiner: Convert consumer equipment stereo signal to mono or combine audio signal from two different equipments to1-input 4 INPUT MIXER: This is a very simple 4 input audio mixer using op amps, potentiometers resistors, decoupling caps on the inputs and the whole unit has a balanced output good little circuit. 6 Input Mixer: 3 line inputs and3 mic inputs Advanced Mixer Design: good article on large audio mixer design, read also Noise & Headroom in Mixers Audio Mixer: Ever Amplifier Bridging: a design for a simple add-on bridging adapter for stereo power amplifiers FET Audio Mixer: High Quality Sound Mixer: very ambitious and expected to be very expensive mixer project, modular design line Mixer: mix two line level sources to one-signal, includes separate volume controls for both signals, passive circuit Microphone Mixer: Designed for3-dynamic microphones Six Channel Mixer and Amplifier: Sound Mixer/Amplifier: Stereo Mixer : Can mix four separate audio inputs to mono or stereo output signal Two Input Mixer: Two Line Output Combiner: Convert consumer equipment stereo signal to mono or combine audio signal from two different equipments to1-input Unbalanced Mute Circuit for Audio Mixing Channels: application note in PDF format Voice Over Circuit: Switches automatically from sound source to microph1when enough sound comes in from microphone. Voltage Controlled Mixer with Modulator:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Amplifiers - Power Amplifier - Audio Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Audio Circuits: Power Amplifiers
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
1 Watt 2.3 GHz RF Amplifier Using a MRF2001: 1 Watt 2.45 GHz Linear Amplifier: 1.5 Volt AF Amplifier: A small single battery cell AF amplifier able to drive a low impedance 8W load up to15mW, built using discrete transistors 1.5 Watt Audio Amplifier: 10 Watt Amplifier: 10 Watt Power Amplifier: Simple Class A Amplifiers 100 Watt Amplifier: 100 Watt Audio Amplifier #1: 100 Watt Guitar Amplifier #2: 100 Watt Guitar Amplifier Mk2: 100 Watt RMS Amplifier: This is a100-Watt basic power amp that was designed to be (relatively) easy to build at a reasonable cost. It has better performance (read: musical quality) than the standard STK module amps that are used in practically every mass market stereo receiver manufactured today. When I originally built this thing, it was because I needed a100 WPC amp and didnt want to spend any money. So I designed around parts I had in the shop. 120 Watt Power Amplifier #1: Text is not English 16 Watt Amplifier: 2 Channel Power Amplifier: The2-Channel Power Amplifier based on NTE1606. The circuit is powered by a12V,10-Amp power supply. The power of the output channels is4 W connected to 8-ohm loudspeakers 2 Transistor Audio Amplifier: 2 Watt Amplifier 1: 2 Watt Amplifier 2: 2.3 GHz Power Amplifiers: 20 Watt / Channel Stereo Power Amplifier: 20 Watt Class a Power Amplifier: 20 Watt GaAaFET Power on 2.3 GHz: 20 Watt Power Amplifier: Designed to be used as car amplifier 200 Watt Amplifier: 22 Watt Audio Amplifier: Simple stereo amplifier based on TDA1554 220 Watt Power Amplifier: This is a building plan for an audio amplifier with2 x220-Watt output power. Text is in Finnish. 2304 and 3456 MHz Power Amplifiers: 25 Watt Audio Amplifier: 25 Watt MOSFET Amplifier: High Quality simple unit. No need for a Preamplifier 250 Watt Stereo Power Amplifier:

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Amplifiers - Power Amplifier - Audio Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Amplifiers - Power Amplifier - Audio Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Amplifiers - Power Amplifier - Audio Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

RIAA Equalized Stereo Phono Preamp: Simple Amplifier: Single Chip 50 Watt / 8 Ohm Power Amplifier: Uses LM3876 HiFi amplifier IC from National Semiconductor Single Ended Class A2 SV81110 Stereo Amp: Small Amplifier Circuit: Uses many amplifier ICs, from feWatt-Watts to200Watt SoftStart Circuit for Power Amps: Spatial Distortion Reduction Headphone Amp: Speaker Microphone: Stereo Line Driver: Power Amp Stereo Line Driver Stereo Tube Amplifier: Subwoofer Equalizer: The Linkwitz transform circuit is a hugely flexible way to equalize the bottom end of a sealed loudspeaker enclosure. A speaker that is corrected using this method is flat from below resonance to the upper limit of the selected driver. The low frequency roll off point is determined by the parameters of the transform circuit. Should the enclosure size be too small and cause a lump in the response before roll off, this is also corrected. A conventional active crossover network is then used to divide the subwoofer signal from the main channel signals. Note that there is also a separate spreadsheet calculator available for calculating component values for different situations not handled by the original circuit. Subwoofer Filter: 12 dB/octave low pass filter for subwoofer, includes subsonic filter TDA2030 8 Watt Amplifier: ThermoFan To Keep Your Amp Cool: Three Transistor Audio Amp (50 Milliwatt ): Here is a little audio amplifier similar to what you might find in a small transistor radio. Tube Amplifiers: Tube Buffer for CD Player: Two Channel Power Amplifier: The2-Channel Power Amplifier based on NTE1606. The circuit is powered by a12V,10-Amp power supply. The power of the output channels is4 W connected to 8-ohm loudspeakers Two Transistor Audio Amplifier: Two Watt Amplifier: Underwater Microphone: Voltage Controlled Amplifier: Weighting Filter for Audio Measurements:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Preamplifiers - Audio Preamplifier Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuit

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Audio Circuits: Preamplifiers
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
4.5 H. Magnetic P.B. Head Preamplifier : 50MHz Assistant (Preamp & Power Amp.): ALL FET MC Phono Preamp: Phono preamp with54 and 64 dB gain and RIAA accuracy is better than0.2dB, from Borbely Audio Audio Preamp: Audio Preamplifier #1: Audio Preamplifier #2: Balanced Low Noise Microphone Preamp: very low noise, close to the theoretical minimum, high hum rejection and variable gain with a single rotary pot, similar to that used in many professional grade mixing desks Balanced Microphone Preamp: Band 2 Preamplifier: Car Preamplifier & Artificial Earth: Computer Microphone: adapting electret microphone to soundcards with dynamic microphone inputs Crown IC150Preamplifier: Digital Quality Microphone Pre Ampl. Using the Model 425 OPAMP : Dynamic Microphone Preamp : ECM Mic Preamplifier: Electret Mic Amplifier: FET Preamp Cable: FM Band Preamplifier: Hi Fi Preamplifier: HiFi Preamplifier: High Performance Audio Applications of the LM833: RIAA Phono preamplifier stages and active crossover ne2-rks LM358 Preamp: Low impedance Microphone Amplifier #1: Low impedance Microphone Amplifier #2: Low Noise Balanced Microphone Preamp: very low noise, close to the theoretical minimum, high hum rejection and variable gain with a single rotary pot, similar to that used in many professional grade mixing desks Low Noise Microphone Preamplifier: Masthead Preamp: Microphone Amplifier: Microphone Preamp: Very simple two transistor circuit microphone Preamplifier: Minimalist Discrete HiFi Preamp: Mono PreAmplifier : Mustage Microphone Preamp: MW Preamplifier: The tuning voltage is variable from 1 to 12 volts and is designed to cover the medium waveband from about 550Khz to 1650Khz.

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Preamplifiers - Audio Preamplifier Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuit

Phono Preamp (valve): tube design Phono Preamps for All: a collection of Phono preamps and equalization circuits,1-of which is sure to meet your requirements Phonograph Disc Playback Preamplifier : Preamplifier for Microphone or guitar use: suitable for guitar or microphone use. RIAAudio Preamp: RIAPhono Amplifier: SIMPLE AUDIO PREAMP: This easy to build circuit provides good gain to weak audio signals. Use it in the front end of a RF oscillator to make an RF transmitter that is very sensitive to sound. Simple Stereo Electret Microphone Preamplifier: Single IC Audio Preamplifier: Solid State Microphone Preamp: Sound Blaster Microphone Preamplifier: Standard Microphone Preamplifier Input Circuitry: PDF file Stereo Tape Head Preamplifier for PC Sound Card: SWatt RF Preamplifier: Taos Amp Solid State Mic Preamp: simple Transformerless microph1preamp, includes circuit board design Transformerless Microphone Preamplifier : Transistor Audio Preamplifier: Tube Microphone Preamp: Vacuum Tube Microphone Preamp:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Audio Circuit Resource - Stereo Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Audio Circuits: Stereo Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
2 watt stereo amp: 20 Watt / Channel Stereo Power Amplifier: FM stereo decoder: Improved FM Stereo Modulator: LM 1800 FM Stereo Decoder: Stereo Amplifier 22 Watts : Stereo Synthesizer: different frequency ranges appear at the two outputs, depending on the setting of the controls and create a stereo effect

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Audio Surround Sound Circuit - Surround Sound Circuits - Audio Circuits

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Audio Circuits: Surround Sound Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
Allpass Network shifts Signals 90°: 04/27/95 EDN-Design Ideas Digital Delay Unit for Surround Sound: Quadraphonic Amplifier: This is a four channel amplifier ideally suited for use with quadraphonic equipment such as a Sound Blaster Live card. Surround Sound Decoder: This surround-sound decoder is based on the "Hafler" principle, first discovered by David Hafler sometime in the early1970s. The original idea was to connect a pair of speakers Surround Sound Mk1: Surround Sound Mk2:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Frequency Control Circuit - Automatic Frequency Control Circuits - Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Automatic Frequency Control Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
Audio Level Control Device: compressor circuit based on LED and photodiode

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Gain Control Circuit - Automatic Gain Control Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Automatic Gain Control Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
Audio Level Control Device: compressor circuit based on LED and photodiode Automatic gain Control (AGC) Circuits: Digital Automatic Gain Control (AGC): High Frequency AGC has Digital Control: 05/21/98 EDN-Design Ideas Wideband AGC Amplifier As a Differential Amplifier: National Semiconductor Application Notes,10-Apr-2000 Wideband AGC has 60 DB Dynamic Input Range: 10/10/96 EDN-Design Ideas

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Level Control Circuit - Automatic Level Control Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Automatic Level Control Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
Inverted bipolar transistor doubles as a signal clamp: 06/07/01 EDNDesign Ideas / A number of circuits, such as level detectors and AM demodulators, benefit from a rectifier with a low offset voltage. Silicon diodes have an offset of approximately 0.6V and do not work well in lowlevel circuitry. A Schottky diode is a bit better...

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Automotive Circuit Sensor - Automotive Detector Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

Sensors / Detectors: Automotive Circuits
Electronic Circuits Tutorials
12 Volt Automotive Inverter : This circuit will allow you to operate small devices like laptop computers inside your automobile without an expensive automobile power supply. The circuit takes advantage of the fact that power transformers are linear devices and can be used to step up as well as step down. 12 Volt to 9 Volt DC Converter: Car Converter for12 Volt to 9V 12v car lamp flasher: 20 Watt Power Amplifier: Designed to be used as car amplifier 3rd Brake Light Pulser: 5301 Wideband Fuel Mixture Display: 80188XL Engine Tachometer: Adaptive Windscreen Wiper Control: Alternator Signal Detector: Analog Tachometer for Gasoline Engines: Auto to Trailer Lights Interface: Automatic Dual Output Display: Automatic Headlight Brightness Switch: Automatic Heat Detector: Automatic Speed Controller for Fans & Coolers: Automotive Alarm System: Automotive AntiLock Brake Control Driver: Automotive link uses single wire: 04/03/03 EDN-Design Ideas / In the automotive industry, in which the goal is to produce cars with simpler, lighter wiring looms, any interface that uses just one wire instead of two offers a distinct advantage. The circuit in Figure 1 implements a bidirectional link using a single wire, with the car's chassis or ground conductor providing a negative return path... Automotive Multiplex Wiring: National Semiconductor Application Notes first published05-Oct-1998 BMW Motorcycle Side Stand Protection Mod: BMW R Series Motorcycle Regulator Schematic: Breath Alcohol Tester: Controls the cars ignition system Capacitor Discharge Ignition Circuit: Car Battery Charger: quickly and easily charge most any lead acid battery, automatically turns charging off when ready Car Burglar Alarm: Car Clock: CaClo was designed and built to be used in an automobile. It uses pure discrete logic ICs (4000 series) and a4-digit LCD display with backlight, plus a few SMD ICs for the LCD driver. Car indicator alarm:

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Automotive Circuit Sensor - Automotive Detector Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Automotive Circuit Sensor - Automotive Detector Circuits - Electronic Hobby Projects

Solar Car Electrical Design and Circuit index: Solar Car Main Controller Schematic: Third Brake Light Pulser: Timer Car Interval Wiper: Turn Signal Alarm: Ultrasonic Parking Sonar: Wide Band Fuel Mixture Display: Windshield Wiper Delay: Wiper Speed Controller: Wireless Auto Tachometer: WWV Converter for the Car:

Electronic, PC, Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students

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Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Power Supplies: DC to DC / Switch Mode DC to DC Converters Electronic Circuits Tutorials +9 Volt*and* 9 Volt From One Battery!: The MAX1044 is a charge pump converter .com/C/DC_to_dC.DC to DC Converters . The circuit is simple. 3.hobbyprojects.8 Volt Converter Works Without Magnetics: 04/13/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .3 Volt Supply Taps Power From the12 Volt PCI Bus: 5 to 1.31 Aug2001 1119 Voltage Doubler Design & Analysis: National Semiconductor Application Notes.html (1 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:43:18 PM] .3 Volt Lithiumcell Supply Requires one inductor: 08/05/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . and obtains power only from the TX line. Rx. this one operates with a3-wire port GND.01 May1998 3.26 Jun2001 20 Watt Simple Switcher Forward Converter: National Semiconductor Application Notes. 5 Volt Supply Derives Power From Three Wire RS232C Port: 10/26/95 EDN-Design Ideas 6 to 12 Volt Converter: This circuit can provide up to 800mA of12V power from a 6V supply.scroll to find this circuit. two-transistor circuit to a standard. It can be used to generate negative voltage easily. The output currentabout 8mA-is sufficient for CMOS microcontrollers and other low power. about 75% efficient and quite useful.it uses a capacitor as a "bucket" to pump charge from one place to another. and TX. Unlike a PC-mouse supply or comparable that rely on the modem-control signals DTR and RTS. step-down dc/dc converter to provide an adjustable limit for the output current AutoTransformer Regulator Inverts 12 Volt to Produce -12V: 08/01/97 EDN Design Ideas / Produces Output of200 mA Battery Backup Converter uses One NiCd Cell: 02/03/97 EDN Design Ideas / This dc/dc Converter allows you to replace a five or six unit string of NiCd coin Cells with one Cell Battery Booster Delivers 75W: 07/16/98 EDN Design Ideas / Uses isolated DC/DC Converter in a nonisolated configuration to boost a48V Battery voltage to 60 Volt http://www.3 Volt Converter Delivers 3 Watt From Li ion Battery: 11/05/98 EDN-Design Ideas 3. 10 to 30K Volt Flyback Power Supply: 1118 Simple Regulator Provides ±12 Volt From 5 Volt Source: National Semiconductor Application Notes.Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuits Electronic. PC. 60 MCurrent Source Feeds Telecomm Lines: 12/18/97 EDN-Design Ideas 8Switcher Powers High Performance µPs: 04/13/95 EDN-Design Ideas Add Trimmable Current Limit to DC to DC Supply: 08/01/97 EDN-Design Ideas / you can add a simple.scroll to find the one of interest / 5 Volt DC From RS232 Signals: The circuit of Figure1 produces a semi-regulated5Volt output from an RS-232 port.

scroll to find this circuit. Buck Regulator Generates Flexible VTT for PECL: 08/15/97 EDN Design Ideas / Circuit to generate Output which can both Source and Sink Current Buck regulator operates without a dedicated clock : 08/21/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Most switching regulators rely on a dedicated clock oscillator to determine the switching frequency of operation... 7Bus Termination: 09/14/95 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit reduces negative voltage stresses on control IC: 04/18/2002 EDN . A low-dissipation synchronous rectifier using an external MOSET provides this high efficiency. you can use a step up dc/dc Converter to step down voltages to produce an efficient Battery Powered Power Supply. data-acquisition. Figure 1's power-supply bootstrapping scheme achieves the desired characteristics with minimal parts count Buck regulator and two inductors make dual polarity converter: 03/20/03 EDNDesign Ideas / A common problem for power-supply designers is to create a compact. Buck Regulator Terminates Fast Data Buses: 07/20/95 EDN-Design Ideas Buck Regulator uses Step up Controller: 11/09/95 EDN-Design Ideas Capacitor Charger Improves High Voltage Supply: 12/19/96 EDN-Design Ideas Capacitor improves efficiency in CPU supply: 04/04/2002 EDN . This efficiency extends battery life and minimizes temperature rise. however.. even with changing input-line and output-loading conditions. dual-polarity step-down converter.5V. Circuit Provides 1. A dedicated oscillator circuit within the power controller usually generates the clock signal. The voltage on this node swings from the input voltage to some voltage lower than ground. the two FETS and the output inductor meet at the phase node (Figure 1).. one for each output. the ESD structures or other circuitry within the control IC can become forward-bia. circuit outputs5V DC CoolSET TDA16831: -34 for OFF-Line Switch Mode Power Supplies Cuk Converter yields 90% Efficiency: 09/01/94 EDN-Design Ideas http://www. If space and cost are not concerns. the obvious solution is a pair of dc/dc converters. this example Circuit can step down inputs as Low as2V to Outputs as Low as1.. and diskdrive applications.com/C/DC_to_dC.25V. If the voltage goes too far below ground. Amplifier-output-saturation limitations normally preclude such operation. buck switching power supply.3 Volt From Two or Three Cells: 11/11/96 EDN-Design Ideas Converter has High Efficiency At Low Loads: 01/06/94 EDN-Design Ideas / MicroPower components and circuit design of this converter enable it to maintain 90% efficiency for load currents below 8 mA.html (2 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:43:18 PM] .scroll to find the one of interest / This circuits easily configures basic switched-capacitor converters to also do some negative conversions Clean Switcher Powers 16 Bit a / D Converters: 07/04/94 EDN-Design Ideas Coilless Step up Converter yields Dual Outputs: 09/01/97 EDN-Design Ideas Comparator Adds Current Limit to V2 Controller: 05/21/98 EDN-Design Ideas Comparator Improves Regulator's Efficiency: 04/28/94 EDN-Design Ideas Converter Generates 3.Design Ideas / High efficiency is important for the dc/dc buck converters that supply high currents in notebook PCs. . Circuit Variations Produce Negative Voltages: 09/01/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .Design Ideas / In a synchronous.Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuits Boost Controller Drives Buck Converter: 02/03/97 EDN Design Ideas / By adding an external Switching Transistor.. The phase node often connects directly to the control IC.hobbyprojects.. .8 Volt : 04/23/98 EDN-Design Ideas Bootstrapping allows single rail op amp to provide 0V output: 02/06/03 EDNDesign Ideas / Many single-supply-powered applications require amplifier-output swings within 1 mV—or even submillivolts—of ground. Synchronous rectifiers require special attention. A class of hysteretic switching regulators can actually operate at a relatively fixed frequency without a clock. Circuit Drives 9 Volt Solenoids From 3 Volt Battery: 08/17/95 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit Multiplexes Automotive Sensors: 01/20/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . with efficiency as high as 80% Boost Converter Generates -27 & -87V: 05/22/97 EDN-Design Ideas / Generates the voltage levels necessary for standard telephones from12V Boost Converter Generates Three Analog Rails: 07/02/98 EDN-Design Ideas Bootstrapped Boost Converter operates At 1. But space and cost are almost always issues for communications.DC to DC Converters .

for total output power of approximately400 mW form100-400-Volt DC source DC to DC Controller Generates Negative Supply: 06/08/95 EDN Design Ideas / a Switch mode Power Supply Controller plus a diode capacitor network generate the modest negative Supply Current needed for OpAmps or for LCD Bias. Inverter Forms High Efficiency Rail Splitter: 08/01/97 EDN-Design Ideas / switchedcapacitor voltage inverter can be used as "rail splitter" to provide bipolar. inexpensive LM7805 linear regulator. LM2577 Three Output.3V supply for portable applications LIER Circuit helps Power Supply Efficiency: 02/16/95 EDN-Design Ideas Linear regulator=low cost dc/dc converter: 06/13/2002 EDN . Linear supply uses switch mode regulation: 07/19/2001 EDN . The heart of the circuit is IC1. circuit produces ±15V dual outputs. this gives out5V at5A from an input voltage of -36 to -72V LAN Power Supply Generates Isolated 9V: 04/11/96 EDN-Design Ideas Layout Guidelines for Switching Power Supplies: National Semiconductor Application Notes.04 Nov1995 Li ion Boost Circuit uses No inductors: 09/12/97 EDN-Design Ideas / Circuit to maintain regulated3.27 Mar2000 Drive High Voltage Varactor Diodes From just 5V: 03/27/97 EDN-Design Ideas Easy Xenon DC to DC Converters!: Flyback Circuit Provides Isolated Power Conversion: 01/07/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .. The external switch is a pnp transistor.hobbyprojects.scroll to find this circuit DC to DC Converter: will produce a 85-Volt voltage from +3V. the circuit can easily source more than 1A output current. The objective is to produce as high a voltage as possible. dual-rail power supply Isolated Signal Trims DC / DC Converter: 09/01/95 EDN-Design Ideas Isolated Telecomm Converter Handles 25W: 09/01/97 EDN-Design Ideas / Telecomm applications in the central office require an isolated5V supply derived from -48V. a basic and versatile 5V supply uses a Zener diode and an emitterfollower transistor. Half Bridge Inverter has Variable Frequency: 10/09/97 EDN-Design Ideas Handy tool Troubleshoots Feedback Loops: 04/10/97 EDN-Design Ideas Hex Inverter Makes Low Cost Switching Regulator: 05/23/96 EDN-Design Ideas / Simple and low-cost circuit converts5V to12V IC & Capacitor Improve Isolated Supply: 09/01/97 EDN-Design Ideas Ignition Coil / Flyback Transformer Based High Voltage Generators: This page gives my thoughts on how to use a car ignition coil or Flyback transformer as a high voltage generator. usable for low power applications DC/DC Conversion Without Inductors: Maxim Application Note #725 Designing a Multi Phase Asynchronous Buck Regulator using the LM2639: National Semiconductor Application Notes. without inductors DC to DC Converter Allows of Single Battery: Have you ever wanted to circuit to run off a single 9 Volt battery only to find you needed levels like +12 and -12 Volts? The thought of multiple batteries might have put you off.Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1 is a good choice if you need a power supply with high efficiency and you don't want to use expensive dc/dc-converter ICs.DC to DC Converters . the common.01 May1998 http://www.24 May2001 LH1605 Switching Regulator: National Semiconductor Application Notes. Isolated Flyback Regulator: National Semiconductor Application Notes.Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuits Current Limit Protects Power Bus: 12/12/97 EDN-Design Ideas / Protects a power bus from a load short within a guaranteed2 µsec response Time Current Source Forms unusually Simple Regulator: 09/12/97 EDN-Design Ideas / Simple regulator uses a switching current source to drive a pair of shunt Zener regulators. Why not use a simple DC to DC converter? DC to DC Converter operates From Phone Line: 11/09/00 EDN Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .Design Ideas / You can use simple circuits to implement small.scroll to find this circuit.html (3 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:43:18 PM] . regulated plug-in power supplies. with as high a power throughput as possible.. In Figure 1 .com/C/DC_to_dC. You must calculate and design the transformer such that Q 1 is close to saturation at low mains voltages and nominal output current.

3V_EVAL 1.scroll to find the one of interest09/01/94 EDN Design Ideas / Circuit draws Current in the off hook condition.20 Jul1999 LM78S40 Switching Voltage Regulator Applications: National Semiconductor Application Notes. CD4049 forms an oscillator that operates at approximately200 kHz and runs the converter. you must supply power to a µP when other components are asleep. TVs. it cannot be used when the low voltage part can be touched. such as the IR2110 or the newer IR2155.5High Efficiency Synchronous Switching Regulator Evaluation Board: National Semiconductor Application Notes. and automotive applications. Note that the low voltage output is directly connected to the mains.5 Volt Output: 10/09/97 EDN-Design Ideas Low Power Converter has Galvanic Isolation: 07/02/98 EDN-Design Ideas / This simple dc/dc converter provides a12V..15 Sep1999 Memory Supply Includes Battery Backup: 02/03/97 EDN-Design Ideas Notebook Power Supply has Two Outputs: 03/03/94 EDN-Design Ideas Off Hook Phone Line Supplies 150 MW: 11/09/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .For VCRs. Low Parts Count DC / DC Converter With Multiple Outputs: National Semiconductor Application Notes. batterypowered devices.scroll to find the one of interest / Precharged Capacitor Ensures High Side Start up: 08/17/95 EDN-Design Ideas / when you use a high-voltage bridge driver.02 Mar1999 Low Cost Circuit Biases VCOs for Cable & TV: 11/20/97 EDN-Design Ideas / PLLs are useful in a variety of applications. Any active power-supply circuit also needs to be more cost. One 9 Volt Battery gives +18.0EVAL 1 Amp Step Down High Efficiency Simple Switcher Evaluation Board: National Semiconductor Application Notes.10 Feb1999 LM267X 3A. Leadtime: 10/26/95 EDN-Design Ideas Off Line Power Supply Requires Few Parts: 02/17/94 EDN-Design Ideas / This simple non-isolated off-line power supply can provide up to150 mA5V and uses only a handful of components from110-230-Volt AC input voltage. regulated output Lower dc/dc converter ripple by using optimum capacitor hookup: 10/31/2002 EDN . a complete driver circuit can exhibit erratic behavior when you apply power if it is designed exactly right http://www.hobbyprojects. and other equipment that requires a standby mode.. most notably cable and TV tuners Low cost feedback circuit boosts efficiency: 01/21/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .28 Jun1996 Power Supply Runs off Battery or Wall Adapter: 06/18/98 EDN-Design Ideas Power Switch Provides Soft Start: 03/30/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Open Loop Power Supply Delivers As Much As One Watt: 01/18/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .com/C/DC_to_dC.14 Sep1999 LM2675 5.scroll to find this circuit..frequency and noise-sensitive disk drives.scroll to find this circuit Low Cost Switcher Converts 5 to 24V: 02/16/98 EDN-Design Ideas / Low-cost. Maximizing Start up Loads With the LM3352 Regulated Buck / Boost Switched Capacitor Converter: National Semiconductor Application Notes. Like a positive buck converter.DC to DC Converters . 5Evaluation Boards: National Semiconductor Application Notes.02 Mar1999 Low Noise Step up Supply Generates -5. a positive-to-negative converter can have low output-ripple voltage if you place the bulk input capacitor between VIN and VOUT rather than between VIN and gr.html (4 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:43:18 PM] . portable computers.effective than the standard structure using a metallic transformer. This circuit is simple switcher that takes230-Volt AC and outputs10-Volt 90mA PFM Control Improves Dual Output Converter: 09/28/95 EDN-Design Ideas Plus 5 to Minus 15 Volts DC Converter: National Semiconductor Application Notes. delivering as much as150 mW of isolated poser while allowing normal voice or Data communications over the phone line Off Line Buck Regulator Cuts Costs.150-mW output using only a few components and a small transformer. three-transistor low power boost switching regulator Low Cost.Design Ideas / Low-ripple-voltage positive-to-negative dc/dc converters find use in many of today's high. +25. +33V: This circuit is based on MAX1044 is a charge pump converter.Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuits LM2651_3.

scroll to find this circuit http://www.Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1 derives its power from a USB port and produces 5 and 3. In boost converters and SEPICs (single-ended primary-inductance converters). or "dump. Circuit accommodates a wide range of input and Output voltages and supplies Output Currents as high as500 mA Step up Regulator uses only Two Gain Devices: 11/09/00 EDN Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .3V range Solar Cell Converter offers Positive Start up: 11/09/00 EDN Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .scroll to find this circuit Step up / Step Down Converter Takes 2 to 16 Volt Inputs: 11/09/00 EDN Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . or NiMH single cells.hobbyprojects. shown in the schematic. The circuit allows the port to maintain communications while. This energy.scroll to find the one of interest / Regulated5V input to an isolated5V output with1A current-output capability Quickly discharge power supply capacitors: 07/05/2001 EDN . maximum. and PDAs. Regulator Generates As Many As Four Voltages: 08/03/95 EDN-Design Ideas Saturable Bead Improves Reverse Recovery: 02/03/97 EDN-Design Ideas SEPIC Generates 5 Volt At 100 MA: 05/03/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .scroll to find the one of interest / . The circuit's principal application is in LED-based flashlights. carbon-zinc. CV 2 /2. Switch Mode DC Supply: The switching power supply.Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuits Programmable Source Powers DC MicroMotors: 03/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . provides12 volts. . This design shows a SEPIC that takes a4 to28V input and generates5V at100 mA.Switcher where input can range above and below the regulated voltage. and tricky way of using the LM723 as a programmable voltage source to drive dc micromotors which can set the output to a value of200 mV to 6V Pulsing Charge Pump Drives Capacitive Loads: 11/05/98 EDN-Design Ideas Push Pull Driver Provides Isolated 5 Volt At 1A: 03/30/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .3V from USB port: 12/20/2001 EDN . example circuit is for generating voltages in1. compact.Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1 allows you to light any type of LED from a single cell whose voltage ranges from 1 to 1. you can separate the VIN pin of the IC from the input inductor and use a simple Zener regulator to generate the supply voltage for the IC.scroll to find this circuit Step up Supply Charges Battery While Serving Load: 11/09/00 EDN Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Single IC Biases LCD & GaAsFET Amplifier: 04/09/98 EDN-Design Ideas Single NiCd Cell Drives OpAmp: 12/05/96 EDN-Design Ideas Single Resistor Improves V2 Converter: 08/15/97 EDN-Design Ideas / V2 control offers a significant improvement in transient response by using two voltage feedbacks. VBATT. This range accommodates alkaline. charging a lithium-ion battery.5V. Switchedcapacitor Regulator Provides gain: 03/13/98 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . IC2 boosts the battery voltage. at10 amps. such as a red LED in an astronomer's flashlight. and IC3 buck-regulates that 5V output down to 3. as opposed to the pulse width modulator (PWM) controllers used today.3V supply rails for portable devices.DC to DC Converters .scroll to find this circuit Supply derives 5 and 3. NiCd. such as digital cameras. economic.html (5 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:43:18 PM] .8-3. dangerous voltages can persist on unloaded electrolytic filter capacitors for hours or even days. MP3 players. to 5V. If you let the capacitors self-discharge.com/C/DC_to_dC. Serial Interface IC Supplies BiPolar Voltages: 07/06/95 EDN-Design Ideas Simple Boost Converter Generates -27 & -87V: 05/22/97 EDN-Design Ideas Simple Regulator has one Active Part: 03/16/95 EDN-Design Ideas Simple Regulator Provides ±12V: 10/23/97 EDN Design Idea / Simple circuit can provide ±12V from a5V input using only one switching-regulator IC and a few offthe-shelf Single cell lights any LED: 07/05/2001 EDN . for example..scroll to find the one of interest / A simple.Design Ideas / A perennial challenge in power-supply design is the safe and speedy discharge.. using a discrete transistor regulator with an op-amp functioning as a comparator in the feedback circuit. which doesn't interfere with night vision.scroll to find the one of interest / Some applications require an input voltage higher than the breakdown voltage of the IC supply pin. can usually reach tens of joules. The supply was constructed in1984 and is variable frequency." at turn-off of the large amount of energy stored in the postrectification filter capacitors.

Make Swinging Choke: 10/26/00 EDN Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . because of the high power dissipation in the series resistor. PC.3 Volt Portables: 10/26/00 EDN Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . The circuit in Figure 1 shows how to turn a 555 PWM circuit into an switchmode power supply with only one simple equation.01 May1998 Three Input Supply Powers 3.com/C/DC_to_dC. you'd typically use a flyback topology. . especially at higher output currents.Design Ideas / Most switch-mode power supplies rely on a PWM (pulse-width-modulated) output that is controlled via voltage feedback. The circuit of Figure 1 uses IC1.hobbyprojects.Design Ideas / Many applications require current sources rather than voltage sources.scroll to find the one of interest-. Two ACells Power Step Down Regulator: 10/26/00 EDN Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .200 mA Output Tiny Tiny Inverter Design: little efficient circuit that runs off of3V..Electronic Hobby Projects & Circuits Switcher IC hikes Battery Charger's Efficiency: 06/23/94 EDN-Design Ideas Switching Converter uses Planar Magnetics: 11/07/96 EDN Design Ideas Switching regulator forms constant current source: 05/30/2002 EDN .3V. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Generating an efficient.scroll to find this circuit Two Cores Marry. Switching Regulator Output goes Below VREF: 03/17/94 EDN-Design Ideas Synchronized Regulator Produces Coherent Noise: 03/17/94 EDN-Design Ideas Synchronous buck circuit produces negative voltage: 03/06/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Many electronic systems require both positive and negative voltages to operate properly. Single Supply OpAmp : National Semiconductor Application Notes. low-voltage positive output from a higher voltage input typically entails the use of a synchronous buck regulator.scroll to find this circuit Transistors tame perfidious leakage inductance: 09/27/2001 EDN . an LM2576 adjustable regulator.html (6 of 6) [1/17/2007 4:43:18 PM] . this circuit generates a regulated5V400 mA from it very efficiently Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.. Figure 1 shows a typical application schematic using On Semiconductor's (www.Single ended primary inductance Converter accepts input voltages ranging from3 to more than 6V and produces a regulated3. A 555-timer IC can inexpensively perform PWM. To solve the wastedpower problem. The design uses two 555s Use the LM158 / LM258 / LM358 Dual.Design Ideas / In flyback converters that use primary regulation. the loose coupling between the power secondary and the primary auxiliary windings often results in poor crossregulation.DC to DC Converters . using a linear regulator is inadvisable. and charges up a little1 uf250-Volt cap all the way up in about30 seconds Transformer Buys Lower Shutdown Current: 11/23/94 EDN-Design Ideas Transformerless Supply Fits CaT Volt Applications: 05/22/97 EDN-Design Ideas / Coaxial CATV systems derive their power from a 60-Hz square wave that shares the center conductor with the television channels this circuit generates10 mA at5V DC from it Transistor Pair Lowers PWM IC's Start up Current: 03/18/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . When you need a high-current source.14 May2001 Wallcube DC / DC Converter is 85% Efficient: 09/12/97 EDN-Design Ideas / Ubiquitous12V wall cube generates an unregulated dc voltage of 8 to18V. But when generating a negative output voltage from a positive input voltage. you can use a switch-mode regulator.. This situation arises mainly from the leakage inductance but also comes from the level of the primary clamp voltage. depending on line voltage and load. System Oriented DC to DC Conversion Techniques: National Semiconductor Application Notes.scroll to find this circuit Universal High Resistance Voltmeter: Use a 555 timer as a switch mode power supply: 11/14/2002 EDN .

html [1/17/2007 4:43:20 PM] .hobbyprojects.scroll to find the one of interest Reduce Thermal Transients in R 2R ladders: 03/28/96 EDN-Design Ideas Technique Increases Low Cost DAC's Resolution: 04/09/98 EDN-Design Ideas Twin DAC's Produce True Bi-Polar Operation: 08/18/94 EDN-Design Ideas Two DAC Circuit adds & subtracts: 009/01/98 EDN-Design Ideas Zero Power A / D Converter uses Printer Port: 07/06/95 EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Electronic Projects Circuits Electronic. PC. PC.04Nov-1995 D / A Converter ASIC uses stochastic Logic: 10/24/96 EDN-Design Ideas DAC & µP implement hardware window Generator: 03/31/94 EDN-Design Ideas Digital to Analog Centronics D / A & Filter: Multiphase DAC modifies R 2R ladder: 01/18/96 EDN-Design Ideas New MicRO DAC Product Line for Microprocessor Systems: 11/09/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .com/C/Digital_to_Analog_(DA). Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.04 Nov1995 Control Applications of CMOS DACs: National Semiconductor Application Notes.Digital to Analog (D / A) Circuits .09 Apr1996 Cascode Circuit lessens DAC Degradation: 02/03/97 EDN-Design Ideas Centronics Port D / A Converters & Lowpass Filter: Circuit Applications of Multiplying CMOS D to a Converters: National Semiconductor Application Notes.04 Nov1995 CMOS D / A Converters Match Most Microprocessors: National Semiconductor Application Notes. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters: Digital to Analog (D / A) Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 2 DAC Circuit adds & subtracts: 009/01/98 EDN-Design Ideas Applying the New CMOS MicRO DACs: National Semiconductor Application Notes.

900MHz Down Converter Consumes Little Power: 06/22/95 EDN-Design Ideas Analog Tachometer for Gasoline Engines: Circuit Converts Pulse Width to Voltage #2: 10/28/99 EDN-Design Ideas / The circuit is optimized for a positive-going pulse width of1 to2 msec. an RC filter can convert a PWM signal to an averaged dc voltage. Converting lowduty-cycle pulse information is slower yet. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters: Frequency Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 555 Makes handy Voltagetotime Converter: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .04-Nov-1995 New Phase Locked Loops: Non Powered Ring Modulator Circuit: Short Wave Converter for Scanners: Two Diode Odd Order Multiplier: Volt / F Converter ICs Handle Frequency to Voltage Needs: 09/28/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .com/C/Frequency. The output produces a voltage of0. repeating at intervals of approximately17 msec. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.95V for a1msec pulse to2.hobbyprojects.Frequency Circuits Converters .scroll to find this circuit. HCMOS Gates Make Frequency Multipliers: Hear Amateurs on your FM Radio!: LF to HF Converter: LM2907 Tachometer / Speed Switch Building Block Applications: National Semiconductor Application Notes.Electronic Circuits & Projects Electronic. PC. but this method is slow in responding.html [1/17/2007 4:43:22 PM] . .25V for a2-msec pulse.Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1 converts pulse information to a clean dc voltage by the end of a single incoming pulse. Diode Frequency Doublers: Frequency Doubler operates on Triangle Waves: 03/14/96 EDN-Design Ideas Frequency Multiplier Improves Line Readings: 03/26/98 EDN-Design Ideas Frequency to Voltage Converter uses Sample & Hold to Improve Response & Ripple: National Semiconductor Application Notes. In another technique. Circuit converts pulse width to voltage: 10/25/2001 EDN .28-Jun-1996 Frequency Tripler Using the CA3028: Gyrator Circuit: The gyrator principle uses the effect that the value of input capacitance at the base of a transitor is effectively multiplied by the current gain of the transistor. PC.scroll to find this circuit Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.

28-Jun-1996 LM2907 Tachometer / Speed Switch Building Block Applications: National Semiconductor Application Notes. The output produces a voltage of0.scroll to find this circuit. PC.25V for a2-msec pulse.Electronic Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.scroll to find this circuit. repeating at intervals of approximately17 msec. Analog Tachometer for Gasoline Engines: Circuit Converts Pulse Width to Voltage #1: 10/25/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .scroll to find this circuit Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.95V for a1msec pulse to2.04-Nov-1995 New Phase Locked Loops: Stereo Compressor: V / F Converter ICs Handle Frequency to Voltage Needs: 09/28/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .html [1/17/2007 4:43:26 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters: Frequency to Voltage Electronic Circuits Tutorials 555 makes handy voltage-to-time converter: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Frequency to Voltage Converter uses Sample & Hold to Improve Response & Ripple: National Semiconductor Application Notes. Circuit Converts Pulse Width to Voltage #2: 10/28/99 EDN-Design Ideas / The circuit is optimized for a positive-going pulse width of1 to2 msec.Frequency to Voltage Converters . PC.hobbyprojects.com/C/Frequency_to_Voltage.

Converting low-duty-cycle pulse information is slower yet.Period to Voltage Converters .scroll to find this circuit. The output produces a voltage of0.hobbyprojects. but this method is slow in responding. Circuit Converts Pulse Width to Voltage: 10/25/01 EDN-Design Ideas / The circuit converts pulse information to a clean dc voltage by the end of a single incoming pulse.Electronic Circuits & Projects Electronic.scroll to find this circuit. repeating at intervals of approximately17 msec.html [1/17/2007 4:43:28 PM] . PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters: Period to Voltage Electronic Circuits Tutorials 555 Makes handy Voltage-to-Time Converter: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Circuit Converts Pulse Width to Voltage #2: 10/28/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . --. an RC filter can convert a PWM signal to an averaged dc voltage.com/C/Period_to_Voltage. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.25V for a2-msec pulse. PC.95V for a1-msec pulse to2. In another technique. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.The circuit is optimized for a positive-going pulse width of1 to2 msec.

html [1/17/2007 4:43:30 PM] .Electronic Circuits Electronic.com/C/RF_(Radio%20Frequency). Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.hobbyprojects. PC. PC.Converters .RF Radio Frequency . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters: RF (Radio Frequency) Electronic Circuits Tutorials 2M 20M Transverter: 42 Mc Band to 88 Mc Band (retrofit converters): 50 MHz to 146 MHz Converter: 50 to 150 MHz Overtone Oscillator: 50MHz Converter: Receiving Converters 88 108 Mc to AM broadcast band: Receiving Converters 88 108 to Television: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.

The implementation of this technique requires a delay in the input signal of approximately the same amount as the signal's rise time. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters: Sine to Square Wave Electronic Circuits Tutorials Current Feedback Amps Square up Fast Signals: 06/23/94 EDN-Design Ideas CurrentFeedback Op Amps Save Power In Photodiode Apps : 09/30/02 Electronic Design .Electronic Circuits Electronic. You can attain this delay by using a coaxial cable of an appropriate length.com/C/Sine_to_Square_Wave. PC.Ideas for Design / Current-feedback amplifiers offer high bandwidth with minimal power-supply current draw.Sine to Square Wave .. which have a peaking time of the signal amplitude. they're rarely used as transimpedance amplifiers in photodiode applications due to the high current noise of their inverting inputs.Design Ideas / A "constant-fraction discriminator" usually performs the time-tagging of impulsive events. . PC. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Converters . The .html [1/17/2007 4:43:31 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.. Square Wave to Sine Circuit: Square Wave to Sine Converter: Time tag impulses with zero crossing circuit: 01/24/2002 EDN .hobbyprojects. However.

. Unlike a PC-mouse supply or comparable that rely on the modem-control signals DTR and RTS..it uses a capacitor as a "bucket" to pump charge from one place to another.. The-Wattage depends on which transistors you use for Q1 and Q2. Rx.Converters . and obtains power only from the TX line. and ability to control the power draw of the LEDs make these devices attractive. The circuit is simple. The output currentabout 8mA-is sufficient for CMOS microcontrollers and other low-power .Electronic Projects Circuits Electronic..6 Volt to 5. Buck/Boost Charge Pump Regulator Powers White LEDs From a Wide 1. and TX. This Design Idea shows how to use this bidirectional energy transfer to automatically recharge a battery when the mai. and second Switching Regulator provides5V System Power Buck converter handles battery backup system: 04/24/03 EDN-Design Ideas / A synchronous buck converter is inherently bidirectional.02% Volt / F Converter Consumes only 26 µA: 07/04/96 EDN-Design Ideas 10 kHz VFC uses Charge Pump Variation: 04/09/98 EDN-Design Ideas 12 Volt DC to 120 Volt AC Inverter: this inverter should solve that problem. It can be used to generate negative voltage easily. about 75% efficient and quite useful. PC..5 Volt Input: Maxim Application Note #1021 C Volt Ranger: transforms a0-5-Volt input voltage to a adjustable range between010-Volt Charge Pump and Step Up DC DC Converter Solutions for Powering White LEDs in Series or Parallel Connections: Maxim Application Note #1037 Charge Pump Circuit Divides By Two: 02/18/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . but.hobbyprojects.scroll to find this circuit http://www.3 Volt Supply Taps Power From the12 Volt PCI Bus: 5 to 15 Volt Converter: 5 Volt DC From RS232 Signals: The circuit of Figure1 produces a semi-regulated5Volt output from an RS-232 port. Boost Converter Generates Three Analog Rails: Maxim Application Note #2026 Buck Converter Chargers Also Provides System Power: 05/22/97 EDN Design Ideas / Switching Regulator provides the charge voltage setpoint with Current regulation.. Flashlights are among the newer applications in which reliability. ruggedness. this one operates with a3-wire port GND. when the output voltage is high. With incandescent bulbs. Buck IC boosts battery voltage for white LED: 04/24/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Whitelight LEDs are finding their way into many markets that incandescent bulbs once served.Voltage Circuits . as well as how "big" a transformer you use for T1.html (1 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:43:34 PM] . That is. the power management for the device is a simple on-off switch. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters: Voltage Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials +9 Volt*and* 9 Volt From One Battery!: The MAX1044 is a charge pump converter . 0.. the converter acts as a boost regulator. It takes12 VDC and steps it up to120 VAC. 12 Volt to 9 Volt DC Converter: Car Converter for12 Volt to 9V 2 Watt Switching Power Supply: from 6V to14V 3. 6 to 12 Volt Converter: This circuit can provide up to 800mA of12V power from a 6 Volt supply. The inverter can be constructed to supply anywhere from1 to1000 (1 KW)Watts. it transfers energy from input to output as a buck regulator when the output voltage is low.com/C/Voltage. transferring power from output to input.

scroll to find this circuit Charge Pump Doubles Negative Voltage: Maxim Application Note #782 Choosing the Right Power Supply IC for your Application: Maxim Application Note #737 Cigarette Lighter 9 Volt Adapter: Circuit forms single pulse voltage multiplier : 09/18/03 EDN-Design Ideas / It is sometimes necessary for a microcontroller to generate a pulse whose voltage is higher than the power-supply voltage of the microcontroller. The circuit in Figure 1 allows you to generate 14V pulses from a 5V power supply.Design Ideas / The basic VFC (voltage-to-frequency converter) in Figure 1 comprises an integrator (IC1) and a Schmitt-trigger circuit (IC2).Converters . usable for low power applications DC/DC Conversion Without Inductors: Maxim Application Note #725 Design Case Study: Designing a Power Supply for a Portable. The integrator converts the dc input voltage. An adaptation of the circuit provides a 5 to 12V programming pulse for programming the fuse bits in Atmel… Circuit performs high speed voltage to current. Wireless Contact Manager : Maxim Application Note #1014 Design Formulas Simplify Classic V/I Converter: 01/20/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits ..html (2 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:43:34 PM] .com/C/Voltage.Electronic Projects Circuits Charge Pump Converts Volt in to± Volt OuT: 09/02/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . Doubler/Inverter Charge Pumps Divide By Two: Maxim Application Note #1876 DPP adds versatility to VFC: 11/14/2002 EDN . and the Schmitt trigger sets the limits of the integrator's output voltage. Driving LEDs in Battery Operated Applications: Controlling Brightness Power Efficiently: Maxim Application Note #1804 Easy Xenon DC to DC Converters!: High Power Voltage Regulator Has Low Dropout Voltage: Maxim Application Note #52 Inductorless Switching Regulator Boosts Input Voltage: Maxim Application Note #5 Inductorless Voltage Converter Boosts a Single Lithium Cell: Maxim Application Note #1791 Linear Voltage to Frequency Converter: Low Battery Monitor Delays System Shutdown: Maxim Application Note #134 Low Noise Audio Power Supply Circuit: Maxim Application Note #169 Low Side CurrentSensing Circuit Uses Synchronous VToF Converter : 09/02/02 Electronic Design . VIN . Lower Operating Frequency Improves ICL7660 Voltage Conversion Efficiency: Maxim Application Note #10 http://www. Compact. Feedback around both circuits provides the condition for oscillation.-34 for OFF-Line Switch Mode Power Supplies DAC Powered Charge Pump Varies Negative Rail: Maxim Application Note #203 DC to DC Converter Allows of Single Battery: Have you ever wanted to circuit to run off a single 9 Volt battery only to find you needed levels like +12 and -12 Volts? The thought of multiple batteries might have put you off..Ideas for Design / A voltage-to-frequency converter (VFC) can easily measure current flow and convert it to a digital signal understood by the timer/counter input of a microcomputer (µC) or microprocessor. Why not use a simple DC to DC converter? DC to DC Converter operates From Phone Line: 11/09/00 EDN Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .scroll to find this circuit DC to DC Converter: will produce a 85-Volt voltage from +3V. current to current conversion: 07/25/2002 EDN .hobbyprojects. to a linear voltage ramp.. It's a straightforward task to add a single opto-isolator.Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1performs active voltage-tocurrent conversion or acts as a variable-gain current mirror with high precision and bandwidth.scroll to find this circuit.. Inductorless Boost Circuit Regulates White LED Bias Current: Maxim Application Note #1116 Controlling a Variable Voltage Power Supply Using the DS1809 (Pushbutton Control): Maxim Application Note #1035 CoolSET TDA16831: ..Voltage Circuits . A typical application is testing high-speed ICs or other devices that have inputs designed to be driven from current-steering DACs to enable a modulated voltage source to control the devices.

Versatile Monolithic Volt / Fs Can Compute As Well As Convert With High Accuracy: National Semiconductor Application Notes. VCO uses programmable logic: 11/14/2002 EDN . Tiny Charge Pump Provides Highly Reliable Low Cost Solution to Negative Reference Voltage: Maxim Application Note #348 Trading Performance for Cost in Portable Power Supplies: Maxim Application Note #269 Triple Capacitive Voltage Inverter With the MAX871: Maxim Application Note #1875 Tripler Converts 5 Volt to 15V: Maxim Application Note #297 Two Watt Switching Power Supply: from 6V to14V Universal High Resistance Voltmeter: Universal Watchdog Fully Controls µ Preset: 05/25/95 EDN-Design Ideas Use a 555 timer as a switch mode power supply: 11/14/2002 EDN . A 555-timer IC can inexpensively perform PWM. sound cards suffer. so you cannot find it in the libraries for the design of digital programmable chips. Switched capacitor IC and reference form elegant –48 to +10V converter: 04/24/03 EDN-Design Ideas / A system designer must almost always face a tradeoff in choosing the right part for an application. The circuit in Figure 1 shows how to turn a 555 PWM circuit into an switchmode power supply with only one simple equation.Voltage Circuits .. Telecom systems almost exclusively use high-potential negative rails.Design Ideas / A VCO (voltagecontrolled oscillator) is an analog circuit.. Also. shown in the schematic.com/C/Voltage. using a discrete transistor regulator with an op-amp functioning as a comparator in the feedback circuit... and function. price.Electronic Projects Circuits Miniature.Ideas for Design / Personal-computer sound cards are sometimes used for analog audio signal acquisition. However.hobbyprojects. 0 to 6 MHz: Regulated Charge Pump Delivers 50mA: Maxim Application Note #35 Regulated Step Up Converter Provides High Efficiency Without Inductors: Maxim Application Note #44 Simple Circuit Provides +5 Volt Gate Bias From 48 Volt Input: Maxim Application Note #1803 Simple Methods Reduce Input Ripple for All Charge Pumps: Maxim Application Note #2027 Supplying Power Via the 1 Wire Bus: Maxim Application Note #949 Switch Mode DC Supply: The switching power supply. maximum.html (3 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:43:34 PM] . the Web features many free programs that implement virtual two-channel oscilloscopes by acquiring signals through the sound card. The supply was constructed in1984 and is variable frequency.Design Ideas / Most switch-mode power supplies rely on a PWM (pulse-width-modulated) output that is controlled via voltage feedback.Converters . +33V: This circuit is based on MAX1044 is a charge pump converter.. An example is the issue of powering circuits from a telecom-voltage source.04-Nov-1995 Volt / F Converter Draws Flea Power: 04/24/97 EDN-Design Ideas Voltage Controls Sine Wave Frequency: 08/17/95 EDN-Design Ideas Voltage Inverter #1: simple low power design based on555 Voltage Inverter IC Forms High Efficiency Rail Splitter: Maxim Application Note #218 http://www. such as 48V. as opposed to the pulse width modulator (PWM) controllers used today. such as AND and NAND. PIC Controlled DDS VFO. The design uses two 555s VCO has Digitally Programmable Center Frequency: 04/25/96 EDN-Design Ideas VCO Transforms Sound Card Into Precision DCCoupled ADC : 08/19/02 Electronic Design . you need to find a circuit that works with the standard digital functions. Precision Negative Reference Requires No Precision Resistors: Maxim Application Note #824 Negative Voltage Generator: takes in +12V and outputs around -11V One 9 Volt Battery gives +18. +25. The trade-off usually involves performance. When you need such a circuit for synchronization or clock multiplication. at10 amps. provides12 volts.

you can easily adjust the value of the current reference by simply adjusting the circuit's input voltage.Voltage Circuits . Also. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Ideas for Design / Voltage-to-current converters feeding to grounded loads often find their way into industrial measurements and control applications.html (4 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:43:34 PM] . Unfortunately. Using the simple circuit in Figure 1.com/C/Voltage.Design Ideas / You sometimes need to drive a white LED from one 1. The conventional textbook circuit needs both positive and negative-supply rails. Voltage to current converter makes a flexible current reference : 09/18/03 EDNDesign Ideas / The voltage-to-current converter in Figure 1 can both source and sink current.. you can drive one white LED or two series-connected green LEDs.5V battery.. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. the forward voltage of a white LED is 3 to 4V. using only a few components. So. you would need a dc/dc converter to drive the LED from one battery. PC.Converters .Electronic Projects Circuits Voltage to current converter drives white LEDs: 06/27/2002 EDN . Voltage To Current Converter Works From Single Supply Rail: 02/17/03 Electronic Design .hobbyprojects. The circuit is more flexible than some traditional current references that require different topologies for current sourcing and sinking...

Converters .Ideas for Design / Voltage-to-current converters feeding to grounded loads often find their way into industrial measurements and control applications.com/C/Voltage_to_Current.Voltage to Current .scroll to find this circuit. Current to Current Conversion: 07/25/02 EDN-Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure1performs active voltage-tocurrent conversion or acts as a variable-gain current mirror with high precision and bandwidth.Electronic Circuits Electronic. A typical application is testing high-speed ICs or other devices that have inputs designed to be driven from current-steering DACs to enable a modulated voltage source to control the devices.hobbyprojects. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Voltage-To-Current Converter Works From A Single-Supply Rail: 02/17/03 Electronic Design . The conventional textbook circuit needs both positive and negativesupply rails. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters: Voltage to Current Electronic Circuits Tutorials Circuit Performs High Speed Voltage to Current. PC.html [1/17/2007 4:43:38 PM] . Design Formulas Simplify Classic V/I Converter: 01/20/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . PC.

Linear Voltage to Frequency Converter: LowSide CurrentSensing Circuit Uses Synchronous VToF Converter : 09/02/02 Electronic Design . to a linear voltage ramp. Also.Ideas for Design / A voltage-to-frequency converter (VFC) can easily measure current flow and convert it to a digital signal understood by the timer/counter input of a microcomputer (µC) or microprocessor. Versatile Monolithic Volt / Fs Can Compute As Well As Convert With High Accuracy: National Semiconductor Application Notes. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Converters: Voltage to Frequency Electronic Circuits Tutorials 0.. However..Converters . sound cards suffer.hobbyprojects. VIN. VCO uses Programmable Logic: 11/14/02 EDN-Design Ideas / A VCO (voltagecontrolled oscillator) is an analog circuit. PIC Controlled DDS VFO.02% Volt / F Converter Consumes only 26 µA: 07/04/96 EDN-Design Ideas 10 kHz VFC uses Charge Pump Variation: 04/09/98 EDN-Design Ideas DPP Adds Versatility to VFC: 11/14/02 EDN-Design Ideas / The basic VFC (voltage-to-frequency converter) comprises an integrator (IC1) and a Schmitttrigger circuit (IC2). The integrator converts the dc input voltage.Voltage to Frequency . so you cannot find it in the libraries for the design of digital programmable chips. PC.04-Nov-1995 Volt / F Converter Draws Flea Power: 04/24/97 EDN-Design Ideas Voltage Controls Sine Wave Frequency: 08/17/95 EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.com/C/Voltage_to_Frequency. the Web features many free programs that implement virtual two-channel oscilloscopes by acquiring signals through the sound card.html [1/17/2007 4:43:41 PM] . It's a straightforward task to add a single opto-isolator..Electronic Circuits Electronic..Ideas for Design / Personal-computer sound cards are sometimes used for analog audio signal acquisition. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. 0 to 6 MHz: Universal Watchdog Fully Controls µ Preset: 05/25/95 EDN-Design Ideas VCO has Digitally Programmable Center Frequency: 04/25/96 EDN-Design Ideas VCO Transforms Sound Card Into Precision DCCoupled ADC : 08/19/02 Electronic Design . PC. and the Schmitt trigger sets the limits of the integrators output voltage.

Electronic Projects . It will work with inputs as small as 5mv peak-topeak or as large as 3 volts peak to peak. some common logic ICs can be transformed from digital to analog duties. It has a bandwidth that extends beyond 50MHz. FET INPUT HIGH SPEED LIGHT DETECTOR (fetamp0) This circuit is yet another design that converts current from a PIN photo diode to a voltage. It has good ambient light immunity. WIDE BAND ZERO CROSS DETECTOR (zerocross1) This circuit was designed to convert a low amplitude 40KHz signal into a clean square wave signal. N-CH AND P-CH TRANSISTORS FORM PUSH-PULL DRIVER (pushpul) This circuit can produce high speed output signals with fast rise and full times. The output current is only limited by the rating of the transistors. I have used this circuit beyond 2MHz. PC. The unique change pump action allows the voltage of the upper P-ch device to range from millivolts to hundreds of volts. C-MOS INVERTER MAKES LOW POWER AMP (invertamp1) With the addition of one resistor and a capacitor.hobbyprojects.Hobby Circuits 10MHz TO 20MHz LASER LIGHT DETECTOR (20mrvr2) This circuit was originally designed to detect laser light pulses for an optical Ethernet communications system.com/C/Wide_Band. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. This circuit outlines some the features to expect from different inverter ICs. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Wide Band Circuits . The input frequency can range from a few kilohertz to about 150KHz.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:43:43 PM] .

.hobbyprojects. it sets fixed-bias conditions for ISFET sensors (VDS=I0 RX.html [1/17/2007 4:43:45 PM] .com/C/Constant_Current_Circuits. Even powering the linear current source from an efficiently downconverted version of the supply voltage will incur unnecessary dissipation if the load resistance is variable Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. can be a very inefficient endeavor when using the linear approach.scroll to find this circuit Constant current Amplifier : Constant Current Battery Charger: Efficiently Source Constant Current To Low Resistance Loads : 06/23/03 Electronic Design . for example. such as a thermoelectric cooler. Circuit Provides Constant Current for ISFETs/MEMFETs: 10/26/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .Constant Current Circuits . The circuit in Figure 1 is extremely simple. IDS=I0). PC. PC.. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Ideas for Design / Supplying a constant current to a variable. Circuit forms novel floating current source: 05/01/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Figure 1 shows a polarization circuit applicable to ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effecttransistor) sensors.Electronic Circuits Electronic. lowresistance load. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Constant Current Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Circuit Forms Constantcurrent SCR: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits ..scroll to find this circuit. ISFETs are solid-state chemical sensors that measure the pH value of a solution in biomedical and environmental applications.

an FPGA.Design Ideas / The two-chip circuit in Figure 1 provides fan control and overtemperature warning and shutdown signals to protect systems from excessive heat.Electronic Projects .Hobby Circuits Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:43:47 PM] .Cooling Fan Circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Cooling Fan Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Circuit protects system from overheating: 11/08/2001 EDN . or another IC with an on-chip temperature-sensing transistor. PC. . MOSFET switch provides efficient AC / DC conversion: 02/17/00 EDN-Design Ideas System monitors multiple temperatures. controls fan speed: 10/12/00 EDN-Design Ideas Thermo Cooling Fan: fan controller.hobbyprojects. PC. which controls fan based on temperature Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.com/C/Cooling_Fan_Controls. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. The circuit monitors the temperature of the pc board and the die temperature of a CPU.

. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic..hobbyprojects. PC.Electronic Circuits & Projects Electronic.com/C/Cosine. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Math Functions: Cosine Electronic Circuits Tutorials Circuit forms efficient cosine calculator: 10/25/2001 EDN ..Math Functions .html [1/17/2007 4:43:49 PM] . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. PC.Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1 converts a 10V analog voltage representing an angle between MIN and MAX and emits a voltage equal to 10 cos . This circuit can have an accuracy of better than 1% over 120 or better than 0. These figures represent an order-of-magnitude improvement over a Taylor-series estimate for the same range and for.Cosine .2% over 90 .

Electronic Projects & Circuits Electronic. My Big Fat Anticipating Timer.5: 10/10/96 EDN-Design Ideas http://www. Voltage Meter & SWR / PWR Indicator: 555 Go / No Go Tester: 555 Makes handy Voltagetotime Converter: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . when you need extreme precision.com/C/Counters_and_Timer_Circuits.. this approach requires correspondingly accurate resistors and can become expensive. the lights Asynchronous Circuit Divides Frequency By 1.scroll to find the one of interest / 28 LED Clock Timer 72 LED Clock: programmable clock Timer circuit that uses individual LEDs to indicate hours and minutes 4 Bit Binary Clock: 40 LED Bicycle Light (555 Timer 6 Volt): 5 to 30 Minute Timer: 50 MHz Frequency Counter.hobbyprojects.html (1 of 5) [1/17/2007 4:44:02 PM] .Counters and Timer Circuits . 555 One Shot: Basic 555 MonoStable Multivibrator 555 oscillator: 555 time Delay Circuit: 555 Timer #1: 555 Timer #2: 555 Timer 40khz Infrared Oscillator: 555 Timer Circuits: 555 Timer IC Tester: 555 Timer MonoStable Circuit using Pushbutton: 555 Timer Tutorial + Circuits: 555 Tone Generator 8 Ohm Speaker: 7 Segment LED Counter: 72 LED Clock: 8254 Timer & Counter Board: 9 Second Digital Readout Timer: 9 Second LED Relay Timer: AD9852 DDS Schematic: Amplifiers perform precision divide by 2 circuit: 03/06/03 EDN-Design Ideas / The classic implementation of a voltage-halving circuit uses two equal-value resistors. For most applications. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Counters and Timer Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 2 Transistor Atomic Frequency Standard: 2. this performance is cost-effective and more than adequate. Using 1% resistors provides a divider output with 2% accuracy. PC.) It happens to almost everyone that an apparatus or system should have been turned off a moment ago. The device in question could be the car heater.scroll to find this circuit. the air conditioner.8 GHz Prescaler keeps Cost Down: 07/20/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . However.. Analog Pulse Counter: Anticipating timer switches before you push the button: 04/03/03 EDN-Design Ideas / (Editor's note: This Twilight Zone-worthy circuit will be the subject of an upcoming network sitcom.

. Both the front and rear wipers can be controlled separately using six interval settings.Ideas for Design / A linear-recursive-sequence (LRS) generator produces binary sequences using a shift register and feedback through an exclusive-OR gate. whether the circuit is in a high or a low state. commercially available watchdog ICs. The circuit is more cost-effective than dedicated... Clock Divider Circuit: Clock Doubler for CMOS Logic: Clock Fail Circuit Switches to Alternate Clock: 10/24/96 EDN-Design Ideas Clock Generator: Use4093 oscillator Clock Recovery PLL Fits Into Single PLD: 11/23/95 EDN-Design Ideas Clock Switching Circuit Banishes Glitches: 12/19/96 EDN-Design Ideas CMOS 4011 oscillator: Computerised Universal Timer: Countdown timer With Relay: Counte Resets LRS Generator : 09/30/02 Electronic Design . For applications in which digital processors or microcontrollers serve for data acquisition and signal processing. thats why theres no PIC microcontroller in sight! Cheap 40KHz Clock: Circuit Conditions Variable Duty Cycle Clock: 01/05/95 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit Converts Solid State Relay to Timer: 05/09/96 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit Counts Logic ones on Signal Lines: 02/01/96 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit divides frequency by N+1: 07/11/2002 EDN . find common use in the measurement of several physical parameters. plus a few SMD ICs for the LCD driver. Circuit Provides Serial or Sequential Timing: 09/26/96 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit provides watchdog for microcontrollers: 12/26/2002 EDN .Counters and Timer Circuits .... where N is the number of stages. This configuration creates a binary waveform that you can feed back to the input. You can divide any integer lower than 2N with minimal stages. The sequence length equals 2N-1. Whenever the pulsing at the control input stops.html (2 of 5) [1/17/2007 4:44:02 PM] . such as strain gauges and piezoresistive devices.Electronic Projects & Circuits Audio Amp Timer: Turns-off your amplifier when idle for15 minutes Fed by amplifier tape-output Backup Clock Controller Checks Time Setting: 01/05/95 EDN-Design Ideas Basic 555 Monostable: BCD COUNTER: This is based around two ic’s the 4029 an up down counter and the 4543 a latched bcd to 7 segment driver it is very cheap to build with many uses. Its a fairly old design.. th.Design Ideas / Digital frequency dividers usually use flip-flop stages that connect the Q pin to the D datainput pin of the following stage.. It uses pure discrete logic ICs (4000 series) and a4-digit LCD display with backlight. Counter IC Provides Wait States for 8031 / 8051: 06/22/95 EDN-Design Ideas Counter Provides Divide By 4. Budget timer: Car Clock: CaClo was designed and built to be used in an automobile. Circuit provides linear resistance to time conversion : 08/07/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Resistance-based transducers.Design Ideas / The watchdog circuit in Figure 1 uses a single NAND Schmitt-trigger IC..scroll to find this circuit. the transducer's response must assume a form suitable for conversion to digital format. where N represents the number of registers. The circuit generates an active-high reset signal upon power-up and remains in a low state as long as the control input receives pulses. The generator cycles. Car Interval Wiper: CaWip was designed and built to be used in an automobile.hobbyprojects.5 Function: 05/22/97 EDN-Design Ideas Counter Speed Doubler: Crystal Controlled Time Base Generator: Crystal Controlled Time-Base Generator CW Beacon Keyer: Darkroom Timer: Day / Night / 24 Hour Select Sensor: DDS using AD9835: http://www. Bedside Lamp timer: Big LED Clock: Binary Counter uses LSB Feedforward: 08/05/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .com/C/Counters_and_Timer_Circuits.

950 meters with2digits. but the components themselves are hard to obtain. and that restriction confines the devices to applications in which the duty cycle remains near 50%. 555IC: Function Timing Analyzer: The idea behind FuTA was to measure the execution Time. full-bridge control circuits. of a 6833232-bit microprocessor embedded system. Jogging timer: 3V Battery Powered Beeps after a fixed number of minutes Lamp Switch Delay: LM3900 Sine Wave oscillator: Logic offers complementary switch control: 12/06/2001 EDN . Slip it in pants pocket for walking and jogging Digital Timer has Independent On / Off Periods: 03/28/96 EDN-Design Ideas Divide By 1 1/2 Circuit: Doorbell With Counter: Dynamic Clock Provides for Zero Wait States: 03/27/97 EDN-Design Ideas Edge Detector Runs off of Single Supply: 12/04/97 EDN-Design Ideas Event Counter: Extend the timing capabilities of a PC: 01/10/2002 EDN .Design Ideas / Today's digital delay lines can process pulses no shorter than their delay times. charge pumps. Digital Step Km Counter Max. Long Period timer: Low Frequency Clock: Mains Clock Controller using AT89C2051: Micropower Pulse Generator: MM58174Real Time Clock in a Battery Backed Up: Design Provides Reliable Clock and Calendar Functions : National Semiconductor Application Notes.html (3 of 5) [1/17/2007 4:44:02 PM] . Although this could be achieved by other means.. Pulses Spaced 5 Sec.. Longer delay is available with one-shot multivibrators of standard digitallogic families.Design Ideas / The complementary-switch controller in Figure 1 uses a few inverter gates to provide drive signals for the complementary switches.04-Nov-1995 More Accurate PC / AT Clock: Nixie Tube Clock http://www. It consists of a4-digit LCD display and several CMOS4000 ICs. you must overcome the many pitfalls of low-duty-cycle circuits to arrive at a desired result.com/C/Counters_and_Timer_Circuits.. It was built using SMD components (apart from the LCD and switches) in order to keep the size fairly small. but could used for all sorts of counting applications. Apart: GPS Receiver Based Frequency Standard: Impulse Counter: ImCo was really designed for a "bike-o-meter" project. A limited range of available delays (2 to 100 nsec per tap) further limits their use. running on a small 6V camera battery.. such as an emulator (or simulator). it gave me an excuse to design some hardware using a PLD (programmable logic device)...hobbyprojects. The circuit in Figure 1 provides not only a complementary drive signal but also a deadtime delay . Complementary-switch configurations find widespread use in synchronous-rectification circuits.. a PC cannot easily measure time intervals with better time resolution than a millisecond.: Pedometer has a range of 9. but those devices do not retain duty-c. Using only ideal components eases the design.Design Ideas Even when you use the internal timing registers and under DOS.. Failed Power Light: turns on small low voltage lighting when mains power disappears Fast Rise time Multivibrator: Frequency Counter: Frequency Generator. Galloping Neon: array of blinking neon lamps Generating a Delayed Pulse With a Dual 555 Timer: Generation Of 1 Sec. of several selected functions (written in C). and other circuits. you can easily integrate a PIC with a PC to extend the timing precision into the microsecond range for perio. A microcontroller is well-suited for this task.Counters and Timer Circuits .Electronic Projects & Circuits Delay line has wide duty cycle range: 06/27/2002 EDN .Design Ideas / Designing astable circuits using the industry-standard 555 timer is a straightforward process when duty cycles are 50% or greater. However. Delay Line implements Clock Doubler: 07/18/96 EDN-Design Ideas Deoderizer Fan Pushbutton Timer : Design low duty cycle timer circuits: 08/22/2002 EDN . Measuring long intervals with even this precision is a waste of many CPU cycles. .

solenoid. precisely controlled by a PIC microprocessor. after activation by some physical effect. temperature. Simple Timer Exploits OpAmp Bias Current: 07/21/94 EDN-Design Ideas Simple Timer Remembers your Rhythm: 01/05/95 EDN-Design Ideas Sine Wave oscillator: Sinewave Frequency Doubler: Single Gate Synchronizes Clock: 10/27/94 EDN-Design Ideas Sleep Switch Cum Wake up Timer: Slot Car T Volt Chronograph: Speaking Clock using PIC & ISD Device: SpeClo was designed and built to be used by the blind. or heater. Sample hold Controlled oscillator: Shower Stopper: Simple Circuit Provides Timebase Calibration: 04/24/97 EDN-Design Ideas Simple Divide by N Using '161s: Simple Frequency Doubler: Simple FSK Modulator: Simple phototimer controls load: 04/18/2002 EDN . Its purpose is to provide a relatively easy way for ascertaining the Time of day by whistling.Design Ideas / In industrial and home applications. such as a lamp.html (4 of 5) [1/17/2007 4:44:02 PM] . are fairly limited when used in their monostable mode.. . Pulse Generator. usually derives its power from the ac line. motor. These timers work perfectly and.Counters and Timer Circuits . (Any phototransistor will work fine) The sun shining on this device will provide a high to one of the NAND gates. or sound. Old Dog 555 Learns Six New Tricks: 05/11/95 EDN-Design Ideas Onboard Fogger Timer: One Transistor timer: Pedometer: Periodic Timer: PIC Tock Video Clock: Power On Time Delay Relay Circuit: Precision 1Hz Clock Generator using Chip On Board: Programmable Clock Oscillator #1: voltage controller oscillator that was designed as a wide range oscillator to generate clock pulses for a stepper motor drive system. and can be configured to speak English or German! Square Wave to Sine Converter: Stable 40KHz Clock: Stable Multivibrator (IC): Stable Multivibrator (Transistor): Sun Up Alarm: The Sun . headlights etc. frequency could be varied over1. Switch Debounce using 555: http://www. The circuit works as follows.hobbyprojects. This will cause another NAND gate to oscillate which will drive another gate to output a100hz tone.000.Electronic Projects & Circuits NAND Gates Enable Trigger Lockout For 555 Timers: 04/14/03 Electronic Design Ideas for Design / Applications of commercially available integrated timers.com/C/Counters_and_Timer_Circuits. NE555 Basic Monostable: Nixie Tube Clock: Off the Shelf Watchdog: 01/07/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . 555: PWM Watchdog Circuit Ensures upper Bounds: 11/07/96 EDN-Design Ideas Realtimeclock Chip Makes Lowpower oscillator: 11/23/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . The phototransistor is very sensitive to light.. switches a load on for a predetermined time.scroll to find this circuit.000:1 Programmable Clock Oscillator #2: PIC-Tock video clock using a PIC16C61 Propeller Clock: a few light emitting diodes spin. the need sometimes exists for a device that.scroll to find this circuit. The transistor provides drive for the speaker. The load. including the NE/SE555. It can also be used to detect a light beam.Up Alarm can be used to provide a audible alarm for when the sun comes up or it can be used in a dark area and detect when a light comes on. giving the illusion of a larger array. such as light. This is due to their inability to function with all types of trigger pulses.

Counters and Timer Circuits ..Design Ideas / A dctriggered reset of a watchdog circuit is prone to failure. and the microprocessor has no way to escape the situation.hobbyprojects.scroll to find this circuit Using The LM555 Timer With Photocell Detectors: Variable timer: VCG01 PAL / NTSC Video Clock / Message Generator: Video text overlay circuit Versatile Electronic timer: Versatile Timer Operates From Microseconds to Hours: National Semiconductor Application Notes. Universal Watchdog Fully Controls µ Preset: 05/25/95 EDN-Design Ideas Use a 555 timer as a switch mode power supply: 11/14/2002 EDN .html (5 of 5) [1/17/2007 4:44:02 PM] . bidirectional rotation-sensing applications.Electronic Projects & Circuits Tan Timer: Six Timing positions suited to different skin types Timing affected by sunlight intensity Time / Date / Message Video Overlay Generator!: video text overlay circuit Time and Frequency Circuits: Time Switch: Timed Beeper: Timer Car Interval Wiper: Timer Provides Power Off Function: 05/22/97 EDN-Design Ideas Two Transistor Atomic Frequency Standard: Unidirectional counters accumulate bidirectional pulses: 04/11/2002 EDN .. You can adopt several measures to avoid accidentally triggering the test mode: Depress two keys. We found that a simple solution uses an ac trigger to reset the watchdog circuit (Figure 1).scroll to find this circuit Use time domain analysis of Zobel network: 06/27/02 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . PC.Design Ideas / Quadrature-output incremental optical shaft encoders are popular in highperformance. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Watchdog Circuit uses Leftover Gates: 08/01/96 EDN-Design Ideas Watchdog Time Out is Independent of Reset: 09/01/95 EDN-Design Ideas Watchdog timer allows entry to test mode: 07/19/2001 EDN .28 Jun1996 Wiper Speed Controller: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Design Ideas / Most switch-mode power supplies rely on a PWM (pulse-width-modulated) output that is controlled via voltage feedback. Watchdog Timer Reboots PCs: 06/05/97 EDN-Design Ideas Wide Range Timer: National Semiconductor Application Notes.scroll to find this circuit.Design Ideas / Manuals for microprocessor-based devices often include instructions for entering a "secret mode" in which you can test or reset the device. A 555-timer IC can inexpensively perform PWM. The design uses two 555s Use a trick to count scope events: 01/21/99 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits ..24 Feb1999 Video Clock Superimposer: Video Message & Clock Generator: Watchdog circuit uses ac triggering: 08/16/2001 EDN . then the reset signal becomes activated continuously. Available with resolution options extending beyond 2000 pulses/revolution.. incremental encoders provide a fast. These instructions typically ask you to depress and hold one or two switches for a minimum time interval. The circuit in Figure 1 shows how to turn a 555 PWM circuit into an switchmode power supply with only one simple equation.. hold both keys simultaneously and continuously throug. If the watchdog program hangs up. Watchdog timer Assumes Varied Roles: 02/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .com/C/Counters_and_Timer_Circuits.

04 Nov1995 Tiny Crystal Oscillator #1: Tiny Crystal Oscillator #2: High-stability gate oscillator uses two. 5-pin SOT packaged devices Wide Swing Variable Crystal Oscillator: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Hobby Projects Electronic.com/C/Crystal_Oscillators.: Study of the Crystal Oscillator for CMOS CoPS: National Semiconductor Application Notes.Electronic Circuits .768KHz CMOS Oscillator: Crystal Controlled Time Base Generator: Crystal Controlled Time-Base Generator Crystal Oscillator overcomes typical Drawbacks: 08/17/98 EDN-Design Ideas Crystal oscillator: Low Distortion Crystal Oscillator : One Second Time Base From Crystal Osc. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Oscillators: Crystal Electronic Circuits Tutorials 1 Second Time Base From Crystal Osc. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Oscillators .: 50 to 150 MHz Overtone Oscillator: CMOS oscillator: Colpitts 1 to 20 MHz Crystal Oscillator: Crystal 32.hobbyprojects.Crystal . PC. PC.html [1/17/2007 4:44:05 PM] .

html [1/17/2007 4:44:07 PM] . PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Math Functions: Cube Root Electronic Circuits Tutorials Analog multipliers take cube roots: 4/10/97 EDN-Design Ideas Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.Math Functions . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.Electronic Circuits Electronic. PC.com/C/Cube_Root.Cube Root .hobbyprojects.

Circuit provides hiccup current limiting: 06/26/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Currentlimit protection is an essential feature for power-supply systems.. and hiccup. others are nonlatching. When the overcurrent trip level is reached in a latching controller.Current Limiter Circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. the whole power supply shuts down for an interval before it tri. the implementation is rather complex. the. Eliminate Latching Current Limit In Power Supplies : 08/05/02 Electronic Design Ideas for Design / Most modern power-supply control ICs offer built-in overcurrent or short-circuit protection..8 Volt 20PSU: This is a Regulated DC power supply with short circuit protection and with current limiter. 9 Volt 2PSU: A simple 9 Volt 2 amp supply using a single IC regulator.Electronic Projects & Circuits Electronic.hobbyprojects.. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. upon detection of an overcurrent event.html [1/17/2007 4:44:09 PM] . PC. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Current Limiter Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 13.. The three major types of current-limit-protection mechanisms are constant. however.com/C/Current_Limiters. PC. While some overcurrent-protection schemes are latching.. Hiccup current limit performs the best of the three types. foldback. In this scheme.

Current Loop Circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Current Loop Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 4 to 20 mA Current Loop Needs No External Power Source: 09/13/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .html [1/17/2007 4:44:11 PM] .scroll to find this circuit Current Loop Converter: Two Channel Isolated Industrial Version.com/C/Current_Loop_Circuits. PC.hobbyprojects.Electronic Projects & Circuits Electronic. PC. schematic in PDF format Current Loop Interface: Loop Alarm: Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.

. Circuit measures currents in dc servo motor: 12/06/2001 EDN . High Side Current Sensor has Period Output 1: Maxim APP 1084: May 31. This application note describes a low-cost. .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:44:15 PM] . The rectified output of the circuit uses ground as a reference. as some other schemes do.. The current-sense resistor.. configuration.Design Ideas / The simple circuit design in Figure 1 lets you measure all components of a current flowing in a dc servo motor. such as a resistor or a Hall-effect device. . isolated supply voltage.. this design takes only one pin from the microcontroller to operate.com/C/Current_Meters. has a value of 0. so you can measure the output by using a single-ended A/D converter. 2001 / Current sharing between DC/DC converter modules enables several modules to be paralleled. space-saving and accurate current sensing and sharing scheme using MAX4372. Current Sense Amplifier Handles High Voltages: 11/06/97 EDN-Design Ideas Current Sense IC Prevents Overcurrent Damage: 04/25/96 EDN-Design Ideas Current sensing scheme improves PFC on/off sequences: 06/27/2002 EDN . However. The differential voltage across the sense element is generally small and is often riding on a common-mode voltage that is considerably . Moreover. because this type of converter is relatively easy to implement (Figure 1).scroll to find the one of interest http://www. PC. high-side.Design Ideas / PFC (power-factor-correction) preconverters typically use the step-up. 2002 High Side Current Sensor has Period Output 2: 03/07/02 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . tight tolerances for current sharing have made discrete current-sense circuit designs a formidable challenge. Most techniques for sensing current involve measuring the differential voltage the current produces as it flows through a sense element. current-sense circuit does not use a dedicated. Using just five surface-mount parts. R1... this topology requires the output voltage to be higher than the input voltage. Analog input circuit serves any microcontroller: 12/20/2001 EDN . with on/off sequences or under load conditions—some inrush current flows thro.Design Ideas / The simple ADC in Figure 1 is perfect for getting analog signals into a purely digital microcontroller.scroll to find this circuit.Current Monitors and Amp Meters . Circuit Measures Small Current in DC Servo Motor: 12/07/01 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit Senses High Side Current: 03/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / (One of several circuits in PDF) The accurate. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Sensors / Detectors: Amp Meters and Current Monitors Electronic Circuits Tutorials AC Line Current Detector: Active feedback IC serves as current sensing instrumentation amplifier: 07/24/03 EDN-Design Ideas / High-speed current sensing presents a designer with some significant challenges. Circuit Breaker Monitors Leakage Current: 06/21/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .. CurrentSensing for Crossbars: Maxim APP 391: Mar 01. which is approximately half the cost of a single-chip-ADC approach in the same volume. or boost.Electronic Circuits Electronic. In recent years. you can assemble it for less than 50 cents (1000).hobbyprojects. When this condition is not the case—for example.

and the de facto loop standard within the process-control industry. and the ground pin. connects to the system's positive supply. connects to the negative supply. Integrator Forms Picoammeter: 07/17/97 EDN-Design Ideas MOSFET Current Sensing: Method of mirror current sensing a MOSFET Simple circuit provides high side current sensing: 10/12/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .. V+. PC.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:44:15 PM] .com/C/Current_Meters.scroll to find this circuit The common JFET current-source in Figure 1a has average output impedance and depends heavily on the JFET's V P and I DSS variations. VEE. robust. the loop's high noise immunity in harsh environments.. GND.scroll to find this circuit Solar Current Meter: Transmitter accurately transfers voltage input: 05/15/03 EDN-Design Ideas / When you connect remote sensors to a central process controller.Current Monitors and Amp Meters .. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. tight tolerances for current sharing have made discrete current-sense circuit designs a formidable challenge. a simple. The positive-supply pin. This application note describes a low-cost.hobbyprojects.. That arrangement monitors the negative supply and provides a positive output voltage for the extern. In recent years.Electronic Circuits High side current sensor monitors negative rail: 04/17/03 EDN-Design Ideas / All dedicated current-sense amplifiers provide high-side sensing on a positive supply. 2001 / Current sharing between DC/DC converter modules enables several modules to be paralleled. and commonly used interface is the 4 to 20-mA loop. The advantages of this current loop include the simplicity of just two twisted wires that share both power and signal.. These manufacturing variations limit the initial accuracy of the current setpoint that the circuit can obtain with a. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. HighAccuracy CurrentSense Amplifier Enables Current Sensing and Current Sharing: Maxim APP 391: Mar 01. space-saving and accurate current sensing and sharing scheme using MAX4372. but you can adapt such circuits for monitoring a negative supply (Figure 1). Two Sensors Measure Three Line Currents: 09/01/95 EDN-Design Ideas Voltage Reference improves JFET: 10/26/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .

com/C/Current_mirrors. IDS=I0). Some examples are white for the display backlight. ISFETs are solid-state chemical sensors that measure the pH value of a solution in biomedical and environmental applications.Design Ideas / Portable systems often use LEDs of different colors and in varying quantities of each color. PC. and red for power..Electronic Circuits & Projects Electronic. Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. Circuit forms novel floating current source: 05/01/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Figure 1 shows a polarization circuit applicable to ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effecttransistor) sensors.. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. it sets fixed-bias conditions for ISFET sensors (VDS=I0 RX.hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 4:44:18 PM] .. PC.Current Mirror Circuits . Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Current Mirror Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials Circuit drives mixed types and quantities of LEDs: 10/03/2002 EDN . the LEDs derive power from at least two power supplies: one for "standard" LEDs (red and green) and one for white LEDs. green for keypad illumination. The circuit in Figure 1 is extremely simple. Typically.. for example.

When this condition is not the case—for example. Analog input circuit serves any microcontroller: 12/20/2001 EDN . Most techniques for sensing current involve measuring the differential voltage the current produces as it flows through a sense element. with on/off sequences or under load conditions—some inrush current flows thro. PC. high-side. Circuit Measures Small Current in DC Servo Motor: 12/07/01 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit Senses High Side Current: 03/01/01 EDN-Design Ideas / (One of several circuits in PDF) The accurate...... as some other schemes do. so you can measure the output by using a single-ended A/D converter. or boost. . you can assemble it for less than 50 cents (1000). Current Sense Amplifier Handles High Voltages: 11/06/97 EDN-Design Ideas Current Sense IC Prevents Overcurrent Damage: 04/25/96 EDN-Design Ideas Current sensing scheme improves PFC on/off sequences: 06/27/2002 EDN Design Ideas / PFC (power-factor-correction) preconverters typically use the stepup.Design Ideas / The simple ADC in Figure 1 is perfect for getting analog signals into a purely digital microcontroller. In recent years. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Sensors / Detectors: Amp Meters and Current Monitors Electronic Circuits Tutorials AC Line Current Detector: Active feedback IC serves as current sensing instrumentation amplifier: 07/24/03 EDN-Design Ideas / High-speed current sensing presents a designer with some significant challenges. 2001 / Current sharing between DC/DC converter modules enables several modules to be paralleled. tight tolerances for current sharing have made discrete current-sense circuit designs a formidable challenge. The rectified output of the circuit uses ground as a reference. has a value of 0. CurrentSensing for Crossbars: Maxim APP 391: Mar 01. because this type of converter is relatively easy to implement (Figure 1). isolated supply voltage. Using just five surface-mount parts. Moreover. The current-sense resistor. configuration..scroll to find the one of interest http://www. Circuit Breaker Monitors Leakage Current: 06/21/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . 2002 High Side Current Sensor has Period Output 2: 03/07/02 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:44:20 PM] . which is approximately half the cost of a single-chip-ADC approach in the same volume. this topology requires the output voltage to be higher than the input voltage. However. R1. Circuit measures currents in dc servo motor: 12/06/2001 EDN . The differential voltage across the sense element is generally small and is often riding on a common-mode voltage that is considerably . .hobbyprojects.scroll to find this circuit. High Side Current Sensor has Period Output 1: Maxim APP 1084: May 31.Design Ideas / The simple circuit design in Figure 1 lets you measure all components of a current flowing in a dc servo motor.. this design takes only one pin from the microcontroller to operate. such as a resistor or a Hall-effect device.com/C/Current_Sensors_Monitors.Sensors & Detectors .Amp Meters and Current Monitors Electronic. current-sense circuit does not use a dedicated. space-saving and accurate current sensing and sharing scheme using MAX4372. This application note describes a low-cost.

Click here for Other Circuits Electronic.com/C/Current_Sensors_Monitors. a simple. V+. These manufacturing variations limit the initial accuracy of the current setpoint that the circuit can obtain with a. This application note describes a low-cost.scroll to find this circuit The common JFET current-source in Figure 1a has average output impedance and depends heavily on the JFET's V P and I DSS variations. VEE. HighAccuracy CurrentSense Amplifier Enables Current Sensing and Current Sharing: Maxim APP 391: Mar 01. robust. 2001 / Current sharing between DC/DC converter modules enables several modules to be paralleled.. and the ground pin. PC.Amp Meters and Current Monitors High side current sensor monitors negative rail: 04/17/03 EDN-Design Ideas / All dedicated current-sense amplifiers provide high-side sensing on a positive supply.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:44:20 PM] . The advantages of this current loop include the simplicity of just two twisted wires that share both power and signal. and the de facto loop standard within the process-control industry.Sensors & Detectors . Integrator Forms Picoammeter: 07/17/97 EDN-Design Ideas MOSFET Current Sensing: Method of mirror current sensing a MOSFET Simple circuit provides high side current sensing: 10/12/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . but you can adapt such circuits for monitoring a negative supply (Figure 1). Two Sensors Measure Three Line Currents: 09/01/95 EDN-Design Ideas Voltage Reference improves JFET: 10/26/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . space-saving and accurate current sensing and sharing scheme using MAX4372. GND. The positive-supply pin. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www. In recent years... tight tolerances for current sharing have made discrete current-sense circuit designs a formidable challenge. and commonly used interface is the 4 to 20-mA loop. connects to the system's positive supply. the loop's high noise immunity in harsh environments... That arrangement monitors the negative supply and provides a positive output voltage for the extern. connects to the negative supply.scroll to find this circuit Solar Current Meter: Transmitter accurately transfers voltage input: 05/15/03 EDN-Design Ideas / When you connect remote sensors to a central process controller.hobbyprojects.

CMOS Buffer Delivers Precise Current Pulses: 12/08/94 EDN-Design Ideas Constant current Amplifier : Constant Current Battery Charger: Current Source has High Output Impedance: 06/22/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits .Current Source / Sink Circuits . 1A. a setcurrent error of less than1% and an output impedance of greater than100 megaohms HAVE TO LOG IN TO RETRIEVE CIRCUIT Design Formulas Simplify Classic V/I Converter: 01/20/00 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . is particularly suited for setting the drive current for the optical pump in widely tunable VCSELs (verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers).. PC Controlled Current Source Supplies 100V.. . only the selected MOSFET and the ratings of the input supplys bypass capacitors limit the voltage compliance Linear Constant Current LED Lamp Dimmer: This circuits drives24 white light LEDs with an adjustable constant current.Design Ideas / In an antilog converter.. PC. the difference between the base voltages of two transistors sets the ratio of their collector currents: The use of matched transistors balances the first-order temperature coefficient but leaves a temperature-dependent gain term. based on LM317 60 MCurrent Source Feeds Telecomm Lines: 12/12/97 EDN-Design Ideas BiPolars Provide StableCurrent Source: 09/24/98 EDN-Design Ideas Circuit forms novel floating current source: 05/01/03 EDN-Design Ideas / Figure 1 shows a polarization circuit applicable to ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effecttransistor) sensors.com/C/Current_Source_Sink_Circuits. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students Current Source / Sink Circuits Electronic Circuits Tutorials 40 Volt Current Source operates From 40 to +85°C: 06/22/1995 EDN . ISFETs are solid-state chemical sensors that measure the pH value of a solution in biomedical and environmental applications.hobbyprojects. The circuit in Figure 1. q/kT. The circuit in Figure 1 is extremely simple.Electronic Projects & Circuits Electronic.and lasercommunications drivers. Precision Current Sink Costs Less than \$20: 03/13/98 EDN-Design Ideas / Simple active load circuit for current from1 mA to1A and voltage from3 to40-Volt Reference stabilizes exponential current: 10/25/2001 EDN . To do so.. Digital current source is nonvolatile: 02/07/2002 EDN .Ideas for Design / The current source shown in the figure is designed to support toroidal-cavity nuclear-magnetic-resonance electrophoresis (TCNMRE) measurements of molecular electrical mobility in chemical samples.Design Ideas / Digitally programmable current sources that feature automatic trimming and retain the setting despite power-down cycles are useful in applications such as RF. for example..scroll to find this circuit.Design Ideas / Wide Output Current range Sources that accommodate a wide Supply and Temperature range. .scroll to find the one of interest / Composite10-mA current-source configuration that has a compliance voltage of5 to42V. for example. High Speed Regulator Makes great Current Source: 07/16/98 EDN Design Ideas -Bandwidth of this circuit measures more than1 MHz. Classic antilog circuits use a thermistor in the drive circuitry to correct this temperature dependency. IDS=I0). http://www. it sets fixed-bias conditions for ISFET sensors (VDS=I0 RX..html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:44:23 PM] . 16Bit Pulses : 04/29/02 Electronic Design .

— Simple Scheme keeps Current Drain Constant: 04/12/01 EDN-Design Ideas / PDF contains multiple circuits . the forward voltage of a white LED is 3 to 4V.. using only a few components.Current Source / Sink Circuits .5V battery.com/C/Current_Source_Sink_Circuits.Electronic Projects & Circuits Simple Current Source & Sink Circuits have Low TC: 07/04/96 EDN-Design Ideas Simple High Efficiency Current Source Is Adjustable: 04/28/03 Electronic Design Ideas for Design / IOccasionally..scroll to find this circuit.Design Ideas / You sometimes need to drive a white LED from one 1.. So. you can drive one white LED or two series-connected green LEDs. The circuit shown in the figure uses a 200-kHz pulse-width modulation. Voltage To Current Converter Works From Single Supply Rail: 02/17/03 Electronic Design . Unfortunately. Using the simple circuit in Figure 1. PC. you would need a dc/dc converter to drive the LED from one battery.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:44:23 PM] .Ideas for Design / Voltage-to-current converters feeding to grounded loads often find their way into industrial measurements and control applications. The conventional textbook circuit needs both positive and negative-supply rails Click here for Other Circuits Electronic. the need arises for a simple current source that can be easily adjusted over a relatively wide range of current levels. Step up / Step Down Current Source Charges Batteries: 07/16/98 EDN Design Ideas Stepup/stepdown Current Source Charges Batteries: 06/05/96 EDN-Design Ideas Voltage to current converter drives white LEDs: 06/27/2002 EDN .hobbyprojects. Microprocessor & Mircro Controller based Kits & Projects for School & College level students http://www.

PIZZA .html (1 of 5) [1/17/2007 4:45:12 PM] . A real eye catcher >> Any passer-by's eyes cannot ignore this sign.com Search High Brightness Animated LED Signs With Multicolor Chasing Border This is an INCREDIBLY bright animated LED sign and looks fantastic.Many More Signboards COSY INTELLIGENT PRODUCTS Products Sitemap Online Calculators Circuits (A-C) Circuits (D-O) Circuits (P-Z) Tutorials Beginners Advanced Microprocessor Microcontroller Web Hobbyprojects.OPEN . A BEAUTIFUL GADGET TO BOOST YOUR PIZZA SALES INSTANTLY. http://www. allow animation to download completely ( 200 kb only) Enclosed In Sturdy Black Powder Coated Aluminum Frames . Pl.com/cosy_products/animated_led_signs. Signs can be set to have animated or stationary message text . Chaser border speed has rotary control with option to make it stationary . Its large size and bright animations are clearly visible from more than 200 feet .Beautiful High Brightness Animated LED Sign Boards .hobbyprojects.

Each PIZZA letter is 5 inches tall Environment friendly compare to Neon Sign. Ideal for using with catering vans or restaurants on move. "OPEN" Sign With Animated Border For Your Shop / Parlor / Restaurant / Office .OPEN . Sign dimension: 22 x 11x 2 inches . Black powder coated aluminum frame and acrylic front makes it weatherproof and durable for years. ATM . 12 V DC socket for using with car battery. Restaurants and Beauty Parlor Applications : 22 x 11x 2 inches http://www.html (2 of 5) [1/17/2007 4:45:12 PM] .Beautiful High Brightness Animated LED Sign Boards .Many More Signboards q q q q q q q q q q P I Z Z A lettering can be set as stationary or you can glow letters one by one followed by flashing thrice >>> see the animation above. Solid state high efficiency circuit consumes very low power consumption>> Only 10 watts. Doctors . Saves Energy & More Visible Than Neon Signboards. Maintenance Free. 22 x 11x 2 inches Following Signs Are Readily Available : For Shops .com/cosy_products/animated_led_signs. Many other readymade signs are available with similar animations as shown below.hobbyprojects. Animated chaser border can be set to stationary or at variable chasing speed . 12 month Warranty. temporary / roadside locations etc.PIZZA . Provided with 100-240 V AC 50-60 Hz SMPS power supply for international use.

Beautiful High Brightness Animated LED Sign Boards - PIZZA - OPEN - Many More Signboards

Large sized sign 30"x 15"x2"

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Beautiful High Brightness Animated LED Sign Boards - PIZZA - OPEN - Many More Signboards

Displays are also made to your custom designs. (extra development charges apply) All parameters & shown design subject to change to accommodate our latest research & development without notice) You may send order by Email and deposit payment in cash or cheque in any of our following accounts in your city .

1. ICICI Bank : Our account number is : 016405000727 in favour of Cosy 2. IDBI Bank : Our account number is : 070102000005265 in favour of Cosy
Communications. Alternately you may send the payment by DD in favour of Cosy Communications payable at Dehradun to our address given below . Shipment against any outstation cheques or D.D. will be done after clearing only. For international orders pl. use our swift details available at : http://www.cosycommunications.com/payments.htm#2 Warranty : 12 months free service warranty against any manufacturing defect. (Defective items should be sent with return postage prepaid) along with copy of purchase to our Dehradun Works . We assure a quick and satisfactory after sale service to our all customers. ( warranty not offered for any international orders due to involvement of customs & other commercial reasons ) Delivery : In case an order is placed on us we usually dispatch goods within one week by suitable courier service or registered post parcel if courier service is not available, after receipt of 100% payment by cash/bank draft along with written order. There might be change in delivery time due to any circumstances and we shall not be responsible for any consequences. Customers are also advised to suggest their preferred courier or transport service. Query : For any further queries, prices or business correspondence pl mail to cosy@sancharnet.in Attractive Export prices available for bulk orders . Min. order 20 pcs for any single design or mixed designs of above shown designs . We also supply signs with your custom requirements for reasonable development charges >> pl. submit your requirement in detail for any single sign / bulk orders. Communications.

For any further queries, prices or business correspondence pl mail to cosy@sancharnet.in

CLICK HERE FOR OTHER PRODUCTS Manufactured by :

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1, Indraprastha Enclave, Sewla , Majra, Dehradun-248171 ( INDIA). Tel +91-135-2640816 E-mail : cosy@sancharnet.in

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Beautiful High Brightness Animated LED Sign Boards - PIZZA - OPEN - Many More Signboards

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Fetal Heart Beat Monitor - (Ultrasonic Doppler) - Compact Ultrasonic Dopplers

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COSY Fetal Heart Beat Monitor (Ultrasonic Doppler)
Compact Ultrasonic Doppler - Heart Beat Monitor
Model : HBM-X01B

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Hear the true sounds of unborn baby's heartbeat. Designed for Home & Clinical applications. Crystal clear sound with adjustable volume . Lightweight, Easy to handle, Simple operation. Works on power and battery both. Built-in battery charger. Low battery indication. Allows Ear-phone / External loudspeaker use. Recommended for Maternity Homes, Gynecologists. Equally useful for Midwives and personal home use. Latest Technology - Economically priced .

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Fetal Heart Beat Monitor - (Ultrasonic Doppler) - Compact Ultrasonic Dopplers

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Fetal Heart Beat Monitor - (Ultrasonic Doppler) - Compact Ultrasonic Dopplers

SPECIFICATIONS : Ultrasonic Frequency : 2.25 MHz Intensity : 15 mW/cm2 max. Audio Out put : 500 mill watt max., Adjustable with volume control . Power Source : 9v DC Adapter or 9v Battery Type GF22(Not included), Size & Weight : 15 cm X 13 cm X 5 cm , 350 gms appx. US

Please send payments by D.D. in favour of COSY COMMUNICATIONS payable at Dehradun. No outstation cheques or D.D. are accepted. You can also deposit payment in cash or by cheque in selected cities India in favour of our current accounts with IDBI Bank or ICICI bank. For details regarding payment options please click the following link of our main website : http://www.cosycommunications.com/payments.htm Shipment Includes :- One set of selected Fetal Heartbeat Monitor with 2.25MHz Probe + one Rexene Carry Bag + Operation Manual. Optional Item : 250 Gms Ultrasonic Gel Tube : Rs. 100 /- extra ( including excess postage charges) (Gel Tubes not available for exports shipments.) Warranty : COSY Fetal Heartbeat Monitors are provided with Six months free service warranty against any manufacturing defect. (Defective items should be sent with return postage prepaid) along with copy of purchase to our Dehradun Works or New Delhi service centre. We assure a quick and satisfactory after sale service to our all customers. Delivery : In case an order is placed on us we usually dispatch goods within 2 days by suitable courier service or registered post parcel if courier service is not available, after receipt of 100% payment by cash/bank draft along with written order. There might be change in delivery time due to any circumstances and we shall not be responsible for any consequences. Customers are also advised to suggest their preferred courier or transport service. Click here for on line query.

For any further queries or business correspondence pl mail to cosy@sancharnet.in Dealers in India. Chennai: Scientific Medical Systems , No: 15 (E1/663), 55th Cross Street, Thiruvalluvar Nagar, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai - 600041 , Phone : 044-24413731 Chandigarh: DIGITAL MEDICAL SYSTEMS INC. ,SCO 333-334, FIRST FLOOR,SECTOR 35B , CHANDIGARH- 160035 PHONE : 0172-2260603 , 98140-18018 Hydrabad: ARUNODAYA POWER SYSTEMS , No. 1-7-99/A, Kamalanagar ,ECIL Post, Lane Opp. Vimal Cloth Show Room ,Near Santoshimatha Temple,Hyderabad-62 , Ph.No.s 27132618, 55330091, 27128147, Mobile No: 31189027 Mumbai: PAMTRONS MEDICAL EQUIPMENTS, A 212, PRATIK IND.ESTATE,NEXT TO

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Fetal Heart Beat Monitor - (Ultrasonic Doppler) - Compact Ultrasonic Dopplers

For any further queries, prices or business correspondence pls mail to cosy@sancharnet.in

CLICK HERE FOR OTHER PRODUCTS Manufactured by :

COSY COMMUNICATIONS
1, Indraprastha Enclave, Sewla , Majra, Dehradun-248171 ( INDIA). Catalogs Query Home office automation products Tel +91-135-2640816 E-mail : cosy@sancharnet.in Test Instruments How to send Payments

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Digital Heart Beat Monitor with Infra-red Fingure / Ear Lobe Clip Sensor

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Digital Heart Beat Monitor with Infra-red Fingure / Ear Lobe Clip Sensor
Designed for Home and Clinical Applications

Infra-red Fingure /Ear Lobe Clip Sensor

Extra 3 digit desk / wall mounting display with 1 inch high digits (available with model : PM-1102GE only) Larger display sizes in 2" or 4" LED characters also made for custom requirements

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Digital Heart Beat Monitor with Infra-red Fingure / Ear Lobe Clip Sensor
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Monitors pulse rate and rhythm. Alphanumeric LCD Display . Pulse monitoring by sound beeps and LED indication. Shows Pulse Rate per minute after every 5 pulse count. 10 or 15 pulse count average also selectable. Infra-Red Optical Finger /Ear Lobe Clip sensor. Bar Graph to display signal sensitivity. 15 Memories . Lightweight, Easy to handle, Simple operation. Works on power and battery both. Recommended for hospitals, small clinics, medical research centers, exercise / workout Gyms and sports activity centers. Latest Technology - Very Economically priced . Also available models with computer interface and extra large displays. For Exports Enquiry Click here

Also available Infra- Red finger /Earlobe clip probe separately. For details of Infra- Red finger /Earlobe clip sensor probe specifications Click Here

Your maximum heart rate is related with your age. Take 220 and subtract your age. This is rate as fast as your heart can safely be allowed to beat . Target heart rate should be 50 to 80 percent of your maximum heart rate. Target heart rate is required to estimate the useful intensity of exercise , by measuring heartbeats per minute. To begin a healthy activity

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Digital Heart Beat Monitor with Infra-red Fingure / Ear Lobe Clip Sensor

Accessories Included: 1. 2. 3. 4. Infra-Red Finger /Ear lobe clip sensor . Wall Mounting Bracket. 9 Volt Adapter Operation Manual.

Please send payments by D.D. in favour of COSY COMMUNICATIONS payable at Dehradun. No outstation cheques or D.D. are accepted. You can also deposit payment in cash or by cheque in selected cities India in favour of our current accounts with IDBI Bank or ICICI bank. For details regarding payment options please click the following link of our main website : http://www.cosycommunications.com/payments.htm

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Digital Heart Beat Monitor with Infra-red Fingure / Ear Lobe Clip Sensor

Warranty : Provided with Six months free service warranty against any manufacturing defect. (Defective items should be sent with return postage prepaid) along with copy of purchase to our Dehradun Works or New Delhi service center. We assure a quick and satisfactory after sale service to our all customers. Delivery : In case an order is placed on us we usually dispatch goods within one week by suitable courier service or registered post parcel if courier service is not available, after receipt of 100% payment by cash/bank draft along with written order. There might be change in delivery time due to any circumstances and we shall not be responsible for any consequences. Customers are also advised to suggest their preferred courier or transport service.

For any further queries, prices or business correspondence pls mail to cosy@sancharnet.in

CLICK HERE FOR OTHER PRODUCTS Manufactured by :

COSY COMMUNICATIONS
1, Indraprastha Enclave, Sewla , Majra, Dehradun-248171 ( INDIA). Catalogs Query Home office automation products Tel +91-135-2640816 E-mail : cosy@sancharnet.in Test Instruments How to send Payments

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Counter Token Number Displays - Infra-Red Remote Control Token Number displays with automatic Calling Counter Number display

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COUNTER TOKEN NUMBER DISPLAYS
Helps you to serve your customers to their total satisfaction.

New Addition : Models also available with Infra-Red Remote Controls to increment or decrement the numbers with Handy remotes .Very useful for doctors, professional services providers.

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Counter Token Number Displays - Infra-Red Remote Control Token Number displays with automatic Calling Counter Number display

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Simple operation and easy to install. Large size 3.5 inches high LED Displays. Pleasant musical chimes. Robust , heavy duty ,sleek designs in ABS plastic moulded cabinets. Feather touch key boards. Multi-Counter displays and custom designed systems for efficient Q-management. Parallel and Double sided displays available. Largest range of Token Display systems in India . Serving successfully to many Govt. departments , banks, Hospitals ,doctors , Restaurants, Canteens etc. in India and abroad. Custom designed plastic moulded tokens with number embossing available.

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Introduction: Token Display System are ideal for Banks, Airports, Public dealing offices , Hospitals , Doctors Clinics, Restaurants and other such places where people have to wait in line for their turn. These systems allow customers to wait without having to stand in line, once their number is displayed then only will they have to get in line for their turn . Musical chime for calling number. Provision for Automatic increment / decrement of numbers by pressing a single key/ through IR remotes. Also available models with number announcement with microphone and built-in alarm . All models are easy to install , operate & maintain. Any ordinary electrician can do the installation quickly. Click here for more details of regular 3 digit displays: http://www.cosycommunications.com/td403u.html New addition : Token Number displays with automatic Calling Counter Number display.

Now also available token number displays with automatic calling counter number display. Automatic increment of token numbers with display of calling counter number is ideally suitable for serving offices with many counters. No need to make your customers stand in long quos in sunlight or rain and wasting time. Just distribute tokens on first come first serve basis and as soon as any counter is ready to provide services the person there just has to press one push switch to show the incremented token number and respective counter number in displays. Also possible to attach more than one display with a single system. Up to 10 counters can be connected in regular model. ( Optional : Announcement facility .) Click here for more details of this model: http://www.cosycommunications.com/ktd5d10c.html

http://www.hobbyprojects.com/cosy_products/token_number_display.html (2 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:45:31 PM]

Counter Token Number Displays - Infra-Red Remote Control Token Number displays with automatic Calling Counter Number display

Specifications of regular 3 digit Token Number Display : Power Supply : 220v Ac ,or 12v Dc . Dimensions : Display Unit: 15inches X 6.5inches X 1.5inches x 650 gms. appx. Control Unit: 7inches X 6.5inches X 2.5 inches X 1 Kgs. Appx. 5 meters cable connector for connecting display with control unit is provided free with every system . Extra cable length will be charged @ Rs.50/- per meter.( Including courier charges ) Optional Items : Infra-Red Remote control provision with any of first 3 models : Rs. 900/- extra. Double sided displays available at extra charges. ( Quoted separately) 12 Volt 7 Amp Hour chargeable battery for 3 hrs backup : Rs. 400/- extra. Microphone for announcements in display speaker with panic alarm Rs. 600/- extra. Plastic Moulded Tokens with embossed numbers : Rs. 5 /- per piece ( Minimum order 100 tokens ). 6. Metallic chrome plated token stands : Rs.25/- per piece.( One stand can hold 50 tokens) 7. Any custom designs / Logo engravings on tokens at extra charges as actual ( minimum order 500 tokens) .

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Prices are all inclusive of taxes applicable, packing and courier charges within India. Please send payments by D.D. in favour of COSY COMMUNICATIONS payable at Dehradun. No outstation cheques or D.D. are accepted. For various payment options click : http://www.cosycommunications.com/payments.htm Warranty : COSY Token Displays are provided with One year free service warranty against any manufacturing defect. (Defective items should be sent with return postage prepaid) along with copy of purchase to our Dehradun Works or New Delhi service centre. We assure a quick and satisfactory after sale service to our all customers. Delivery : In case an order for single set is placed on us we usually dispatch goods within one week by suitable courier service or registered post parcel if courier service is not available, after receipt of 100% payment by cash/bank draft along with written order. There might be change in delivery time due to any circumstances and we shall not be responsible for any consequences. Customers are also advised to suggest their preferred courier or transport service. For bulk orders the delivery time will be informed accordingly.

Click here for submitting online query For any further queries or Export prices & business correspondence pls. mail to cosy@sancharnet.in

CLICK HERE FOR OTHER UNIQUE ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS Manufactured by :

COSY COMMUNICATIONS
1, Indraprastha Enclave, Sewla , Majra, Dehradun-248171 ( INDIA). Catalogs Query Home office automation products Tel +91-135-2640816 E-mail : cosy@sancharnet.in Test Instruments How to send Payments

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Counter Token Number Displays - Infra-Red Remote Control Token Number displays with automatic Calling Counter Number display

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Moving Message Displays - Programmable Electronic Scrolling LED Sign Boards - Microcontroller / Computer Controlled Based Displays

COSY INTELLIGENT PRODUCTS
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PROGRAMMABLE SCROLLING LED MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAYS
Pre-programmed displays with effects are also made to custom requirements

Click here : For Other High Brightness Animated LED Signs With Multicolor Chasing Border Simple operation and easy to install. 2.5 inches high Large RED LED Displays. Visible from 100 feet distance. Custom sizes & Different LED Colors possible. q Programmable with regular computer key board without computer. q Pre-programmed displays with effects are also made to custom requirements .
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Moving Message Displays - Programmable Electronic Scrolling LED Sign Boards - Microcontroller / Computer Controlled Based Displays

Introduction : Moving Message Displays are ideal for all type of commercial establishments like Hotels , Restaurants , Retail Shops ,Banks, Airports, Clinics, Hospitals and other such places to get maximum attention of people . These displays attract customers to watch the display with curiosity and your scrolling message also is conveyed simultaneously . Very good advertising results are obtained from these unique displays with latest technology. You can change the message as often as you want your self with ordinary computer keyboard without any prior experience of any kind. Available in various sizes and are also made to custom requirements. Also available models with PC serial port command operation at extra charges. Specifications for regular model :
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Display Matrix : 9 characters in 7x56 , 2.5" high character LED configuration. Power Supply : 220v AC Dimensions : Display Unit: 25 inches X 7 inches X 1.5 inches appx. Control Unit: 6 inches X 7 inches X 2 inches appx.( fixed on back side of display unit ) Compatible with any Computer Keyboard. ( Not Included )

Please send payments by D.D. in favour of COSY COMMUNICATIONS payable at Dehradun. No outstation cheques or D.D. are accepted. Warranty : COSY Displays are provided with Six months free service warranty against any manufacturing defect. (Defective items should be sent with return postage prepaid) along with copy of purchase to our Dehradun Works or New Delhi service center. We assure a quick and satisfactory after sale service to our all customers. Delivery : In case an order is placed on us we usually dispatch goods within one week by suitable courier service or registered post parcel if courier service is not available, after receipt of 100% payment by cash/bank draft along with written order. There might be change in delivery time due to any circumstances and we shall not be responsible for any consequences. Customers are also advised to suggest their preferred courier or transport service.

For any further queries, prices or business correspondence pl mail to cosy@sancharnet.in

CLICK HERE FOR OTHER UNIQUE ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS Manufactured by :

COSY COMMUNICATIONS
1, Indraprastha Enclave, Sewla , Majra, Dehradun-248171 ( INDIA). Catalogs Query Home office automation products Tel +91-135-2640816 E-mail : cosy@sancharnet.in Test Instruments How to send Payments

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COSY Caller ID LCD Display Unit - Parallel Model with 150 Memories Telephone Caller-ID - Identify the caller before answering

COSY INTELLIGENT PRODUCTS
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COSY Caller ID LCD Display Unit
PARALLEL MODEL WITH 150 MEMORIES TELEPHONE CALLER-ID

Your Personal Phone Secretary
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Identify the caller before answering. Check your Missed Calls. Choice to answer only selected calls. Monitor Unwanted / threatening calls. Monitor calls dialed in your absence. Keep a record of your business calls. Monitor calls made from parallel phones.

Features :

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COSY Caller ID LCD Display Unit - Parallel Model with 150 Memories Telephone Caller-ID - Identify the caller before answering
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Parallel model. Records incoming & outgoing calls made from all the parallel telephone instruments installed on the same line. 16 Digit Alpha Numeric Display. 150 memories of incoming calls, answered calls and dialed calls. Displays all local/std/isd calling numbers. (including mobile numbers.) Dialed number display. Real time clock display. Repeat call indicator. Call duration timer. Date & Time display for missed, answered & dialed calls (tone & decadic both). No. CLI facility indication. Memory remain intact even after power & battery failure. Automatic last in first out record storage. Compatible with all digital / electronic exchanges & telephones with DTMF system. Table & wall mounting applications. (provided with ready to nail wall mounting & table stand fittings.)

Recording of calls from parallel phones
This unique device will automatically record all incoming and outgoing calls Made by all the telephones connected in parallel to the line. Also available models with PC serial port command operation at extra charges. Technical Specifications :
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Processor : 8 bit Microcontroller Power Source : 4 AA size batteries & 9v adaptor (not included) Compatibility : All Digital / Electronic exchanges & push button telephones with DTMF systems. Size & Weight : 15 x 10 x 3.5 cm & 250 gms. (approx.)

Important : You must subscribe to and get activated calling line identification Processing facility (clip), from your telephone exchange to operate the system. Please send payments by D.D. in favour of COSY COMMUNICATIONS payable at Dehradun. No outstation cheques or D.D. are accepted. Warranty : COSY Caller-ID are provided with Six months free service warranty against any manufacturing defect. (Defective items should be sent with return postage prepaid) along with copy of purchase to our Dehradun Works or New Delhi service center. We assure a quick and satisfactory after sale service to our all customers. Delivery : In case an order is placed on us we usually dispatch goods within one week by suitable courier service or registered post parcel if courier service is not available, after receipt of 100% payment by cash/bank draft along with written order. There might be change in delivery time due to any circumstances and we shall not be responsible for any consequences. Customers are also advised to suggest their preferred courier or transport service.

For any further queries, prices or business correspondence pl mail to cosy@sancharnet.in

CLICK HERE FOR OTHER UNIQUE ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS

Manufactured by :
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COSY Caller ID LCD Display Unit - Parallel Model with 150 Memories Telephone Caller-ID - Identify the caller before answering

COSY COMMUNICATIONS
1, Indraprastha Enclave, Sewla , Majra, Dehradun-248171 ( INDIA). Catalogs Query Home office automation products Tel +91-135-2640816 E-mail : cosy@sancharnet.in Test Instruments How to send Payments

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Single Digit Displays - Single Digit Clock - Programmable LED Matrix Clocks

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COSY Unique Electronic Products, Gadgets Medical Instruments and Test Instruments

SINGLE DIGIT DISPLAYS MATRIX CLOCK
A Unique Clock - With Eye Catching Effect

The time shown here is 2:45

Model- CL-103 ( Please allow the animation to download completely )

Single Digit Clock : Shows Time by Sequencing Digits in 2.5"LED Matrix

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Single Digit Displays - Single Digit Clock - Programmable LED Matrix Clocks

A Real Eye Catcher - Unique Clock.
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Displays time with each digit lighting up in sequence one after the other, followed by a brief pause. (Total sequence takes about 3 seconds) as shown above in animation. 2.5 inch high LED Matrix Display is highly readable even from a distance of more than 30 feet. 220 Volts AC wall adapter included. Chargeable Battery Pack optional. Sleek sturdy design. Dimensions 14cm x 7cm x 3.5cm Wall Mounting possible. Simple time setting switches. Ideal for showrooms, shop displays, offices, factories and home use.

Optional : 9 Volt chargeable battery Custom sizes also made to order . Character sizes from 1 inch to 1 feet possible . Please send payments by D.D. in favour of COSY COMMUNICATIONS payable at Dehradun. No outstation cheques or D.D. are accepted. Also visit following link for different modes of payment options. http://www.cosycommunications.com/payments.htm Warranty : provided with Six months free service warranty against any manufacturing defect. (Defective items should be sent with return postage prepaid) along with copy of purchase to our Dehradun Works or New Delhi service center. We assure a quick and satisfactory after sale service to our all customers. Delivery : In case an order is placed on us we usually dispatch goods within one week by suitable courier service or registered post parcel if courier service is not available, after receipt of 100% payment by cash/bank draft along with written order. There might be change in delivery time due to any circumstances and we shall not be responsible for any consequences. Customers are also advised to suggest their preferred courier or transport service.

Click here for submitting online query For any further queries, prices or export prices & business correspondence pls. mail to cosy@sancharnet.in CLICK HERE FOR OTHER UNIQUE ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS Manufactured by :

COSY COMMUNICATIONS
1, Indraprastha Enclave, Sewla , Majra, Dehradun-248171 ( INDIA). Catalogs Query Home office automation products Tel +91-135-2640816 E-mail : cosy@sancharnet.in Test Instruments How to send Payments

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Single Digit Displays - Single Digit Clock - Programmable LED Matrix Clocks

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Abbreviations used in Electronics - Electronic Abbreviation Start with A

Electronic, Microprocessor, Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students, Hobbyiest and R&D persons

Abbreviations used in Electronics
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A (amp) Ampere

AC Alternating current

AC/DC Alternating current or direct current

A/D Analog to digital

AF Audio frequency

AFT Automatic fine tuning

AFC Automatic frequency control

AFC
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Abbreviations used in Electronics - Electronic Abbreviation Start with A

Automatic flow controller, used in controlling the flow of gasses under pressure into a vacuum system

AGC Automatic gain control

Ah Ampere hour

Ai Current gain

AM Amplitude modulation

AM/FM Amplitude modulation or Frequency modulation

AMM Analog multimeter

antilog Antilogarithm

Ap Power gain

apc Automatic phase control

Av Voltage gain

AVC Automatic volume control

AWG American wire gauge

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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Abbreviations used in Electronics - Electronic Abbreviation Start with A

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Dictionary of Electronics - Glossary of Electronic Terms Start with A

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DICTIONARY OF ELECTRONICS TERMS
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A Abbreviation for "ampere" a unit of electrical current. absorption Loss or dissipation of energy as it travels through a medium, Example: radio waves lose some of their energy as they travel through the atmosphere. AC Abbreviation for "Alternating Current" acceptor atoms Trivalent atoms that accept free electrons from pentavalent atoms. AC coupling Circuit that passes an AC signal while blocking a DC voltage. AC/DC Equipment that will operate on either an AC or DC power source. AC generator Device used to transform mechanical energy into AC electrical power. AC load line A graph representing all possible combinations of AC output voltage and current for an amplifier. AC power supply Power supply that delivers an AC voltage. active component A component that changes the amplitude of a signal between input and output. active filter

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Dictionary of Electronics - Glossary of Electronic Terms Start with A

A filter that uses an amplifier in addition to reactive components to pass or reject selected frequencies. active region The region of BJT operation between saturation and cutoff used for linear amplification. AC voltage A voltage in which the polarity alternates. ADC Abbreviation for "analog to digital converter" Admittance (symbol "Y") Measure of how easily AC will flow through a circuit. Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance and is measured in siemens. AF Abbreviation for "audio frequency". AFC Abbreviation for "automatic frequency control". AGC Abbreviation for "automatic gain control" alkaline cell A primary cell that delivers more current than a carbon-zinc cell. Also known as an "alkaline manganese cell". alligator clip Spring clip on the end of a test lead used to make a temporary connection. alpha Ratio of collector current to emitter current in a bipolar junction transistor (BJT). Greek letter alpha "α" is the symbol used. alternating current An electric current that rises to a maximum in one direction, falls back to zero and then rises to a maximum in the opposite direction and then repeats. alternator Name for an AC generator. AM Abbreviation for "amplitude modulation" ammeter A meter used to measure current. ampere Unit of electrical current. amplifier A circuit that increases the voltage, current, or power of a signal.

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Dictionary of Electronics - Glossary of Electronic Terms Start with A

amplitude: Magnitude or size of a signal voltage or current. analog Information represented as continously varying voltage or current rather than in discrete levels as opposed to digital data varying between two discrete levels. anode The positive electrode or terminal of a device. The "P" material of a diode. antenna, transmitting A device that converts an electrical wave into an electromagnetic wave that radiates away from the antenna. antenna, receiving A device that converts a radiated electromagnetic wave into an electrical wave. apparent power Power attained in an AC circuit as a product of effective voltage and current which reach their peak at different times. arc Discharge of electricity through a gas such as lightning discharging through the atmosphere. armature: The rotating or moving component of a magnetic circuit.

armstrong oscillator An oscillator that uses an isolation transformer to achieve positive feedback from output to input. astable multivibrator An oscillator that produces a square wave output from a DC voltage. atom The smallest particle that an element can be broken down into and still maintain its unique identity. atomic number The number of positive charges or protons in the nucleus of an atom. attenuate To reduce the amplitude of an action or signal. The opposite of amplification. audio Relating to frequencies that can be heard by the human ear. Approximately 20 Hz. to 20 kHz. autotransformer A single winding transformer where the output is taken from taps on the winding. average value A value of voltage or current where the area of the wave above the value equals the area
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Dictionary of Electronics - Glossary of Electronic Terms Start with A

of the wave below the value. AVC Abbreviation for "automatic volume control" avionics Aviation electronics. AWG Abbreviation for "american wire gauge". A gauge that assigns a number value to the diameter of a wire.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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Dictionary of Units - List of Measurement Unit - Categories of Units

Electronic, Microprocessor, Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students, Hobbyiest and R&D persons

DICTIONARY OF UNITS / MEASUREMENTS
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Categories of Units
Length area volume or capacity mass temperature density, area density, line density, volume energy force torque fuel consumption mass per unit length mass per unit area mass per unit volume power pressure speed spread rate (by mass) spread rate (by volume) stress

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Dictionary of Units - List of Measurement Unit - Categories of Units

Systeme International [S I] Derived Units of the S I Conventions of Usage in the S I Metric System of Measurements Metrication in the UK The U S System of Measurements

Definitions of the Seven Basic S I Units Prefixes of the S I A Brief History of Measurement The U K (Imperial) System of Measurements

List of Units / Measurements
A
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L acres angstroms ares astronomical units atmospheres
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leagues light years links (surveyors') litres litres per area

B
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M barleycorns barrels (oil) bars british thermal units btu/hour etc. bushels
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calories calories per hour etc. carats, metric celsius centigrade centigrade heat units centilitres centimetres centimetres of mercury or water centimetres per minute etc. chains (surveyors') circular inches cubic (+ any units) cubic measures per area cubits

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mach number megajoules meganewtons meganewtons per square metre megawatts metres metres of water metres per second etc. microns (=micrometres) miles miles per gallon miles per hour etc. millibars milligrams per cm milligrams per (any volume) millilitres millimetres of mercury or water millimetres of rain (by mass) millimetres of rain (by volume)

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newton metres (energy) newton metres (torque) newtons (per area) newtons (force) newtons (weight)

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Dictionary of Units - List of Measurement Unit - Categories of Units
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decilitres denier drex dynes

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ounces ounces per inch ounces per area ounces per volume

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P ells (UK) ems (pica) ergs (energy) ergs (torque)
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Fahrenheit fathoms feet feet of water feet per hour etc. fluid ounces foot pounds-force foot pounds-force per minute etc. foot poundals furlongs

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parsecs pascals perch (=rods or poles) picas pints points (printers') poundals poundals per square foot pounds pounds per area pounds per foot pounds per volume pounds-force pound-force inches pounds-force per area

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quarts

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gallons gallons per area gigajoules gigawatts grains grains per gallon grams gram-force centimetres grams per area grams per cm grams per (any volume)

R
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rankine reaumur roods

S
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slugs (or g-pounds) stones square (+ any units) squares (of timber) sthenes

hands hectares hides horsepower horsepower hours hundredweights

T
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I-J

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tex therms tonnes ton-force metres tonnes-force tonnes-force per area tonnes per hectare tonnes per km tonnes per volume ton-force feet tons tons-force tons-force per area tons per acre

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Dictionary of Units - List of Measurement Unit - Categories of Units
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inches inches of mercury or water inches of rain (by mass) inches of rain (by volume) inches per minute etc. joules joules per hour etc.

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tons per mile tons per volume townships troy ounce

UVW
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K
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watt second watt hours watts

kelvin kilocalories kilocalories per hour etc. kilograms-force kilogram-force metres (energy) kilogram-force metres (torque) kilogram-force metres per hour etc. kilogram-force per area kilograms kilograms per area kilograms per metre kilograms per volume kilojoules kilojoules per hour etc. kilometres kilometres per hour etc. kilometres per litre kilonewton per square metre kilonewtons kilopascals kilowatts kilowatt hours kips (force) kips per square inch knots

XYZ
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yards yards per hour etc.

<<< Back to Electronic Tutorials

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Electronic Formula - Formulas of Electronics - Formulae Encyclopedia

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ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS
Products
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Electronics Formula / Formulae

Notation

Resistance

Resistances in Series

Voltage Division by Series Resistance

Resistances in Parallel Current Division by Parallel Resistances

Capacitance
Capacitances in Series Capacitances in Parallel Voltage Division by Series Capacitances

Inductance

Mutual Inductance

Charge Division by Parallel Capacitances

Inductances in Parallel

Inductances in Series

Power

Time Constants

Batteries

Energy

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Electronic Formula - Formulas of Electronics - Formulae Encyclopedia

Ammeter Shunt

Voltmeter Multiplier

Wheatstone Bridge

<<< Back to Electronic Tutorials

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Microcontroller Based Schematics - Microcontroller & Electronic Schematics & Circuits Resource

QUICK REFERENCE LINKS FOR SOME USEFUL CIRCUITS / SCHEMATICS
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Microcontroller Based Schematics
10 tricks for interfacing to the PIC16C508 101 AT Keyboard to ASCII Decoder using 68HC705J1A MCU
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128x64 LCD Driver for AT90S2313 (ZIP file) 27c801 EPROM Programmer Project 2-wire LCD interface using PIC16CF84 40+ MHz 5-digit frequency counter with an AVR 2313 4-Channel Timer using Atmel 89C4051 and MAX7219 display driver

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50 MHz frequency counter, voltage meter & SWR/PWR indicator

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68HC11 based RDS decoder 68HC11 stepper motor control 8051 Development System Circuit Board 1 8051 Development System Circuit Board 2 8051 Development System Circuit Board 3

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Microcontroller Based Schematics - Microcontroller & Electronic Schematics & Circuits Resource

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8051 SBC (single board computer) 8088 maximum mode SBC 80C31 stepper motor controller 90S2313 AVR Robot Board A Scenix (and PIC) Programmer Acceleration monitor using ADXL202 and AVR AFSK 1200 Modem based on PIC16C620 Analog datalogger based on T89C51RD2 Analog to digital conversion notes AT89C2051 Digital thermometer and clock AT89C2051 line-follower robot AT89C2051 Night light saver AT89C2051 real-time controller AT89C2051 serial COMs to LED driver AT89C2051/4051 Driving dot LED AT89C2051/4051 Easy-Downloader AT89C2051/4051connecting dumb terminal AT89C2051/4051scanning 7-segment display and keypad AT89C2051/4051stepper motor interface AT89C51/52/55 Easy-Downloader AT90S8515 experimenter board Atmel 8051 Flash Based-Microcontroller Programmer Atmel 89C Series Flash Microcontroller Programmer Atmel 89C2051 In-Circuit Programmer Schematic Atmel 89C2051 prototype board Atmel AVR and 8051 series ISP programmer Automatic door opener with PIC12C508 AVR Beacon Super Keyer AVR Digital Voltmeter AVR Frequency Counter

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Microcontroller Based Schematics - Microcontroller & Electronic Schematics & Circuits Resource

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AVR Signal Generator AVR-Based Serial Port IR Receiver Basic Stamp based altimeter Basic Stamp Lightning Activity Monitor Buffered PIC chip interface Build a PIC controlled DDS VFO, 0 to 6 MHz C-52 EVB Robot Controller Camera remote control system using Basic Stamp Connecting AT90S2313 with LCD display 2x16 char and 4x4 keypad

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Connecting LED to PIC Micro I/O pins (PDF) Connecting PIC12C508 8 to 93AA46 serial eprom DS1820 Arbiter V2.00 Schematic DS1820 Temperature Sensor Readout Unit Dual PIC16C84 prototype board Electronic distance meter based on Motorola 68HC908QY4 Electronic safety lock based on ATtiny26 Embedded system to send e-mails (small TCP/IP stack) EZ80 single board computer schematic (Z80) Fan timer based on Motorola 68HC908QT2 Freign vocabulary recollector FSK modem with PIC16C84 Fully functional PS/2 mouse based on the PIC16F84 Galvanic decoupling of I2C bus Generate video signals in real-time using a PIC16F84 Giant money counter (PIC16F876) GPS LCD Display Project Graphic LCD interface GSM SMS remote control using AVR microcontroller Homebrew Basic Stamp project

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Microcontroller Based Schematics - Microcontroller & Electronic Schematics & Circuits Resource

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I2C LCD interface Illuminate holiday destinations on a world map Interfacing a 4X4 keypad to a BS2 using a 74922 encoder chip

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Interfacing DRAM to AT90S8515 Interfacing EEPROM to a Basic Stamp Interfacing piezo elements to a microcontroller Interfacing S-7800A to PIC16F877 Interfacing the MAX186 8 Channel ADC to the BSII Interfacing the MAX187 ADC to the BSII to measure voltages

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Interfacing the PIC16C508 Isolated RS232 for PIC16F84 JDM programmer Jupiter card programemr KD7LMO Micro Beacon (PIC18F252) Kodak DC-20 camera interface (PIC12C509) Kodak DC-20 camera interface (PIC16F84) LCD Serial Terminal LCD to PIC16C54 schematic Long-period watchdog timer Low cost Atmel in-system programmer Mains clock controller using AT89C2051 Microchip PIC ICD (in-circuit debugger) Microchip PIC ICSP implementation Microcontroller board using the Atmel AVR AT90S8535 Microcontroller interface for 5KW microwave oven Microcontroller sensor and actuator interfaces Microprocessor RS-232 Reset Microprocessor using Xilinx FPGA

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Microcontroller Based Schematics - Microcontroller & Electronic Schematics & Circuits Resource
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MiniLOGGER V1.0 MMC to PIC16F876 circuit diagram Motorola 68HC11 evaluation board Motorola 68K SBC (single board computer) Multi-chip programmer Multi-chip programmer for PIC microcontrollers Network Time Protocol AVR Clock Night light saver (PIC12C508) Nixie clock (PIC16F876) Optical sensor using PIC12C508 Parallel AVR programmer PC IR receiver based on PIC16F84 PIC 18 programmer (PIC18F458, PIC18F452, PIC18C252, PIC16C745, PIC18F6620, PIC18F6720)

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PIC 5x7 display PIC based packet radio encoder (PDF) PIC controlled DDS VFO, 0 to 6 MHz PIC demo board PIC ICD PIC ICD in-circuit debugger circuit diagram PIC LCD and Keypad driver PIC micro LED projects PIC micro multiple servo motor interface PIC micro programmer PIC micro to ISA bus interface PIC microcontroller servo motor interface PIC programmer for serial port PIC Project #1 - RS232 to I2C Interface PIC vacuum fluorescent display interface PIC12C508 Night-light saver

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Microcontroller Based Schematics - Microcontroller & Electronic Schematics & Circuits Resource
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PIC12C508 Phase Controller for 2kW heater PIC12C509 Gym Timer PIC12C509 logic gate replacement for nitrogen filler PIC16C505 IR / wireless remote control PIC16F84 Based Morse Code Reader PIC16F84 countdown timer PIC16F84 CW decoder (PDF) PIC16F84 debugging terminal PIC16F84 LED chaser PIC16F84 line following robot PIC16F84 miniature real-time controller PIC16F84 programmer PIC16F84 pulse monitor with date/time output (ZIP) PIC16F84 Serial I/O-expander with PicBasic PIC16F84 stepper motor controller PIC16F84 tone generator PIC16F84 tone generator (6-Bit) PIC16F84 tone generator with source code PIC16F84 TRIAC / IGBT brightness phase controller PIC16F84/PIC16F87x-In-System-Programmer PIC16F873 Digital clock PIC16F873 remote display PIC16F873 ultrasonic range meter PIC16F876 Datalogger PIC16F877 Programmer And Development System PIC16F877 to IDE interface PIC18F252 bootloader schematics PICADC - a free, PIC based "intelligent" A/D converter PicCon - Hidden Radio Transmitter Controller PicoWeb V5.1 (AT90S8515) tiny web server

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Microcontroller Based Schematics - Microcontroller & Electronic Schematics & Circuits Resource
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PIC-Programmer 2 Picxie 2 - 8x8 Animated LED Signboard (PIC16F84) Picxie 2 - 8x8 Animated LED Signboard

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PIXpand POCSAG encoder/decoder Programmer for the 68HC705C8 MicroController Programmer PIC16F84,12C50x and EEPROM 24Cxx Programmer PIC16F84,12C50x and EEPROM 24Cxx Propellor clock (PIC16F84) PS/2 keyboard keystroke logger based on Atmel 89C2051 RDS Encoder - digital part Record and play fast 1-bit sound on a PIC micro RF remote control based on Basic Stamp Rotating Sprocket Wheel Generator (PIC16F84) RS 485-RPT Schematic RS485-like multi-drop bus with half duplex serial protocol RS485-Version of the SAB80C535-Microcontrollerboard ScanMate audio activated recorded Serial to parallel converter using the AT89C2051 Ser-Key 10-Key Serial Keypad Encoder Simple RS232C Level Converter using Transistors Smart card programmer Speaking clock using PIC & ISD device Speaking doorbell using PIC & ISD device Speech recognition using HM2007 Talking PIC - based on SP0256 Talking YODA project (PIC16C84) Temperature controlled based on AT89CX051 Temperature monitor/controller: AVR 2313 / DS1621 Tony Nixons Pocket Programmer (PIC)

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Tutorial board for PIC16F84A microcontroller Ultra low-cost programmer for AT90S family USB and GLCD expansion board for 8051 SBC Using an I2C Serial EEPROM with a Basic Stamp 2 Victoria TAFE programmer (based on AT89C2051) Voice recording and message retrieval system Way small web server Whistle detector using 8-pin PIC Wisp628 ISP Microchip PIC Programmer WLoader - PIC16F877 application loader / bootloader Zilog Z80 thermostat embedded web server

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Radio Terminology Bibliography - Formulas of Electronics - Hobby Projects

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Automatic Gain Control (A.G.C.) Alternating Current (A.C.) Amplitude Modulation (A.M.) Amateur Radio AMP or Ampere Attenuator Capacitance Carrie Wave Continuous Wave (C.W.) Direct Current (D.C.) High Frequency (H.F.) Amplifier - I.F. Low Frequency - L.F. Lower Sideband L.S.B. Single Side Band S.S.B. <<< Back to Electronic Tutorials Decibel Detector Dipole - Antenna Long Distance (D.X.) Frequency Modulation (F.M.)

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Amplifiers Tutorial - Amplifier Circuits - Amplifier General Theory - Hobby Projects

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Amplifiers are used to increase the voltage or power amplitude of signals. They have many applications.

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Amplifiers Tutorial . Back to General Theory http://www. If there is an interfering signal then it will be picked up by both inputs and will not be amplified.Hobby Projects DIFFERENTIAL amplifiers have two inputs and amplify the DIFFERENCE between the two input voltages.Amplifier General Theory . If both inputs are the same then there is no output from the amplifier.com/general_theory/amplifier.hobbyprojects.Amplifier Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:46:27 PM] . OPAMPS are commonly used as differential amplifiers.

Add up all the values in the set and then divide by the number of items in the set.hobbyprojects.All About Average . 365 days divided by 12 months = 30.com/general_theory/averages. Add up the total days for each month in the year and divide by the number of months in the year. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor.html [1/17/2007 4:46:30 PM] .416 days in an average month.General Theory .com Averages Tutorial To find the average value of a set of numbers. For example. Back to General Theory http://www.Averages Tutorial & Circuits . the average value of 15 and 6 and 12 is 30 + 12 + 24 divided by 3 which equals 66/3 = 22 To find the average number of days in a month. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

Circuit Symbols Tutorial .hobbyprojects. resistors. and also electrical components such as switches. relays. Microprocessor.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:46:33 PM] .com/general_theory/circuit_symbols.com Circuit Symbols Tutorial The diagram below shows passive components. Also shown are the symbols for wires that are not joined ( no physical electrical connection ) and wires that are joined ( a physical electrical connection ). motors and lamps.Hobby Projects Electronic. capacitors and inductors.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .Electronic Circuit Symbol .General Theory . http://www.

they are finding their way back into electronics for use in professional audio equipment and some radio receivers http://www. the difference between active and passive is that active components require a power source to work.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:46:33 PM] .Circuit Symbols Tutorial .General Theory .Electronic Circuit Symbol . The top symbols represent vacuum tube or thermionic devices. whereas passive components do not.hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects This next diagram depicts active components. Although at one time.com/general_theory/circuit_symbols. these were being replaced by the smaller transistor and integrated circuits.

hobbyprojects.General Theory .Circuit Symbols Tutorial .html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:46:33 PM] .com/general_theory/circuit_symbols.Hobby Projects Back to General Theory http://www.Electronic Circuit Symbol .

All materials have RESISTIVITY.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:46:37 PM] .com Conductors and Insulators Tutorial CONDUCTORS q q q q These are materials in which it is easy to get electrons to move and provide a flow of electric current.Conductors and Insulators Tutorial . The bigger this is the lower is its resistance.hobbyprojects. pvc. Examples are rubber. Conductors are mostly metals such as gold. The longer its length the higher its resistance. http://www. length x resistivity ------------------------------cross-sectional area Resistance = INSULATORS q q These are materials in which it is difficult to get current to flow. It is measured in OHM METERS.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. (3) the material of which it is made. Carbon is a conductor as well as some gases (as in fluorescent tubes) and water containing some chemicals. copper. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Examples are silicon and germanium and are used in diodes and transistors. polystyrene and oil. These are not perfect conductors and offer some resistance to the flow of current.Conductor and Insulator . Microprocessor. These have a resistance between insulators and conductors. paper. (2) its cross-sectional area.Electronic Circuit Theory Electronic. iron and lead. (1) its length. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .com/general_theory/conductors_and_insulators. The higher the value of resistivity the higher the resistance. The resistance of a conductor (such as a metal rod) is determined by three things. silver. There is another class of materials called semi-conductors.Even with these it is possible to get some current flowing if the applied voltage is high enough.

Conductor and Insulator .Conductors and Insulators Tutorial .hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuit Theory Back to General Theory http://www.com/general_theory/conductors_and_insulators.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:46:37 PM] .

a magnetic field. and in scrapyards for shifting metal scrap around.Electro Magnetism . The strength of the field is determined by the number of turns and the current through the coil.General Theory . If the wire is coiled. If a soft iron core is used. The field can be concentrated by placing a steel or iron CORE in the centre of the coil. losing its magnetism when switched off.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:46:41 PM] . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. It obeys the same rules as a bar magnet. Like poles repel each other. This is called an ELECTROMAGNET or SOLENOID. made of lines of force. This effect is used in bells and buzzers.hobbyprojects. unlikes attract. The result is a magnetic field with the same shape as the field surrounding a bar magnet. The field has a North and a South pole. This effect is used in loudspeakers.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Back to General Theory http://www. Microprocessor.com Electromagnetism Tutorial When current travels through a wire.com/general_theory/electromagnetism. is formed around the wire. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . it becomes only temporarily magnetised when the current is switched on. Electromagnets can react with bar magnets.Electromagnetism Tutorial & Circuits . moving coil meters etc. the lines of force link with each other.Hobby Projects Electronic.

Electromagnetism Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.Electro Magnetism .Hobby Projects http://www.General Theory .com/general_theory/electromagnetism.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:46:41 PM] .

It allows some things through and holds back others. Microprocessor.com Filters Tutorial A filter circuit is like a sieve.Filters Tutorial & Circuits .com/general_theory/filters. http://www. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Some frequencies pass through the filter while others are rejected. In this case we are talking about AC frequencies. Figure 2 shows a LOW PASS filter response curve giving output at low frequencies but none at higher frequencies.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:46:46 PM] .Electronic Filter General Theory & Circuits .hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . The characteristics of a filter can be shown on a graph called a FREQUENCY RESPONSE CURVE. VOLTAGE OUT is plotted against FREQUENCY.

Filters Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Filter General Theory & Circuits .hobbyprojects. Simple filters can be made from capacitors and resistors Filters have many applications.com/general_theory/filters. http://www.Hobby Projects Figure 3 shows a selection of filter characteristics.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:46:46 PM] .

In Hum filters to remove low frequency noise due to the mains supply.Electronic Filter General Theory & Circuits .Hobby Projects In audio frequency amplifiers.hobbyprojects. In NOTCH filters to remove whistles due to two radio stations being too close together in frequency.Filters Tutorial & Circuits . In SCRATCH filters to remove unwanted high frequency noise.com/general_theory/filters.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:46:46 PM] . CROSSOVER filters to direct low frequencies to the WOOFER and high frequencies to the TWEETER speakers. Back to General Theory http://www.

This variation in carrier frequency is called DEVIATION.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The amount that the carrier deviates in frequency is proportional to the loudness of the Audio modulating signal. Deviation is expressed in kHz per Volt. the amplitude of the carrier is kept constant and its frequency varied by the modulating signal. They use the FM band of 88-108 MHz where there is plenty of band space available.Hobby Projects Electronic. The BBC uses 15 kHz/Volt.com/general_theory/frequency_modulation. Microprocessor. Advantages of FM are higher quality and low noise.Frequency Modulation Tutorial & Circuits . The maximum deviation allowed by the BBC is plus and minus 75 kHz from the carrier frequency.hobbyprojects.com Frequency Modulation Tutorial With AM. Since FM signals occupy a wide bandwidth there is no room for them on LW or MW. it deviates more than if you whisper. How often the carrier deviates is determined by the frequency of the modulating audio.Frequency Modulations .General Theory . http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:46:51 PM] . With FM. the frequency of the carrier is fixed and the modulating signal controls carrier amplitude. If you whistle it deviates more frequently than if you hum into the microphone. If you shout into the microphone.

General Theory .com/general_theory/frequency_modulation.Frequency Modulation Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:46:51 PM] .Hobby Projects The diagram shows how the carrier varies in frequency as the modulating signal changes in amplitude.Frequency Modulations .hobbyprojects. Back to General Theory http://www.

Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .hobbyprojects.com/general_theory/graphs_and_waveforms. The graph above shows how the brightness of the sun is related to the time of day.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:46:57 PM] .com Graphs and Waveforms Tutorial Graphs are one way of showing the relationship between two variables (things that can change in value).Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. From the start at the bottom left hand corner until just before 6 am brightness is zero.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Brightness then falls becoming dark at about 9 pm when the sun sets.Graph and Wave forms . (It is dark). Now look at the following graph. Brightness increases as time passes being at maximum about 1 pm when the sun is highest in the sky.General Theory .Graphs and Waveforms Tutorial & Circuits .

Graphs and Waveforms Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects This relates a dry battery voltage to time. This is called a WAVEFORM. This next graph shows the same thing happening but continues repeating. It is at zero for a time and then shoots rapidly to a maximum value and stays there for a time before falling to zero again. It then repeats itself continuously.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:46:57 PM] .General Theory . This next graph shows a voltage which slowly rises from zero to a maximum value and then falls suddenly to zero again. The next waveform is called a square waveform because of its shape.Graph and Wave forms . http://www. It falls slowly over the weeks.com/general_theory/graphs_and_waveforms.

Hobby Projects An OSCILLOSCOPE is used to display and measure waveforms.Graph and Wave forms .hobbyprojects.Graphs and Waveforms Tutorial & Circuits .com/general_theory/graphs_and_waveforms. Back to General Theory http://www.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:46:57 PM] . A common waveform is the SINEWAVE which can alternate between positive and negative voltages.General Theory . Note that the horizontal line in all these graphs is called the X axis and the vertical line is the Y axis.

html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:02 PM] . It can travel through a vacuum. such as wood and paper.General Theory . This is why we can feel the heat of the sun even though it has to travel through the vacuum of space to reach earth. Poor electrical conductors. RADIATION q q q q q q q This does not need a gas or liquid to transfer the heat. A hot resistor causes convection. Polished surfaces are poor radiators but good reflectors of heat. That is why electric fires have shiny reflectors.Heat Tutorial & Circuits . Heat is expelled mostly in the form of infrared radiation. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor. Hot water in a pan rises to the top while the cold water falls to the bottom. For example between a soldering iron and a soldering terminal. or between a power transistor and its heatsink.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. These movements are called convection currents (nothing to do with electric currents). CONDUCTION q q q q q If one end of a metal bar is heated then heat is transferred by conduction to the cold end. Good electrical conductors such as copper and gold are good conductors of heat. Liquids behave in a similar manner.hobbyprojects. Heat is transferred in three ways. 3. This is a form of light and travels at the speed of light. If a fan is used to aid convection it is called FORCED CONVECTION.Electronic Heats .Heats . http://www. heat is transferred by the movement of a gas or a liquid. The above process is called NATURAL CONVECTION.com/general_theory/heat.Hobby Projects Electronic.com Heat Tutorial When an object is heated above the temperature of its surroundings it will lose heat to the surroundings. 2. Hot air rises and cold air falls. 1. Black objects are good radiators. CONVECTION q q q q q q q Here. transferring heat from the resistor to the surrounding air. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . Heat can be conducted between two objects if they are in close contact. are poor heat conductors.

Using heat sinks with fins increases surface area thus providing increased convection and radiation. which is a good conductor.com/general_theory/heat. q q Increasing temperatures also cause liquids to expand.Heat Tutorial & Circuits . Gases also expand with temperature increases. Using fans provides forced convection. causing components to fail. 5. Fitting components onto the metal chassis aids the dissipation of heat. one strip grows longer than the other. A temperature switch can be made from two strips of dissimilar metals fixed together. Increasing the surface area increase convection and radiation.General Theory . causing the strips to curve. As the temperature increases. That is why they have gaps in railway lines and bridges to allow for summertime temperatures. This in turn breaks (or makes) a circuit. This behaviour is used in the thermometer.Hobby Projects 4. Back to General Theory http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:02 PM] . Different metals expand at different rates. HEAT AND ELECTRONICS q q q q q q q q q Heat is one of the biggest enemies of electronics. between transistors and their heatsinks. Using holes and louvres in the casing increases natural convection. THE EFFECTS OF HEAT q q q q q Heat causes solid objects to expand.Electronic Heats . High wattages resistors are larger than low wattage ones.hobbyprojects. Using "heat sink compound".Heats . improves heat conduction. Painting heat sinks blacks increases radiation. To minimise the effects some action can be taken.

Iron has a lower reluctance than air. One end of a bar magnet is the NORTH POLE. UNLIKE POLES ATTRACT. A magnet is surrounded by an invisible MAGNETIC FIELD made of magnetic LINES OF FORCE. These are said to have a lower RELUCTANCE. the other end the SOUTH POLE. Microprocessor. when dug up. The lines of force prefer to pass through lower reluctance materials.General Theory . The North pointer on a compass is actually a South pole since it is attracted by the North pole of the earth. A rule of magnetism is that LIKE POLES REPEL. Lines of force pass through all materials including insulators. http://www. They pass through some more easily than others. attract other metals. They are called MAGNETS. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:05 PM] . North attracts South and repels North etc.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Electronic Magnetisms .com/general_theory/magnetism.hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. The reason that they are magnetic is that their DOMAINS are aligned. The lines of force run from north to south. These lines of force can be made visible by covering a magnet with a sheet of paper and sprinkling iron filings on the paper.com Magnetism Tutorial Some irons. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Magnetism Tutorial & Circuits .

com/general_theory/magnetism.Hobby Projects PERMANENT magnets are made of steel or steel alloys.Electronic Magnetisms .General Theory .Magnetism Tutorial & Circuits . Back to General Theory http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:05 PM] . Brass. copper and aluminum do not magnetize.hobbyprojects.

General Theory .com Mixer Tutorial The mixer has two input signals of different frequencies.M. One of the new frequencies is the sum of the two inputs. f1 . (some books say "beaten" together. For example.f2.47 MHz (470 kHz).Electronic Mixers . f1 and f2. others say "heterodyned").47 MHz. two adjacent stations will produce an interfering whistle.Mixer Tutorial & Circuits . Understanding mixers will help you to understand the MODULATION process in A. Sometimes.Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .47 MHz then the sum frequency is 2. The other is the difference between the two inputs.com/general_theory/mixer. Mixers are used as part of the FREQUENCY CHANGER in radios. Microprocessor. The difference frequency is 0. The difference between their frequencies is in the audio range.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. If you have two racks of equipment.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:11 PM] . transmitters. the noise produced by each fan rotating often beats together to give a low frequency beat noise. cooled by fans. f1 and f2 then come out of the mixer. f1 + f2. Back to General Theory http://www.hobbyprojects. if the inputs are 1 Mhz and 1. This is because their frequencies are close enough to beat together. on the radio. These inputs are mixed together in the mixer. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. together with two new frequencies.

Mixer Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.General Theory .Electronic Mixers .com/general_theory/mixer.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:11 PM] .Hobby Projects http://www.

Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor.com/general_theory/percent_and_tolerance. A 100 ohm resistor with a tolerance of 5% can have a value between 95 and 105 ohms and be within tolerance.hobbyprojects. 1% of 1000 tons is 10 tons. Back to General Theory http://www. 1% of 100 ohms is 1 ohm. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . 1% of 500 is 500/100 = 5 10% of anything is 10 x 1%.Hobby Projects Electronic. 5% is 50 tons.com Percent and Tolerance Tutorial 1% of anything is one hundredth part of it.html [1/17/2007 4:47:16 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. 5% of 100 ohms is 5 ohms.Percent and Tolerance Tutorial & Circuits . 1% of 100 balls is 1 ball.Percent and Tolerances in Electronics General Theory . 10% is 100 tons.

Hobby Projects Electronic.1 shows a continuous wave carrier (CW). This is the principle of Radar. Fig.General Theory . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:23 PM] .3 shows a long pulse and three short ones.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.Electronic Pulse Modulations .F.2 shows the carrier being switched on for a short time to produce a pulse of R. Fig.Pulse Modulation Tutorial & Circuits .com Pulse Modulation Tutorial Pulse modulation consists of switching the carrier on and off as required.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . http://www. a short pulse is transmitted and then an echo listened for. Fig.com/general_theory/pulse_modulation.

Fig. Back to General Theory http://www. Fig. Here the width and amplitude of the pulse are constant but its position is determined by the amplitude of the modulating signal.4 shows Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). 5 shows Pulse Position Modulation (PPM).Hobby Projects This generates the letter B in Morse Code.Electronic Pulse Modulations .General Theory . PULSE CODE MODULATION is where the amplitude of the modulation is measured at regular intervals and a binary number generated to represent that amplitude.hobbyprojects.Pulse Modulation Tutorial & Circuits .com/general_theory/pulse_modulation. The width of the pulse is determined by the amplitude of the modulating signal at that instant.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:23 PM] .

There is therefore a surplus of negative electrons and the material is called N-type semiconductor. It's like sitting in a row of chairs in the doctor's waiting room. producing a flow of holes. Sand on the beach is silicon and they say that germanium can be obtained from chimney soot. When purified they have a crystalline construction like salt and sugar. transistors. Therefore there are HOLES in the lattice. So you can see that the raw materials are extremely common.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Hobby Projects Electronic.com Semiconductor Materials Tutorial The two most common materials used in the making of semiconductors are silicon and germanium.Semiconductors Material . Hence the name.General Theory .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:26 PM] . However they do have to be purified to an extraordinary degree. The atoms which make up the materials are rigidly locked together in a pattern (a LATTICE) in which the electrons. precise amounts of impurities are added (the materials are DOPED). These impurities fit into the lattice but have associated electrons which are free to move about and produce a flow of electric current. Since there is a shortage of negative electrons there is an overall positive charge and the material is called P-type semiconductor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . semiconductors. Electrons can jump into these holes.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The resistance of semiconductors is about half way between conductors and insulators. After purification. in the atoms. are unable to move. Back to General Theory http://www.com/general_theory/semiconductor_materials. Other types of impurities can be added to pure silicon and germanium. When someone gets up and goes into the surgery there is an empty chair (a hole).Semiconductor Materials Tutorial & Circuits . This means that pure silicon and germanium are good insulators. Microprocessor. People (electrons) move along nearer to the surgery and a hole travels in the opposite direction. integrated circuits etc. Semiconductors are used in semiconductor devices such as diodes. These produce a shortage of electrons in the lattice.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:26 PM] .General Theory .Semiconductors Material .Semiconductor Materials Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects http://www.com/general_theory/semiconductor_materials.hobbyprojects.

Microprocessor. wavelength and the speed of sound are interrelated. Most sounds are a mixture of frequencies. Frequency.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:30 PM] . The range of human hearing is about 20 Hertz to 20 KiloHertz.hobbyprojects. This distance is called the WAVELENGTH. They cannot travel through a vacuum.General Theory . See the page on HARMONICS.com/general_theory/sound. or the human voice.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. q q q q q q q q Sound travels at about 330 metres a second. There is a regular spacing between one pressure peak and the next.SOUND . Loudspeakers and microphones are TRANSDUCERS. Microphones convert sound pressure waves into electrical signals. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Back to General Theory http://www.Electronic Sound Waves Tutorial & Circuits . a loudspeaker cone. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .Hobby Projects Electronic. Wavelength x frequency = the speed of sound in metres per second. These vibrations need air to travel through. A pure sound tone consists of a single frequency of vibration. Loudspeakers convert electrical signals into sound waves. The sound causes compression and decompression of the air as it moves through it. The air itself doesn't travel.com Sound Tutorial q q q q q q Sound waves are caused by vibrations such as that from a tuning fork.

Hobby Projects http://www.General Theory .com/general_theory/sound.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:30 PM] .Electronic Sound Waves Tutorial & Circuits .SOUND .hobbyprojects.

com The Differentiator Tutorial Read the page on TIME CONSTANTS before trying this one.com/general_theory/the_differentiator. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .Differentiator Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. http://www.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:34 PM] .Hobby Projects Electronic.Electronic Differentiators .General Theory .

Ohms Law says that current is proportional to voltage.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:34 PM] . When the pulse falls to zero C discharges.Electronic Differentiators . For each pulse the waveform out is repeated giving the display shown. voltage is proportional to current. with the voltage out rising suddenly to maximum and then falling exponentially to zero.com/general_theory/the_differentiator.Differentiator Tutorial & Circuits . Conversely. As C charges. the current which is charging C suddenly rises to a maximum value as well. A PULSE TRAIN is applied to the input.General Theory . The discharge current is high at the start and then falls exponentially to zero as C discharges. Since this charging current is passing through R the voltage across R (which is the output voltage) does the same.hobbyprojects. However. When a pulse of voltage rises suddenly from zero to maximum. Therefore we get the shape shown.Hobby Projects The differentiator is made from a capacitor C. the charging current falls exponentially to zero. Back to General Theory http://www. and assembled as shown. and resistor R. since the discharge current is in the opposite direction to the charge current the voltage across across R will be reversed and so the waveform is now shown below the zero line.

Back to General Theory http://www. X rays etc which are all forms of Electro Magnetic radiation.3000 (3 gigahertz) 3 gigahertz . visible light.300 megahertz 300 .Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/general_theory/the_rf_spectrum.300 kilohertz 300 .Electronic RF Spectrums .com The RF Spectrum Tutorial Frequency Range 3 .html [1/17/2007 4:47:36 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. ultra violet.RF Spectrum Tutorial & Circuits .30 gigahertz 300 .3000 gigahertz Classification Very low frequencies (VLF) The long wave band (LW) The medium wave band (MW) The short wave band (SW) Very high frequency band (VHF) Ultra high frequency band (UHF) Super high frequency band (SHF) Microwave frequencies Higher in frequency than this are infra red.30 kilohertz 30 .30 megahertz 30 .hobbyprojects.General Theory .3000 kilohertz (3 megahertz) 3 .

hobbyprojects.General Theory . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Ohms & Kirchhoff's Law Tutorial Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:41 PM] .Ohms and Kirchhoff's Laws Tutorial .Learn about Ohms & Kirchhoff's Law .Hobby Projects Electronic. Stated another way No matter how many paths into and out of a single point all the current leaving that point must equal the current arriving at that point. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. http://www.com Kirchhoff's Laws Kirchhoff's Current Law The algebraic sum of currents entering and leaving any point in a circuit must equal zero. Microprocessor.com/general_theory/Ohms_and_Kirchhoffs.

com/general_theory/Ohms_and_Kirchhoffs. When voltages are opposing as seen at the right. the difference is the voltage applied to the circuit.Learn about Ohms & Kirchhoff's Law . In this case 4 volts must be dropped by the resistors to equal the applied voltage.hobbyprojects.General Theory . Stated another way The voltage drops around any closed loop must equal the applied voltages. Back to General Theory http://www.Hobby Projects Kirchhoff's Voltage Law The algebraic sum of the voltages around any closed path is zero.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:41 PM] .Ohms and Kirchhoff's Laws Tutorial .

html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:47:44 PM] . its amplitude goes above and below its unmodulated amplitude. You could blow up your amplifier.Amplitude Modulation Tutorial & Circuits . Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . DON'T try this.com/general_theory/amplitude_modulation. The radio wave is called the CARRIER. To get our audio signal to travel long distances we piggyback it onto a radio wave. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Hobby Projects Electronic. At the receiving end the audio is recovered by a process called DEMODULATION.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. http://www. A radio wave can be transmitted long distances. The audio signal is called the MODULATION. From the diagram below.General Theory . you can transmit music over a short distance. Microprocessor. it can be seen that when the carrier is modulated.hobbyprojects. It is about 50% modulated in the diagram.Amplitude Modulations .com Amplitude Modulation Tutorial If you connect a long wire to the output terminals of your Hi-Fi amplifier and another long wire to the input of another amplifier. This process is called MODULATION.

If there are two stations too close together.Hobby Projects The maximum percentage modulation possible is 100%. The upper sideband is the carrier frequency plus the audio frequency.General Theory . http://www. This is called the signal BANDWIDTH. Since the audio signal is not a single frequency but a range of signals (usually 20 Hz to 20 KHz) the sidebands are each 20Hz to 20 KHz wide. one side can be removed to save bandwidth. their sidebands mix and produce HETERODYNE whistles. This is the space taken by the upper and lower sidebands.Amplitude Modulation Tutorial & Circuits . In the the example given above it would be 40 KHz. Most broadcasters limit modulation to 80%. Modulating the carrier frequency with an audio frequency produces two new frequencies.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:47:44 PM] .com/general_theory/amplitude_modulation. Since both sidebands carry the same information. single sideband transmission. This is SSB.Amplitude Modulations . Since the Medium Wave is only 500 KHZ wide there would only be space for about 12 stations. If you tune across a station in the Medium Wave Band you will find that it takes up space in the band. which limits the audio quality. Therefore the bandwidth of stations is limited to 9 KHz. The lower side band is the carrier frequency minus the audio frequency. At this point it would be a good idea to read the page on MIXERS. Going above this causes distortion.hobbyprojects. These new frequencies are called the upper and lower SIDEBANDS.

hobbyprojects.Amplitude Modulations .Hobby Projects Back to General Theory http://www.com/general_theory/amplitude_modulation.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:47:44 PM] .Amplitude Modulation Tutorial & Circuits .General Theory .

Although the circuit diagram shows all capacitors the same size and shape. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor. in reality they will be of assorted sizes. This applies to other components.Electronic Circuit Diagram Resource .hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . http://www. READING a circuit diagram is the ability to look at the diagram and understand how the circuitry works.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:51 PM] .com Circuit Diagrams Tutorial Circuit diagrams are one method of describing electronic equipment. shapes and color.com/general_theory/circuit_diagrams. Be aware that the layout of the circuit diagram may be nothing like the physical layout of the actual equipment.Hobby Projects Electronic.General Theory .Circuit Diagrams Tutorial . They are made up of BS3939 standard circuit symbols.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

Circuit Diagrams Tutorial .hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:47:51 PM] .Electronic Circuit Diagram Resource .General Theory .com/general_theory/circuit_diagrams.Hobby Projects Back to General Theory http://www.

Back to General Theory http://www. 4 has both peaks clipped and is often used as a LIMITER where the output must not exceed 1.html [1/17/2007 4:48:08 PM] . Fig.General Theory . Fig. Microprocessor.hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .com/general_theory/clippers_and_limiters.Clipper and Limiter . The circuit is like a potential divider with the diode part being high resistance for voltages below 0.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. 2 is the output of a positive clipper and fig.2 volts.Hobby Projects Electronic. 3 the output of a negative clipper. 1 shows the waveform into the clipper.Clippers and Limiters Tutorial .6 volts and low resistance above. Silicon diodes do not conduct until the applied voltage exceeds about 0. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com Clippers and Limiters Tutorial Clipping removes part of the positive or negative peaks of a signal or both.6 volts and only when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. Fig.

Oscilloscope Tutorial . They are indispensable for anyone designing or repairing electronic equipment.com Search ALL ABOUT OSCILLOSCOPE Oscilloscope Tutorial The Oscilloscope Oscilloscopes are used by everyone from television repair technicians to physicists.Learn All about Oscilloscope .html (1 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:48:19 PM] .Electronic Circuits & Tutorials Resource OSCILLOSCOPE TUTORIALS Products Sitemap Online Calculators Circuits (A-C) Circuits (D-O) Circuits (P-Z) Tutorials Web Hobbyprojects.com/oscilloscope_tutorial.hobbyprojects. What Can You Do With Oscilloscope? Analog and Digital How Does an Oscilloscope Work? q Analog Oscilloscopes Digital Oscilloscopes Sampling Methods Real-Time Sampling with Interpolation Equivalent-Time Sampling q q q q http://www.

html (2 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:48:19 PM] . set the controls in standard positions.Learn All about Oscilloscope . This section describes some useful measurement and oscilloscope performance terms.com/oscilloscope_tutorial.hobbyprojects. how to ground the oscilloscope. Oscilloscope Grounding Setting the Controls Probes q q q q Using Passive Probes Using Active Probes Using Current Probes Where to Clip the Ground Clip http://www. Measurement Terms Types of Waves q q q q Sine Waves Square and Rectangular Waves Sawtooth and Triangle Waves Step and Pulse Shapes Waveform Measurements Performance Terms r r r r r r r r r Bandwidth Rise Time Vertical Sensitivity Sweep Speed Gain Accuracy Time Base or Horizontal Accuracy Sample Rate ADC Resolution (Or Vertical Resolution) Record Length Setting Up This section briefly describes how to set up and start using an oscilloscope .specifically.Oscilloscope Tutorial .Electronic Circuits & Tutorials Resource Oscilloscope Terminology Learning a new skill often involves learning a new vocabulary. This idea holds true for learning how to use an oscilloscope. and compensate the probe.

com/oscilloscope_tutorial.Oscilloscope Tutorial .Learn All about Oscilloscope .Electronic Circuits & Tutorials Resource Compensating the Probe The Controls This section briefly describes the basic controls found on analog and digital oscilloscopes.html (3 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:48:19 PM] .hobbyprojects. your oscilloscope probably has controls not discussed here. Display Controls Vertical Controls q q q q q q Position and Volts per Division Input Coupling Bandwidth Limit Channel Invert Alternate and Chop Display Math Operations Horizontal Controls q q q q q Position and Seconds per Division Time Base Selections Trigger Position Magnification XY Mode Trigger Controls q q q q q Trigger Level and Slope Trigger Sources Trigger Modes Trigger Coupling Trigger Holdoff Acquisition Controls for Digital Oscilloscopes q q Stopping and Starting the Acquisition System Sampling Methods Other Controls http://www. Remember that some controls differ between analog and digital oscilloscopes.

Learn All about Oscilloscope .Electronic Circuits & Tutorials Resource Measurement Techniques This section teaches you basic measurement techniques.html (4 of 4) [1/17/2007 4:48:19 PM] . Just about every other measurement is based on one of these two fundamental techniques.hobbyprojects. The Display Voltage Measurements Time and Frequency Measurements Pulse and Rise Time Measurements Phase Shift Measurements <<< Back to Electronic Tutorials http://www. The two most basic measurements you can make are voltage and time measurements.Oscilloscope Tutorial .com/oscilloscope_tutorial.

Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronics Tutorial Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.All about Diodes Tutorial . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Diode Resource .com/diode.hobbyprojects.com The Diodes Tutorials Introduction to Diodes Diode Puzzle Barrier Diode as a Gate Diode Characteristic Curves Diode Clippers and Limiters Diode Connections Diode Protection Circuits Diode Voltages Forward and Reverse Biased Diodes Forward Biased Junction Full Wave Rectifier Half Wave Rectifier P-N Junction Reservoir Capacitor Reverse Biased Junction Semiconductor Materials Seven Segment Display http://www.Electronic Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:48:22 PM] .Intermediate Electronics Tutorial Electronic.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:48:22 PM] .hobbyprojects.com/diode.Diode Resource .All about Diodes Tutorial .Intermediate Electronics Tutorial Steering Diode Using the Light Emitting Diode Varicap Diode Voltage Doubler Zener Diode <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate http://www.Electronic Circuits .

Microprocessor.Introduction to Diodes Tutorial & Circuits .com/the_diode/introduction_to_diodes.hobbyprojects. They are often marked with a type number. A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in the other.The Diode . Diodes come in all shapes and sizes. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode . Diodes have two connections. There are specialised types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED).Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:48:27 PM] . The pcb is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. http://www.Diodes Resource . If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes. an anode and a cathode.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book. This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a tyre valve). which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round. ring or some other mark. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com Introduction to Diodes Tutorial Diodes are polarised. The cathode is always identified by a dot.

hobbyprojects.Diodes Resource .Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.com/the_diode/introduction_to_diodes.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:48:27 PM] .The Diode .Introduction to Diodes Tutorial & Circuits .

Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. This barrier must be overcome before current can flow through the P-N junction.hobbyprojects.com/the_diode/barrier. electrons fill holes so that there are no free holes or electrons there. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Barriers . <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.Barrier Tutorial & Circuits .Diode Barriers .Diodes Barrier .com Barrier Tutorial At the junction.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode . The actual junction becomes an insulating layer.html [1/17/2007 4:48:34 PM] . Microprocessor.

the cathodes of the diodes are more positive than the anodes.com/the_diode/diode_characteristic_curves. They are reverse biased and non conducting. During the duration of the gating pulse.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The output is connected to the input. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. as shown by the lowest waveform.The Diode . using a real gate. The diodes are forward biased and conduct.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Diode Characteristics . the input signal appears at the output.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:48:41 PM] . <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www. It's like separating sheep from goats. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode . The output of the circuit is isolated from the input.Diode Characteristic Curves Tutorial & Circuits . When the negative gating pulse comes along. and then shuts to reject the remainder.com Diode Characteristic Curves Tutorial An electronic gate opens to let part of a signal through. In the circuit. the cathodes become more negative than the anodes.

com/the_diode/diode_characteristic_curves.Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.hobbyprojects.The Diode .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:48:41 PM] .Diode Characteristic Curves Tutorial & Circuits .Diode Characteristics .

com Diode Connections Tutorial The cathode end of the diode is usually marked in some manner.Diode Connections Tutorial & Circuits .com/the_diode/diode_connections. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.Diodes Connection .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html [1/17/2007 4:48:49 PM] .hobbyprojects.Connect Diode .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. To reverse bias a diode.com Diode Voltages Tutorial To forward bias a diode. A conducting diode has about 0. Microprocessor.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. the anode must be more positive than the cathode or LESS NEGATIVE.Diode Voltage .Diode Voltages Tutorial & Circuits . the anode must be less positive than the cathode or MORE NEGATIVE.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:48:53 PM] .hobbyprojects.Diodes Voltages .6 volts across if silicon. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.3 volts if germanium.com/the_diode/diode_voltages. 0. http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .

Diode Voltages Tutorial & Circuits .com/the_diode/diode_voltages.Diode Voltage .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:48:53 PM] .Diodes Voltages .Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.

The positive terminal pushes holes towards the junction. 0. http://www.Forward Biased Junction Tutorial & Circuits .3 for germanium. The junction is said to be FORWARD BIASED. the negative terminal pushes negative electrons towards the junction. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/the_diode/forward_biased_junction. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .com Forward Biased Junction Tutorial Bear in mind that like charges repel and unlikes attract. Microprocessor. There is a voltage across the diode. When a battery is connected as shown.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:05 PM] . o.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects.Diodes . If the voltage is high enough then the barrier will be overcome and current will flow through the junction.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.6 for silicon.Forward Baising Diode .

<<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.com/the_diode/forward_biased_junction.Electronic Hobby Projects The P type is the anode of the diode. The resistor limits the current to a safe level.Forward Baising Diode .hobbyprojects. as shown by the diode symbol.Diodes .Forward Biased Junction Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:05 PM] . the N type the cathode.

com/the_diode/half_wave_rectifier. i. The diode is forward biased and current flows around the circuit formed by the diode.Diode Rectifiers . During the second half cycle.com Half Wave Rectifier Tutorial The voltage at point A does the opposite of that at point B.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. During the first half cycle of the waveform shown on the left. There is one pulse for every cycle in. Hence.Half Wave Rectifier Tutorial & Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The rectified voltage is DC (it is always positive in value). Since the current through the load. The diode only conducts on every other half cycle. the transformer winding and the load.Half Wave Rectifiers . When A is increasing in a positive direction. HALF-WAVE RECTIFICATION.e 50 pulses per second (in the UK) The diode only conducts during half the cycle.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:16 PM] . Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode . The diode is reverse biased and no current flows.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. B is increasing in a negative direction. B and the cathode are positive. It is rather like the two ends of a see-saw. A is positive and B is negative.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. during the first half cycle. http://www. then the voltage across the load is as shown in the right hand diagram. This is indicated by the horizontal line in the right hand diagram. A and the anode are negative. and the voltage across the load are in the same proportions.

Half Wave Rectifiers .Electronic Hobby Projects However. it is not a steady DC but PULSATING DC. If the diode is reversed then the output voltage is negative.Diode Rectifiers .com/the_diode/half_wave_rectifier. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:16 PM] . It needs to be smoothed before it becomes useful.Half Wave Rectifier Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.

Diodes Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Reservoir Capacitor Tutorial & Circuits . In the UK the weather is very variable. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects.com Reservoir Capacitor Tutorial The pulsating DC from the half wave rectifier needs to be smoothed to be useful.com/the_diode/reservoir_capacitor. Sometimes we have periods of drought and sometimes periods of prolonged rain. Microprocessor. April is very showery and occasionally we have snow in Winter.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:18 PM] . Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .Reservoir Capacitors Diode . http://www. It is not called this because of its construction but because of its application. This is done using a RESERVOIR capacitor.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:18 PM] . When this pulse has ended. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www. The result is a DC voltage with a superimposed 50 Hz (in the UK) ripple. Looking at the first waveform. However. other types can be used. the red line indicates the voltage across the capacitor. This is because it has been stored in a reservoir and is released as required. It stores the pulses of voltage and the load is able to use this stored power as if it were a steady supply available from a battery.Reservoir Capacitor Tutorial & Circuits . the water always comes out at the same steady rate. At low frequencies the capacitor is usually an electrolytic type.Reservoir Capacitors Diode . but at higher frequencies. This is shown in the second waveform. the capacitor voltage starts to fall as the load takes energy from the capacitor. When the first pulse arrives the capacitor charges up to the peak voltage. The capacitor is charged up by the pulses. when I turn on the shower.Diodes Electronic Hobby Projects However.hobbyprojects. It is the same with the reservoir capacitor. the voltage falls only slightly before the next pulse arrives to recharge the capacitor to the peak voltage. where smaller values are required.com/the_diode/reservoir_capacitor.

People (electrons) move along nearer to the surgery and a hole travels in the opposite direction.com Semiconductor Materials Tutorial The two most common materials used in the making of semiconductors are silicon and germanium. There is therefore a surplus of negative electrons and the material is called N-type semiconductor. However they do have to be purified to an extraordinary degree. Sand on the beach is silicon and they say that germanium can be obtained from chimney soot.hobbyprojects. Semiconductors are used in semiconductor devices such as diodes. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. producing a flow of holes.Semiconductor Material Diode . semiconductors. Other types of impurities can be added to pure silicon and germanium. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode . When purified they have a crystalline construction like salt and sugar. The resistance of semiconductors is about half way between conductors and insulators. Since there is a shortage of negative electrons there is an overall positive charge and the material is called P-type semiconductor.Semiconductor Materials Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www. This means that pure silicon and germanium are good insulators. The atoms which make up the materials are rigidly locked together in a pattern (a LATTICE) in which the electrons. So you can see that the raw materials are extremely common. integrated circuits etc. Hence the name. transistors.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:20 PM] . in the atoms.com/the_diode/semiconductor_materials. After purification. precise amounts of impurities are added (the materials are DOPED). Therefore there are HOLES in the lattice. These produce a shortage of electrons in the lattice. It's like sitting in a row of chairs in the doctor's waiting room. When someone gets up and goes into the surgery there is an empty chair (a hole). Electrons can jump into these holes.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. are unable to move.Diodes . These impurities fit into the lattice but have associated electrons which are free to move about and produce a flow of electric current.

Semiconductor Materials Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.Diodes .com/the_diode/semiconductor_materials.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:20 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.Semiconductor Material Diode .

Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode . While the AC supply is present. and is forward biased.com Steering Diode Tutorial If the AC supply fails then the equipment is automatically powered by the standby battery.Steering Diodes .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. D1 has +15 volts on its anode. there is +14. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. If the supply fails then the +15 volts disappears.Steering Diode Tutorial & Circuits .6 volts across the diode. and D2 becomes forward biased and conducts. The diodes STEER the voltages.com/the_diode/steering_diode. to power the equipment.hobbyprojects. Since there is 0.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:23 PM] . D2 is reverse biased since its anode is less positive than its cathode. D2 is non conducting and the battery is isolated. This voltage powers the equipment. http://www.Diodes .4 volts on its cathode.

com/the_diode/steering_diode.Diodes .Steering Diode Tutorial & Circuits .Steering Diodes .hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:23 PM] .

Diodes . The capacitance of the diode.com Varicap Diode Tutorial When the junction diode is reverse biased.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/the_diode/varicap_diode. the insulating barrier widens. The barrier forms the dielectric. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. is varied by means of the potentiometer controlling the reverse voltage across the varicap. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.Varicap Diode Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects. of variable width. The higher the reverse voltage the wider the barrier becomes. and thereby the resonant frequency.Varicap Diodes . The N and P type cathode and anode are the two plates of the capacitor. of a capacitor. In the diagram. The capacitor prevents the coil shorting out the voltage across the potentiometer. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. the diode and coil form a resonant circuit.html [1/17/2007 4:49:25 PM] .

1. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.com/the_diode/zener_diode.Zener Diode Circuits . This increase in voltage across the resistor causes the voltage across the load to remain at its correct value. smoothing out any voltages variations occurring in the supply voltage across the load. The voltage across the load remains at its correct value. if the voltage across the load tries to rise then the Zener takes more current.Zener Diodes .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Zener Diode Tutorial The Zener diode is operated in reverse bias mode (positive on its cathode). as a reference source. When being used a voltage regulator. 2. This value is printed on it. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode . as a voltage regulator.hobbyprojects. The current through the resistor and the voltage across the resistor both fall. where the voltage across it is compared with another voltage.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:31 PM] .Zener Diode Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. It relies on the reverse breakdown voltage occurring at a specified value. In a similar manner. then the Zener takes less current. if the voltage across the load tries to fall. The increase in current through the resistor causes an increase in voltage dropped across the resistor. Microprocessor. It has two main applications.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:31 PM] .Zener Diodes .Zener Diode Tutorial & Circuits .com/the_diode/zener_diode.Hobby Projects http://www.Zener Diode Circuits .hobbyprojects.

<<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/the_diode/a_diode_puzzle.Diodes Puzzle .Diode Puzzle Tutorial & Electronic Circuits .The Diode .com Diode Puzzle Tutorial Which lamps are alight? Some may not be full brightness.hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .html [1/17/2007 4:49:33 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.

Diode Gate . http://www. using a real gate. Microprocessor. It's like separating sheep from goats.Diodes Gate . The output of the circuit is isolated from the input. In the circuit.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects.Diode as a Gate Tutorial & Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:41 PM] . the cathodes of the diodes are more positive than the anodes. the cathodes become more negative than the anodes. They are reverse biased and non conducting. The diodes are forward biased and conduct.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com Diode as a Gate Tutorial An electronic gate opens to let part of a signal through. and then shuts to reject the remainder. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Diodes Resource . Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .com/the_diode/diode_as_a_gate. When the negative gating pulse comes along.

Diode as a Gate Tutorial & Circuits . During the duration of the gating pulse.Diodes Resource . <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.Diode Gate .Diodes Gate . the input signal appears at the output. as shown by the lowest waveform.Electronic Hobby Projects The output is connected to the input.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:41 PM] .com/the_diode/diode_as_a_gate.

Silicon diodes do not conduct until the applied voltage exceeds about 0.hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. http://www.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:46 PM] .Diode Clippers and Limiters Tutorial & Circuits . Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. 1 shows the waveform into the clipper.com Diode Clippers and Limiters Tutorial Clipping removes part of the positive or negative peaks of a signal or both.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .6 volts and only when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. The circuit is like a potential divider with the diode part being high resistance for voltages below 0. Fig.Clippers and Limiters .com/the_diode/diode_clippers_and_limiters.The Diodes .6 volts and low resistance above.

The Diodes .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:46 PM] . 4 has both peaks clipped and is often used as a LIMITER where the output must not exceed 1.2 volts.hobbyprojects.Clippers and Limiters . 2 is the output of a positive clipper and fig. Fig. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www. 3 the output of a negative clipper.Electronic Hobby Projects Fig.Diode Clippers and Limiters Tutorial & Circuits .com/the_diode/diode_clippers_and_limiters.

exceeding about 0.Diode Protection Circuits Tutorial . When a coil is switched off. Diagram B This circuit consists a meter movement with two germanium diodes across it.Hobby Projects Electronic. enough to destroy the transistor. Typical movements require only 100 mV for full scale deflection of the pointer. If a voltage.hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.3 volts. a large BACK EMF appears across the coil. which is normally reverse biased. is forward biased by the back emf. The diode. http://www.com/the_diode/diode_protection_circuits. appears across the circuit then one of the diodes will conduct and protect the movement from excessive voltage. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. its low resistance short circuiting the back emf and protecting the transistor.com Diode Protection Circuits Tutorial Diagram A This circuit consists of a relay coil being switched by a transistor. and conducts.Diodes Protection . This back emf may be several thousand volts in value.Diode .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:53 PM] . Microprocessor.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:49:53 PM] .Diode .Diode Protection Circuits Tutorial .hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.com/the_diode/diode_protection_circuits.Diodes Protection .

Reverse Biasing .Forward Biasing .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. and current flowing from cathode to anode.Forward and Reverse Biased Diodes Tutorial . with positive on the cathode and negative on the anode (via the lamp). No current flows.html [1/17/2007 4:49:57 PM] .com/the_diode/forward_and_reverse_biased_diodes.Diode .hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .com Forward and Reverse Biased Diodes Tutorial The left hand diagram shows reverse bias. The other diagram shows forward bias. with positive on the anode and negative on the cathode.

com Full Wave Rectifier Tutorial http://www. Microprocessor.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:02 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com/the_diode/full_wave_rectifier.Diode Rectifier .Full Wave Rectifiers .Full Wave Rectifier Tutorial & Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects.

Current flows around the circuit as shown in the bottom diagram. The pulsating DC can be smoothed with a reservoir capacitor. The voltages at points A and B on the transformer are changing in opposite directions. Since the full cycle is used this circuit is called a FULL-WAVE rectifier.Full Wave Rectifier Tutorial & Circuits . A is negative and B is positive. Both are forward biased. Current flows around the circuit formed by these diodes. as in the half-wave rectifier circuit. A is positive and B is negative. When A is increasing in a positive direction. During the first half cycle. D3 has negative on its cathode. it is easier to smooth. again flowing in the same direction through the load and producing another pulse of voltage.Full Wave Rectifiers . the load and the transformer winding. D1 has positive on its anode. as shown in the second diagram. B is increasing negatively. It is like the opposite ends of a see-saw. During the next half cycle. Since the pulse frequency is higher than that of the half-wave rectifier. The current flowing up through the load produces a pulse of voltage across the load as shown in the right hand waveform.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:02 PM] . there are 100 pulses per second out (in the UK). Both are forward biased. D4 has positive on its anode.Electronic Hobby Projects The left hand waveform shows the input voltage (50 Hz AC in the UK).com/the_diode/full_wave_rectifier. D2 has negative on its cathode. Since there are two pulses for each cycle of input. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.Diode Rectifier .hobbyprojects.

PN Junction . The N end has a surplus of negative electrons. <<<< Back to The Diode Tutorial http://www.com P-N Junction Tutorial The P-N junction is made from a single crystal with the impurities diffused into it. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.P-N Junction Tutorial & Circuits . The P end has a surplus of holes. Hobbyiest and R&D persons The Diode .com/the_diode/pn_junction.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.hobbyprojects.PN Junctions Diode .html [1/17/2007 4:50:04 PM] .Diodes .

then the voltage on both inputs will be the same. Back to General Theory http://www. If the voltage on one input is 10 mV and 15 mV on the other then the difference is 5 mV. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . It amplifies the difference between the voltages at the two inputs. the interfering signal will not appear at the output because both input signals are the same.html [1/17/2007 4:50:07 PM] .Difference Amplifiers .General Theory. Only a difference in inputs will produce an output. If the amplifier amplifies by ten times then the output voltage will 5 mV times 10 which equals 50 mV.Hobby Projects Electronic.hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/general_theory/difference_amplifier. when being used as a difference amplifier. Even if the input voltage is varied there will be no output. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. there is some interference picked up by both inputs. If the two inputs are joined together and a voltage applied to them.Difference Amplifier Tutorial . If. There is no difference between them and there will be no output from the amplifier.com Difference Amplifier Tutorial q q q q The difference amplifier has two inputs and one output.

Back to General Theory http://www. If the two signals are out of phase then it is NEGATIVE FEEDBACK. If a microphone is too near to a loudspeaker then you will get positive feedback causing "howl round". If input and output signals are in phase then the feedback is POSITIVE.Hobby Projects Electronic.Feedbacks . Feedback is when some of the output signal from a circuit is fed back to the input and combined with the input signal. Positive feedback in an amplifier increases the gain and reduces the bandwidth of the amplifier.Electronic Feedback . If there is sufficient positive feedback then the amplifier will oscillate.General Theory . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/general_theory/feedback. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:13 PM] .hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.Feedback Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Feedback Tutorial It is best if you read the page on the PHASE first. Negative feedback reduces gain and increases bandwidth.

Feedback Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:13 PM] .hobbyprojects.General Theory .com/general_theory/feedback.Electronic Feedback .Hobby Projects http://www.Feedbacks .

General Theory .com/general_theory/frequency_changer.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:15 PM] .hobbyprojects.Frequency Changers .Hobby Projects Back to General Theory http://www.Frequency Changer Tutorial & Circuits .

The same effect is obtained if the wire is stationary and the field is moved. where a coil is rotated in a magnetic field to generate electricity.Generator Principle Tutorial & Circuits . where sound causes a coil to vibrate in a magnetic field. and the direction of the movement. The direction of current flow is determined by the direction of the field.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Generators Principles .com Generator Principle Tutorial It is best if you read the page on the Magnetism first. The amplitude of the voltage is determined by the rate at which the wire cuts the lines of force. a voltage and current is induced in the wire. This principle is used in the electric generator.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:22 PM] . http://www. It is also used in the moving coil microphone. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .hobbyprojects. When a piece of wire is moved through a magnetic field.Hobby Projects Electronic.com/general_theory/generator_principle. Microprocessor. generating voltages which represent the sound waves. Increasing the density of the field or increasing the speed of the wire therefore increases the voltage. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.General Theory .

General Theory .hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:22 PM] . It relies on passing a current through a wire in a magnetic field to provide movement.Hobby Projects The Electric Motor Principle is related.com/general_theory/generator_principle.Generators Principles . Back to General Theory http://www.Generator Principle Tutorial & Circuits .

Hobby Projects Electronic.Harmonics Tutorial & Circuits . the musical notes produced sound different.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. say middle C. The fundamental is a pure sine wave. 7th etc are called ODD harmonics.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:25 PM] . Microprocessor.General Theory .Electronic Harmonic Resource .hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . The frequency which is three times the fundamental is the 3rd harmonic. is called the 2nd harmonic. 5th. The number and amplitude of the harmonics determines the characteristic sound of the instrument. as in the diagram.com/general_theory/harmonics. The harmonic which is twice the fundamental frequency. The 3rd. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. http://www. This is because that as well as producing the FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY of middle C they also produce multiples of this frequency called HARMONICS.com Harmonics Tutorial When the same note. is played on different instruments.

This may be due to harmonics being generated by the amplifier.hobbyprojects. 8th etc are called EVEN harmonics.Harmonics Tutorial & Circuits . A sawtooth wave form consists of a fundamental plus an infinite number of even harmonics. 4th.General Theory .Hobby Projects The 2nd. A square wave is made up from a fundamental frequency sine wave and an infinite number of odd harmonics.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:25 PM] . If a sine wave is injected into an amplifier the output wave form may be distorted.Electronic Harmonic Resource . Back to General Theory http://www.com/general_theory/harmonics. 6th.

hobbyprojects. LENSES use refraction. http://www.Electronic Rays .Lights . CONCAVE lenses cause the beam to DIVERGE.000 metres per second. Wavelength x frequency = the speed of light. Different colours of light have different frequencies. CONVEX lenses FOCUS a beam of light to a point.com Light Tutorial Light is an electromagnetic wave similar to radio waves. When light passes from one transparent material to another it is REFRACTED (bent).Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. It has wavelength and frequency. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .Waves .000. frequency and the speed of light are related. Wavelength. Microprocessor.General Theory .Light Tutorial & Circuits . It travels at 300.com/general_theory/light.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:50:31 PM] . When a ray of light hits a shiny surface it is REFLECTED.

GREEN and BLUE are used in the colour television system. Three of the primary colours. In the next diagram.Electronic Rays .General Theory .Light Tutorial & Circuits . RED.com/general_theory/light.Hobby Projects The PRIMARY colours which make up white light can be separated out by a glass PRISM. By mixing them most other colours can be made.Waves . red and green make yellow.Lights . Back to General Theory http://www.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:50:31 PM] . green and blue make cyan and red and blue make magenta. White is made by using all three colours.

Lights .Waves .html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:50:31 PM] .com/general_theory/light.Hobby Projects http://www.Light Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Rays .hobbyprojects.General Theory .

com Motor Principle Tutorial It is best if you read the page on the Magnetism first. http://www. The coil is suspended in a magnetic field.hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Motor Principles . The Electric Generator Principle is related. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. This principle is used in the electric motor to produce rotation. The moving coil meter uses the same idea. resulting in sound pressure waves. causes movement of a cone. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . When a current is passed through a wire which is suspended in a magnetic field. When the meter is connected to a circuit. The speed of movement is determined by the strength of the field and the amplitude of the current.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:33 PM] .Motor Principle Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects Electronic. The direction of movement is determined by the direction of the field and the direction of the current. Microprocessor. suspended in a magnetic field. It is also used in the loudspeaker where varying speech currents through a coil. current passes through a coil.General Theory . A pointer fixed to the coil indicates a value on a scale. the wire will move.com/general_theory/motor_principle. and rotates when current passes through it.

com/general_theory/motor_principle.Motor Principle Tutorial & Circuits .Motor Principles .Hobby Projects Here a coil is moved in a magnetic field. This induces voltages and current in the coil. Back to General Theory http://www.General Theory .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:33 PM] .hobbyprojects.

com Oscillators Tutorial Oscillators are amplifiers with such a large amount of positive feedback that they produces an output signal with no signal applied to the input.Oscillators Tutorial & Circuits . Microprocessor. Precautions are taken against frequency DRIFT. the frequency of which is determined by TUNED CIRCUITS. Back to General Theory http://www. but due to temperature variations and mechanical vibration this may not be so. "Howl round".Hobby Projects Electronic.com/general_theory/oscillators.Electronic Oscillator . Ideally the frequency of an oscillator should be stable. Square wave oscillators use resistors and capacitors to determine the frequency of oscillation. Oscillators can produce sine waves. Tuned circuits consist of a capacitor and inductance.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.General Theory . Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . caused by placing a microphone too close to a loudspeaker.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:39 PM] . The output amplitude is determined by the gain of the amplifier and the feedback circuit. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects. is an audio oscillation caused by positive feedback.

Electronic Oscillator .com/general_theory/oscillators.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:39 PM] .hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects http://www.Oscillators Tutorial & Circuits .General Theory .

Mark/space ratios can vary. Pulses do not rise and fall instantaneously but take time (which may be very short). It then falls very rapidly back to zero. It stays steady at the maximum value for a time. Microprocessor. The duration time of a pulse is called the MARK. http://www. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. If pulses occur one after another they are called a PULSE TRAIN.com Pulses Tutorial Here is the characteristics of a single pulse. The relative times are expressed as the MARK/SPACE RATIO.Pulses Tutorial & Circuits . q q q q q q The voltage rises very rapidly from zero to its maximum value.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Electronics Pulse General Theory .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:42 PM] .com/general_theory/pulses.Electronic Pulse . They are called the RISE and FALL times. The duration of a pulse can be anywhere from a very long time (days) to a very short time (picoseconds or less). Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . The time between pulses is called the SPACE.hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic.

3 has a 50:50 mark/space ratio. Back to General Theory http://www.Pulses Tutorial & Circuits . 5 is about 10:1 Note that the last three waveforms are of the same frequency. 4 is about 1:10 Fig. All the pulses start at the same instant.com/general_theory/pulses. This is a special case called a SQUARE WAVE.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:42 PM] .hobbyprojects.Electronic Pulse .Electronics Pulse General Theory . Fig.Hobby Projects Fig.

RMS and Peak to Peak Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Both thermometers show the same temperature when the resistors are heated by the current passing through them. A Root Mean Square (RMS) voltage gives the same heating effect as a DC voltage of the same value.com RMS and Peak to Peak If someone measures the value of the AC voltage coming out of a transformer using an oscilloscope and says it is 20 volts peak to peak and we use a voltmeter to confirm this we will find that the meter reads only 7. 7.07 volts. meters measure RMS values.com/general_theory/rms_and_peak_to_peak. The peak to peak voltage is twice this. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.414 equals the Peak value.414 and then doubled is 20 volts. In figure 1 the 'scope displays the peak value.RMS and Peak to Peak General Theory . When using a meter to measure the same AC voltage a different value is obtained. http://www. Microprocessor. the Peak to Peak value. Peak to Peak is twice this.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:48 PM] . This is because the scope measures peak to peak values and the meter measures RMS values.07 volts RMS times 1.hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. as we said. RMS values can be converted to peak to peak values and vice-versa. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory . RMS values times 1. This is because. See figures 2 and 3. For example if the peak is 10 volts then the peak to peak is 20 volts.

Back to General Theory http://www.RMS and Peak to Peak General Theory .07 volts RMS.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:48 PM] . Don't forget that Peak is half the Peak to Peak. 20 volts Peak to Peak is 10 volts Peak. 10 volts Peak times 0.707 gives the RMS value.com/general_theory/rms_and_peak_to_peak.RMS and Peak to Peak Tutorial & Circuits .707 equals 7.Hobby Projects Peak values times 0.

Source and Load Tutorial & Circuits .com/general_theory/source_and_load.General Theory .hobbyprojects. Back to General Theory http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:51 PM] . a fuse is inserted in one of the leads.Electronic Source and Loads .Hobby Projects To protect the load and source against excessive current flowing due to a fault.

Hobby Projects Electronic. When the input pulse falls suddenly to zero the capacitor discharges exponentially to zero.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:55 PM] .com/general_theory/the_integrator. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .Electronic Integrators . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor. The process is repeated for each pulse giving the waveform shown.Integrator Tutorial & Circuits . When an input pulse rises rapidly to maximum the capacitor charges exponentially through the resistor as shown in the lower waveform.com The Integrator Tutorial We suggest you read the TIME CONSTANTS before tackling this one.hobbyprojects. A PULSE TRAIN is applied to the input. http://www.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The integrator consists of a capacitor and resistor connected as shown.General Theory .

Electronic Integrators .hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:55 PM] .com/general_theory/the_integrator.General Theory .Hobby Projects Back to General Theory http://www.Integrator Tutorial & Circuits .

C remains charged up to the battery voltage. If the battery is now removed. to limit the amount of discharge current that can flow. In the second diagram. Doing this can also be dangerous. Microprocessor. as described previously. unlike attract.com/general_theory/time_constants. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. When the switch is closed. The screwdriver has a low resistance. If a screwdriver is now placed across the capacitor terminals. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .Electronic Time Constant . This can be dangerous.hobbyprojects. In the first diagram.com Time Constants Tutorial Like charges repel. The C is now discharged.Time Constants Tutorial & Circuits .General Theory .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. the surplus electrons on the upper plate will now flow to the lower plate.Hobby Projects Electronic. since capacitors can remain charged to high voltages for a long time. C charges from the battery. Similarly. when the switch is closed. highly charged capacitors must be discharged via a resistor. and Mr Ohm says "low resistance means high current". a resistor R has been placed in series with C. the negative terminal of the battery repels the negative electrons and pushes them onto the upper plate of the capacitor C. One vapourised screwdriver !! Therefore large.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:58 PM] . the positive terminal attracts the negative electrons away from the lower plate. http://www.

and the more you stand on the hosepipe (R). If we draw a graph of the increase of capacitor voltage against time. The larger the bucket (C). The value of C in Farads. The curve is exponential.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:50:58 PM] .hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects The charging current passes through R. If it is a 100 volt battery. then after 20 seconds. multiplied by the value of R in ohms.com/general_theory/time_constants. the capacitor voltage will be 63 volts. This means that C will take 20 seconds to charge up to 63 % of the battery voltage. If C = 2 Farads and R = 10 ohms then RC = 20 seconds. The larger the values of C and R. then we get a curve that is not linear ( not a straight line). If C is discharged. then the longer it takes to fill the bucket.General Theory . by connecting a resistor across it. measured in seconds. Back to General Theory http://www. then the capacitor voltage falls BY 63 % after RC seconds.Electronic Time Constant . It gets slower and slower. C takes time to charge up to the battery voltage. Time constants are often used where a time delay is required. the longer C takes to charge. gives us the TIME CONSTANT (RC).Time Constants Tutorial & Circuits . It increases rapidly at the start and then slows down. Since R limits the amount of current that can flow (Ohms law). Liken it to filling a bucket with a hosepipe.

Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. http://www.hobbyprojects.com/general_theory/what_is_phase. Hobbyiest and R&D persons General Theory .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:02 PM] . To be in phase they must start at the same time.What is Phase Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. In the next diagram there are two sine waves. They are out of phase because they do not start from zero at the same time. Waveform B is LAGGING A by 90 degrees.General Theory . The waveform A starts before B and is LEADING by 90 degrees.Learn all About Electronic Phase . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com What is Phase Tutorial The generator at the power station which produces our AC mains rotates through 360 degrees to produce one cycle of the sine wave form which makes up the supply.

Hobby Projects The last diagram. known as a PHASOR DIAGRAM. All this has nothing to do with "set your phasors on stun". If voltage A was half the voltage of B then its phasor would be half the length of B.hobbyprojects. A is leading B by 90 degrees.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:02 PM] .General Theory .What is Phase Tutorial & Circuits . shows this in another way.com/general_theory/what_is_phase. The length of the phasors is determined by the amplitude of the voltages A and B. Back to General Theory http://www. The phasors are rotating anticlockwise as indicated by the arrowed circle. Since the voltages are of the same value then their phasors are of the same length.Learn all About Electronic Phase .

com/components. Microprocessor.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:04 PM] .Electronic Circuits .Science Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronics for Beginners Tutorial Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.Components Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.com Components Tutorial 7 Segment Displays Active and Passive Batteries Capacitors Circuit Symbols Diode Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Fuses Electromagnetic Relay Integrated Circuits Inductors Printed Circuit Boards Loudspeaker Resistors Reed Switch Resistor Colour Code Selecting Capacitors Switches http://www. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

hobbyprojects.com/components.Science Hobby Projects Semiconductor Data Transformer Types Transformer Value Multipliers Using Led's Wires and Cables <<< Back to Electronics for Beginners http://www.Electronic Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:04 PM] .Components Tutorial & Circuits .

Hobby Projects Electronic. They are arranged and labeled as shown in the diagram.Electronic Components Tutorial . Resistors must be placed in series with each diode to limit the current through each diode to a safe value.com/components/7_segment_displays.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:07 PM] . Powering a. It is an assembly of light emitting diodes which can be powered individually. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. http://www.c d and g will display the number 3. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The d. Numbers 0 to 9 can be displayed. Powering all the segments will display the number 8.b. The one shown is a common anode display since all anodes are joined together and go to the positive supply.com 7 Segment Display Tutorial The 7 segment display is used as a numerical indicator on many types of test equipment. The cathodes are connected individually to zero volts. They most commonly emit red light. Microprocessor.All About 7 Segment Displays .7 Segment Display Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.p represents a decimal point.

7 Segment Display Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects Early wrist watches used this type of display but they used so much current that the display was normally switched off.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:07 PM] . Alphanumeric displays are available which can show letters as well as numbers. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.com/components/7_segment_displays.All About 7 Segment Displays . Common cathode displays where all the cathodes are joined are also available.Electronic Components Tutorial . Liquid crystal displays do a similar job and consume much less power. To see the time you had to push a button.

The zinc and carbon react with the ammonium chloride ELECTROLYTE to produce electricity. The manganese dioxide absorbs hydrogen gas produced around the carbon rod which would insulate it from the electrolyte and stop the cell working. Microprocessor. A primary cell is discarded when its chemical energy is exhausted. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Batteries Tutorial Batteries are assembled from cells. connected in series. This is not an actual resistor but a characteristic of the cell. Lead acid batteries need a constant voltage charger.Batteries Tutorial & Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:11 PM] . The most common primary cell is the zinc/carbon (Leclanche) as used in torches.Learn all about BATTERIES . http://www. Cells may be either PRIMARY or SECONDARY types. Nicads must be charged with a constant current charger.hobbyprojects. In a cell chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. to increase the voltage available. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/components/batteries. portable radios etc. All cells have INTERNAL RESISTANCE. A secondary cell can be recharged.Hobby Projects Electronic.Battery Components . The most common secondary cells are the lead/acid and nickel/cadmium (nicad).

i.e. It occurs in any type of power supply.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:11 PM] .hobbyprojects. When current is taken from a battery. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.com/components/batteries. voltage is dropped across this internal resistance and the voltage at the battery terminals falls.Batteries Tutorial & Circuits .Learn all about BATTERIES . with the radio etc switched on and drawing current. This is called POOR REGULATION.Battery Components . Battery voltages must therefore always be measured ON LOAD.Hobby Projects Internal resistance increases as the cell ages. The diagram shows that as the current taken increases the terminal voltage decreases.

Components . capacitors and inductors.hobbyprojects.com Circuit Symbols Tutorial The diagram below shows passive components. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. relays. http://www.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:51:12 PM] . resistors. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Also shown are the symbols for wires that are not joined ( no physical electrical connection ) and wires that are joined ( a physical electrical connection ).com/components/circuit_symbols. and also electrical components such as switches.Circuit Symbols Tutorial . Microprocessor.Hobby Projects Electronic.Electronic Circuits Symbol . motors and lamps.

the difference between active and passive is that active components require a power source to work. these were being replaced by the smaller transistor and integrated circuits.Circuit Symbols Tutorial .Hobby Projects This next diagram depicts active components.Electronic Circuits Symbol . Although at one time. The top symbols represent vacuum tube or thermionic devices. whereas passive components do not.Components .hobbyprojects. they are finding their way back into electronics for use in professional audio equipment and some radio receivers http://www.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:51:12 PM] .com/components/circuit_symbols.

Circuit Symbols Tutorial .Electronic Circuits Symbol .Components .html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:51:12 PM] .hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.com/components/circuit_symbols.

Phosphors come in a range of colours. This produces a spot of light on the centre of the face of the CRT.com/components/crt. It consists of a glass envelope made from a neck and cone.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:15 PM] .CRT Components Tutorials . The face is coated with a PHOSPHOR which PHOSPHORESCES (glows) when hit by the beam. monitors and television receivers. Microprocessor. This electron beam is projected towards the inside face of the screen. All air has been extracted so that it contains a vacuum. On its way from the gun to the screen the beam passes between 2 sets of plates.Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Voltages are applied to this gun to produce a beam of electrons. At the narrow end are pins which make connection with an internal ELECTRON GUN.com Cathode Ray Tube Tutorial The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is used in oscilloscopes. radar. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. By applying voltages to these plates the beam can be deflected. Controlling the diameter of the beam controls FOCUS. spot BRIGHTNESS can be controlled.Cathode Ray Tube Tutorial & Circuits . This causes the spot to move from the centre of the screen to another position on the screen. http://www. By varying the beam current. They are called the X and Y plates (as in graphs).hobbyprojects.

Note that dropping a CRT causes it to IMPLODE which is as dangerous as an explosion.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:15 PM] . Thus the spot can be deflected to any position on the screen.Cathode Ray Tube Tutorial & Circuits . <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.com/components/crt.CRT Components Tutorials .Hobby Projects The X plates plates deflect the spot horizontally. the Y plates vertically. External deflection coils are often used instead of the internal deflection plates.hobbyprojects.

The coil can be energised from a low power source such as a transistor while the contacts can switch high powers such as the mains supply. the core becomes temporarily magnetised.Electromagnetic Relays Tutorial & Circuits . When the coil is de-energised the armature and contacts are released. To prevent this a diode is connected across the coil.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:19 PM] .com/components/electromagnetic_relay. The cathode of the diode is connected to the most positive end of the coil.Components .hobbyprojects. The relay can also be situated remotely from the control source. This can damage other components in the circuit. The armature is pivoted which causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts. The magnetised core attracts the iron armature. http://www. by passing current through it. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when switched off. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. When the coil is energised.com Electromagnetic Relay Tutorial The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil. to form an electromagnet. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Hobby Projects Electronic. wound on an iron core.Electromagnetic Relay . Microprocessor.

hobbyprojects. Look at the page on switches to see how they can be used in circuits.c and c.o.Electromagnetic Relay . <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. Various coil operating voltages (ac and dc) are available.Hobby Projects The springsets (contacts) can be a mixture of n.o n. The REED RELAY has a much faster operation than the relays described above.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:19 PM] .com/components/electromagnetic_relay.Electromagnetic Relays Tutorial & Circuits . The actual contact points on the springsets are available for high current and low current operation.Components .

This opposition is called INDUCTIVE REACTANCE. At low frequencies the inductor may have hundreds of turns. Inductors oppose the flow of ac current.hobbyprojects. above 1 Mhz only a few turns. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:22 PM] . Above 100Mhz the core is usually air and the coil is self supporting. Ferrite cores are used for frequencies up to say. Iron cores are used for frequencies below about 100 kHz.com Inductors Tutorial Inductors are coils of wire. Inductor values of INDUCTANCE are measured in HENRIES. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Inductors Tutorial & Circuits . Most inductors have a low DC resistance since they are wound from copper wire. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. 10 Mhz. Microprocessor. The former may contain a metallic core up its centre.Components .com/components/inductors.Hobby Projects Electronic. Reactance increases with frequency and as the value of the inductance increases.Electronic Indocutor . They may be wound on tubular FORMERS or may be self supporting.

Inductors Tutorial & Circuits .Components .com/components/inductors.Hobby Projects http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:22 PM] .Electronic Indocutor .hobbyprojects.

Loudspeakers are mounted in enclosures (boxes). which is attached to the coil. When a speech current is passed through the coil a varying magnetic field is generated by the coil.com Loudspeaker Tutorial The most common type of loudspeaker is the MOVING COIL speaker. typically 4 or 8 ohms. Large speakers cannot reproduce high frequencies and small ones cannot reproduce low frequencies. The movement of the coil causes a cone. Microprocessor. http://www. a large one (a Woofer) for low frequencies. where a coil of wire is suspended in the magnetic field of a circular magnet.Loudspeaker Circuits .Hobby Projects Electronic. Therefore two speakers are used. The two magnetic fields interact causing movement of the coil. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. This must be matched to the output impedance of the amplifier. to move back and forth. Loudspeakers have Impedance.Components .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:25 PM] .com/components/loudspeaker. The loudspeaker is a TRANSDUCER converting one form of energy to another. The design of enclosures is very complicated.hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. This compresses and decompresses the air thereby generating sound waves. and a small one (a Tweeter) for high frequencies.Loudspeakers Tutorial & Internal Diagram .

Loudspeakers Tutorial & Internal Diagram .com/components/loudspeaker.Hobby Projects To ensure that the correct frequencies go to the desired speaker. they must be in phase. This means that they move out and in together.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:25 PM] . as in stereo systems.Components .hobbyprojects. (there is a page on FILTERS). <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. This happens if the speaker leads are connected correctly. Using a lower impedance than the correct one can blow up the output stage of your amplifier. C1 and L1 are a low pass filter. Speakers can be connected in series and parallel but the total impedance must match the amplifier impedance. a Crossover Unit is used. When using two speakers together. C2 and L2 are a high pass filter.Loudspeaker Circuits . In the diagram.

Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. This field can be provided by bringing a permanent magnet close to the switch. filled with an inert gas which prevents corrosion.Components . the reed switch consists of two springy metal strips (reeds) sealed in a glass tube.Hobby Projects Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:51:27 PM] . It can be used as part of an intruder detection system.hobbyprojects. with a magnet fixed to a door and the switch fitted to the door frame.Reed Switches Circuits .com Reed Switch Tutorial Basically.com/components/reed_switch. Reed relays require much lower operating current than normal relays <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. It can also be used as a high speed relay. or by passing current through a coil which is wrapped around the switch. The switch is activated by an external magnetic field. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Reed Switch Tutorial & Diagram .

RADIAL ones have both leads coming out of the same end. mains suppression and motor start LF decoupling and smoothing LF coupling. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Ensure that the circuit voltages do not exceed the capacitors maximum working voltage.5 % 10 % 20 % 10 % 1% 5% 5% 50 % 5% fair excellent good fair good excellent fair fair fair excellent APPLICATIONS motor start. timing and filters. decoupling and timing <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. coupling and decoupling. TYPE paper silver mica ceramic low loss ceramic high k ceramic monolithic polystyrene polyester polypropylene electrolytic tantalum RANGE 10 nF to 10 uF 5 pF to 10 nF 5 pf to 10 nF 5 pF to 1 uF 1 nF to 47 uF 50pF to 0. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. AXIAL capacitors are the same shape as resistors with a wire coming out of each end. Electrolytic and tantalum capacitors are polarised and must be fitted the correct way round.Hobby Projects Electronic.Selecting / Choosing Capacitors Tutorial & Circuits .5 uF 100 pF to 2 uF 1 nF to 100 uF 1uF to 100.com Selecting Capacitors Tutorial Size and shape as well as electrical characteristics must be considered if it is to fit into the available space.000 uF 1 uF to 2000 uF TOLERANCE STABILITY 10% 0. general purpose.html [1/17/2007 4:51:33 PM] .How to Select Capacitor . Microprocessor. Make sure it has the correct lead spacing.com/components/selecting_capacitors.hobbyprojects. mains interference suppression tuned circuits and filters coupling and decoupling " " tuned circuits.

Samiconductors Components .Semiconductor Data Links Tutorial & Circuits .com Semiconductor Data Links Global Data sheet Library Philips Semiconductors Texas Instruments National Semiconductor Mitel Semiconductor <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/components/semiconductor_data. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 4:51:35 PM] .hobbyprojects.

called EDDY CURRENTS. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. the lines of force move outwards from the coil. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet. If the current is increased.Transformers .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:36 PM] . the coil becomes surrounded by a magnetic field . Primary voltage -------------------------------Secondary voltage Number of primary turns -----------------------------------------------Number of secondary turns = For example. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. then the turns ratio is 10:1. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply . into this core. the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. http://www. If a 24 watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary. the core is LAMINATED. Assuming a perfect transformer. the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING. The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING.hobbyprojects.1 amp.How Transformer Works . or no core at all. Since the primary would induce power. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then.Hobby Projects Electronic. as the field moves out or in. the secondary will have half the primary voltage. If it is a 240 volt primary then the current in it must be 0. The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO. This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. a voltage is induced in the second coil. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary. (Watts = volts x amps). if the secondary has half the primary turns. If the current is reduced. the lines of force move inwards.Transformer Tutorial & Circuits .com Transformer Tutorial If you have read the page on ELECTROMAGNETISM then you will know that when a current is passed through a coil. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns. the coils are wound on a metal CORE. Microprocessor. this will happen 50 times a second. then the primary must supply 24 watts.com/components/transformer. As it does this. the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core.Components .

Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:36 PM] . or in the other direction.com/components/transformer.hobbyprojects. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction.Hobby Projects Note that the transformer only works on AC which has a constantly changing current and moving field. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.How Transformer Works .Transformer Tutorial & Circuits . This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply.Components . There is also a page on transformer types. There is a page on this subject.Transformers .

html [1/17/2007 4:51:39 PM] . Since this is not a standard value we can use a 470 or 560 ohm resistor as this application is not critical of values. The diode is in series with the resistor.Hobby Projects Electronic. with the anode positive and the cathode negative.Components . 0. In our example it is 2 volts and 20mA (0. Since the voltage across the diode is 2 volts and the battery voltage is 12 volts. so the current through then both is the same. How LED works .com/components/using_leds. Resistance = Volts divided by Amps = V/I = 10/0.Using LED's Tutorial & Circuits. as shown in the diagram. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com USING LED'S Tutorial The light emitting diode (LED) is commonly used as an indicator. It can show when the power is on.02 =500 ohms.hobbyprojects. To calculate the value of the series resistor we need to know the diode forward voltage and current and its connections.02 amps). Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. We now know the voltage across. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. The necessary data can be obtained from a catalogue or data book. and the current through the resistor. act as a warning indicator. or be part of trendy jewelry etc.Different kind of LED's . then the voltage across the resistor is 12-2 = 10 volts. Microprocessor. It needs to be fed from a DC supply. The cathode lead is the one nearest a "flat" on the body.02 amps. From Ohm's Law we can now calculate the value of the resistor.

field effect transistors etc.com/components/active_and_passive. Resistors. In a transistor. capacitors. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.Hobby Projects Electronic. Since they usually increase the power of a signal and require a source of dc power they are treated as active devices. PASSIVE components do not increase the power of a signal. Some can increase the voltage at the expense of current. inductors and diodes are examples of passive components. so overall there is a loss of power. Integrated circuits contain both active and passive components. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Active and Passive Tutorial & Circuits . The source of power is usually a dc voltage from a battery or power supply.Electronic Components Tutorial . The signal is fed into one connection of the active device and the amplified version taken from another connection. Examples are bipolar transistors.com Active and Passive Tutorial ACTIVE components increase the power of a signal and must be supplied with the signal and a source of power.html [1/17/2007 4:51:41 PM] . They often cause power to be lost.hobbyprojects. the signal can be applied to the base connection and the amplified version taken from the collector. Microprocessor.All About Active and Passive Components . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

com/components/capacitors. It is OK to use a voltage below the maximum value. See the page on Value multipliers to find out more about this.hobbyprojects. Capacitors come in all shapes and sizes and are usually marked with their value.com Capacitors Tutorial Capacitors are basically two parallel metal plates separated by an insulator.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:45 PM] . The voltage across the terminals must not exceed this value. Values in Farads are unusual. Capacitor types are named after the dielectric. polyester. Microprocessor. nanofarads or picofarads. This can be a hazard if they are charged up to high voltages. http://www. Capacitors can be charged up and store electricity. Thus we have ceramic. paper air capacitors etc. If it is necessary.Capacitors Tutorial & Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. mica. similar to a car battery. They are often marked with their maximum working voltage. This insulator is called the dielectric.Learn all about Capacitor Components . Most capacitor values are measured in microfarads. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. capacitors with large charges should be discharged via a resistor to limit the discharge current. DC current cannot flow through a capacitor since the dielectric forms an open circuit.Hobby Projects Electronic. Values are measure in Farads.

These merge into one wide red band. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. There can be some confusion. They are marked to indicate polarity. Some values are marked in picofarads using three digit numbers. There is a type of diode called the Varicap diode with similar characteristics. This means that they must be fitted the correct way round. 1/C total =1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 etc Variable capacitors are available in which the value can be adjusted by controlling the amount of overlap of the plates or the distance between them.000 pF = 100 nF = 0. 102 is 1000 pF and 104 is 100.Hobby Projects Some capacitors such as electrolytic and tantalums are polarised.Learn all about Capacitor Components .1 uF.hobbyprojects.Capacitors Tutorial & Circuits . The first two digits are the base number and the third digit is a multiplier. To find the total value of capacitors in parallel (that is connected across each other) their values are added.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:45 PM] . For example. A 2200pf capacitor would have three red bands. To find the total value if they are in series (that is in line with each other) then the following formula is used.com/components/capacitors. Some values are indicated with a colour code similar to resistors.

This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a tyre valve). The cathode is always identified by a dot.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:47 PM] . They are often marked with a type number.Electronic Diode Components .Hobby Projects Electronic. http://www. The pcb is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Diodes Tutorial & Circuits . Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book. ring or some other mark. Diodes come in all shapes and sizes. Diodes have two connections. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in the other. Microprocessor. an anode and a cathode.com/components/diode. If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes.com Diode Tutorial Diodes are polarised.hobbyprojects. which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round.All about Diodes .

Electronic Diode Components . <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects There are specialised types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED).com/components/diode.Diodes Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:47 PM] .All about Diodes .

.hobbyprojects. If the current rises above this value it will melt. Therefore special antis urge fuses are fitted. The fuse must be able to carry slightly more than the normal operating current of the equipment to allow for tolerances and small current surges. If a fuse is fitted to withstand this large current there would be no protection against faults which cause the current to rise slightly above the normal value.Components . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. These can stand 10 times the rated current for 10 milliseconds.Fuses Tutorial & Circuits . http://www. If the surge lasts longer than this the fuse will blow. ALWAYS REPLACE THE FUSE WITH THE CORRECT TYPE AND VALUE.Electronic Fuses . Microprocessor. If the fuse melts (blows) then there is an open circuit and no current can then flow thus protecting the equipment by isolating it from the power supply. With some equipment there is a very large surge of current for a short time at switch on. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The fuse is a piece of wire which can carry a stated current.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:50 PM] . Current from the supply to the equipment flows through the fuse. This will cause overheating and possibly a fire.com Fuses Tutorial If there is a fault in a piece of equipment then excessive current may flow. Fuses protect against this happening. If the fuse is black and silvery then it is likely that there is a dead short (very low resistance) somewhere..All about Fuse . Always find out why the fuse blew before replacing it.com/components/fuses. Occasionally they grow tired and fail.

All about Fuse .Electronic Fuses .Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:50 PM] .Fuses Tutorial & Circuits .com/components/fuses.Components .

When satisfied. They should be stored in conductive foam or wrapped in tin foil. Solder two diagonally opposite pins (say pin 1 and pin 5 in the diagram below) and check that the IC is flat on the board before soldering the rest. You may damage a circuit board when carelessly removing a 20p IC. often called "chips".hobbyprojects. Most common are 4.Integrated Circuit Resource . or may plug into sockets which have already been soldered into the board. If it is not flat then reflow the solder on the two pins pushing the IC flat. discharge yourself periodically by touching some metalwork which is earthed.com Integrated Circuits Tutorial IC's. Microprocessor.Components . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. come in several shapes and sizes. 14. When fitting new IC's it is often necessary to bend the pins in slightly. in order to fit it into the board (or socket).com/components/integrated_circuits. http://www. 16.Integrated Circuits Tutorial . solder the remaining pins. Take care when removing faulty IC's from pcb's. Some IC's are damaged by the static electricity which most people carry on their bodies. IC's can be soldered directly into printed circuit boards. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. 18 or 20 pin dual in line (dil) chips. When handling them. When soldering. 8. such as a radiator. ensure that the IC (or the socket) is the correct way round and that no pins have been bent underneath the body.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:56 PM] .Hobby Projects Electronic.

hobbyprojects.Integrated Circuits Tutorial .Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.Components .com/components/integrated_circuits.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:51:56 PM] .Integrated Circuit Resource .

Some parts of the side with copper tracks is coated with solder resist (usually green in colour) to prevent solder sticking to those areas where it is not required.com Printed Circuit Boards Tutorial Printed circuit boards (PCB's) are laminates. Plated through holes are available which do the same thing but these make the PCB more expensive.com/components/printed_circuit_boards. Soldering is done by hand or by flow wave soldering where the PCB passes over a wave of molten solder.hobbyprojects. Components are stuffed into the board by hand or by pick and place machines. Most recent PCB's use surface mount techniques where components are on the same side of the board as the tracks. This avoids unwanted solder bridges between tracks. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. Components are stuck to the board with adhesive and the solder caused to flow by heating the board in a hot gas or by some other technique. Tracks on one side can be joined to tracks on the other by means of wire links. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:00 PM] .Printed Circuit Boards Tutorial & Circuits . When the board is assembled avoid flexing it which may crack tracks.Printed Circuit Board Components . Sometimes the boards are double-sided with copper tracks on both sides. This means that they are made from two or more sheets of material stuck together. often copper and fibreglass. between thumb and forefinger. When fitting components ensure that they are orientated correctly and lay flat on the board unless otherwise stated. Microprocessor. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. Unwanted areas of the copper are etched away to form conductive lands or tracks which replace the wires carrying the electric currents in other forms of construction. It is best to handle PCB's by holding them by two edges only. Avoid touching the board which may cause contamination due to dirty fingers or damage due to static electricity carried on your body.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:00 PM] .hobbyprojects.Printed Circuit Board Components .Printed Circuit Boards Tutorial & Circuits .com/components/printed_circuit_boards.Hobby Projects http://www.

8 8.0 1.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:03 PM] .000 ohms is 1M. Wire wound resistors have their value written on them. They are called THERMISTORS and are used in temperature measuring circuits.2 1.Resistors Tutorial & Circuits . High stability resistors (marked with a fifth pink band) do not change value easily. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Most resistors are colour coded to indicate their value and tolerance. The higher this rating the more heat they can dissipate. This was discovered by Mr Ohm. and metal oxide and metal glaze on glass rods.8 2.2 This mean that 1 ohm. Microprocessor. To limit the range of resistor values to a manageable number a preferred range only is available.hobbyprojects. Some resistors are designed to change in value when heated.Electronic Resistor Components . Faulty resistors have gone open circuit or changed in value.3 3. 2200 ohm resistors etc are available. They never go short circuit.com/components/resistors. 12 ohm.3M etc.300. The higher the value of resistance (measured in ohms) the lower the current will be. Resistors generate heat.com Resistor Tutorial Resistors are electronic components which resist the flow of electronic current. Some resistors change in value when exposed to light.000 ohms is 3. http://www. These are 1.9 4. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. (colours would change with heat). 3. 1000 ohms is 1k.7 5. 180 ohm.Hobby Projects Electronic. Other types are carbon film which is a thin layer of carbon on a ceramic rod. 1000.2 2.7 3.6 6. They are called LIGHT DEPENDANT RESISTORS. Resistors have a wattage rating. Wire wound resistors are used where the resistor has to dissipate a lot of heat. The simplest resistors are made from carbon rod with end caps and wire leads.

com/components/resistors. F=1% G=2% J=5% K=10% M=20% R22M= 0. Once adjusted.3M would be written as 3M3 and 1. they are never touched again.7 ohm 10% 68RJ=68 ohm 5% Variable resistors are available.8k as 1K8 etc. On circuit diagrams tolerance is indicated by the following letters.Hobby Projects Decimal points are not used on circuit diagrams (they may be confused with fly specks). Preset variable resistors are internal controls which are adjusted in value by means of a screwdriver.22 ohm 20% 4R7K= 4.Electronic Resistor Components . Examples are volume and brightness controls.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:03 PM] . <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects. These can be operated by means of a knob on the control panel.Resistors Tutorial & Circuits . 3.

hobbyprojects. red = 2 The third band gives the number of zeros which follows the two digits. A green blue black resistor would be 56 ohms. Microprocessor.g Brown = 1.g.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:06 PM] .000 ohms. The three adjacent band give the resistor value. (black indicates that there are no zeros).com Resistors Color/Colour Code Tutorial Ignore the colour of the resistor body. red.Components .com/components/resistor_colour_code. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Resistors Colour Code Tutorial & Circuits . The next band gives the value of the next digit e. The band nearest the wire lead gives the value of the first digit. e.Hobby Projects Electronic. Therefore a resistor with brown.Resistor Color Coding .700. This resistor has a value of 2.e. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. orange bands would have a value of 12000 ohms. Black = 0 Brown = 1 Red = 2 Orange = 3 Yellow = 4 Green = 5 Blue = 6 Violet = 7 http://www. orange = 3 zeros = 000.g. Most resistors have three coloured bands close together at one end and one single band at the other.

red violet gold is 2. e.Resistors Colour Code Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects Grey = 8 White = 9 If the third band is silver then divide the value of the first two digits by 100.g.Resistor Color Coding . <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. brown 1% red 2% gold 5% silver 10% none 20% If there is a fifth pink band this indicates a high stability resistor. a 100 ohm 1% resistor can be in value between 99 ohms and 101 ohms.Components . brown indicates plus or minus 1%.com/components/resistor_colour_code. if gold divide by 10.g. The fourth band indicates the tolerance.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:06 PM] . e.hobbyprojects.7 ohms.

html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:10 PM] .com Electronic Switches Tutorial http://www.Switches Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Switch / Switches Components .com/components/switches. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects.

8 This is a "changeover" slide switch. (3) both used together to make a "changeover" switch. 7 This shows (1) a "normally closed. 3 This is a "2 pole on/off" switch which completely isolates the lamp from the supply in the off position. push to make". 4 This is a "single pole changeover" switch. Again S1a and S1b are part of the same switch. Either lamp 1 or lamp 2 is on. 2 S1 is a "single pole on/off" switch in the off position.Hobby Projects Fig. Fig. It can select 1 of 5 circuits. Panel-Toggle-Make before break-Pneumatic-Wafer-Proximity-Light activated-Toggle-Rotary Reed-Pull-Locking-Vane-Interlocking-Rocker-Dimmer-Mercury-Tilt-Microswitch Thumbwheel-Key-Wafer-Slide-Float-Optical-Foot-Thermal-Hall effect <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www. 5 This is a "2 pole changeover" switch. Fig. You can have 2p 5w. When operated a-b opens and b-c closes. Fig.Switches Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects. 3p 4w etc. Fig.Electronic Switch / Switches Components . 1 Switches are used to open/close a circuit.com/components/switches. Fig. This may be important if it is a high voltage supply. (2) a "normally open. Fig. 6 This is a "single pole 5 way" switch. The dotted line indicates that S1a and S1b are part of the same switch "ganged" together and operate simultaneously. Here are assorted switch types. The unlit lamp is completely isolated from the supply. Fig.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:10 PM] . push to break".

Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/components/transformer_types. Microprocessor.com Transformer Types Tutorial http://www.Transformers Components .hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:14 PM] .Transformer Types .Transformers Tutorial & Circuits .

hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:14 PM] .com/components/transformer_types.Transformers Components .Transformer Types .Transformers Tutorial & Circuits .

000.000 1. For example 1000.000. Microprocessor.000 0.Components .000. Practice converting one to another.000.hobbyprojects.001 Ohms is the same as 1 picohm PREFIX tera giga mega kilo milli micro nano pico SYMBOL T G M K m u n p MULTIPLICATION 1.001 0.html [1/17/2007 4:52:15 PM] .com/components/value_multipliers.000.000.000.Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.000 picofarad in 1 nanofarad.001 0. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. To make them easier to deal with we use MULTIPLIERS. There are 1.000.000 1.000.000.Electronic Value Multiplier .001 0.000.com Value Multipliers Tutorial In Electronics we use some very large and some very small values. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.000.000 Hertz can be labelled 1 Terahertz and 0.000.Value Multipliers Tutorial & Circuits .000.001 See that 1 microfarad is 1000 nanofarad.000.000.000 1.000.

It is therefore tinned giving us 22 swg tinned copper wire.hobbyprojects.Learn about Wires and Cable . Wires come in standard wire gauges (S.2 can carry 3 amp maximum 24/0. Flexible leads are made from several strands of wire. 7/0.) where the smaller the diameter of the wire the bigger the SWG. (The sunglass effect). If two bare wires touch it forms a short circuit. Where several leads are needed they can be combined into a single cable. Cables are often terminated in plugs or sockets which may take some time to connect. Microprocessor. a cableform or a cable loom. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronic Component Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.g 22 swg has a smaller diameter than 16 swg. This can be a multicore cable. e.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:17 PM] . A broken wire is called an OPEN CIRCUIT and prevents current flowing.com/components/wires_and_cables.W. Leads which carry small signals such as audio are often screened to reject external interference. Television aerial lead uses screened cable called COAXIAL CABLE.2 can carry 10 amp maximum Use wire strippers to remove insulation. A quicker technique is to use INSULATION DISPLACEMENT CONNECTORS (IDC) which take only seconds to fit. A single strand of wire 0.Wires and Cables Tutorial & Circuits .2 mm in diameter. Thicker wires can carry higher currents than thin ones as bigger pipes can carry more water than thin ones.G.Hobby Projects Electronic. burning insulation and wicking (allowing solder to run up under the insulation of flex which makes it rigid and brittle). Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. 7/0. this is very rigid and snaps if bent too often.6.2 is 7 strands of wire each 0. for example. Since this is very thin wires will take the minimum of space. When soldering avoid whiskers. Copper oxidises (tarnishes) making it difficult to solder.com Wires and Cables Tutorial Wires are mostly made from copper which is cheap and has a low resistance to the flow of electric current.2 can carry 5 amp maximum 32/0. http://www. Avoid nicking the wires or breaking strands in flexes. To avoid this wires are INSULATED using PVC etc.2 can carry 1 amp maximum 16/0. When wire are used for coils such as transformers the insulation is varnish.6 mm in diameter is called 1/0.Components . Fine strands of wire can be woven into a mesh or braid which can be used to screen out unwanted interference.

Hobby Projects FIBRE OPTICS is often used instead wires in some applications.com/components/wires_and_cables. <<<< Back to Components Tutorial http://www.Learn about Wires and Cable .hobbyprojects.Wires and Cables Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:17 PM] .Components .

Test and Measurement Tutorial .html [1/17/2007 4:52:20 PM] .Electronic Circuits .com Test and Measurement Tutorial Continuity Testing Effect of Meter Resistance Fault Finding Algorithms Frequency Response Logical Fault Finding Measuring Current Measuring Resistance Measuring Voltages Signal Generators Testing Transistors Tracing a Schematic Using a Scope With Respect to <<< Back to Electronics for Beginners http://www.com/test_and_measurement.Science Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronics for Beginners Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.

copper tracks on PCB's or wires in cables must not be open circuit but continuous. If the lamp doesn't light then the wire is open circuit (i.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. can be used to measure continuity. set to measure resistance. Microprocessor. so you can keep your eye on the job and not keep looking at the meter.hobbyprojects. when the two "flying" leads of the lamp and battery setup are connected to the two ends of the same wire in the cable. the lamp will light indicating continuity. not broken. where all the wires are the same colour. Some testers give out a whistle when continuity is ok. <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www.Hobby Projects Electronic.com Continuity Testing Tutorial Continuity testing means making sure that something is continuous i. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Test and Measurement . Ensure that the meter is set to read low resistance. A test meter. In the diagram.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:22 PM] .Continuity Testing Tutorial & Circuits . For example.com/test_and_measurement/continuity_testing. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement .) The tester is also useful for finding both ends of a wire in a cable. not continuous. If you set the meter to read up to 100k then a resistance of 500 ohms will appear to be continuous.Continuity Checking .e.e.

Test and Measurement .Continuity Testing Tutorial & Circuits .Continuity Checking .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:22 PM] .Hobby Projects http://www.hobbyprojects.com/test_and_measurement/continuity_testing.

<<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement .Fault Finding Algorithms Tutorial & Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. In electronics it can be applied to fault finding.Algorithm Fault Finding . Below is an abbreviated version for fault location on a colour television.com Fault Finding Algorithms Tutorial An algorithm is a list of instructions in the form of a flow chart.Hobby Projects Electronic. space vehicles etc. Detailed algorithms can locate faults right down to component level. Microprocessor.Test and Measurements .hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:27 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/test_and_measurement/fault_finding_algorithms. atomic power stations. Algorithms can be applied to systems other than electronic ones. such as motor vehicles.

com/test_and_measurement/fault_finding_algorithms.Fault Finding Algorithms Tutorial & Circuits .Algorithm Fault Finding .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:27 PM] .Hobby Projects http://www.Test and Measurements .hobbyprojects.

com/test_and_measurement/logical_fault_finding.Logical Faults Problem . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement . but is useless where a large number of components are involved. http://www. Begin by observation using the senses.com Logical Fault Finding Tutorial BE AWARE THAT ELECTRICITY CAN KILL !!! YOU SHOULD KEEP YOUR ONE HAND IN YOUR POCKET WHEN WORKING ON HIGH VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT. This is called the HALF SPLIT method.Logical Fault Finding Tutorial & Circuits . whistles etc? Have you heard of the game Twenty Questions? One person thinks of something and the others have to guess what it is by asking questions.hobbyprojects. A more logical method is necessary. are any particular colours missing from the television picture? Can you feel any components overheating? Can you feel static on the screen? Can you hear any distortion. If the first question IS IT AN ANIMAL? and the answer is YES then all non animal items in the universe can be ignored. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Hobby Projects Electronic. If the third question IS IT FEMALE? and the answer is NO then only questions related to men need be asked. Can you smell overheating? With experience one can recognise the type of component by its smell. Microprocessor. Can you see any burnt components. MAKE SURE THAT YOU KNOW OF THE HAZARDS FROM A LIVE CHASSIS. FINAL ANODE VOLTAGES. They receive only YES or NO answers.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. After twenty questions most items in the universe can be discovered!! A similar system can be applied to fault finding.Test and Measurement .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:31 PM] . THE AC SUPPLY ETC The POKING AND HOPING method of fault finding on electronic equipment is ok if there are only a few components which can be changed one at a time. If the second question IS IT HUMAN? and the answer is YES then all other animals in the universe can be ignored. CHARGED CAPACITORS.

These tests are called DYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS and enable us to locate the stage or area of the fault.Hobby Projects A transistor radio has several STAGES and the signal from the aerial passes through these and is emitted from the loudspeaker as an audio signal. If I inject an audio signal at this point and hear noise from the loudspeaker then I know that all stages and components after this point are ok and the fault lies before this point. For example. Further HALF SPLIT measurements will enable us to locate the precise stage in which the fault lies. The measurements obtained are interpreted to obtain the identity of the faulty component. To find the actual faulty component we use STATIC MEASUREMENTS. If you haven't had much experience at interpreting voltage measurements then remove the suspect component and check it by resistance measurements or substitution with a known good component.com/test_and_measurement/logical_fault_finding.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:31 PM] .Logical Fault Finding Tutorial & Circuits . the base to emitter voltage of a good silicon transistor is 0. If we had started at the aerial end and the fault was in the loudspeaker then we would have wasted much time and effort before we found it. If it is not this voltage then it is possibly this component at fault. Logic Pulsers and Logic Probes are frequently used to make these tests. Signal Generators and Oscilloscopes. From this one measurement we have proved that half of the components are ok and that the fault lies in a certain area.Test and Measurement . Since the faulty stage has been located and only a few components are usually involved then POKE AND HOPE is more permissible!! <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www. The volume control is about half way along this chain.hobbyprojects.Logical Faults Problem .6 volts. These usually require the use of a Voltmeter to make measurements on the faulty stage. Beware that a faulty associated component could possibly give the same readings.

There is no need to observe the polarity of the leads.Test and Measurements . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement .html [1/17/2007 4:52:34 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. Ensure that there are no components in parallel with the component to be measured. <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www.How to Measure Resistance . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects.com Measuring Resistance Tutorial When measuring resistance the power to the circuit must be SWITCHED OFF.com/test_and_measurement/measuring_resistance. Microprocessor.Measuring Resistance Tutorial & Circuits .

F. Using an R. Most commonly they generate sine waves. For example if the base frequency is 30 Hertz and the multiplier is X10 then the output signal is 300 Hertz. Signals can be injected into audio amplifiers to see how they behave at various audio frequencies. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Generators can be used in the location of faults in non-working equipment. Amplitude and frequency modulation are available.Test and Measurements . The picture is of a simple generator with on/off and frequency and amplitude controls. The large control knob in the centre selects the base frequency while the four switches below select a multiplier.hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement . generator the various tuned circuits in a radio can be adjusted for peak performance.com/test_and_measurement/signal_generators.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:36 PM] .Hobby Projects Electronic. sawtooths and triangular waves etc are called function generators. http://www.Signal Generators Tutorial & Circuits .Frequency Signal Generator .F.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Generators producing square waves. Audio signal generators produce signals in a range from a few Hertz up to several Kilohertz. Amplification and frequency response can be measured and distortion of the signal can be observed. With radio frequency generators it is usually possible to modulate the R. Microprocessor.com Signal Generators Tutorial The signal generator is a source of signals for testing and measuring purposes. with an audio signal to simulate a radio station. Radio frequency generators can provide frequencies from about 100 Kilohertz up to several hundred Megahertz.

Signal Generators Tutorial & Circuits .Test and Measurements .Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www.Frequency Signal Generator .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:36 PM] .hobbyprojects.com/test_and_measurement/signal_generators.

hobbyprojects. This is usually a single component which you are able to locate on both the schematic and the equipment. This skill is also useful if you don't have a circuit schematic.com/test_and_measurement/tracing_a_schematic. After that. loudspeaker socket. Once you have done this. or type numbers. Microprocessor. moving in the direction of the part of the circuit which you are investigating. http://www.Hobby Projects Electronic. You must also know their circuit symbols. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement . This skill also enables you to make a component layout drawing. You should be able to identify all the components in that part of the layout which interests you. it helps if you are able to see both sides of the board. To begin with. you must be able to recognise components and read their values.Tracing Schematics Tutorial & Circuits . using a schematic as a guide. you need a starting point. power transistor with marked type number etc. relating a circuit schematic to the actual physical layout of a piece of electronics. such as a mains transformer. To do it. What it means is.Test and Measurements .Tracing Circuit Diagrams . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. identify more components.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. You must isolate the power before doing this. You can identify the component layout around the area in which you are interested and trace (draw) that part of the schematic. It is something easily identifiable. "Reading schematics" is something completely different. Relating the schematic and the practical layout makes fault finding much easier. If working on printed circuit boards.com Tracing a Schematic Tutorial "Tracing schematics" is the same as "tracing circuit diagrams" in the UK.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:41 PM] . you move on to identify other components connected to this component. It is a necessary skill when fault finding.

hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects It means the ability to look at a schematic and describe in detail how the circuit works.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:41 PM] . <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www.com/test_and_measurement/tracing_a_schematic.Test and Measurements .Tracing Circuit Diagrams .Tracing Schematics Tutorial & Circuits .

html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:43 PM] . (this is actually the battery voltage). Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Hobby Projects Electronic. point A is 18 volts positive wrt to D.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Therefore D is 18 volts negative wrt A. wrt = with respect to In the diagram. http://www.With Respect to Tutorial & Circuits . D is . The red lead is then used to measure the various voltages in the circuit. when measuring DC voltages in an electronic circuit.com/test_and_measurement/with_respect_to.Test and Measurements .6 wrt C and -12 wrt B. A is +12 wrt C and +6 wrt B. Microprocessor. These voltages are therefore measured WITH RESPECT TO negative.Electronic Circuits .Tutorial In most cases. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement . This leaves one hand free. the black negative lead is clipped to the negative connection of the battery or supply.hobbyprojects.com With Respect To .

Hobby Projects B is +6 wrt C and +12 wrt D.hobbyprojects.6 wrt B and -12 wrt A. The anode is less negative than the cathode. Or in other words. it is more positive.com/test_and_measurement/with_respect_to. Looking at the diode. The anode is positive wrt cathode by 1 volt.Electronic Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:43 PM] . <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www. C is .Test and Measurements .With Respect to Tutorial & Circuits .

000 = 400.Hobby Projects Electronic. its resistance will be 20 x 20. Similarly. http://www. When the 10 volt range is selected it has a resistance of 200. When the meter is connected to a circuit to measure voltage. connecting the meter across the lower resistor will again indicate 10 volts.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:47 PM] . However.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. This means that when the 1 volt range is selected the meter has a resistance of 20. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. If we connect it across the top resistor. it can be shown that since the resistors are of the same value then the battery voltage divides equally across them. Calculating the result of this gives us 200.Meter Resistance Effect . when in fact there is 30 volts.000 ohms and the circuit looks like Fig. Now if we set the meter to the 20 volt range to measure this voltage. this resistance will affect the circuit and therefore the accuracy of the measurement obtained.000 ohms per volt. set the meter on the highest range possible.Test and Measurements . Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement . To obtain the most accurate results.com Effect of Meter Resistance Tutorial All meters have resistance.2 then we have two 400k resistors in parallel. as in Fig.1 the voltage across each resistor can be calculated.000 ohms and so on. It appears that there is 10v + 10v = 20 volts across the two resistors. In Fig. A typical moving coil meter has a SENSITIVITY of 20.com/test_and_measurement/effect_of_meter_resistance. The value of this resistance depends upon the voltage range selected.3 The voltage will now divide to give 10 volts across the top resistor and 20 volts across the lower resistor.000 ohms.hobbyprojects. and the voltage across each will be 15 volts.Effect of Meter Resistance Tutorial & Circuits . The meter will indicate 10 volts when we know that it should indicate 15 volts.000 ohms = 400k.

Test and Measurements .Hobby Projects This means that its resistance will be highest and have least effect on the circuit. <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:47 PM] . typically 10 Megohms on all ranges.Meter Resistance Effect .hobbyprojects. When buying a new meter look for a sensitivity greater than 20.000 ohms/volt.Effect of Meter Resistance Tutorial & Circuits . Digital meter have a very high resistance.com/test_and_measurement/effect_of_meter_resistance. and the readings obtained are more accurate than those obtained using a moving coil meter.

Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. http://www.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:51 PM] . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement .hobbyprojects. If the input was 10 mV then the output would be 100 mV. would give an output 10 times greater than the input. Usually there is a fall of response at low and high frequencies.Response of Frequency .com/test_and_measurement/frequency_response. no matter the frequency of the input signal. NO MATTER WHAT THE INPUT FREQUENCY. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Test and Measurement . In a practical amplifier it is not possible to obtain a perfectly flat response curve.Hobby Projects Electronic. as seen in the graph below.com Frequency Response Tutorial A perfect amplifier with an amplification of times 10. This is due to limitations of electronic components and circuitry. This graph is known as a FREQUENCY RESPONSE diagram. as shown above.Frequency Response Tutorial & Circuits .

The other is at about 900 kHz (f2).7 mV at these frequencies.7 % of the maximum output.Response of Frequency .com/test_and_measurement/frequency_response. This means that that the 100mV output has fallen to 70.Test and Measurement . These are called the -3 dB points. This is called FILTERING.hobbyprojects. In this case it is just under 900 kHz wide.Hobby Projects The two points in red on the response curve mark where the output of the amplifier has fallen to 70.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:51 PM] . <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www. In some cases the bandwidth is tailored to pass some frequencies and not others.Frequency Response Tutorial & Circuits . Subtract f1 from f2 to get the BANDWIDTH of the amplifier. One is at about 5Hz (call it f1).

hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement .Measuring Currents Tutorial & Circuits .com Measuring Current Tutorial To measure current the circuit must be BROKEN and the meter inserted in the break.How to Measure Current . Switch down to a lower range if necessary to measure the current.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. especially a moving coil one. This protects the meter from damage due to excessive current. If 1 amp is flowing then all meters will indicate 1 amp. Select a high current range on the meter before switching the circuit on.com/test_and_measurement/measuring_current.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:54 PM] . <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www. Observe the polarity of the leads when measuring DC This is not necessary when measuring AC. In this circuit the current will be the same no matter where the circuit is broken.Hobby Projects Electronic.Test and Measurements . Microprocessor.

Test and Measurements .hobbyprojects.Measuring Currents Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:54 PM] .How to Measure Current .Hobby Projects http://www.com/test_and_measurement/measuring_current.

and the black one to the most negative. This protects the meter. When measuring DC. <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www. connect the red meter lead to the most positive point.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Measuring Voltages Tutorial & Circuits . especially moving coil ones. across resistors. It's best to select a high voltage range on the meter before connecting it and then switching to a lower range if necessary. from being damaged by having too high a voltage applied to them.hobbyprojects. across the battery etc.com/test_and_measurement/measuring_voltages.Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:57 PM] .How to measure Voltage . the meter must be connected ACROSS things.com Measuring Voltages Tutorial To measure voltages.Test and Measurements . When measuring AC voltages it doesn't matter which way the leads are connected. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement .

Hobby Projects http://www.How to measure Voltage .Measuring Voltages Tutorial & Circuits .com/test_and_measurement/measuring_voltages.Test and Measurements .hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:52:57 PM] .

hobbyprojects. Now measure the resistance between emitter and collector.Hobby Projects Electronic. Now reverse the leads and repeat the procedure. The readings should both be the same. It should read high resistance in both directions. clip one meter lead to the base connection of the transistor. The results should be the opposite of those obtained before.com/test_and_measurement/testing_transistors.Testing Transistors Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. If they were both low before they should now both be high. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. You should now be able to identify the base connection and then decide if the transistor is OK. Touch the other lead first onto the collector lead and then onto the emitter lead. If you dont know the transistor connections consult a data book. Note that for this to work the internal battery of the meter must supply a voltage high enough to overcome the forward resistances of the transistors. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement . If you cant find the data then measure between the three connections in both directions.How to test Transistor . Microprocessor. If they were both high before they should now be both low. With the meter set to measure ohms.Test and Measurements . either both high resistance or both low resistance.com Testing Transistors Tutorial Figure 1.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:01 PM] . Many meter have a position marked with a diode symbol which must be selected when checking transistors http://www.

Figure 2. With the switch closed both lamps are on.hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www.Hobby Projects or diodes. Note that NPN transistors have low resistances where PNP have high.Test and Measurements . The transistor shown is an NPN. With the switch open both lamps are off.com/test_and_measurement/testing_transistors. shows a simple power transistor tester. If different results are obtained the transistor is faulty.Testing Transistors Tutorial & Circuits . and vice versa. Reverse the battery for PNP transistors.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:01 PM] .How to test Transistor .

Hobby Projects Electronic.Test and Measurements . +/-.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. X amplitude. ac/dc/lf/hf. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. It is best to display about two cycles and make them as large in height as possible. Adjust the housekeeping controls to obtain a trace (display). Hobbyiest and R&D persons Test and Measurement . Volts/division) (4) Trigger/synchronisation (level.How to use Scopes . Adjust the vertical and horizontal controls to display a few cycles of a waveform. (1) Housekeeping (on/off. brightness. external. Adjust the trigger/synch controls to make the display stationary. tvh/tvv) Set any controls marked "calibrate" to the correct position. See below. http://www.com/test_and_measurement/using_a_scope. Microprocessor.Using a Scope Tutorial & Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:05 PM] . Invert.hobbyprojects.com Using a Scope Tutorial The controls on a scope can be divided into four groups. Calculate the frequency.Oscilloscope . Measure the amplitude and periodic time (time of one cycle). time/division) (3) Vertical (Y position. Y amplitude. focus) (2) Horizontal (X position.

Frequency can be calculated by dividing 1 second by the periodic time. Note that one cycle is the time between the start of a waveform and the point where it starts to repeat itself. <<<< Back to Test and Measurement http://www. The time/division switch is set to 5 mS/division.Hobby Projects In the diagram the waveform is 4 divisions high.com/test_and_measurement/using_a_scope. The width of one cycle (indicated between the two red dots) is 4 divisions. 1000mS/20mS = 50 Hz The pattern of squares is called a GRATICULE.Oscilloscope .hobbyprojects.How to use Scopes . The periodic time is 4 x 5 mS = 20 mS.Test and Measurements . The volts/ division switch is set to 50 mV/division. The amplitude is therefore 4 x 50 mV = 200 mV.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:05 PM] .Using a Scope Tutorial & Circuits . Note that if the periodic time is in mS then 1 second has to be expressed as 1000 mS.

com DC Theory Tutorial What is Electric Current Current in Circuits Ohm's Law Potential Dividers Resistor Networks Resistors in Series Resistors in Parallel Series / Parallel Batteries Voltages in a Circuit Wheatstone Bridge Watts and Joules <<< Back to Electronics for Beginners http://www.com/dc_theory. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronics for Beginners Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.DC Theory Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects Electronic.Electronic Circuits & Resources .hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 4:53:08 PM] . Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

electroplating etc. This is called electron current flow.Hobby Projects Electronic. Two negatives will repel each other. A negative and a positive will attract each other. http://www. to the positive terminal.com What is Electric Current Tutorial An electric current is a flow of microscopic particles called ELECTRONS flowing through wires and electronic components. Electric current will therefore flow from the -ve terminal of a battery.hobbyprojects. lighting lamps. It can be likened to the flow of water through pipes and radiators etc. Electric current does work by heating fires. As water is pushed through pipes by a pump. electric current is pushed through wires by a battery. The negative (-ve) terminal of a battery will push negative electrons along a wire. The positive (+ve) terminal of a battery will attract negative electrons along a wire.DC Theory . Microprocessor.What is Electric Current Tutorial & Circuits . Hot water does work by heating radiators. A basic law of the universe is that like charges repel and unlike attract.ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects. The current flows round the circuit.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:13 PM] . ringing bells. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Learn all about Electric Current . Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY . through the lamp. An electron has a negative charge.com/dc_theory/what_is_electric_current.

hobbyprojects.What is Electric Current Tutorial & Circuits . They guessed wrong! This is called conventional current flow. <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www.Learn all about Electric Current .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:13 PM] .com/dc_theory/what_is_electric_current. This was guessed at before the electron was discovered.DC Theory .Hobby Projects In some books current is said to flow from +ve to -ve.

Learn how Ohm's Law works .DC Theory . He also found that if you double the value of the resistor then the current through it is halved. The ammeter is connected in series with the resistor. If you halve the voltage then the current is halved. to measure the current flowing around the circuit and through the resistor.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. Thus the current is INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL to the resistance.ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects.What is Ohm's Law .com/dc_theory/ohms_law.com Ohm's Law Tutorial The voltmeter is connected across the resistor. to measure the voltage across the resistor.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:15 PM] . This means that the current is PROPORTIONAL to the voltage. http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY . If the value of the resistor is halved the the current is doubled. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Ohm's Law Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects. Mr Ohm discovered that if you double the voltage across the resistor then the current through it doubles.

Ohm's Law Tutorial & Circuits .What is Ohm's Law . If you wish to find V then multiply I by R If you wish to find I then divide V by R. <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www.DC Theory .com/dc_theory/ohms_law.Learn how Ohm's Law works .hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:15 PM] .Hobby Projects To use the VIR triangle place your finger over the value you wish to find.

hobbyprojects.ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects. See the next diagram. Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY .DC Theory .Hobby Projects Electronic.5 ohms. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. http://www.Resistors Network . These can be replaced by two 25 ohms as shown in the next diagram.com/dc_theory/resistor_networks. In the diagram we have two sets of 10 ohms in series with 15 ohms.com Resistor Networks Tutorial See the pages on series and parallel resistors before reading this one.Resistor Networks .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:19 PM] . The two 25 ohms are in parallel and can be replaced by 12. Microprocessor.

hobbyprojects. The 12.5 ohms.DC Theory .5 are in series so that the equivalent resistance for the network is 15 ohms.Resistors Network . <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www.Hobby Projects The two 5 ohms are in parallel so can be simplified to 2. See the next diagram.5 and the 2.Resistor Networks .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:19 PM] .com/dc_theory/resistor_networks.

To find the equivalent resistance (the total resistance offered to the flow of current) we invert the values and add them. If only two resistors are involved then use (R1 x R2) divided by (R1 + R2) For the 2 ohms and 4 ohms. If these resistors were connected across a 10 volt supply Ohms Law says about 7. Microprocessor.33 ohms If you have several resistors of the same value in parallel then the equivalent resistance is the resistor value divided by the number of resistors. The formula can be written as 1/Rtotal = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 etc etc. 8/6 = 1. Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY .Hobby Projects Electronic. R1 + R2 = 6. They all have the same voltage across them. Inverted 1/2 +1/4 = 3/4 Invert this 4/3 = 1.Resistor in Parallel Circuits .hobbyprojects.com/dc_theory/resistors_in_parallel.5 amps would flow.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:21 PM] . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Resistors in Parallel Tutorial & Circuits . Then we invert the result.com Resistors in Parallel Tutorial Resistors in parallel are connected across one another. For example take 2 ohms and 4 ohms in parallel. R1 x R2 = 8. http://www.DC Theory .33 ohms A quick check on your answer is that it should be smaller in value than the value of the smallest resistor.ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects.

four 100 ohm resistors in parallel will provide a resistance of 25 ohms <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www.com/dc_theory/resistors_in_parallel.DC Theory .Resistors in Parallel Tutorial & Circuits .Resistor in Parallel Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:21 PM] .Hobby Projects For example.hobbyprojects.

Therefore the voltage across the 5 ohm is 1 amp x 5 ohm = 5 volts.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:24 PM] . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects. The voltage across R3 is 15 volts. Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY .Hobby Projects Electronic. Thus the current through the 5 ohm resistor is 1 amp. http://www. If you add these three voltages 5 + 10 + 15 = 30 volts. This is the same as the battery voltage. The current flowing is 30 volts/30 ohms = 1 amp.hobbyprojects. Similarly the voltage across R2 is 10 volts.Voltages in a Circuit Tutorial .com/dc_theory/voltages_in_a_circuit.DC Theory .com Voltages in a Circuits Tutorial Ensure that you understand Ohms Law before tackling this. Microprocessor. In the diagram the total series resistance = 30 ohms.Voltage in Circuits .

They both add up to 10 volts .com/dc_theory/voltages_in_a_circuit. <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:24 PM] .Hobby Projects Add up both sets of voltage in the transistor circuit diagram.DC Theory .Voltage in Circuits .Voltages in a Circuit Tutorial . which is the battery voltage.hobbyprojects.

Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY .ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects. electrical energy is converted into heat. The rate at which this dissipation occurs is called POWER and is measured in WATTS.com Watts and Joules Tutorial When current passes through a resistor. This heat is DISSIPATED into the surrounding air.Hobby Projects Electronic. using (3) power = (2 x 2)x10 = 4 x 10 = 40 watts. Using (1) power = 20 x 2 = 40 watts Using (2) power = (20 x 20)/10 = 400/10 = 40 watts. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. (1) Power = V x I watts (2) Power = (V x V)/R watts (3) power = (I x I)R watts Also see the page with the VIRP wheel. If we place a 10 ohm resistor across a 20 volt battery then Ohms law says that I = V/R = 20/2 =2 amps will flow. The amount of power can be calculated by using one of three methods.com/dc_theory/watts_and_joules. http://www.Watts and Joules Tutorial & Circuits .Watt and Joules DC Theory . Microprocessor.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:27 PM] .hobbyprojects.

com/dc_theory/watts_and_joules. A unit is when you use 1000 watts for one hour.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:27 PM] . the greater the dissipation the hotter it gets. You or your parents are charged by the unit.Watts and Joules Tutorial & Circuits . Joules = watts x seconds. A 100 watt (0. and the larger the resistor needs to be. With resistors. We know that power is the rate at which energy is used.1 x 24 = 2.1 kilowatts) lamp left on for 24 hours uses 0. <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www. A 1000 watt fire will dissipate 1000 joules per second. If a unit cost 5 pence then the lamp would cost 12 pence a day to run.4 units.Hobby Projects Using three different formulae we still arrive at the same answer. It is kilowatts x hours.hobbyprojects. therefore watts = joules/seconds. The amount of energy used is measured in JOULES. Switch it off and help to save the world.Watt and Joules DC Theory . This is called 1 Kilowatt hour. The electric meter in your house measures UNITS of electricity.

Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY . <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www.html [1/17/2007 4:53:34 PM] .com Current in Circuits Tutorial The total current entering a junction equals the total current leaving that junction.DC Theory .ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic.com/dc_theory/current_in_circuits.Electric Current in Circuit .Current in Circuits Tutorial . Microprocessor.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

6 volts and 6 volts etc. A circuit requiring less than 12 volts can be connected across the lower resistor. then you have a POTENTIOMETER (POT for short. is connected across the battery. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Potential Dividers Tutorial & Circuits . Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY . coated with carbon.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:41 PM] .com Potential Dividers Tutorial Make sure that you understand Ohms Law before reading this.) With the wiper at the top then the output is 12 volts. together with a "wiper" which can be moved up or down the strip.Potential Divider Resource . http://www. If a cardboard strip. The current flowing around the circuit is 12 volts/12 ohms = 1 amp (Ohms Law). The voltage across the 4 ohm is 1 amp x 4 ohms = 4 volts (Mr Ohm again). as long as it requires a current much lower than the current through the two resistors.DC Theory . By selecting values for the two resistors. The voltage across the 8 ohm is 1 amp x 8 ohms = 8 volts (again Ohms Law).ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. The 12 volts of the battery has been divided into 8 volts and 4 volts. For example. The total resistance of the two series resistors is 8 ohms + 4 ohms = 12 ohms.hobbyprojects.com/dc_theory/potential_dividers.Hobby Projects Electronic. 3 volts and 9 volts. the 12 volts can be divided into any two voltages which add up to 12 volts.

Their purpose is to adjust the voltage fed from one stage to the next. <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www. the wiper is the centre connection.Potential Divider Resource .Hobby Projects With the wiper at the bottom then the output is zero volts. Any output between 12 volts and zero can be obtained by positioning the wiper correctly.com/dc_theory/potential_dividers. In the drawings. In practice. Most front panel controls such volume and brightness are "pots".Potential Dividers Tutorial & Circuits .DC Theory .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:53:41 PM] .hobbyprojects. the strip is curved and the wiper is joined to a spindle which rotates the wiper on the strip when a control knob is twisted.

If these resistors were connected across a 30 Volt battery then Ohms Law says 1 amp would flow. In this case it is 30 ohms. <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www. Note that. To find the value of the equivalent resistance we simply add the values.Hobby Projects Electronic. the value of the equivalent resistance is always higher than the value of the highest value resistance. as a quick check on calculations.Resistors in Series Tutorial & Circuits .Resistor in Series Circuits .ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects.DC Theory . Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY . Microprocessor.com/dc_theory/resistors_in_series. The same current flows through them all.com Resistors in Series Tutorial Resistors in series are connected in line.html [1/17/2007 4:53:46 PM] . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The total opposition to the flow of current is called the EQUIVALENT resistance.hobbyprojects.

Series Parallel Batteries Tutorial & Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com Series Parallel Batteries Tutorial <<<< Back to DC Theory Tutorial http://www.com/dc_theory/series_parallel_batteries.hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons DC THEORY . Microprocessor.html [1/17/2007 4:53:52 PM] .Series Parallel Battery Resource .DC Theory .ELECTRONIC TUTORIALS Search Web Hobbyprojects.

Wheatstone Bridge Tutorial & Circuits - Wheatstone Bridges - DC Theory - Hobby Projects

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Wheatstone Bridge Tutorial
Read the page on potential dividers. In Fig.1, the 15 volts will be divided across the two resistors, according their proportion of the total resistance, 15k. For the 5k this will be (5k/15k) x 15volts = 5volts. For the 10k it will be (10k/15k) x 15 volts = 10 volts In Fig.2 we have the same potential divider plus R3 and R4 across the battery. This is a BRIDGE circuit , invented by Mr. Wheatstone.

Using the same calculations as for R1 and R2, we find that the voltage across R3 = 5 volts and across R4 = 10 volts. The voltage has been divided in the same proportions. This is because the ratio R1/R2 is the same as the ratio R3/R4, that is, 1:2. The meter, connected between points A and B will indicate zero. This is because the voltage at both terminals of the meter is the same, so the voltage across the meter is zero. The bridge is said to be BALANCED. So we can say that when the ratio R1/R2 = R3/R4, the bridge is balanced. If the two ratios are not the same, then the voltages at the two terminals of the meter will be different.
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Wheatstone Bridge Tutorial & Circuits - Wheatstone Bridges - DC Theory - Hobby Projects

The meter will now give a reading, and we can say that the bridge is unbalanced. In Fig.3, Rx is of unknown value and the probability is that the bridge is unbalanced, indicated by a reading on the meter. If we adjust R4 so that the ratio R1/Rx = R3/R4 then the bridge will be balanced. If we transpose this equation we can get Rx = (R4 xR1)/R3 We know the values of R1 and R3. If we measure the value of R4 we can calculate the unknown Rx. R4 can be fitted with a pointer and a calibrated scale to give a direct reading of Rx without the need for calculations. This is the basis of more complex bridge circuits.

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Reverse Biased Junction Tutorial & Circuits - Reverse Baising Diode - Diodes - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Reverse Biased Junction Tutorial

When the battery is connected as shown, the positive terminal of the battery attracts negative electrons away from the barrier. The negative terminal attracts holes away from the barrier. The insulating barrier widens and no current flows. The junction is REVERSED BIASED. If the reverse voltage is made high enough, then the junction will break down and electron current will flow from anode to cathode (under normal conditions, current flows from cathode to anode, when forward biased).

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Reverse Biased Junction Tutorial & Circuits - Reverse Baising Diode - Diodes - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Seven Segment Display Tutorial & Circuits - Seven Segment Displays - The Diode - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Seven Segment Display Tutorial

The 7 segment display is used as a numerical indicator on many types of test equipment. It is an assembly of light emitting diodes which can be powered individually. They most commonly emit red light. They are arranged and labelled as shown in the diagram. Powering all the segments will display the number 8. Powering a,b,c d and g will display the number 3. Numbers 0 to 9 can be displayed. The d.p represents a decimal point. The one shown is a common anode display since all anodes are joined together and go to the positive supply. The cathodes are connected individually to zero volts. Resistors must be placed in series with each diode to limit the current through each diode to a safe value.

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Seven Segment Display Tutorial & Circuits - Seven Segment Displays - The Diode - Electronic Hobby Projects

Early wrist watches used this type of display but they used so much current that the display was normally switched off. To see the time you had to push a button. Common cathode displays where all the cathodes are joined are also available. Liquid crystal displays do a similar job and consume much less power. Alphanumeric displays are available which can show letters as well as numbers.

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Using the Light Emitting Diode Tutorial & Circuits - LED Diode - Diodes - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Using the Light Emitting Diode Tutorial

The light emitting diode (LED) is commonly used as an indicator. It can show when the power is on, act as a warning indicator, or be part of trendy jewelry etc. It needs to be fed from a DC supply, with the anode positive and the cathode negative, as shown in the diagram. To calculate the value of the series resistor we need to know the diode forward voltage and current and its connections. The necessary data can be obtained from a catalogue or data book. In our example it is 2 volts and 20mA (0.02 amps). The cathode lead is the one nearest a "flat" on the body. Since the voltage across the diode is 2 volts and the battery voltage is 12 volts, then the voltage across the resistor is 12-2 = 10 volts. The diode is in series with the resistor, so the current through then both is the same, 0.02 amps. We now know the voltage across, and the current through the resistor. From Ohm's Law we can now calculate the value of the resistor. Resistance = Volts divided by Amps = V/I = 10/0.02 =500 ohms.
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Using the Light Emitting Diode Tutorial & Circuits - LED Diode - Diodes - Electronic Hobby Projects

Since this is not a standard value we can use a 470 or 560 ohm resistor as this application is not critical of values.

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Voltage Doubler Tutorial & Circuits - Voltage Doublers Diode - Voltage Doubler Diodes - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Voltage Doubler Tutorial

It's best to read the page on the half-wave rectifier, first. Point A is doing the opposite of point B. As A increases in a positive direction, B increases negatively, and vice-versa.

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Voltage Doubler Tutorial & Circuits - Voltage Doublers Diode - Voltage Doubler Diodes - Electronic Hobby Projects

When A is positive, D1 is forward biased and charges C1 to the peak voltage, as in diagram 2. D 2 is reverse biased and does not conduct. When A goes negative, D1 is reverse biased and does not conduct. D2 is forward biased and charges C2 to the peak voltage, as in diagram 3. We now have two capacitors in series, each charged to the peak voltage. The voltage across the load is. therefore, twice the peak voltage. The voltage has been doubled.

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Junction Transistors Tutorials - Electronic Circuits - Hobby Projects - Tutorial

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Junction Transistors Tutorials
1 Junction Transistor 2 Junction Transistor Biasing

3

Transistor Operation

4

Transistor as a Switch

5

Class A, B and C Bias

6

Transistor Small Signal Amplifier

7

Biasing a Transistor

8

Emitter Stabiliser Resistor

9

10 Typical Circuit Values

11

12 Tuned Amplifier

13

Common Emitter Amplifier

14 Common Base Amplifier

15

Common Collector Amplifier

16 Phase Splitter

17

Class a Power Amplifier

18 Push-Pull Amplifier

19

Complementary Push-Pull Amplifier

20 Directly Coupled Amplifier

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Junction Transistors Tutorials - Electronic Circuits - Hobby Projects - Tutorial

21

Darlington Pair

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Junction Transistors Tutorial

Junction transistors consist of two junctions made from N-type and P-type semiconductor materials and are called bipolar transistors (two polarities). They have three connections, emitter, base and collector.

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Junction Transistor Biasing Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistor Biasing - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Junction Transistor Biasing Tutorial

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Junction Transistor Biasing Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistor Biasing - Electronic Hobby Projects

The emitter/base junction is forward biased. The collector/base junction is reversed biased. There is an explanation of biasing on one of the diode junction pages. The middle diagram shows the two junctions as two diodes. Of course, you can't make a transistor like this but it helps to understand the forward and reverse biasing. The anodes are positive with respect the cathodes for forward biasing. They are negative with respect to the cathodes for reverse biasing. The bottom diagram shows the junctions being correctly biased using just one battery. Note that there is 0.6 volts across the base/emitter junction when it is forward biased, for a silicon transistor. (0.3 volts for a germanium one).

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Transistor Operation Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Transistor Operation Tutorial

The forward biased base/emitter junction causes electrons to be attracted from the emitter area towards the base. Arriving in the base area, most of the negative electrons come under the influence of the more positive collector and are attracted by it. This is shown in the left hand drawing, where the base current plus collector current equals the emitter current. Alpha gain is collector current divided by emitter current, and is always less than 1. Beta gain is collector current divided by base current and can be a fairly high number. Therefore, causing a small base current to flow makes a much larger collector current flow. A small base current controls a large collector current. There is 0.6 volts across the base/emitter junction, when it is forward biased. (0.3 volts for germanium).

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Transistor Operation Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Transistor as a Switch Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Transistor as a Switch Tutorial

With the switch open, no base current flows, therefore no collector current can flow. The transistor is said to be CUT OFF. With the switch closed, base current flows causing collector current to flow. The battery voltage is dropped across the lamp causing the collector voltage to fall to a very low value. The transistor is said to be SATURATED.

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Class A, B and C Bias Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Class A, B and C Bias Tutorial

The transistor is biased in class A which means that collector current flows all the time.. The collector current can increase or decrease. The input signal increases and decreases the forward bias causing the collector current to change. These changes in current in the primary of the transformer induce signal currents in the secondary. The transformer matches the output impedance of the transistor to the loudspeaker impedance. The disadvantage of this circuit is that the collector current is high even if there is no signal input. Class B push-pull is more efficient.

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Class A, B and C Bias Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Transistor Small Signal Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Transistor Small Signal Amplifier Tutorial

The two transistor types have opposite polarity power supplies. The polarity of the capacitors is reversed. If the transistors have the same characteristics, then resistor values are the same in both circuits.

R1 and R2 are the base bias resistors, setting the bias point. R3 is the collector load resistor. R4 is the emitter stabilising resistor. C3 is the emitter decoupling capacitor. C1 and C2 are coupling capacitors which allow ac signals to pass but block dc.

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Transistor Small Signal Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Biasing a Transistor Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Biasing a Transistor Tutorial

Choose a general purpose transistor with a beta gain higher than 100. Decide on the collector current. The base bias voltage is be 1/3 of the supply voltage. The current through the base bias potential divider is to be 1/10 of the collector current. Calculate the two base resistor values, R1 and R2. The emitter voltage is 0.6 volts lower than the base voltage. The value of the emitter resistor R4 is the emitter voltage divided by the collector current. The value of the collector resistor R3 is the supply voltage divided by three times the collector current.

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Biasing a Transistor Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

The values of the capacitors depend upon the application. Study a few circuits. For common collector and common base some of the capacitors are connected differently.

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Emitter Stabliser Resistor Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Emitter Stabliser Resistor Tutorial

R1 and R2 bias the transistor in class A so that a steady dc collector flows. R4 is the emitter stabilising resistor. When collector current flows it causes the transistor to heat up. This causes the base current to increase which in turn causes the collector current to rise. This rise in collector current causes the temperature to increase even more, and the base and collector currents continue increasing. This behaviour is called THERMAL RUNAWAY and will destroy the transistor. If we consider the emitter/base junction as a diode as shown in the right hand diagram we can see that the base (anode) voltage is fixed by R1 and R2. If the collector current tries to rise due to heating, then the voltage across R4 will try to rise, making the emitter (cathode) more positive.

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Emitter Stabliser Resistor Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

This would reduce the voltage across the junction (diode) making it less forward biased and reducing the base current and hence the collector current, which was trying to rise. Therefore the circuit has been stabilised against thermal runaway. However, if an ac signal is applied to the base, the varying collector current will cause a varying voltage across the emitter resistor. This voltage will follow the base voltage. This means that the base/emitter (anode/cathode) voltage will be constant instead of the base varying with respect to the emitter. To fix this, the emitter is joined to earth, as far as the ac signal is concerned, by the emitter decoupling capacitor.

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Load Resistor Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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R1 and R2 bias the transistor in class A, so that a steady collector current flows. R3 is the load resistor. Look at the signal into C1. During the first half cycle it is positive, and increases the forward bias on the base of the transistor. This increases the base current and thereby the collector current through the load resistor. Therefore the voltage across the load increases, and the collector voltage, with respect to the zero line, decreases. The collector voltage falls as the base voltage rises. During the second half cycle, the input signal goes negative, reducing the forward bias on the base. This reduces both base and collector currents. The voltage across the load resistor falls and the voltage on the collector rises.
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Load Resistor Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

Again, the collector voltage has done the opposite of the base voltage. The transistor inverts the input signal as well as amplifying it.

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Typical Circuit Values Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Typical Circuit Values Tutorial

The base voltage Vb, is set by potential divider 9K and 1K = 1 volt (ignoring Ib) The emitter voltage Ve, is Vb - 0.6 = 0.4 volts. The emitter current is Ve / Re = 0.0008A The voltage across the 5K load resistor is 5000 x .0008 = 4 volts Therefore the collector voltage is 10 volts - 4 volts = 6 volts The power dissipated by the transistor is the voltage across the transistor multiplied by the current through it. = 5.6 volts x 0.0008A = 0.00448 watts

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Typical Circuit Values Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Amplifiers in Cascade Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Amplifiers in Cascade Tutorial

If the gain of one stage of amplification is insufficient, then two or more stages can be connected in cascade, as shown. If the gain of each stage is 50 times, then the overall gain is 50 x 50 =2,500. If the input to Tr1 is 1 mV, then the output of Tr2 is 2,500 mV =2.5Volts. If the gain is excessive the circuit may be unstable, or the output may be clipped.

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Amplifiers in Cascade Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Tuned Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Tuned Amplifier Tutorial

Here the load resistor has been replaced by a tuned circuit, C4 and L1. At resonance, the tuned circuit is high impedance. At all other frequencies it is a low impedance. Therefore only signals at the resonant frequency will be amplified Since the tuned amplifier works at radio frequencies the capacitors can be much smaller in value than those used at audio frequencies

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Common Emitter Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Common Emitter Amplifier Tutorial

Sometimes called the grounded emitter, since the emitter capacitor connects the emitter to ground at ac frequencies. Since, as far as ac is concerned, the emitter is joined to ground, both input and output are connected to the emitter. Current gain is Ic/Ib and can be quite high, typically 50. Voltage gain is high, typically 250 Input impedance is medium, say 5K. Output impedance is medium, say 20k. The output is inverted with respect to the input.

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Common Emitter Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

Its most common application is as a voltage amplifier.

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Common Base Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Common Base Amplifier Tutorial

C3 connects the base to ground as far as ac is concerned. Therefore both input and output are connected to the base. (common base amplifier). Current gain is Ic/Ie which is less than 1. The voltage gain is high since it is Rc/Re. (Approximately the same current flows through them). It is typically 250. The input impedance is low, typically 20 ohms. The output impedance is high, typically 1Megohm. The output signal is not inverted with respect the input. It is often used to match low impedance devices to high impedance ones.

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Common Base Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

It is commonly used at VHF.

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Common Collector Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Common Collector Amplifier Tutorial

The positive power supply rail is joined to the zero volts rail by C3. As far as ac is concerned, both rails are joined together. Therefore they, and the collector, are common to both input and output. Since the emitter voltage follows the base voltage, it is also called the emitter follower. Current gain is Ie/Ib which is quite high, typically 50. Voltage gain is only 1 because of the undecoupled emitter. The input impedance is high, typically 500k, requiring only low power to drive it. The output impedance is low, typically 20 ohms.

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Common Collector Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

The output signal follows the input. There is no inversion. It is often used to match high impedances to low ones. It can be used to drive several high impedance loads.

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Phase Splitter Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Phase Splitter Tutorial

The phase splitter has one input and two outputs. The two outputs are inverted with respect to each other. That is, as one increases in a positive direction the other increases in a negative direction. In the first diagram the phase splitting is done by the transformer. In the second diagram, the output from the collector is an inverted version of the input. The output from the emitter follows the input. There is no amplification from this circuit because the emitter is undecoupled. The word PHASE indicates a shift in time. In actual fact there is no phase change here, only inversion of the signal.

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Phase Splitter Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Class a Power Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Class a Power Amplifier Tutorial

The transistor is biased in class A which means that collector current flows all the time.. The collector current can increase or decrease. The input signal increases and decreases the forward bias causing the collector current to change. These changes in current in the primary of the transformer induce signal currents in the secondary. The transformer matches the output impedance of the transistor to the loudspeaker impedance. The disadvantage of this circuit is that the collector current is high even if there is no signal input. Class B push-pull is more efficient.

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Class a Power Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Push Pull Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Push Pull Amplifier Tutorial

TR2 and TR3 are biased in class B, which means that they are normally non conducting when there is no signal input. TR1 and T1 form a phase splitter, opposite polarity signals appearing at the ends of T1 secondary.

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Push Pull Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

When there is a signal in ,TR2 conducts on the positive half of the waveform only and TR3 conducts on the negative half. Current flows down through the top half of T2 primary when TR2 conducts, and up through the bottom half when TR3 conducts. Both halves are combined in the secondary of T2 to produce an amplified version of the input. R1 and R2 apply a small forward bias to avoid crossover distortion, which is shown in the lower waveform. This distortion is caused by the non-linear characteristics of the emitter/base junction. (for more details see the junction diode Vb/Ib curves). The advantage of this circuit is that there is very little current taken if there is no signal input.

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Complementary Push-Pull Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

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Complementary Push-Pull Amplifier Tutorial

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Complementary Push-Pull Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

It is sometimes difficult to understand the behaviour of a circuit when the transistors are drawn upside down. In diagram A,as the base voltage goes towards the + rail (goes more positive), the collector voltage goes away from the + rail (goes less positive). In diagram B,as the base voltage goes towards the - rail (goes more negative), the collector voltage goes away from the - rail (goes less negative). In diagram C,as the base voltage goes away from - rail (goes more positive), the collector voltage goes towards the - rail (goes less positive). In diagram D,as the base voltage goes away from + rail (goes more negative), the collector voltage goes towards the + rail (goes less negative).

TR2 and TR3 are complementary. They have the same characteristics but one is NPN and the other PNP. The NPN has + on its collector and less positive on its emitter. The PNP Has + on its emitter and zero on its collector. Therefore both have correct polarity voltages. The voltage at the junction of R3 and R4 is half the supply voltage. If R2 is replaced by a wire link, and R1 selected to give half the supply volts at TR1 and TR2 bases then they would both be biased in class B, and both would be non conducting. Look at the waveforms on the bases of the output pair. During the first half cycle the signal is going less positive. This is reversing biasing the NPN transistor and increasing forward bias on the PNP transistor. This means that the NPN remains cut off and the PNP conducts during this first half cycle.

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Complementary Push-Pull Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits - Junction Transistors - Electronic Hobby Projects

In the next half cycle the signal on the bases is now increasing in a more positive direction. During this half cycle the NPN conducts while the PNP is cutoff. So the NPN is off and the PNP is on during the first half cycle, and current flows through the loudspeaker as C1 charges. The NPN is on and the PNP off during the second half cycle, and current flows the other way through the loudspeaker, as C1 discharges. R2 is added to give a small forward bias to both transistors thereby avoiding crossover distortion. (see the page on push-pull power amplifiers).

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then these will be amplified by the second transistor and change its normal operating voltages. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Junction Transistors .hobbyprojects. This is usually prevented by some form of dc stabilization.Directly Coupled Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits . This is because there is no coupling capacitor to block dc.com/junction_transistors/directly_coupled_amplifier.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. if temperature changes cause dc drift in the first transistor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Junction Transistors . <<<< Back to Junction Transistors Tutorial http://www.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. However.com Directly Coupled Amplifier Tutorial The PNP transistor is upside down with respect the NPN transistor and thus has the correct operating voltages.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:20 PM] . then there is no need for bias resistors for the NPN transistor. It will also amplify very low ac frequencies because there is no capacitive reactance to oppose them. The circuit will amplify dc signals as well as ac ones. If the circuit is designed so that the PNP collector voltage is a suitable value for the NPN transistor base. Microprocessor.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:20 PM] .Directly Coupled Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits .Junction Transistors .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.hobbyprojects.com/junction_transistors/directly_coupled_amplifier.

hobbyprojects. The two transistors can come in the same package. <<<< Back to Junction Transistors Tutorial http://www.com Darlington Pair Tutorial The emitter current of Tr1 is the base current of Tr2. This circuit is sometimes called the Super Alpha Pair. A change in the base current of Tr2 has a similar effect on its emitter current. Microprocessor. It is often used as a power output stage.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Junction Transistors .Darlington Pair Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. A change in base current of Tr1 can give a change 100 times larger in its emitter current.Junction Transistors . Therefore there is an overall amplification of 100 x 100 = 10000 times.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:27 PM] .com/junction_transistors/darlington_pair.

com/junction_transistors/darlington_pair.Junction Transistors .hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:27 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.Darlington Pair Tutorial & Circuits .

Transistor Fault Finding Tutorials . Microprocessor.hobbyprojects.com/transistor_fault_finding. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronics Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 4:55:29 PM] .Electronic Circuits Electronic.com Transistor Fault Finding Tutorial Collector Load Resistor Open Circuit Emitter Capacitor S/C And O/C Emitter Resistor Open Circuit Lower Base Bias Resistor Open Circuit Upper Base Bias Resistor Open Circuit <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate http://www.All about Transistors . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

Since the emitter voltage is always about 0. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects.Collector Load Resistor Open Circuit Tutorial .com/transistor_fault_finding/collector_load_resistor_OC.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Since there is more current through R1. there will be a higher voltage drop across it. so base current flows. but we are actually reading the base voltage via the base/collector junction and it will read about 0.com Collector Load Resistor Open Circuit Tutorial The base is still forward biased.6 volts lower than the base. We would expect the collector voltage to read zero. it will read 0.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.6 volts lower than the base. http://www. Microprocessor.1 volts.Transistor Fault Finding . and the base voltage will be lower. because all the emitter current goes to the base and none to the collector. The base current will be higher than normal. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Transistor Fault Finding .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:33 PM] .

Collector Load Resistor Open Circuit Tutorial .Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Transistor Fault Finding Tutorial http://www.com/transistor_fault_finding/collector_load_resistor_OC.Transistor Fault Finding .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:33 PM] .hobbyprojects.

hobbyprojects. there will be a lower voltage drop across it and the base voltage will be higher than normal.com Emitter Resistor Open Circuit Tutorial There can be no base or collector current.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Since the current through R1 is less than normal.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:39 PM] .com/transistor_fault_finding/emitter_resistor_open_circuit. The voltage will be the same at both ends.Transistor Fault Finding .Emitter Resistor Open Circuit Tutorials . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Transistor Fault Finding . http://www. but the meter connects the emitter to zero volts and some current flows through the meter. The voltage indicated would depend upon the type of meter. Microprocessor. We would expect there to be no voltage across R4.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Since there is no current through R3 there will be no voltage dropped across it. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. and the collector will be at the supply voltage.

hobbyprojects.com/transistor_fault_finding/emitter_resistor_open_circuit.Transistor Fault Finding .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:39 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Transistor Fault Finding Tutorial http://www.Emitter Resistor Open Circuit Tutorials .

The voltage at both ends is the same.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. The transistor is OFF and there is no collector current and no voltage drop across R3.com/transistor_fault_finding/upper_base_bias_resistor_open_circuit. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Transistor Fault Finding .com Upper Base Bias Resistor Open Circuit Tutorial With R1 o/c there is no voltage on the base. so there is no voltage drop across it. <<<< Back to Transistor Fault Finding Tutorial http://www.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:41 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The collector voltage will be the same as the supply volts.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. +9. There is no current through R4.Upper Base Bias Resistor Open Circuit Tutorial . no base bias and no base current. zero volts. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Transistor Fault Finding .

hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:41 PM] .Transistor Fault Finding .Upper Base Bias Resistor Open Circuit Tutorial .com/transistor_fault_finding/upper_base_bias_resistor_open_circuit.

com Emitter Capacitor Short Circuit Tutorial The emitter is connected to zero volts and there is an increased emitter/base forward bias. a higher voltage drop across it.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:45 PM] . The collector voltage will be lower than normal.com/transistor_fault_finding/emitter_capacitor_sc_and_oc.hobbyprojects. However. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Transistor Fault Finding . Base and collector currents increase. http://www. the gain will be much reduced. Since the collector current is higher there will be a larger voltage drop across R3. and a lower base voltage.Transistor Fault Finding . The emitter voltage will of course be zero. Microprocessor.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. There is more current through R1. the dc voltages will remain at their normal values.Emitter Capacitor Short Circuit Tutorial . If the capacitor goes open circuit.

Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Transistor Fault Finding Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:45 PM] .com/transistor_fault_finding/emitter_capacitor_sc_and_oc.hobbyprojects.Emitter Capacitor Short Circuit Tutorial .Transistor Fault Finding .

Hobbyiest and R&D persons Transistor Fault Finding .com/transistor_fault_finding/lower_base_bias_resistor_open_circuit.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:49 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Transistor Fault Finding . which in turn causes a high collector current to flow. causing a low collector volts. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. This causes a high base current to flow.Lower Base Bias Resistor Open Circuit Tutorial . There is a large volts drop across R3.com Lower Base Bias Resistor Open Circuit Tutorial There is no potential divider action and the full +9 volts is applied to the base by R1. causing the emitter volts to rise. There is a large volts drop across R4. Microprocessor.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Transistor Fault Finding Tutorial http://www.

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If a voltage is connected to the emitter. (see the right hand diagram).5 volts appears at the emitter. With the emitter unconnected.Hobby Project Resources Electronic.com Unijunction Transistor Tutorial The unijunction transistor (UJT) is made of a bar of N type material with a P type junction (the emitter) near the centre.Electronic Circuits .Unijunction Transistor Tutorial . as long as it is less than 0.5 volts. Microprocessor. the bar acts as a potential divider. http://www.com/unijunction_transistor/unijunction_transistor.5 volts. as the P-N junction is reversed biased.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:52 PM] .hobbyprojects. This increase in current is equal to a reduction of resistance between base 1 and the emitter. When the emitter voltage exceeds 0. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Hobbyiest and R&D persons UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR . and about 0. The resistance between the two bases (the INTERBASE RESISTANCE) is typically 10k. the junction is forward biased and emitter current will flow. nothing happens. Base 1 is connected to zero volts and base 2 to the positive supply.

C charges via R1.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:52 PM] .hobbyprojects.com/unijunction_transistor/unijunction_transistor.Hobby Project Resources This causes the emitter voltage to fall. The result is a sawtooth waveform across C. <<<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate Tutorial http://www. giving a pulse of voltage across it.6 volts. There is also a pulse of current through R3 . When the voltage across C exceeds 0. The voltage across C charges up slowly then suddenly relaxes. The circuit is often used to trigger thyristor circuits.Unijunction Transistor Tutorial .Electronic Circuits . In the circuit. the b1/emitter junction goes low resistance and discharges C. This circuit is called a relaxation oscillator.

com Field Effect Transistor Tutorial Junction FET Junction FET as an Amplifier Mosfet (Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET) Mosfet Circuit Symbols <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronics Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuits .hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Resource Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/field_effect_transistor.html [1/17/2007 4:55:54 PM] . Microprocessor.Field Effect Transistor Tutorials .

If the FET is accidentally forward biased.com Junction Field Effect Transistor Tutorial The field effect transistor (FET) is made of a bar of N type material called the SUBSTRATE with a P type junction (the gate) diffused into it..Field Effect Transistor . Microprocessor. If the gate voltage is high enough the channel will be "pinched off" and the current will be zero. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Field Effect Transistor . an extremely thin insulating layer of silicon oxide is placed between the gate and the channel. The device is then known as an insulated gate FET. This device is sometimes called the junction FET or JUGFET or JFET.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:56 PM] . which squeezes the channel and reduces the current. If the gate is made negative with respect to the source. gate current will flow and the FET will be destroyed.com/field_effect_transistor/junction_fet.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. an electrostatic field is created. unlike the transistor which is current controlled. The FET is voltage controlled. or IGFET or metal oxide semiconductor http://www. electron current flows from source to drain through the CHANNEL. With a positive voltage on the drain. with respect to the source.Junction Field Effect Transistor Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects. To avoid this.

Junction Field Effect Transistor Tutorial & Circuits .Field Effect Transistor .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:55:56 PM] .hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects FET(MOSTFET) <<<< Back to Field Effect Transistor Tutorials http://www.com/field_effect_transistor/junction_fet.

The insulating layer is extremely thin and can be easily damaged by static.Metal Oxide Semiconductor Fet (Mosfet) Tutorial & Circuits .where the mosfet is reverse biased like a thermionic valve (tube in the USA). There are two main families. Microprocessor. Depletion .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Field Effect Transistor . Enhancement . http://www. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. mixers.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com/field_effect_transistor/mosfet.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:02 PM] . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Field Effect Transistor .f. Some mosfets have two gates (dual gate mosfets) and are commonly used as r.hobbyprojects. to prevent gate current flowing and damaging the device (see the page on fets).Mosfet .where the mosfet has to be forward biased like a transistor.com Metal Oxide Semiconductor Fet (Mosfet) Tutorial The mosfet has the gate insulated from the substrate by a thin layer of silicon oxide.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:02 PM] . for protection.Electronic Hobby Projects Antistatic precautions must be taken when handling them.Metal Oxide Semiconductor Fet (Mosfet) Tutorial & Circuits .Mosfet .com/field_effect_transistor/mosfet.Field Effect Transistor . with wrist straps etc. Components must be handled with care.hobbyprojects. Some devices have Zener diodes built in. between gate and source. The operator must be grounded via a high value resistor. <<<< Back to Field Effect Transistor Tutorials http://www. The operator should touch some earthed point just before handling static sensitive devices. The workplace must be grounded safely. Soldering iron tips must be earthed.

The FET is biased correctly. This means that there is zero volts on the gate . it controls the drain current. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Field Effect Transistor .hobbyprojects. making the emitter positive with respect the zero volts rail.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:05 PM] . This means that there is no voltage across this resistor. The gate is negative with respect to the source.Field Effect Transistor .com Junction FET as an Amplifier Tutorial To correctly bias the fet. so it will be zero volts at both ends. When a signal voltage is applied to the gate.com/field_effect_transistor/junction_fet_as_an_amplifier. The drain voltage goes more positive. http://www. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor. so there is no current through the gate resistor. When the signal goes more negative (less positive) the drain current is reduced and the voltage across the drain resistor is less. Drain current flows through the source resistor and develops a voltage across it. the gate needs to be negative with respect to the source.Junction FET as an Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits . Bias is obtained in the following manner.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. There is no gate current. Therefore the source is positive with respect to the gate.

hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:05 PM] .Field Effect Transistor . The drain voltage goes less positive.Electronic Hobby Projects When the signal goes less negative (more positive) the drain current is increased and the voltage across the drain resistor is more. In both cases the drain voltage does the opposite of the gate voltage.Junction FET as an Amplifier Tutorial & Circuits . <<<< Back to Field Effect Transistor Tutorials http://www.com/field_effect_transistor/junction_fet_as_an_amplifier.

html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:08 PM] . If the channel is shown broken it is a normally enhancement (non conducting) type.Mosfet Circuit Symbols Tutorial & Circuits .com Mosfet Circuit Symbols Tutorial The thick line represents the channel and if it is unbroken represents a depletion ( normally conducting) type.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Field Effect Transistor . <<<< Back to Field Effect Transistor Tutorials http://www.hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com/field_effect_transistor/mosfet_circuit_symbols. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Field Effect Transistor .

com/field_effect_transistor/mosfet_circuit_symbols.Mosfet Circuit Symbols Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:08 PM] .Field Effect Transistor .

com/operational_amplifier. Microprocessor.hobbyprojects.Science Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronics Tutorial Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuits .Operational Amplifier Tutorials .com Operational Amplifier Tutorials The Basic Opamp Opamp Characteristics Setting Opamp Gain Unity Gain Non Inverter Non Inverter with Gain Comparator Temperature Alarm Opamp as a Timer Opamp as an Audio Mixer Opamp Dual Power Supplies <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate http://www.html [1/17/2007 4:56:10 PM] .

com The Basic Opamp Tutorial The opamp was originally designed to carry out mathematical operations in analogue computers. The opamp requires positive and negative power supplies. zero volts.sign produces an amplified inverted output. to remove this OFFSET. such as bombsights. then there are two connections for adding a potentiometer. It has two inputs and one output. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Some circuits can be designed to work from a single supply.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The input marked with a .com/operational_amplifier/the_basic_opamp.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.hobbyprojects. together with a common ground. then the output voltage should be midway between the two supply rails. The opamp usually comes in the form of an 8 pin integrated circuit.The Basic Opamp Tutorial & Circuits . The input marked with a + sign produces an amplified but non inverted output.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:14 PM] .Operational Amplifier Tutorials .e. If the two inputs are joined together. Microprocessor. but was soon recognised as having many other applications. i. If it is not. the most common one being the type 741. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier . <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www.

com/operational_amplifier/the_basic_opamp.The Basic Opamp Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.Operational Amplifier Tutorials .hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:14 PM] .

and the input resistor R1. Microprocessor. <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com Setting Opamp Gain Tutorial The gain of the inverting amplifier is determined by the feedback resistor R2. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. To minimize temperature drift. R3 is given the value of R1 and R2 in parallel.Operational Amplifier Tutorials .Setting Opamp Gain Tutorial & Circuits .html [1/17/2007 4:56:17 PM] .com/operational_amplifier/setting_opamp_gain.hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

com Non Inverter with Gain Tutorial Gain is 1+ R2/R1 <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www.html [1/17/2007 4:56:20 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor.com/operational_amplifier/non_inverter_with_gain.hobbyprojects.Non Inverter with Gain Tutorial & Circuits .Operational Amplifier Tutorials .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

then the the output goes to minus 12 volts and the buzzer is energised.hobbyprojects.com/operational_amplifier/temperature_alarm.Operational Amplifier Tutorials . The behaviour of the circuit can be changed by swapping the preset and temperature dependent resistors.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. R1 and R2 provide a fixed reference voltage at the non inverting input.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor.com Temperature Alarm Tutorial This circuit is configured as a comparator. Light dependent resistors etc can replace the temperature dependent one. http://www.Temperature Alarm Tutorial & Circuits . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier . If the voltage at the inverting input rises above the reference voltage.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:24 PM] . The inverting input voltage is set by the other two resistors.

hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:24 PM] .Operational Amplifier Tutorials .Temperature Alarm Tutorial & Circuits .com/operational_amplifier/temperature_alarm.Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www.

Operational Amplifier Tutorials .com/operational_amplifier/opamp_as_an_audio_mixer.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.com Opamp as an Audio Mixer Tutorial <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www.Opamp as an Audio Mixer Tutorial & Circuits . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier .html [1/17/2007 4:56:26 PM] .

Gain falls quite rapidly as the frequency increases. 1M. The input impedance is high. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Looking at the right hand diagram we can see that the opamp amplifies right down to dc. Microprocessor.000 times.12 volts.Opamp Characteristics Tutorial & Circuits . and is reduced by negative feed back.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:29 PM] . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. an input with a swing of a fraction of a millivolt produces an output that changes between + 12 volts and .hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. This is also improved upon by the use of negative feedback. http://www. Looking at the left hand diagram.com/operational_amplifier/opamp_characteristics. In fact the bandwidth (the point at which the output has fallen by 3 dB) is only 1 kHz.com Opamp Characteristics Tutorial The opamp has a very high gain.Operational Amplifier Tutorials . In most cases this gain is excessive. typically (100 dB)100.

com/operational_amplifier/opamp_characteristics.Operational Amplifier Tutorials .Opamp Characteristics Tutorial & Circuits . 150 ohms. <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:29 PM] .hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects The output impedance is low.

Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.html [1/17/2007 4:56:31 PM] .e. It has a high input impedance and a very low output impedance. It can be used for impedance matching. It serves the same purpose as the emitter follower. x1. <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www. It is called a VOLTAGE FOLLOWER. Microprocessor.com/operational_amplifier/unity_gain_non_inverter.Operational Amplifier Tutorials .hobbyprojects.Unity Gain Non Inverter Tutorial & Circuits . It is able to drive several loads.com Unity Gain Non Inverter Tutorial This non inverting amplifier has unity gain i.

then the output is negative.com/operational_amplifier/comparator. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier . Microprocessor.com Comparator Tutorial A varying input voltage is compared with a fixed reference voltage.html [1/17/2007 4:56:34 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The gain can be set by negative feedback.Comparator Tutorial & Circuits . <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. then the output is positive. If the input voltage is higher than the reference voltage. If the input voltage is lower than the reference.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Operational Amplifier Tutorials .

hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. the voltage of the inverting input rises above that of the non inverting input. the voltage across the capacitor is zero and the output is at +12 volts.Opamp as a Timer Tutorial & Circuits . The buzzer is not energised. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier . The output goes to minus 12 volts and the buzzer is energised.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:37 PM] . determined by the values of C and R3. <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/operational_amplifier/opamp_as_a_timer.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Opamp as a Timer Tutorial At switch on. After a time.Operational Amplifier Tutorials .

com/operational_amplifier/opamp_as_a_timer.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:37 PM] .hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.Opamp as a Timer Tutorial & Circuits .Operational Amplifier Tutorials .

Microprocessor.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com/operational_amplifier/opamp_dual_power_supplies.Opamp Dual Power Supplies Tutorial & Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:39 PM] .Operational Amplifier Tutorials . http://www. The bottom diagram shows how the common lead of the power supplies is connected to the input and output (and the common connection of any other associated circuitry). The upper diagram shows how the two supplies are connected together.com Opamp Dual Power Supplies Tutorial Most opamp circuits require two differing polarity voltages. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Operational Amplifier .

Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Operational Amplifier Tutorials http://www.Opamp Dual Power Supplies Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.Operational Amplifier Tutorials .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:39 PM] .com/operational_amplifier/opamp_dual_power_supplies.

To find the overall power gain. If we find the log of the power ratio. is the power gain. For example.2 = ? Multiplying is not friendly and also large numbers can result. we have three stages of amplification. Microprocessor.5 X 9.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. comparing the power input to an amplifier with the power output as in the diagram below.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:56:46 PM] . the answer is in Bels.Operational Amplifier .com/bels_decibels_and_db/bels_decibels_and_db. 10 X 6. we multiply the individual gains. In the next diagram.com Bels Decibels and DB Tutorial Bels are a means of comparing two powers or two voltages. The ratio of power in. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Bels Decibels and DB .Bels Decibels and DB Circuits & Tutorial . http://www. to power out.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.

Bels Decibels and DB Circuits & Tutorial .000.sign would indicate an attenuation. or 1 volt into 75 ohms for video. such as the noise of Concorde compared with the noise of rustling leaves. we work out the power ratio and then look up the log of this value in log tables. we work in decibels (dBs) as shown below.000. the overall gain is 1. Since Bels are too big . To make your amplifier sound twice as loud you must boost the power by 10 times. (+10 dB) If you only double the power (+3 dB). The ear has a logarithmic response.Operational Amplifier . individual gains are added.hobbyprojects. Other points: there is always a ratio.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:56:46 PM] . A . Below. then you will only just be able to detect the increase in volume. A gain of 1000 is +30 dB. One advantage of decibels are that the numbers are usually more convenient. The + sign indicates a gain. To find the overall gain.Electronic Hobby Projects To do this.com/bels_decibels_and_db/bels_decibels_and_db. such as 1 mW into 600 ohms for audio. If we are using voltage ratios then use the following formula.000 or +90 dBs. http://www. Sometimes there are standard levels to be compared with.

A voltage gain of + 52 db = 20dB + 20 dB + 6 dB + 6 dB which is 10 x 10 x 2 x 2 = a gain of 400 times.com/bels_decibels_and_db/bels_decibels_and_db.Bels Decibels and DB Circuits & Tutorial . <<<< Back to Intermediate Electronics http://www. tables are available.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:56:46 PM] . is +10 dB relative to 1 mW. giving the dB equivalent of ratios. A useful table is shown below. A gain of 400 watts is 2 x 2 x10 x 10 which is 3 dB + 3 dB + 10 dB + 10 dB = +26 dB. for example. and vice-versa.Electronic Hobby Projects 10 dBm.Operational Amplifier . It is not necessary to do calculations.hobbyprojects.

html [1/17/2007 4:56:48 PM] .com/thyristor_triac_and_diac. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Circuits .Thyristor.Tutorials .Projects Electronic.hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronic Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.com Thyristor. Microprocessor. Triac and Diac Tutorial Thyristor Burst Triggering the Thyristor Phase Triggering the Thyristor Full Wave Control of the Thyristor Triac and Diac Thyristor as a Crowbar <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate Tutorial http://www. Triac and Diac .

hobbyprojects. Conduction can be stopped by removing the the cathode/anode voltage.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/thyristor. the diode begins to conduct and current flows from cathode to anode.C.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. If the switch is now opened. When the switch is closed. Another method of stopping current flow is to reverse the polarity of the cathode/anode voltage.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:51 PM] .R.Electronic Tutorials . Triac and Diac Circuit & Tutorials .Thyristor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Thyristor.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. There is a problem. current continues to flow.). when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. If the thyristor is used with an ac supply then it will conduct on the positive half cycles and automatically switch off during the negative half cycles. It has the same charactaristics as the diode. current flowing from cathode to anode. Triac and Diac . with the switch open as shown. it will only do this when the gate is also positive with respect to the cathode. no current flows. However. In the circuit.com Thyristor Tutorial The thyristor is also known as the silicon controlled rectifier (S. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. http://www.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:51 PM] .Electronic Tutorials .Hobby Projects The resistor in series with the gate connection limits the gate current to a safe value. Triac and Diac Tutorial http://www.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/thyristor. <<<< Back to Thyristor. Triac and Diac Circuit & Tutorials .Thyristor.hobbyprojects.

Microprocessor. Triac and Diac Electronic Hobby Projects Tutorial Electronic.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/phase_triggering_the_thyristor.hobbyprojects.Thyristor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Phase Triggering the Thyristor Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Thyristor.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:54 PM] . Triac and Diac .com Phase Triggering the Thyristor Tutorial http://www.

They turn the thyristor on.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/phase_triggering_the_thyristor. In waveforms A and B. The high power thyristor circuits can be isolated from the control circuits by means of transformers or opto isolators.Thyristor. Triac and Diac Tutorial http://www. However. block A generates pulses at the same frequency as the ac power supply.hobbyprojects. Triac and Diac Electronic Hobby Projects Tutorial In the circuit diagram. The current flow is shown at C.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:56:54 PM] . and current flows for the complete half cycle. Current flow is shown at E. F and G show the gate pulses occuring near the end of the positive half cycles. Block B is a phase shift circuit which enables the phase of the pulses to be shifted with respect the ac supply.Phase Triggering the Thyristor Tutorial & Circuits . These pulses are applied to the gate. and current flowing for a very short time. Waveform D shows the gate pulses shifted and occurring half way through the positive half cycles of the ac supply. and full brightness cannot be achieved. There is no current flow during negative half cycles. The circuit acts as a lamp dimmer. <<<< Back to Thyristor. The thyristor starts to conduct at this time. the gate pulses coincide with the start of the positive half cycles of the mains supply. current only flows during half of the ac cycle.

com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/triac_and_diac. applying a pulse to the gate. Microprocessor.Thyristor.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The diac is high resistance below a certain voltage. Triac and Diac .com Triac and Diac Tutorial The triac conducts in both directions and provides full wave control of power. but when the applied voltage exceeds this value. <<<< Back to Thyristor. Triac and Diac Tutorial http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Thyristor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. say 30 volts. Triac and Diac .hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 4:56:57 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. it goes low resistance and conducts. It gives more reliable triggering of the triac. Variable phase trigger pulse are provided by the pulse generator and are positive with respect b1.Triac and Diac Circuits & Tutorial .

Triac and Diac . http://www.Thyristor. The middle waveform shows the switch operation.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/burst_triggering_the_thyristor. When the switch is closed. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Burst Triggering the Thyristor Circuit & Tutorials .hobbyprojects. Triac and Diac Electronic Hobby Projects Tutorial Electronic. On the next half cycle they go negative and no current flows. and the thyristor conducts during this period. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Thyristor. the gate and anode go positive on the first positive half cycle.com Burst Triggering the Thyristor Tutorial The top waveform shows the ac supply.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:00 PM] . Microprocessor.

the thyristor conducts on the positive half cycles only. <<<< Back to Thyristor. Triac and Diac Electronic Hobby Projects Tutorial As long as the switch is closed.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/burst_triggering_the_thyristor.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:00 PM] .Thyristor.Burst Triggering the Thyristor Circuit & Tutorials . If the lamp is replaced by a heater. and remains non conducting. Triac and Diac Tutorial http://www. the thyristor ceases to conduct on the next negative half cycle. and the switch replaced by a thermostat then it would provide automatic temperature control for an oven. The current comes in BURSTS. The bottom waveform shows the current through the thyristor and lamp.hobbyprojects. When the switch is opened.

Triac and Diac . two thyristors are required as shown.com Full Wave Control of the Thyristor Tutorial To obtain full wave operation.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Thyristor. Microprocessor. Th1 is triggered during the positive half cycles of the ac supply. Since the gate voltages have to be positive with respect to the cathodes.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/full_wave_control_of_the_thyristor.hobbyprojects. so that the lamp can be provided with the full ac supply voltage. and Th2 during the negative half cycles.Full Wave Control of the Thyristor Tutorial & Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Triac and Diac . Triac and Diac Tutorial http://www. <<<< Back to Thyristor.Thyristor.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. The waveforms show the thyristors being triggered halfway through each half cycle and the current through the lamp would be the sum of the two currents. The high power ac circuit can be isolated from the control circuits by means of transformers or opto isolators.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:05 PM] . attention must be paid to the polarity of the gating pulses with respect each other. The lamp will be at about half brightness A pulse generator and a phase shift circuit is necessary to provide gate pulses which can adjust the power from minimum to maximum.

Thyristor.hobbyprojects.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/full_wave_control_of_the_thyristor.Full Wave Control of the Thyristor Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:05 PM] . Triac and Diac .

Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. The large current through the thyristor blows the fuse and protects the load. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Thyristor. Crude but effective.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/thyristor_as_a_crowbar. then the zener diode conducts.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. damaging it. Current flowing through the resistor provides a voltage across it. Triac and Diac Tutorial http://www. Triac and Diac . <<<< Back to Thyristor.Thyristor as a Crowbar Circuit & Tutorials .com Thyristor as a Crowbar Tutorial The 12 volts input is stepped down to 5 volts by the regulator.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:08 PM] . However. Microprocessor.hobbyprojects.1 volts. 12 volts could be applied to the load. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. if the regulator output goes above 5. Triac and Diac . If the regulator goes faulty.Thyristor. which triggers the gate of the thyristor.

Thyristor as a Crowbar Circuit & Tutorials .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.hobbyprojects.com/thyristor_triac_and_diac/thyristor_as_a_crowbar.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:08 PM] .Thyristor. Triac and Diac .

Multivibrators .Hobby Projects Electronic.Multivibrator .com/multivibrators. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronic Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuits .html [1/17/2007 4:57:12 PM] . Microprocessor.com Multivibrators Tutorial Astable Monostable Bistable <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate Tutorial http://www.

the one that was off coming on. OPERATION The characteristics of the two transistors are not exactly the same. determined by a CR time constant. Then the transistors exchange states.Multivibrators Tutorial . before reverting to the original state. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Multivibrators .com Astable Tutorial The astable has two unstable states. being unable to rest in a fixed state. the current through one transistor. Microprocessor.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. one transistor is on (conducting) and the other is off (non conducting). and the one that was on going off. They stay in this unstable state for a time.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:14 PM] . When the circuit is first switched on. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. When you first switch on. They stay in this new unstable state for a time.Astable Circuit & Tutorial .hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. This process is repeated continuously.com/multivibrators/astable. will increase faster than the current through Tr2. http://www. say Tr1. again determined by a CR time constant.

and its collector voltage to rise.Electronic Hobby Projects Due to the rise of current through R1. As the voltage on the right hand side of C1 starts to rise. causing the collector voltage of Tr1 to fall. The effect is CUMULATIVE and Tr1 becomes rapidly fully on and Tr2 completely off. C1 now begins to charge from the supply rail. The whole process repeats continuously . the base voltage of Tr1 increases. The collector voltage of Tr1 is now high and that of Tr2 low. the voltage across it will increase. Since the collector current was already rising.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:14 PM] . increasing the forward bias of Tr1 and increasing its collector current. and that of Tr2 is high. its rise is aided by this rising forward bias. turning it on and turning Tr2 off.hobbyprojects. It is now the turn of C2 to charge from the supply via R3.Astable Circuit & Tutorial . The collector voltage of Tr1 is now low. This rise in collector voltage is cross coupled to the base of Tr1.com/multivibrators/astable. via R2. Again we have the cumulative effect and Tr2 rapidly comes on and Tr1 goes off. Tr2 starts to conduct. This fall in voltage is coupled to the base of Tr2. <<<< Back to Multivibrators Tutorial http://www.Multivibrators Tutorial . As the voltage on the left hand side of C2 begins to rise. This causes the collector current of Tr2 to fall. due to less voltage being dropped across R4.

Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Tr2. say Tr1. As the current through Tr1 increases. This is one stable state. OPERATION Since the two transistors are not exactly the same.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:16 PM] . An external pulse makes the circuit change state.Bistable Circuits & Tutorial . http://www.com/multivibrators/bistable.hobbyprojects. one . This is the second stable state.com Bistable Tutorial The bistable has two stable states. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. At switch on. the voltage across R1 increases and the collector voltage of Tr1 falls. will start conducting before the other. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Multivibrators .Multivibrators Tutorial . Microprocessor. one transistor is ON and the other is OFF. with the ON transistor now OFF. and the OFF transistor now ON.

This rise in voltage is cross coupled to the base of Tr1 increasing its forward bias and increasing the rise of collector current. causing the collector current of Tr2 to fall and its collector voltage to rise. Tr1 is turned off and Tr2 is turned off by the cross coupling.com/multivibrators/bistable. An external negative pulse is steered to the base of Tr1 since D1 is forward biased. D2 has a high voltage on its cathode via R6 and a low voltage on its anode via R2.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:16 PM] . It can therefore be used as a divide by two circuit. The circuit is now in its second stable state and waits for another trigger pulse. making it reverse biased. <<<< Back to Multivibrators Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.Bistable Circuits & Tutorial . there is one pulse appearing at its collector for every two pulses in. The circuit is now in one of its stable states with the collector voltage of Tr1 low. making it forward biased. Since the collector current is already rising.Multivibrators Tutorial . D1 has a low voltage on its cathode via R5 and a high voltage on its anode via R3. This happens very quickly because of the cumulative effect mentioned earlier. the effect is CUMULATIVE and the collector voltage of Tr1 falls rapidly and the collector voltage of Tr1 rises just as quickly. Since the collector voltage of Tr2 changes state for every trigger pulse.Electronic Hobby Projects This fall is coupled to the base of Tr2 via R2. but blocked from the base of Tr2 by reverse biased D2. and that of Tr2 high.

Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Digital Circuits .com Digital Circuits Tutorial AND Gates Binary Binary 7 Segment Decoder Bistable as Divider Exclusive OR Hexadecimal Logic Gates Multivibrators NAND Gates NOR Gates NOT Gates OR Gates The 7490 Decade Counter <<< Back to Electronics for Beginners http://www. Microprocessor.html [1/17/2007 4:57:18 PM] .Electronic Science Hobby Resource & Projects Electronic.hobbyprojects.com/digital_circuits. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronics for Beginners Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.

Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The output voltage goes high only when all input voltages are high. In the truth table Z = 1 only when A and B = 1 The Boolean expression is A. The AND gate has two or more inputs and one output.Digital Circuits .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:21 PM] . Microprocessor.Hobby Projects Electronic. In the switch diagram the lamp lights up only when A and B are operated.Learn all about AND Gates .AND Gates Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits .com AND Gates Tutorial Before reading this page read the one on LOGIC GATES. B = Z which translated says. makes Z high. http://www. A and B both high. If only one is switched then the lamp stays off.com/digital_circuits/and_gates.

Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www.AND Gates Tutorial & Circuits .Learn all about AND Gates .Digital Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:21 PM] .com/digital_circuits/and_gates.hobbyprojects.

hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Binary 7 Segment Decoder Digital voltmeters.html [1/17/2007 4:57:33 PM] . Other types of decoder are available such as binary to decimal.com/digital_circuits/binary_7_segment_decoder.Digital Circuits . To convert this binary to a form that can be used by the display requires the use of a DECODER.Binary 7 Segment Decoder Tutorial & Circuits . in this case a "binary to 7 segment display decoder". frequency counters etc use 7 segment displays to show the result of measurements.Seven Segment Decoders . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor. This has four inputs for the binary and seven outputs for the display.Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits . However all the internal electronics use binary for manipulation of the data.

Exclusive OR Tutorial & Circuits . That is when A or B exclusively goes high. If you look at the truth table for the OR gate not only does the output go high when A OR B are high but it goes high when A AND B together are high.com Exclusive OR Tutorial Before reading this page read the one on LOGIC GATES.Hobby Projects Electronic.com/digital_circuits/exclusive_or. When A and B are both high the output stays low. This can cause problems in some applications. Therefore the EXCLUSIVE OR or EXOR is used.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The output of the EXOR only goes high when A or B on its own goes high.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:45 PM] . This is shown in the truth table. <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.DIGITAL CIRCUITS .Exclusive OR Gates .hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.

Exclusive OR Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:45 PM] .Hobby Projects http://www.DIGITAL CIRCUITS .com/digital_circuits/exclusive_or.hobbyprojects.Exclusive OR Gates .

high true 5 volts on 1 or or or or or etc.1 degrees or 34.All about Logic Gates . transistor logic) or CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor).com/digital_circuits/logic_gates. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits .) A digital device or system uses only two values. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. low false zero volts off 0 http://www. They are DIGITAL devices not ANALOGUE.hobbyprojects. The names describe their internal construction. These can be expressed in several ways.354 degrees etc.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Other analogue devices are a car speedo and a Hi Fi amplifier (which can handle lots of different frequencies and loudnesses. Microprocessor. 0.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:57 PM] .com Logic Gates Tutorial Logic gates usually come packaged as integrated circuits which have type numbers such as 7400 or 4001.Logic Gate Tutorial & Circuits . They belong to semiconductor families such as TTL (transistor. A thermometer is an analogue device because it can record an infinite number of values such 100 degrees. A light switch and a rat trap are digital devices.Digital Circuits .Hobby Projects Electronic.

He used it to solve problems in logic. <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Diagram http://www. An ic with 6 NOT gates is called a HEX INVERTER ic. Here is a Boolean expression for the gate shown. An integrated circuit containing 4 AND gates each with 2 inputs is called a QUAD 2 INPUT AND ic.Hobby Projects Most gates usually have two or more inputs and one output. (The . In the case of the gate shown. The state of the output (high or low) depends upon the combination of the input states. There is a form of mathematics associated with logic gates called BOOLEAN ALGEBRA.Logic Gate Tutorial & Circuits . If either one input or both inputs are low then the output will be low These characteristics can be shown using a TRUTH TABLE. the output will only be high if both inputs are high.Therefore it is TRUE that some cats cannot be seen against a black wall.Digital Circuits . NOR. A . before the days of electronics. NAND. For example Some cats are black AND black items cannot be seen against a black wall. is read as AND).hobbyprojects. In the following example 1 indicates a high and 0 indicates a low.All about Logic Gates . Note that Z is only a 1 when A AND B are both at 1.com/digital_circuits/logic_gates. B = Z Read this as IF A AND B ARE HIGH THEN Z IS HIGH.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:57:57 PM] . OR. It was invented a few hundred years ago by Mr Boole. The most frequently used gates are AND. NOT and EXOR.

Digital Circuits . _ Z (called Z bar) means Z is low. Microprocessor.B = Z which translated says.Learn about NAND Gates .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. In the switch diagram the lamp goes out when A and B are operated.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:00 PM] .com/digital_circuits/nand_gates.hobbyprojects. US symbol UK symbol switches simulating NAND truth table <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www.NAND Gate Tutorial & Circuits . The Nand gate has two or more inputs and one output.Hobby Projects Electronic. A and B high makes Z low. (A short circuit is placed across the lamp) In the truth table Z = 0 when A and B = 1 _ The Boolean expression is A. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The output voltage goes low only when all input voltages are high.com NAND Gates Tutorial Before reading this page read the one on LOGIC GATES.

NAND Gate Tutorial & Circuits .Digital Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:00 PM] .hobbyprojects.com/digital_circuits/nand_gates.Hobby Projects http://www.Learn about NAND Gates .

Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. We can say that the output goes LOW when the input is ACTIVATED. The output goes HIGH.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:03 PM] . The opposite happens when the input is LOW. The NOT gate is also called an INVERTER.com NOT Gates Tutorial The NOT gate has a single input and one output. The TRUTH TABLE shows that the output is the opposite of the input. The little bubble on the output indicates that the output goes LOW when the input goes HIGH. NOT A EQUALS Z or IF A IS LOW THEN Z IS HIGH or BAR A = Z <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www. It inverts the input. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects.Learn all about NOT Gates .com/digital_circuits/not_gates.Digital Circuits .NOT Gate .Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits . _ The Boolean expression is A = Z Which is read as.

NOT Gate .hobbyprojects.Digital Circuits .Hobby Projects http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:03 PM] .com/digital_circuits/not_gates.Learn all about NOT Gates .

The number of pulses counted (up to 9) appears in binary form on four pins of the ic.com 7490 Decade Counter Tutorial The 7490 integrated circuit counts the number of pulses arriving at its input.7490 Decade Counter Tutorial & Circuits . So for ten pulses in there is one pulse out of this pin. The 7490 therefore divides the frequency of the input by ten. the binary output is reset to zero (0000) and a single pulse appears at another output pin.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.7490 Decade Counters . When the tenth pulse arrives at the input.com/digital_circuits/7490_decade_counter. If this pulse is applied to the input of a second 7490 then this second ic will count the pulses from the first ic.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor.Digital Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:06 PM] . Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits . It will give one pulse out after 100 pulses have been applied to the first ic. The 7490 can be connected to divide by other values.

7490 Decade Counters .Digital Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:06 PM] .com/digital_circuits/7490_decade_counter.hobbyprojects.7490 Decade Counter Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects 5 6 7 8 9 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www.

Binary Counting .com Binary Tutorial Humans have 10 fingers so they use the numbers 0 to 9 for counting. After traveling another mile. he puts a 1 in the first column.Digital Circuits . as we saw at the start. Brand new human and penguin cars have all zeros displayed on the odometer. the humans display shows However.Binary Digits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:21 PM] . Microprocessor.com/digital_circuits/binary. After traveling 1 mile both display So a 1 in this first column means 1 mile in both cars. The humans car displays 3. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits .Binary Tutorial & Circuits . He says to himself. which we know is worth 1 mile in both cars.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. They both drive another mile.Hobby Projects Electronic.Binary Numbers . Penguins have only two flippers so they can only use 0 and 1. the penguin doesn't have a 2. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects. "a 1 in this second column is worth 2 in decimal". Since the penguin has driven the same mile. So he resets the first column to zero and puts a 1 in the next column. http://www.

The humans car shows 4 The penguin has to reset the first two columns to zero and poke a 1 in the third He says.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:21 PM] . So when the odometer shows 1111 the car has traveled 8+4 +2 +1 =15 decimal miles.Binary Counting . So adding up in penguin is 0+0=0 0+1=1 1+0=1 1+1= zero and carry 1 = 10 Write the numbers from nought to fifteen. " a 1 in the third column is the worth 4 in the decimal system.Binary Digits . where they have only two values of voltage.Digital Circuits . Penguin counting is the same as BINARY COUNTING.com/digital_circuits/binary. in penguin.Binary Numbers . Binary is used in digital electronic systems." So we can correctly guess that a 1 in the fourth column indicate decimal 8 and a 1 in the next is worth 16.hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects They drive another mile. decimal. and so on.Binary Tutorial & Circuits . <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www.

If we put a 16 kHz signal in. Microprocessor.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:24 PM] . The bistable acts as a frequency divider. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits . The output of the bistable toggles (changes state) when its input receives a pulse.hobbyprojects.com Bistable as Divider Tutorial Read the page on multivibrators first. the two input pulses have provided a single.Bistable Dividers .Hobby Projects Electronic. If we put eight pulses in then we get four out.com/digital_circuits/bistable_as_divider. Looking at the first diagram. wider pulse at the output. http://www.Digital Circuits .Bistable as Divider . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. we get an 8 kHz signal out.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. If it was originally low. it has gone high after the first pulse and then returned low after the second. The bistable divides by two. This means that after two pulses the output has returned to its original state.

Bistable as Divider .Hobby Projects If we feed the 8 kHz into another bistable the resulting frequency is 4 kHz.com/digital_circuits/bistable_as_divider.Bistable Dividers .Digital Circuits .hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www. We can divide a high frequency signal down to a lower one.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:24 PM] .

Humans haven't any words for the Martian numbers for the remaining six fingers.Hexa Decimal .com/digital_circuits/hexadecimal. Their maths system is called hexadecimal.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The best we can do is to use the letters A B C D E F where A is equivalent to oggfv and F represents zxkyt. which they call kpxvz to zxkyt. Microprocessor.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:26 PM] . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits . Penguins are limited to using binary zeros and ones because they have only two flippers. (hex for short).hobbyprojects. So translating Martian (hexadecimal) we use the following (binary equivalents are included).com Hexadecimal Tutorial It's best if you read the page on binary first.Hexadecimal Digital Circuits . oggfv to zxkyt. where kpxvz is the same as our zero.Hobby Projects Electronic. When we translate Martian to Human we can use 0 to 9 for the first ten Martian fingers because they they are the same. so they have sixteen digits. Well Martians have 16 fingers. decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 hex 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 http://www.Hexadecimal Tutorial & Circuits . Humans use the decimal digits zero to nine because they have ten fingers. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

Hobby Projects 14 15 E F 1110 1111 So 000F hex is the same as decimal 15.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:26 PM] .Hexadecimal Digital Circuits .Hexa Decimal . F 7 C D or F7CD. 0010 hex is the same as decimal 16 0100 hex is the same as decimal 256 1000 hex is the same as decimal 4096 1111 hex = 4096+256+16+1=? 00FF=255 FFFF=65535 Prove it. 1111 0111 1100 1101 and converting into the hex equivalent. information is stored as 16 bit binary numbers.Hexadecimal Tutorial & Circuits . 1111011111001101 We can make life somewhat easier by breaking this into four sections.hobbyprojects.com/digital_circuits/hexadecimal. Imagine typing in hundreds of these numbers without making a mistake. Easier to type! <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www. In some computers.

This means that the lights wait in the stable state. with TR1 turning off and TR2 turning on. When the pulse arrives it changes into the other stable state waiting for another pulse.hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits . This is because it has two UNSTABLE states and is changing automatically from one to the other.com Multivibrators Tutorial Multivibrators (sometimes called FLIP-FLOPS) have two "cross coupled" transistors. THE BISTABLE has two stable states. THE ASTABLE is continually changing state. This causes TR1 to be on (conducting) and TR2 off. It then falls back into the stable state and waits for another pulse. They can be made to reverse states. When the pulse arrives they change state for a while and then fall back to the waiting state. waiting for an external pulse. the other off. THE MONOSTABLE has one unstable and one stable state. It stays in the unstable state for a time determined by an RC time constant.com/digital_circuits/multivibrators. The states of the transistors can be indicated using a lamp for each transistor. http://www. It waits in one state for an external pulse. When a pulse arrives it changes to the unstable state. The lights change over on the arrival of each pulse. The duration of these states is determined by two RESISTOR/CAPACITOR TIME CONSTANTS. It rests in the stable state.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:30 PM] .Multivibrator Digital Circuits .Multivibrators Tutorial & Circuits . one on. The lights flash alternately on and off. say TR1 and TR2.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. If another pulse never arrives it will wait forever. Changing the values of the time constants alters the flashing rate. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:30 PM] .com/digital_circuits/multivibrators.hobbyprojects.Multivibrators Tutorial & Circuits .Multivibrator Digital Circuits .

Hobby Projects Electronic.NOR Gate Tutorial & Circuits .Digital Circuits . Z (called Z bar) means Z is low.Learn about NOR Gates . Microprocessor. _ The plus sign. + translates as OR. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits . The output voltage goes low only when one or more input voltages are high. <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www.com NOR Gates Tutorial Before reading this page read the one on LOGIC GATES. (A short circuit is placed across the lamp) In the truth table Z = 0 when A or B = 1 _ The Boolean expression is A+B = Z which translated says. The NOR gate has two or more inputs and one output.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. A or B high makes Z low.com/digital_circuits/nor_gates. In the switch diagram the lamp goes out when A OR B (or both) are operated.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:32 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects http://www.NOR Gate Tutorial & Circuits .Learn about NOR Gates .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:32 PM] .com/digital_circuits/nor_gates.Digital Circuits .

Hobby Projects Electronic.com/digital_circuits/or_gates.OR Gate Tutorial & Circuits . The plus sign + translates as OR.hobbyprojects. The output voltage goes high only when one or more input voltages are high.Learn all about OR Gates . In the switch diagram the lamp lights up when A OR B (or both) are operated. A or B high makes Z high. The Boolean expression is A+B = Z which translated says.Digital Circuits . The OR gate has two or more inputs and one output. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Digital Circuits .com OR Gates Tutorial Before reading this page read the one on LOGIC GATES. In the truth table Z = 1 when A or B = 1.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:35 PM] . <<<< Back to Digital Circuits Tutorial http://www.

Digital Circuits .com/digital_circuits/or_gates.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:35 PM] .hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects http://www.OR Gate Tutorial & Circuits .Learn all about OR Gates .

com/block_diagrams. Receiver F.hobbyprojects.M. Transmitter Colour T/V Camera Computer DC Motor Speed Control Digital Clock F.com Block Diagrams Tutorial Block Diagrams A. Transmitter Mono T/V Camera Mono T/V Receiver Oscilloscope Phase Locked Loop Power Supply Units Tape Recorder <<< Back to Electronics for Beginners http://www.M. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Electronics for Beginners Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:37 PM] .Hobby Projects . Receiver A. Microprocessor.Block Diagrams .M.Electronics Circuits .Tutorials Electronic.M.

Electronics Circuits .Block Diagrams .com/block_diagrams.Hobby Projects .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:37 PM] .Tutorials http://www.hobbyprojects.

In the example the low level signals from the three microphones are mixed together by the MIXER which gives a mixed low level signal out. We are told what each block has for an input. They are made up from labeled blocks which are joined by arrows. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. and inputs to and outputs from the blocks. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams .hobbyprojects. and what happens in the block to this input. That will come later with a greater understanding of electronics. We are also told what the output from the block is.Hobby Projects Electronic. At this stage it is not necessary to know how the block does its job.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:40 PM] .com Block Diagrams Tutorial Block diagrams are a method of explaining complex systems (not necessarily electronic) in a simple manner.Electronic Circuits . http://www. The arrows indicate the direction of flow.Block Diagram System .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/block_diagrams/block_diagrams.Block Diagrams Tutorial & Circuits .

hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects The mixed signal is applied to the POWER AMPLIFIER which provides a high level signal to drive the loudspeaker.Block Diagrams Tutorial & Circuits . <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www. There would be no point in changing the mixer.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:40 PM] .Electronic Circuits . If there is no output from the loudspeaker but we can measure an output from the mixer then the loudspeaker or the power amplifier is faulty. There are more pages on this website.Block Diagram System . Even with this limited knowledge we can apply a little logical fault finding.com/block_diagrams/block_diagrams. With more knowledge one can break the blocks down into smaller blocks and finally the circuitry within the boxes will be understood. The POWER SUPPLY UNIT converts the ac mains supply voltage to a dc voltage suitable for the system. being used to explain complex electronics.

Microprocessor. The microphone converts sound waves into electrical signals ( a range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz). This is done by superimposing the low frequency audio signal on the high frequency carrier wave by the process of modulation.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The audio is superimposed onto the carrier by the modulator. These signals are amplified by the audio frequency amplifier.AM Transmitter Tutorial & Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:43 PM] .hobbyprojects. http://www. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The aerial produces an electromagnetic wave which is radiated into space. The low power modulated carrier is boosted in amplitude by the radio frequency power amplifier.AM Transmitters .M. Transmitter Tutorial Read the page on amplitude modulation. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams .Block Diagram . The carrier frequency is generated by the radio frequency oscillator.com A. Modulation enables low frequency audio signals to be radiated long distances.Hobby Projects Electronic.com/block_diagrams/am_transmitter.

hobbyprojects.AM Transmitters .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:43 PM] .Block Diagram .com/block_diagrams/am_transmitter.Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.AM Transmitter Tutorial & Circuits .

called a program. carrying out a sequence of instructions. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Hobby Projects Electronic. http://www.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Computers Block Diagrams . Microprocessor. The program may be stored in memory. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams . Some data flows in one direction only. It acts as the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer. In some cases it flows in both directions.com Basic Computer Tutorial In the diagram.Computer Tutorial & Circuits . At the heart of the computer is the microprocessor.hobbyprojects. This contains several REGISTERS to store data and an ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT (ALU) which manipulates data.PC Block Diagram . as software.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:47 PM] . the arrows indicate the direction of data flow. or written into the memory from tape or disk.com/block_diagrams/computer.

It may need to communicate with an analogue device such as a loudspeaker or variable speed control. its case and printed circuit boards etc are known as hardware. The software is not lost when the computer is switched off but the stored data cannot be changed. <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www. The computer is a digital device. Read Only Memory (ROM) which stores software permanently. To do this it uses digital to analogue and analogue to digital converters. The computer needs to communicate with the outside world. The actual computer. It is lost when the computer is switched off.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:47 PM] .Computers Block Diagrams .PC Block Diagram .Computer Tutorial & Circuits . Random Access Memory (RAM) which can be written to and read from.com/block_diagrams/computer. It does this via interfaces which are usually a plug or socket of some type.hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects There are two types of memory. The stored data is volatile.

hobbyprojects. in binary.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. It counts these pulses. up to 59 seconds. When the count and display reaches 59 seconds. The oscillator is crystal controlled to give a stable frequency.Hobby Projects Electronic. it resets to zero on the next pulse. Since the output from the counter is in binary form. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Digital Clocks Tutorial & Circuits .com/block_diagrams/digital_clock.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:50 PM] . A high frequency is used to keep the size of the crystal small. These are fed to the first counter/divider which divides by 128 to give a pulse every second. The one second pulses are also sent to the next divider/counter which divides by 60 to give one pulse every http://www. Microprocessor. it is converted to suit the display by the decoder. The divide by 250 gives an output of 128 pulses per second.Digital Clock Circuits . The count is shown on the first 7 segment display. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams .com Digital Clock Tutorial We suggest that you go to the DIGITAL INDEX and read the pages on DECADE COUNTERS and BINARY TO 7 SEGMENT DECODERS before reading this.Block Diagram .

This divides by 60 to give one pulse every hour. These pulses are counted and displayed as minutes. When the count and display reaches 23 hours 59 minutes 59 seconds. When the count and display reaches 59 minutes and 59 seconds it resets to zero on the next pulse. the counters and display resets to zero on the next pulse.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:50 PM] .Hobby Projects minute. A pulse every minute is fed to the final divider/counter. These pulses are counted and displayed as hours.Digital Clock Circuits . <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.Block Diagram .hobbyprojects.com/block_diagrams/digital_clock.Digital Clocks Tutorial & Circuits .

com/block_diagrams/fm_transmitter. The oscillator frequency is at the carrier frequency. The microphone converts sound pressure wave to electrical signals.FM Transmitters Tutorial & Circuits . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams . These audio voltages are amplified by the audio amplifier.M.com F.Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor.hobbyprojects. The aerial is driven by the amplifier and produces an electromagnetic wave.FM Transmitter Circuits & Block Diagram .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:53 PM] . in the 88-108 MHz FM band. The low power of the frequency modulated carrier is boosted by the Radio Frequency amplifier. Transmitter Tutorial Read the page on Frequency Modulation. Under normal conditions the transmitted signal will travel as far as the horizon. <<<< Back to Block Diagrams http://www. The amplified audio is used to control the deviation of the frequency controlled oscillator.

hobbyprojects.FM Transmitter Circuits & Block Diagram .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:53 PM] .com/block_diagrams/fm_transmitter.FM Transmitters Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects http://www.

due to temperature changes.5 MHz) IF signals and their sidebands. Hobbyiest and R&D persons BLOCK DIAGRAMS Search Web Hobbyprojects.Mono TV Receiver Circuits .Mono TV Receivers . The IF amplifier has a bandwidth wide enough to pass both sound (33. read the page on AM radios. by the Automatic Frequency Control (AFC).com MONO TV RECEIVER The tuner unit converts the incoming sound sound and vision carriers to their IF frequencies.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:59 PM] . The oscillator is protected against frequency drift. The video signal is demodulated and amplified and is used to control the brightness at each particular point http://www. For more information on how this is done.Hobby Projects Electronic.5 MHz) and vision (39. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Block Diagram .com/block_diagrams/mono_TV_receiver.

hobbyprojects.com/block_diagrams/mono_TV_receiver. while the video signal controls the brightness at each point on the screen. Due to a mixing process between the sound and vision carriers. The time bases provide saw tooth waveforms which scan the face of the CRT.Mono TV Receivers .Mono TV Receiver Circuits . This voltage is very high and dangerous. These pulses are used to control the frequencies of the time bases. The sync pulses are separated from the composite video signal by the sync separator. those in the studio cameras. the sound signal appears as a 6 MHz FM signal at the video output stage.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:58:59 PM] . The line time base also supplies the Extra High Tension (EHT) voltage for the CRT final anode. See the page on mono cameras to read about scanning. Back to Block Diagrams http://www. It is amplified and demodulated. ensuring that they run at the same speed as. and in phase with. The resulting audio signal is amplified and used to drive a loudspeaker.Block Diagram .Hobby Projects on the screen. A power supply supplies DC voltages to all stages.

Microprocessor. The local oscillator is voltage controlled (it is a VCO). If there is no reference input signal then the VCO will oscillate at its natural "free running" frequency.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:03 PM] .com/block_diagrams/phase_locked_loop. This means that its frequency is controlled by varying a DC voltage input.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects. http://www. This ensures that the local oscillator is at the same frequency and in phase with the remote one. The DC amplifier amplifies the DC voltage level to a value suitable to control the VCO. The error correcting voltage may be either negative or positive depending on whether the VCO frequency is higher or lower than the reference frequency. This error signal is fed to the VCO via a filter and a DC amplifier to produce an error correcting voltage. which we wish to lock the frequency of the VCO to. The other input to the phase detector is the reference signal. The output signal of the VCO is fed back to a phase detector via a buffer. If there is a difference in frequency or phase between the two inputs then an error signal is produced at the output of the phase detector. It avoids "pulling" of the oscillator frequency. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams .Phase Locked Loop Tutorial . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Phase Locked Loop Circuit . The buffer isolates the VCO from the loading caused by the detector and external circuits.Block Diagram . The filter is a low pass type which determines the range of frequencies over which the VCO can vary.Hobby Projects Electronic.com Phase Locked Loop Tutorial The Phase Locked Loop (PLL) synchronizes a local oscillator with a remote one.

Phase Locked Loop Circuit . and the DC output of the DC amplifier is the demodulated audio signal. If the input signal is an FM signal.hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.Hobby Projects The effect of the error correcting voltage is to pull the VCO back to the same frequency as the reference frequency. and in phase with it. then the VCO follows the deviations in frequency caused by the modulation.com/block_diagrams/phase_locked_loop.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:03 PM] .Block Diagram .Phase Locked Loop Tutorial . The PLL can also be used to keep an AC motor at a constant speed.

Block Diagram .Hobby Projects Electronic.Tape Recorder Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:06 PM] .com/block_diagrams/tape_recorder. an audio signal causes current to flow through the coil producing a magnetic field in the gap. During playback the tape passes over the same head. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The tape travels over the gap in the core. with a small gap in it.Tape Recorders Tutorial . A coil is wound around the core. as shown by the blue lines of force in the diagram. called the core. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. http://www.hobbyprojects.com Tape Recorder Tutorial The tape head consists of a ring of soft magnetic material. During recording. This time the magnetism stored on the tape induces a voltage in the head coil. Microprocessor. As the magnetic field varies in strength so does the magnetism stored on the tape. (it is called the record/playback head). This voltage is amplified and used to drive a loudspeaker. The tape consists of a plastic film coated with a material that is magnetised by the field as it passes over the gap. As the audio signal varies in amplitude and frequency so does the magnetic field.

Block Diagram .Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:06 PM] .com/block_diagrams/tape_recorder.Tape Recorder Circuits .hobbyprojects.Tape Recorders Tutorial .

M. and in more detail.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. RECEIVER TUTORIAL Most of these blocks are discussed individually.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:14 PM] . It is adjustable so that the selection frequency can be altered.Block Diagram .A. Microprocessor. The output of an oscillator is also applied to the mixer. See filters.M. signal is fed into the i. frequency changers. There are signals from thousands of radio transmitters on many different frequencies inducing signal voltages in the aerial. The mixer and oscillator form a FREQUENCY CHANGER circuit.com/block_diagrams/am_receiver. The rf filter selects the desired station from the many. mixers. Receiver Tutorial & Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The selected frequency is applied to the mixer. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams .f. amplifier is that its frequency and bandwidth are fixed.f. on other pages. This makes the design and operation of the amplifier much simpler. Receivers . no matter what the frequency of the incoming signal is. http://www. The i. The output from the mixer is the intermediate frequency (i. is a fixed frequency of about 455 kHz. amplifier.) The i. This is called TUNING.f. No matter what the frequency of the selected radio station is. am modulation and amplifiers.f.com A. is always 455 kHz.M.f.f.A. the i.hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. The advantage of the i.

signal is fed to the demodulator.M. It usually incorporates a diode in the circuit.M. the loudness from the loudspeaker stays the same. The audio signal voltage is increased in amplitude by a voltage amplifier. amplifier as an AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL voltage. Receiver Tutorial & Circuits . This circuit recovers the audio signal and discards the r.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:14 PM] . Some of the audio is fed back to the i. <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.Hobby Projects The amplified i. Receivers . This ensures that when tuning from a weak station to a strong one.com/block_diagrams/am_receiver.Block Diagram .hobbyprojects.A. carrier.f.A.f. The power level is increased sufficiently to drive the loudspeaker by the power amplifier.f.

Red. Note that this page describes the UK colour system (PAL). everything looks red.com Color TV Camera Tutorial Read the pages on the monochrome camera. blue and green filters are used. If you look through a red one.com/block_diagrams/colour_TV_camera. http://www.Hobby Projects Electronic.Block Diagram .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:19 PM] . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. and light and colour.hobbyprojects. The light in each path passes through a colour filter.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Blue or green objects look black. Colours which contain some red. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams .Colour TV Camera Tutorial & Circuits .Colour TV Camera Circuits . These filters are like the transparent coloured papers in which chocolates are wrapped. look dark red. This is because it lets only red light through. Microprocessor. Light enters via the lens on the left and is split into three paths by mirrors and semi-transparent mirrors. such as purple.

This gives a luminance (brightness) signal. chrominance and sync signals are combined and are then used to amplitude modulate a carrier in the UHF band. The colour signals are known as Er. Each tube gives a signal out. Some of the red. <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www. and is used by black and white receivers. Eg. The luminance signal is labelled Ey.Colour TV Camera Circuits . and Eb. which is 6 MHz apart from the vision carrier. The red and blue signals are converted into two new signals called the red and blue colour difference signals. An associated sound signal frequency modulates a second carrier. proportional to the amount of colour.hobbyprojects. They are (Er . The luminance. These two signals are modulated onto a "sub carrier" at 4. This means that the separated colours are recombined electronically.Block Diagram .Colour TV Camera Tutorial & Circuits .43 MHz which becomes the chrominance (colour) signal.Hobby Projects The coloured images are focused on the faces of the three colour tubes which scan the images.com/block_diagrams/colour_TV_camera.Ey) and (Eb .Ey). green and blue signals from the camera tubes are added in the luminance matrix.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:19 PM] .

This in turn rotates the tacho which produces a voltage proportional to speed. The difference amplifier will amplify any difference between its two input voltages. The motor drives the generator (tachometer) via this shaft. The set speed control provides a dc voltage. since the tachometer is not rotating and not producing an output voltage.com DC Motor Speed Control Tutorial Find and read the page on difference amplifiers.com/block_diagrams/DC_motor_speed_control. A dc amplifier is a special type of amplifier which can increase dc voltages. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. there will a difference in voltages at the two inputs of the difference amplifier.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects. This amplified dc powers the dc motor which begins to increase its speed of rotation.Hobby Projects Electronic.DC Motor Speed Control Tutorial & Circuits . Therefore there will be an output voltage from the amplifier.DC Motor Speed Controller . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams . For example.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:22 PM] . say 12 volts for maximum speed and zero for stationary. As the tacho voltage increases it will eventually reach the same value as the "set speed" voltage. Since this voltage is not high enough in value to drive the motor. 10 volts dc in could give 100 volts dc out. If the motor is stationary and the speed control is moved from zero to half speed then. This could be a potentiometer providing any voltage in a range from zero to +12 volts. Microprocessor. it is increased in amplitude by the dc amplifier. The striped thing between the motor and the dc generator is a shaft which couples them together mechanically. http://www.

DC Motor Speed Controller .com/block_diagrams/DC_motor_speed_control.DC Motor Speed Control Tutorial & Circuits . The motor is up to the correct speed. In a poorly designed system this drop in speed and its correction can cause "hunting".hobbyprojects. However.Hobby Projects At this point there will be no output from the difference amplifier and dc amplifier. This will produce an output from the difference amplifier and dc amplifier which will power the motor and correct this drop in speed. But the tacho output voltage will start to fall. since the motor is no longer powered by the dc amplifier its speed will start to fall. a regular variation in speed. <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:22 PM] . and there will again be a difference between the two input voltages to the difference amplifier.

Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams . There are signals from many radio transmitters in this band inducing signal voltages in the aerial. signal is fed into the i. and in more detail. The advantage of the i.FM Receiver Circuits . is a fixed frequency of 10. The output of an oscillator is also applied to the mixer.m. band covers 88-108 MHz.f. am modulation and amplifiers. The selected frequency is applied to the mixer.Block Diagram . The rf amplifier selects and amplifies the desired station from the many.f. The output from the mixer is the intermediate frequency (i. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. band.hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:29 PM] . the i.7 MHz. No matter what the frequency of the selected radio station is.m.f. It is adjustable so that the selection frequency can be altered. The f.com F. Receiver Tutorial Most of these blocks are discussed individually. Microprocessor.FM Receivers Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. frequency changers. The mixer and oscillator form a FREQUENCY CHANGER circuit. is always 10.7 MHz. amplifier is that its frequency and bandwidth are fixed.com/block_diagrams/fm_receiver. amplifier. This is called TUNING. The i.f.) The i.f.Hobby Projects Electronic. no matter what the http://www. See filters.f.M. on other pages. In cheaper receivers the tuning is fixed and the tuning filter is wide enough to pass all signals in the f. mixers.

The amplified i. The power level is increased sufficiently to drive the loudspeaker by the power amplifier.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:29 PM] . signal is fed to the demodulator.Hobby Projects frequency of the incoming signal is.Block Diagram .FM Receiver Circuits . The audio signal voltage is increased in amplitude by a voltage amplifier.hobbyprojects. This circuit recovers the audio signal and discards the r.f.FM Receivers Tutorial & Circuits . Some of the audio is fed back to the oscillator as an AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL voltage. This makes the design and operation of the amplifier much simpler. carrier.com/block_diagrams/fm_receiver. This ensures that the oscillator frequency is stable in spite of temperature changes.f. <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.

Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The eye scans the first line then flies back rapidly and then scans the next line and so on.Mono TV Camera Tutorial .Mono TV Camera Circuits .html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:59:33 PM] . The tube has an electron gun which shoots a beam of electrons at the tube face.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Have a look at the web pages on the CRT and the oscilloscope.com/block_diagrams/mono_TV_camera. When it reaches the bottom of the page it flies back to the top left. The scene focussed on the face of the tube is "scanned" by the beam.Block Diagram .Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor.hobbyprojects. This is like reading a book. http://www.com Mono TV Camera Tutorial The scene to be converted to a video signal is focused onto the face of the camera tube by a lens. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams . Both of these generate a saw tooth waveform which are applied to scan coils mounted on the tube. These cause the beam to scan and fly back. This scanning process is done by the line (horizontal) and frame (vertical) time bases.

The scene is scanned once and the next time it is scanned the lines fall between the first set of scan lines.hobbyprojects. The scanning of the camera and the TV receivers in peoples houses must be in step (synchronised).html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:59:33 PM] . At the end of each frame a wider pulse is sent to tell the receiver to fly back to the top left ready to start a new frame. Therefore at the end of each line a synchronizing pulse is sent to the receivers telling them to fly back to start a new line. http://www.Mono TV Camera Circuits .com/block_diagrams/mono_TV_camera.Mono TV Camera Tutorial . The scene is actually scanned twice to obtain the complete picture.Block Diagram . This is called "interlaced scanning" and reduces flicker.Hobby Projects As the tube scans the scene it gives an output voltage which is proportional to the brightness at each part of the scene. In the diagram the red lines show the first scan and the blue ones the second. The mixture of video and sync pulses is called "composite video".

Hobby Projects The sync pulses and the frequency of the time bases are controlled by the sync pulse generator.Mono TV Camera Circuits . The composite video signal is amplitude modulated on a carrier in the UHF band. The associated audio signal is frequency modulated on a carrier spaced 6 MHz from the vision carrier.hobbyprojects.Mono TV Camera Tutorial . <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 4:59:33 PM] .com/block_diagrams/mono_TV_camera.Block Diagram .

Oscilloscope Circuits .Oscilloscopes Tutorial . This sweep and fly back usually happens so quickly that that the display appears as a straight line. When the saw tooth suddenly falls to zero.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/block_diagrams/oscilloscope.hobbyprojects. The time base generates a saw tooth.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:39 PM] . So we have the spot being deflected horizontally by the time base. Microprocessor. The signal to be observed is applied to the Y plates. The combination of forces produces a display which represents the input signal. across the face of the CRT. by means of the Y plates. As the saw tooth voltage rises.com Oscilloscope Tutorial Read the page on Cathode Ray Tubes before reading this.Block Diagram . (see page on waveforms). It is attenuated if it is too large in amplitude. while the signal is deflecting it vertically. it causes the spot to sweep from left to right. It is amplified if it is too small in amplitude. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams . the spot flies back to the left of the screen ready for another sweep. http://www. The saw tooth is variable in frequency and amplitude.Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

If the frequencies are slightly different.Block Diagram . the input signal is sampled by the trigger circuit and used to ensure that the time base runs at exactly the same frequency as the input signal. To avoid this .Hobby Projects To display one cycle. the time base and signal frequencies must be the same. <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.Oscilloscope Circuits .Oscilloscopes Tutorial . the display will drift sideways.com/block_diagrams/oscilloscope.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:39 PM] .

html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:42 PM] . The rectifier converts AC voltage to DC voltage.com Power Supply Units Tutorial Most electronic circuits need a DC supply such as a battery to power them. In most cases the high voltage mains supply is too high for the electronic circuitry. From the transformer the AC voltage is fed to a rectifier circuit consisting of one or more diodes. The mains voltage can be stepped up where high DC voltages are required. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. if necessary.hobbyprojects. Since the mains supply is AC it has to be converted to DC to be useful in electronics. In its simplest form the filter is a capacitor and resistor. This DC is not steady as from a battery.Hobby Projects Electronic. First the AC mains supply passes through an isolating switch and safety fuse before it enters the power supply unit. http://www. Any remaining small variations can.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. be removed by a regulator circuit which gives out a very steady voltage. It is therefore stepped down to a lower value by means of a Transformer. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Block Diagrams . The pulsations are smoothed out by passing them through a smoothing circuit called a filter. This is what a power supply does.com/block_diagrams/power_supply_units.Power Supply Units Tutorial & Circuits .Power Supplies Block Diagram .Power Supply . It is pulsating.

Power Supply Units Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects This regulator also removes any variations in the DC voltage output caused by the AC mains voltage changing in value. <<<< Back to Block Diagrams Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:42 PM] . Regulators are available in the form of Integrated Circuits with only three connections.Power Supplies Block Diagram .com/block_diagrams/power_supply_units.Power Supply .

turning Tr2 off. Tr1 is forward biased by R3. giving it a high collector current and a low collector voltage. When triggered by an external pulse. OPERATION At switch on. http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Multivibrators . it changes over to an unstable state for a time determined by a CR time constant.Monostable Circuit & Tutorials . It then reverts to its stable state and waits for another trigger pulse. This low collector voltage is cross connected to the base of Tr2. This is the stable state.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. This turns Tr1 hard on.hobbyprojects.com/multivibrators/monostable. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. A negative pulse to the base of Tr1 turns Tr1 off.com Monostable Tutorial The monostable has only one permanent stable state.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:44 PM] .Multivibrators Tutorial .

The monostable can be used as a short duration timer or a pulse width stretcher.hobbyprojects. C1 now charges from the supply rail via R3. The circuit is now back in its stable state.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:44 PM] . <<<< Back to Multivibrators Tutorial http://www.Electronic Hobby Projects The collector voltage of Tr1 goes high and turns Tr2 on. The circuit is now in the unstable state.Monostable Circuit & Tutorials .Multivibrators Tutorial .com/multivibrators/monostable. Eventually the voltage on the left hand side of C1 will be high enough to turn Tr1 back on. which in turn switches Tr2 off.

com/schmitt_trigger/schmitt_trigger_1.Electronic Circuits .com Schmitt Trigger 1 Tutorial In the top diagram. when the input voltage reaches 1. This only happens when the input voltage is reduced to 0. This is called HYSTERESIS. the input voltage increases from zero. The input level at which the output increases to maximum. and the level at which it drops to zero are different.Schmitt / Schmit Trigger Tutorial .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.9 volts. the output shoots up from zero to 5 volts.Tutorials Electronic. along the bottom horizontal line.hobbyprojects. http://www.Electronic Hobby Projects . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The output voltage remains at zero on the vertical line. as shown in the top horizontal line does not cause the output to drop to zero immediately.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:47 PM] .7 volts. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Schmitt Trigger . Reducing the input voltage. Microprocessor. However.

7 volts.Schmitt / Schmit Trigger Tutorial .9 volts. The black graph represents a noisy logic signal received from the moon. The output then shoots up to 5 volts and remains at 5 volts until the input drops to 0. The green graph is the output signal.Electronic Circuits .Electronic Hobby Projects .hobbyprojects. This is the input to the Schmitt Trigger.com/schmitt_trigger/schmitt_trigger_1. The output remains at zero until the input exceeds 1. The output then drops to zero. <<<< Back to Intermediate Electronics Tutorial http://www.Tutorials In the lower diagram Schmitt Trigger action is demonstrated in another manner. An almost perfect output is recovered from a very noisy input.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:47 PM] .

6 volts.6 = 1. Microprocessor. INPUT GOES HIGH TO MAKE OUTPUT HIGH The input signal increases from zero.com/schmitt_trigger/schmitt_trigger_2. The collector voltage of Tr1 is high. http://www. the base/emitter junction of Tr1 is reverse biased by 1 volt. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.6 volts (1+0.Schmitt Trigger Tutorials .Tutorials Electronic. Once the input voltage exceeds 1.com Schmitt Trigger 2 Tutorial With no signal in.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:55 PM] .Electronic Circuits .Hobby Projects . The emitter current of Tr2 flowing through R2 produces 1 volt across R2.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The input signal has to exceed this voltage plus 0.6 volts) to forward bias Tr1.hobbyprojects.Tr1 begins to conduct. turning Tr2 on. Since the base of Tr1 is at zero volts. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Schmitt Trigger .Tr1 has no forward bias and is cut off.

INPUT GOES LOW TO MAKE OUTPUT LOW When the input voltage falls.hobbyprojects. The Schmitt Trigger can be used to clean up noisy signals or to speed up slow rise and fall times of pulses.Tutorials Its collector voltage starts to fall and the base voltage of Tr2 falls. producing a cumulative effect.Electronic Circuits .6 volts before Tr1 collector current starts to fall.Hobby Projects . The emitter current of Tr2 through falls. The difference in the values of Tr1 base TURN ON and TURN OFF voltages is known as HYSTERESIS. Tr2 collector voltage falls. Tr1 comes on very rapidly and Tr2 goes off. Again there is a cumulative action which rapidly turns Tr1 off and Tr2 on. This further increases the conduction of Tr1.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 4:59:55 PM] . Tr2 collector voltage goes high.com/schmitt_trigger/schmitt_trigger_2. reducing the voltage across it.Schmitt Trigger Tutorials . it has to go below 0. <<<< Back to Intermediate Electronics Tutorial http://www.

com/ri_in_AC_circuits. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Circuits & Hobby Projects Electronic.com Reactance and Impedance in AC Circuits Tutorial Resistance in an AC Circuit Capacitive Reactance Inductive Reactance Impedance <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate http://www.hobbyprojects.Reactance and Impedance in AC Circuits & Tutorials . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronic Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 4:59:58 PM] .

Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit .Resistance in an AC Circuit Tutorials . the lower the current.html [1/17/2007 5:00:02 PM] . not a mixture of the two.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronics Tutorial Electronic. The higher the voltage across the resistor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/ri_in_AC_circuits/resistance_in_an_AC_circuit. <<<< Back to Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit Tutorial http://www. It opposes the flow of current. The higher the resistance.com Resistance in an AC Circuit Tutorial A resistor in an ac circuit behaves as it does in a dc one. the higher the current through it. We can apply Ohm's Law. Voltage and current must both be rms or peak.

<<<< Back to Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit Tutorial http://www. The bottom formula shows how inductive reactance is calculated. Microprocessor. the opposition to the flow of ac current increases. It is measured in ohms.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. This opposition is called inductive reactance.com Inductive Reactance Tutorial The coil opposes the flow of ac current. as a resistor does in a dc circuit. f is the frequency of the applied voltage.com/ri_in_AC_circuits/inductive_reactance.Inductive Reactance Circuit & Tutorials . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. as in the top formula. and L is the value of the coil in Henries.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:05 PM] . It also goes up if the value of the coil increases. Ohm's Law can be applied.hobbyprojects. XL. This means that as the value of L or f increases. and the lamp will glow less.Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit . It can be seen from this formula that the value of XL goes up as the frequency increases. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:05 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit .com/ri_in_AC_circuits/inductive_reactance.Inductive Reactance Circuit & Tutorials .hobbyprojects.

com/ri_in_AC_circuits/capacitive_reactance. The bottom formula shows how capacitive reactance is calculated.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:08 PM] . f is the frequency of the applied voltage. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. This means that as the value of C or f increases. It also goes down if the value of the capacitor increases. as in the top formula.com Capacitive in an AC Circuit Tutorial The capacitor opposes the flow of ac current. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit .Electronic Tutorials Electronic. <<<< Back to Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit Tutorial http://www.Capacitive in an AC Circuit Tutorial . and the lamp will glow brighter. and C is the value of the capacitor in Farads. the opposition to the flow of ac current decreases. Microprocessor. It is measured in ohms.hobbyprojects. Ohm's Law can be applied. It can be seen from this formula that the value of Xc goes down as the frequency increases. as a resistor does in a dc circuit. Xc. This opposition is called capacitive reactance.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:08 PM] .Capacitive in an AC Circuit Tutorial .com/ri_in_AC_circuits/capacitive_reactance.Electronic Tutorials http://www.hobbyprojects.Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit .

Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit . Their combined opposition is called impedance. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The capacitor has capacitive reactance. The coil has inductive reactance. the lower the current.com R.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.hobbyprojects. The resistor has resistance. The higher the impedance. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/ri_in_AC_circuits/impedance. Microprocessor. as shown in the top formula.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:10 PM] .Inductive Reactance Circuit & Tutorials . the capacitor and the coil all oppose the flow of ac current. http://www. Ohm's Law can be applied. Z. All of these values are measured in ohms. C and L in an AC Circuit Tutorial The resistor.

When coupling one device to another.com/ri_in_AC_circuits/impedance. <<<< Back to Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit Tutorial http://www.Inductive Reactance Circuit & Tutorials . If you are familiar with Pythagoras. The bottom formula must be used.Resistance and Impedance in AC Circuit .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:10 PM] . the output impedance of the amplifier and the input impedance of the speaker must be the same. such as an amplifier to a loudspeaker.hobbyprojects. this is another application of it.Electronic Hobby Projects However. impedance is not calculated by adding these values. to give optimum transfer of power from one to the other.

Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronic Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects. C and R in Series in AC Circuits L.com/phasors_and_resonance.html [1/17/2007 5:00:13 PM] .Hobby Projects Electronic.Electronic Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com Phasors and Resonance Tutorial Phase and Phasors in AC Circuits Resistance in AC Circuits Capacitance in AC Circuits Inductance in AC Circuits L. C and R in Parallel in AC Circuits Series Resonance in AC Circuits Parallel Resonance in AC Circuits <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate Tutorials http://www.hobbyprojects.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials . Microprocessor.

http://www.com/phasors_and_resonance/phase_and_phasors_in_AC_circuits.Phasors Circuit Tutorials & Diagrams .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Phasors Tutorial The generator at the power station which produces our AC mains rotates through 360 degrees to produce one cycle of the sine wave form which makes up the supply.hobbyprojects. The waveform A starts before B and is LEADING by 90 degrees. They are out of phase because they do not start from zero at the same time. Waveform B is LAGGING A by 90 degrees. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Phasors and Resonance . In the next diagram there are two sine waves. Microprocessor.PHASORS AND RESONANCE . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. To be in phase they must start at the same time.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.html (1 of 3) [1/17/2007 5:00:29 PM] .

If voltage A was half the voltage of B then its phasor would be half the length of B. The phasors are rotating anticlockwise as indicated by the arrowed circle. because they are not in phase.com/phasors_and_resonance/phase_and_phasors_in_AC_circuits.PHASORS AND RESONANCE .Electronic Hobby Projects The next left hand diagram. and leads B by 45 degrees and lags A by 45 degrees. Since the two voltages are 90 degrees apart. http://www. then the resultant can be found by using Pythagoras.hobbyprojects. Since the voltages are of the same value then their phasors are of the same length. known as a PHASOR DIAGRAM. The resulting voltage is slightly greater in amplitude than A or B. \ The voltages A and B cannot be added together directly to find the resulting voltage. A is leading B by 90 degrees. The length of the phasors is determined by the amplitude of the voltages A and B.html (2 of 3) [1/17/2007 5:00:29 PM] . The result of the two voltages can be found by completing the phasor diagram as shown on the right.Phasors Circuit Tutorials & Diagrams . shows this in another way. All this has nothing to do with "set your phasors on stun". as shown.

which is in phase with A and slightly greater in amplitude. 1 above.com/phasors_and_resonance/phase_and_phasors_in_AC_circuits.Electronic Hobby Projects In Fig. the two phasors are 180 degrees out of phase. The resultant voltage is found by subtracting B from A.PHASORS AND RESONANCE . In Fig.html (3 of 3) [1/17/2007 5:00:29 PM] . In Fig. 2 the two voltages are in phase and are added to find the result.3 a parallelogram must be constructed to find the resulting voltage. The result is a voltage in phase with A but slightly smaller in amplitude.Phasors Circuit Tutorials & Diagrams .hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Phasors and Resonance Tutorial http://www.

com/phasors_and_resonance/capacitance_in_AC_circuits. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects. Ohm's Law cannot be applied because current and voltage are not both at maximum at the same time. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Phasors and Resonance . <<<< Back to Phasors and Resonance Tutorial http://www. You need to find the capacitive reactance to be able to use Ohm's Law.html [1/17/2007 5:00:31 PM] .Phasors and Resonance Tutorials .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor.com Capacitance in AC Circuits Tutorial Here the ac current through the circuit leads the voltage by 90 degrees.Capacitance in AC Circuits Tutorial .

Resistor voltage and current are in phase. C and R in Series in AC Circuits Tutorial CIVIL This means that for C. I leads V. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Phasors and Resonance .com L.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:36 PM] . C and R in Series in AC Circuits Tutorial . Capacitor voltage lags the current by 90 degrees. Inductor voltage leads the current by 90 degrees.L.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects. http://www. as indicated by the horizontal phasor. the same current flows through them all.com/phasors_and_resonance/L_C_and_R_in_series_in_AC_circuits. so resistor voltage is shown also along this phasor. Since all the components are in series.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials . V leads I for L. Microprocessor.

com/phasors_and_resonance/L_C_and_R_in_series_in_AC_circuits.hobbyprojects. by using Pythagoras.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:36 PM] . Inductor voltage minus capacitor voltage. <<<< Back to Phasors and Resonance Tutorial http://www. C and R in Series in AC Circuits Tutorial . then the result of these two is one subtracted from the other. The final result is the applied voltage across the circuit.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials .L. This result can be combined with the resistor voltage.Electronic Hobby Projects TO FIND THE RESULTING VOLTAGE Since the voltages across C and L are 180 degrees out of phase.

then subtracting one from the other gives us the resulting current for the two. in AC Circuits Tutorial . Microprocessor.com L.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:39 PM] . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. C and R in Parallel in AC Circuits Tutorial Since all components are in parallel. the same voltage is across all of them. and inductor current lags the voltage.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials .L. http://www. CIVIL tells us that capacitor current leads the voltage. This is indicated by the horizontal phasor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Phasors and Resonance . Capacitor current minus inductor current.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects. Since the capacitor and inductor currents are 180 degrees out of phase.com/phasors_and_resonance/L_C_and_R_in_parallel_in_AC_circuits. Resistor current and voltage are in phase. C and R in Parallel. so resistor current is also along this phasor.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.

Phasors and Resonance Tutorials . <<<< Back to Phasors and Resonance Tutorial http://www.com/phasors_and_resonance/L_C_and_R_in_parallel_in_AC_circuits. C and R in Parallel.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:39 PM] .hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects To find the result of this current and the resistor current we use Pythagoras. The final result is the current taken from the supply. in AC Circuits Tutorial .L.

If the voltage across the capacitor equals the voltage across the coil then. For an inductor L.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:42 PM] . Microprocessor. This is shown by the horizontal phasor.com Series Resonance in AC Circuits Tutorial Since all three components are in series. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Phasors and Resonance . Since the resistor current and voltage are in phase.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials .Series Resonance in AC Circuits Tutorial . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. current I leads the voltage V by 90 degrees.hobbyprojects.com/phasors_and_resonance/series_resonance_in_AC_circuits. the same current flows through them all. then resistor voltage is shown on the same phasor. voltage V leads the current I by 90 degrees.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. For a capacitor C.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. since they are 180 degrees out of http://www. CIVIL is a remembering aid.

then there must be a frequency at which they are equal.Electronic Hobby Projects phase. <<<< Back to Phasors and Resonance Tutorial http://www.Series Resonance in AC Circuits Tutorial . I = V/R All this happens when capacitive reactance equals inductive reactance.com/phasors_and_resonance/series_resonance_in_AC_circuits. and inductive reactance falls as frequency decreases.hobbyprojects. This is called the resonant frequency.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials . A series resonant circuit has a low impedance. Z=R The current and voltage in the circuit will be in phase. Since capacitive reactance falls as frequency increases. their effects will cancel out and we will be left with the effect of resistance only.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:42 PM] .

and we are left with the effect of resistance only. inductive current lags the voltage by 90 degrees. This is shown by the horizontal phasor.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials . They therefore cancel each other out. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. http://www. Remembering CIVIL.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:45 PM] . At resonance.hobbyprojects.com/phasors_and_resonance/parallel_resonance_in_AC_circuits. capacitive current leads the voltage by 90 degrees. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Phasors and Resonance . the capacitor and inductor currents are equal and 180 degrees out of phase.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Since the current through the resistor is in phase with the applied voltage.Parallel Resonance in AC Circuits Tutorial . since they are in parallel.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. then it is shown on the same phasor.com Parallel Resonance in AC Circuits Tutorial The same voltage is across the three components.

Parallel Resonance in AC Circuits Tutorial .Electronic Hobby Projects Since resistor voltage and current are in phase.com/phasors_and_resonance/parallel_resonance_in_AC_circuits.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:00:45 PM] . This is called the dynamic resistance. A parallel resonant circuit has a high impedance. the circuit voltage and current will be in phase. The formula is L/C*R <<<< Back to Phasors and Resonance Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.

hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials .html [1/17/2007 5:00:57 PM] .com/phasors_and_resonance/resistance_in_AC_circuits.com Resistance in an AC circuits Tutorial The ac current through a resistor is in phase with the voltage across it. then the current is at its maximum. <<<< Back to Phasors and Resonance Tutorial http://www. Ohm's Law can be applied. When the voltage is at a maximum. When the voltage is zero.Resistance in an AC Circuits Tutorial . if current and voltage are both rms. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Phasors and Resonance . or both peak. the current is zero.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor.

Microprocessor. <<<< Back to Phasors and Resonance Tutorial http://www.com Inductance in AC Circuits Tutorial The current in the circuit lags the voltage by 90 degrees. Inductive reactance must be calculated to be able to use Ohm's Law.Phasors and Resonance Tutorials .hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Phasors and Resonance .Inductance in AC Circuits Tutorial . Ohm's Law cannot be applied. since current and voltage do not peak at the same time.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 5:01:03 PM] .com/phasors_and_resonance/inductance_in_AC_circuits.

com Microprocessor Systems Tutorial Bits.Electronic Circuits .com/microprocessor_systems.hobbyprojects.Bit Bytes .Hobby Projects Intermediate Electronic Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials . Bytes Etc.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:05 PM] . Buses Microprocessor System Diagram System Clock Arithmetic / Logic Unit 6502 CPU Microprocessor Architecture Random Access Memory Read Only Memory Memory Map Input and Output Fetch / Execute Instructions and Programs Addressing Modes Flow Chart Symbols Typical Flow Chart System Flags Stack http://www.

Bit Bytes .com/microprocessor_systems.Electronic Circuits .Hobby Projects Interrupts <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:05 PM] .Microprocessor Systems Tutorials .

These collections of bits can represent binary numbers. such as 1101 is known as a NIBBLE (half a byte and a joke). The ASCII system uses them to represent the letters of the alphabet and punctuation. Bytes etc. Tutorial A BIT.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Thirty two bits ones are a LONG WORD. A bit can be a zero or a 1. Numbers in microprocessor systems are often expressed in hexadecimal.Bits . There are very many cpu's and one of the most common is the 6502. The microprocessor is also called the CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU).Microprocessor Systems Tutorials .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 5:01:07 PM] . is a BINARY DIGIT. All this information is called DATA. Four bits. Sixty four bits numbers are a VERY LONG WORD. Sixteen bits numbers are a WORD. A binary number made of eight bits. 1k in binary systems is 1024.hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www. They can also represent decimal or other number systems.Bits & Bytes Tutorial . The ASCII TABLE gives the binary equivalents of the alphabet. These numbers can be stored in REGISTERS inside chips (integrated circuits). such as 11001010 is known as a BYTE. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Bytes .com Bits.com/microprocessor_systems/bits_bytes. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . Microprocessor.

Data at the selected address can be put on the data bus. LEFT. such as when to read or write etc. In simple systems the crystal frequency is 1. The control bus instructs the chips to do various things. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Microprocessor System Diagram Tutorial The CPU can put a binary number on the address bus.000 Hz. to select an individual register in the ROM or ram or the I/O. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www. This is shown by the single arrow on the ROM data bus and double arrows on the other two. The CPU can also put data on this bus which can be written into a register of ram or i/o. The crystal control the speed of operation.000. Microprocessor.Electronic Circuits Hobby Projects Electronic.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:13 PM] . It is not possible to write data into ROM (read only memory).hobbyprojects. RIGHT".Microprocessor System Diagram Tutorials . The clock tells all the chips when to change what they are doing. Like the drill sergeant who shouts "LEFT. The arrows on this bus show that addresses go one way only. RIGHT.com/microprocessor_systems/microprocessor_system_diagram.

hobbyprojects.Electronic Circuits Hobby Projects http://www.Microprocessor System Diagram Tutorials .com/microprocessor_systems/microprocessor_system_diagram.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:13 PM] .

com Arithmetic / Logic Unit Tutorial All arithmetic and logical instructions are carried out by the ALU.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Microprocessor System Tutorials . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:18 PM] . An eight bit instruction informs the ALU which operation it is to carry out.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor.com/microprocessor_systems/arithmetic_logic_unit.Arithmetic Logic Unit Circuit & Tutorials . http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems .

The result is stored in the accumulator. the other from memory or another register.hobbyprojects.Microprocessor System Tutorials .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:18 PM] . <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www. such as negative etc.com/microprocessor_systems/arithmetic_logic_unit.Arithmetic Logic Unit Circuit & Tutorials . Flags in the status register are set to indicate the result.Electronic Hobby Projects One number to be manipulated comes from the accumulator.

The 6502 processor has seven internal 8 bit registers and an ALU (arithmetic logic unit).Microprocessor Architecture Circuit & Tutorials .com Microprocessor Architecture Tutorial Processor architecture indicates its internal construction. The X and Y registers are called INDEX registers and are used in the manipulation of data. A is the ACCUMULATOR.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. It contains several one bit FLAGS.Microprocessor Systems Tutorial .hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . S is the stack register.com/microprocessor_systems/microprocessor_architecture. P is the PROCESSOR STATUS REGISTER.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:24 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. These contain a one or a zero to indicate that something has happened during manipulation of data. which contains the address of the next instruction to be executed. http://www. It contains an address indicating where there is a temporary store for data called the STACK. All data to be manipulated is placed in this register and worked upon. PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH AND PROGRAM COUNTER LOW together form a 16 bit register. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

Another is set if the result is negative.Electronic Hobby Projects For example. By looking at these flags the CPU is able to make decisions. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.com/microprocessor_systems/microprocessor_architecture.Microprocessor Systems Tutorial . The ALU is not a register.hobbyprojects. It is discussed on another page. This is why it is so clever.Microprocessor Architecture Circuit & Tutorials . one of the flags is set if the result of a calculation is zero.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:24 PM] .

Read Only Memory (ROM) Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. PROGRAMABLE ROMS.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:28 PM] . in the form of 0's and 1's.Microprocessor System Tutorials . Data. which means that they retain their contents after power is removed. but not written to. PROMS. can have their contents programmed in after manufacture. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . They are non volatile. Most ROMs are programmed during manufacture of the chips. This is an erasable prom.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. is stored in the registers. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. where if you make a mistake. each with its own address. The 2716 ROM shown above is an EPROM. Others. ROM chips can be read from.com Read Only Memory (ROM) Tutorial Memory chips are simply a collection of registers . Microprocessor.hobbyprojects. you can erase the contents by shining ultra-violet http://www.com/microprocessor_systems/read_only_memory.

com/microprocessor_systems/read_only_memory. Some chips are ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE and are known as EEPROMS.Read Only Memory (ROM) Tutorial & Circuits . <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:28 PM] .hobbyprojects.Microprocessor System Tutorials .Electronic Hobby Projects light through a window in the chip.

Microprocessor Systems Tutorials .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Ports have their own registers with addresses. If the system is controlling a set of traffic lights.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. and the CPU can write data to.Input and Output Tutorial & Circuits . to switch the lights in the correct sequence. Microprocessor.hobbyprojects. These chips are called VERSATILE INTERFACE ADAPTORS or UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER/TRANSMITTERS etc. The CPU communicates with this interface via an INPUT/OUTPUT PORT chip.com/microprocessor_systems/input_and_output. these registers. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:32 PM] . http://www. or read data from.com Input and Output Tutorial A microprocessor system is pointless unless it can communicate with the outside world. then the CPU can write data to the registers. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . It does this through an INTERFACE which is usually a plug or socket.

This means that it can make decisions according to the amount of traffic and switch the lights accordingly.Electronic Hobby Projects It can also read data that is provided to the port by sensors buried in the road. such as a thermometer.Input and Output Tutorial & Circuits . An analogue to digital converter is required if the system is to read an analogue device.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:32 PM] .Microprocessor Systems Tutorials . Since the system is digital and the outside world is mostly analogue. digital to analogue converters are required when providing an output. such as one to control the temperature of an oven. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.com/microprocessor_systems/input_and_output.hobbyprojects.

Examples are ADD STA LDA TAX add to the contents of the accumulator.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com/microprocessor_systems/instructions_and_programs. usually written using mnemonics. Define the problem. store the contents of the accumulator. transfer the contents of the accumulator to register X. Assemble into hex opcodes. written in everyday language). Write the program using mnemonics. DEBUG IT !! Below is a short program address 0200 0202 0204 label here operator LDA ADC JMP operand label FF 01 opcode A9 FF 69 01 4C 00 02 here http://www. (an assembler is a program which does this). Here is the sequence of events for writing programs. load into the accumulator.hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Instructions and Programs Tutorial Instructions are represented by binary numbers called operational codes. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:36 PM] . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Instructions and Programs Tutorial & Circuits . Produce an algorithm (a list of instructions. or OPCODES. Different CPU's have different instructions. A program is a list of instructions. Produce a flow chart. They are frequently written in hexadecimal. To make them easier to remember they are given names called mnemonics.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials . Test by running the program. Microprocessor.

Instructions and Programs Tutorial & Circuits . and replaced by the number later <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:36 PM] .hobbyprojects.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials .Electronic Hobby Projects Labels can be used instead of numbers. as a temporary measure.com/microprocessor_systems/instructions_and_programs.

The shape of the box indicates its function.Flow Chart Symbols Tutorial & Circuits . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.com/microprocessor_systems/flow_chart_symbols.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials .hobbyprojects. one of the stages is to produce a flow chart.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com Flow Chart Symbols Tutorial When planning software. Further data is given as text inside the box.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:39 PM] . Microprocessor.

hobbyprojects.Flow Chart Symbols Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:39 PM] .com/microprocessor_systems/flow_chart_symbols.

determine which part of the program the CPU will jump to.html [1/17/2007 5:01:42 PM] . A flag indicates the result of the previous operation.System Flags .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/microprocessor_systems/system_flags.hobbyprojects.com System Flags The 6502 CPU contains a status register and each individual bit is a FLAG. N result is negative V result too big.Hobby Projects Electronic. Microprocessor. depending on their state. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. causing an overflow B set by software BRK command D in decimal mode I an interrupt has occurred Z result zero C carry The flags are tested by the CPU and. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS . This is how computers are able to make decisions. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems .

html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:44 PM] . Microprocessor.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/microprocessor_systems/interrupts. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Once a year it receives a radio signal telling it to stop measuring temperatures and send all last year's data to base. It then pushes any data it wishes to save onto the stack. This is an INTERRUPT.hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com Interrupts Tutorial The microprocessor system may be measuring temperatures in the Sahara desert. http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems .Interrupts Tutorial & Circuits .Microprocessor Systems Tutorials . The CPU completes it current instruction.

hobbyprojects. when taken low. it pulls the saved data from the stack and carries on measuring temperatures.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials . Once the interrupt routine is completed. NMI cannot be ignored. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:44 PM] . cause a hardware interrupt.Electronic Hobby Projects It then jumps to a routine which services the interrupt.Interrupts Tutorial & Circuits .com/microprocessor_systems/interrupts. IRQ can be sensed or ignored depending the value of the interrupt flag in the status register. There are two pins on the CPU which.

hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The largest is 1111 which is 15 in decimal and F in hex. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Many micoprocessor systems use a eight bit data bus. Zeros and ones can be put on the bus. 0000 being the lowest and 1111 the highest. Therefore 256 different numbers can be placed on this bus. The smallest number that can be placed on it is 00000000. Diagram A is a four bit bus. A sixteen bit bus is shown in diagram C. 0 volts for zero and +5 volts to represent a one. The smallest number that can be put on a four bit bus is 0000. Rather than draw four wires. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials . The largest number is 11111111 which is equivalent to 255 in decimal. Microprocessor. 255 in decimal is FF in hex.com Buses Tutorial A bus is a collection of wires. http://www. we use the representation shown in diagram B.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:47 PM] . Therefore sixteen different numbers can be placed on this bus.com/microprocessor_systems/buses.Buses Tutorial & Circuits .

<<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www. so we can select any one of 65536 registers.com/microprocessor_systems/buses. Address buses are commonly 16 bits.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials . All the registers in the memory chips have their own individual addresses. like house numbers in a street. 65535 in decimal is FFFF in hex.Buses Tutorial & Circuits . in binary.Electronic Hobby Projects The smallest number we can put on this bus is 0000000000000000. on an address bus we can select any individual register.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:47 PM] . The largest number is 1111111111111111 which is 65535 in decimal. By putting its address. Therefore 65536 different numbers can be put on this bus.

phase 1 and phase 2.Microprocessor Systesms Tutorials .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com System Clock Tutorial The clock is a square wave generator whose frequency is controlled by a crystal. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The 6502 CPU has two clock signals.com/microprocessor_systems/system_clock.html [1/17/2007 5:01:51 PM] . Microprocessor. In a typical control system it oscillates at 1MHz (1 million times a second) and controls the speed at which the system operates. take place.hobbyprojects.System Clock Tutorial & Circuits . <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . The clock control the times at which operations such as fetch etc.

Microprocessor Systesms . Microprocessor.hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. It is powered by a 5 volt supply.6502 CPU Tutorial & Circuits . Interrupt requests tell the CPU to stop processing its present program and jump to another. The read/write pin is taken low when writing to memory. http://www. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. The reset pin is taken low to initialize the CPU when it is first powered on.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:56 PM] . and high when reading from it.com 6502 CPU Tutorial The 6502 CPU has a 16 bit address bus and an 8 bit data bus.com/microprocessor_systems/6502_CPU. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems .

<<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.Microprocessor Systesms .hobbyprojects.com/microprocessor_systems/6502_CPU.Electronic Hobby Projects The 6502 has eight addressing modes telling the CPU where data is located.6502 CPU Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:56 PM] .

Ram is VOLATILE. meaning that when you switch off. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Static ram uses flip-flops to store bits. http://www.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:58 PM] . However. and so consumes current whether they are storing a 1 or a 0.hobbyprojects. The 4118 is an 8 bit x1k static ram having an 8 bit data bus. these stored charges leak away and have to be continually REFRESHED which makes the circuitry more complicated. the data it contains is lost. Dynamic ram uses capacitors to store charges and use less power.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Random Access Memory Tutorial & Circuits . Microprocessor. static and dynamic. A better name would be read/write memory.com/microprocessor_systems/random_access_memory.com Random Access Memory (RAM) Tutorial RAM means random access memory.Microprocessor System Tutorials . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . D0-D7. There are two main types of ram.

Electronic Hobby Projects Data can be written to. There may be several memory chips. depending the state of the WE pin.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:01:58 PM] .hobbyprojects. or read from memory.com/microprocessor_systems/random_access_memory. so only one is selected at a time by taking the CS pin low. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.Microprocessor System Tutorials .Random Access Memory Tutorial & Circuits .

Here ram has been given the lowest 48k of addresses and ROM the highest 16k. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . Microprocessor.hobbyprojects.Memory Map Tutorial & Circuits . Each area of memory can be subdivides into pages of 256 addresses. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Microprocessor System Tutorial .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:00 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com/microprocessor_systems/memory_map. http://www. Page zero occupies addresses 0000 to 255 in decimal or 0000 to 00FF in hex.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Memory Map Tutorial The memory map shows how addresses have been allocated for memory and any other devices connected to the address bus.

Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:00 PM] .hobbyprojects.com/microprocessor_systems/memory_map.Memory Map Tutorial & Circuits .Microprocessor System Tutorial .

Microprocessor Systems Tutorials .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html [1/17/2007 5:02:02 PM] . will be stored at 10011001. called an opcode. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.Fetch / Execute Tutorial & Circuits . Increment program counter. is at the address following that at which the instruction is stored. Fetch opcode (read memory). The following actions are taken during a fetch/execute cycle to fetch the opcode and operand. Execute instruction. The instruction is represented by a binary number. then the data.com Fetch / Execute Tutorial The fetch/execute cycle is the process of fetching an instruction from memory. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Data (called the operand). Increment program counter. 10.com/microprocessor_systems/fetch_execute. decoding it and then executing it. eg. The program counter in the CPU contains the address of the next instruction to be fetched. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . Microprocessor.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. If the opcode is ADD and is stored at address 10011000. for the instruction to work on. Fetch operand (read memory).

com/microprocessor_systems/addressing_modes.hobbyprojects.Microprocessor System Tutorials .Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:05 PM] .Addressing Modes Tutorial & Circuits .

Flow Chart for 1 Min. Microprocessor. Timer Tutorial A register. is set to zero.com/microprocessor_systems/typical_flow_chart.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:11 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.com Flow Chart for 1 Min.Microprocessor System Tutorials .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . http://www. Timer Tutorial & Circuits . COUNT.

The contents of COUNT are examined. The contents of COUNT are incremented by 1. There is a delay of one second. Timer Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:11 PM] . <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www.com/microprocessor_systems/typical_flow_chart. then there is a delay of 1 second and then COUNT is incremented by 1.Electronic Hobby Projects The contents of COUNT are displayed.Microprocessor System Tutorials .hobbyprojects.Flow Chart for 1 Min. This repeats until the contents of COUNT are 60 When the contents of COUNT are 60 then COUNT is reset to zero and the program starts from the beginning again. If the contents are less than 60 then they are displayed.

Hobbyiest and R&D persons Microprocessor Systems . Its like a pile of plates. X is the first to be pushed.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. The CPU may PUSH important data onto the stack.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/microprocessor_systems/stack. In the diagrams. Microprocessor.hobbyprojects.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:14 PM] . The CPU goes away to process other data. http://www. FIRST OUT stack. The top plate is the last data to be pushed. The bottom plate is the first bit of data that was pushed onto the stack. It is a LAST IN. then Y and lastly A.com The Stack Tutorial The stack is a temporary store for data. When it finishes that task. The top plate is pulled first and the bottom plate is the last data to be pulled. while it is processing other data. it PULLS the saved data off the stack.Stack Tutorial & Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

Stack Tutorial & Circuits . addresses 256 to 511. The instruction for pulling data from the stack is PLA. <<<< Back to Microprocessor Systems Tutorial http://www. Other data can be pushed if it is transferred to the accumulator first.Electronic Hobby Projects Upon completion of that task it returns to pull the saved data.hobbyprojects. First A is pulled. Data on the stack is transferred to the accumulator. then Y and lastly X.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:14 PM] .com/microprocessor_systems/stack. The 6502 stack consists of 256 bytes and occupies page 1.Microprocessor Systems Tutorials . Only data in the accumulator can be pushed onto the stack. The instruction for pushing data is PHA.

Gates Tutorials . Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:16 PM] . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronic Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.com Combination Logic Tutorial Truth Tables for Logic Gates Diode Logic Diode Transistor Logic Transistor Transistor Logic An Intruder Alarm Coffee Machine Making Gates Using NANDs Making Gates Using NORs Recording Circuit Levels Traffic Lights Boolean Expressions Low Level Activated Gates DE Morgan's Theorem Applying De Morgan The Half Adder The Full Adder 3 Bit Adder Encoders http://www.Hobby Projects Electronic.com/combination_logic.hobbyprojects.Combination Logic Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Circuits .

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:16 PM] .Electronic Circuits .com/combination_logic.Combination Logic Tutorial & Circuits .Gates Tutorials .Hobby Projects Decoders The 7447a Decoder Tri-State Logic <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate Tutorials http://www.hobbyprojects.

html [1/17/2007 5:02:20 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Microprocessor. If you still have problems with them. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic .Combination Logic Tutorials . <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www. go back to Electronics for Beginners and revise them.com Truth Tables for Logic Gates Tutorial In case you have forgotten them. here are the truth tables for the various gates.com/combination_logic/truth_tables_for_logic_gates.Truth Tables for Logic Gates Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.

The base of Tr2 is high and its collector low. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. A and B and C must all go high together. The collector of Tr2 goes high.Diode Transistor Logic Tutorial & Circuits .com/combination_logic/diode_transistor_logic.com Diode Transistor Logic Tutorial The "pull down" resistors hold the cathodes of the diodes low.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. together with the base of TR2. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . http://www. The collector of Tr1 goes low.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:23 PM] .Combination Logic Tutorials . Microprocessor. to reverse bias the diodes.hobbyprojects. Tr1 base is low and its collector high. making the diodes forward biased. The output has gone high because A and B and C have gone high. The output at the anodes is held low. and make the base of Tr1 high.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

Diode Transistor Logic Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:23 PM] .com/combination_logic/diode_transistor_logic.Combination Logic Tutorials .Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.

If a door OR a window Or the fire alarm is activated then the alarm sounds.html [1/17/2007 5:02:28 PM] . Microprocessor.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Combination Logic Tutorials .com An Intruder Alarm Tutorial This is a simple application of OR gates. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.com/combination_logic/an_intruder_alarm.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.An Intruder Alarm Tutorial & Circuits .

hobbyprojects. Draw truth tables. to check that it is so.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Here is how he does it with NAND gates.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. http://www.Making Gates using NAND Tutorial & Circuits . engineers often need to make a gate from other types of gates that they have available.com/combination_logic/making_gates_using_NANDs.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:31 PM] .com Making Gates using NANDs Tutorial When designing logic circuits.Combinational Logic Tutorials . Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic .

Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:31 PM] .hobbyprojects.com/combination_logic/making_gates_using_NANDs.Making Gates using NAND Tutorial & Circuits .Combinational Logic Tutorials .

Draw truth tables to show that it is so.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:34 PM] .com/combination_logic/making_gates_using_NORs.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.hobbyprojects.Making Gates using NOR Tutorial & Circuits .Combination Logic .com Making Gates using NORs Tutorial When designing logic circuits. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. engineers often need to make a gate from other types of gates that they have available.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Here is how he does it with NOR gates. http://www.

Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.com/combination_logic/making_gates_using_NORs.Making Gates using NOR Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.Combination Logic .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:34 PM] .

Making a table. provides a useful reference.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/combination_logic/recording_circuit_levels.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . as shown. Microprocessor.Recording Circuit Levels Tutorial & Circuits .Combination Logic Tutorials . http://www.com Recording Circuit Levels Tutorial When testing digital circuits.hobbyprojects. If a fault appears in the circuit then checking the levels will indicate the location of the fault. it helps if you know what the logic levels should be in all parts of the circuit under no fault conditions.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:37 PM] . This applies to all combinations of input signals.

com/combination_logic/recording_circuit_levels.hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.Recording Circuit Levels Tutorial & Circuits .Combination Logic Tutorials .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:37 PM] .

Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. letters have been substituted. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Boolean Expressions Tutorial.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:40 PM] . http://www.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Combination Logic . Circuits & Diagrams . including whether they are high or low. In the diagrams below the states at various points are represented by Boolean expressions instead of logic levels.com/combination_logic/boolean_expressions.com Boolean Expressions Tutorial The left hand shows the normal truth table.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . In the right hand table.

Circuits & Diagrams .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:40 PM] .Boolean Expressions Tutorial.com/combination_logic/boolean_expressions.Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.Combination Logic .hobbyprojects.

com De Morgan's Theorem Tutorial De Morgan says that the first two gates have the same properties. http://www.hobbyprojects. He says the same for the next two. A B C etc.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:55 PM] .De Morgan's Theorem Tutorial . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Combination Logic . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . The equations can be expanded to include three or more inputs.Symbols .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Circuits .com/combination_logic/DE_morgans_theorem. Microprocessor.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

hobbyprojects.Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:02:55 PM] .Combination Logic .De Morgan's Theorem Tutorial .Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.Symbols .com/combination_logic/DE_morgans_theorem.

Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Their inputs are taken low to activate the gates. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . Microprocessor. we slide the "bubbles" on the right hand gates along the leads. Their outputs go low when activated.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:01 PM] .hobbyprojects. To get from B to C. by changing AND shapes to OR ones.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Combination Logic .com/combination_logic/applying_De_Morgan. http://www. and putting new "bubbles" and removing old ones. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com Applying De Morgan Tutorial We get from A to B.Applying De Morgan Tutorial & Circuits . Replace the gates with a piece of wire. The outputs follow the inputs. we remove the left hand gates because they are redundant. To get from C to D.

Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.com/combination_logic/applying_De_Morgan.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:01 PM] .Combination Logic .Applying De Morgan Tutorial & Circuits .

com/combination_logic/the_half_adder.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.html [1/17/2007 5:03:03 PM] . When both are 1 then the sum is 0 and carry output is 1. When A and B are both 0. When one is 0 and the other is 1 then the sum is 1.Half Adder Tutorial & Circuits . Microprocessor. the sum is 0. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. The table shows the outputs.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.hobbyprojects. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic .Combination Logic Tutorials .com The Half Adder Tutorial This adds two 1 bit numbers.

3 Bit Adder Tutorial & Circuits . giving a sum of 1 with no carry. Microprocessor.hobbyprojects.Combination Logic Tutorials .com 3 Bit Adder Tutorial The least significant bits (those on the right) are 0 and 1.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:10 PM] . This gives a sum of 1 and a carry of 1. There is no carry in from a previous stage. The next bits are 1 and 1 with no carry in.com/combination_logic/3_bit_adder. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . The most significant bits are both 1 with a carry in of 1. The result of adding 110 to 111 is 1101 <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. giving a sum of 0 and a carry of 1.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.

Combination Logic Tutorials .Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:10 PM] .hobbyprojects.3 Bit Adder Tutorial & Circuits .com/combination_logic/3_bit_adder.

Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Combination Logic Tutorials . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. so that gate 1 has two high inputs. Microprocessor. http://www.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:13 PM] . Gate 1 recognises when the least significant bit is high and the adjacent bit is low.hobbyprojects.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. the push buttons ENCODE decimal to binary. In the diagram.com/combination_logic/decoders.Decoders Tutorial & Circuits . The inverter turns the low into a high.com Decoders Tutorial Decoding is the recovery of previously encoded data. The gates DECODE the binary and turn on the decimal indicators.

Decoders Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects.com/combination_logic/decoders.Combination Logic Tutorials .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:13 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.

Microprocessor. the output is either HIGH or LOW.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:19 PM] . http://www. With tri-state logic there is a third possible condition. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. the high impedance state. This is useful where several gates are connected to a line.hobbyprojects. The others are disconnected. Only one is enabled and can go high or low. where the output is disconnected from the line.Tri State Logic Tutorial & Circuits .com Tri-State Logic Tutorial With standard logic gates . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Combination Logic Tutorials .com/combination_logic/tri-state_Logic.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.

Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:19 PM] .hobbyprojects.Tri State Logic Tutorial & Circuits .com/combination_logic/tri-state_Logic.Combination Logic Tutorials .

If A or B or C is taken high. The diodes are forward biased and the output is held low. and the output is low. <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www. Microprocessor.com/combination_logic/diode_logic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Combination Logic Tutorials . In the OR circuit.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:24 PM] . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . A and B and C must all be taken high to make the output go high. then the associated diode is forward biased and the output goes high. both anodes and cathodes of the diodes are held low.hobbyprojects. If two of the diodes are taken high to reverse bias them. the remaining diode still holds the output low. the cathodes are held low by the "pull down" resistors.com Diode Logic Tutorial In the AND circuit.Diode Logic Tutorial & Circuits .

hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.Combination Logic Tutorials .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:24 PM] .Diode Logic Tutorial & Circuits .com/combination_logic/diode_logic.

it is the same as them being open circuit. If all emitters are taken high. The output will be low. Tr2 will be turned on.6 volts. Tr3 will be off and Tr4 on.com/combination_logic/transistor_transistor_logic. and the output stays low.Combination Logic . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic .Transistor Transistor Logic Tutorial & Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:31 PM] . with its collector low and its emitter high. Microprocessor. http://www.hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. then its base/collector junction is forward biased.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com Transistor Transistor Logic Tutorial If the emitters of Tr1 are open circuit as shown.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. about 0.

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:31 PM] . Tr3 comes on and Tr4 goes off. when one is on the other is off. and is turned off.com/combination_logic/transistor_transistor_logic. Tr2 collector goes high and its emitter low. <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.Transistor Transistor Logic Tutorial & Circuits .hobbyprojects. The output goes high to about 3. Tr3 and Tr4 are in a "totem pole" configuration.Electronic Hobby Projects If one input is taken low then Tr1 behave like a normal transistor with a reverse biased base/collector junction. The base of Tr2 is no longer forward biased by this junction.Combination Logic .5 volts. They can be considered as two switches. A and B and C must all be high to make the output go low (a nand gate).

com Coffee Machine Tutorial If the water is hot AND money paid AND the cup is present then the output of the first gate will go high. This is a simple circuit which can be expanded to provide milk and to count the money. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic .com/combination_logic/coffee_machine. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Coffee Machine Tutorial & Circuits . Microprocessor. <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.html [1/17/2007 5:03:38 PM] .hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Depending upon the position of the switch. either the upper or lower output gate will go high.Combination Logic Tutorials . turning on the correct valve.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. give change etc.

Microprocessor. Feel free to use it. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.com/combination_logic/traffic_lights.hobbyprojects.com Traffic Lights Tutorial Here is an exercise in combinational logic.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:41 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. http://www.Combination Logic Tutorials .Traffic Lights Tutorial Diagram & Circuits . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic .

Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.Traffic Lights Tutorial Diagram & Circuits .Combination Logic Tutorials .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:41 PM] .com/combination_logic/traffic_lights.hobbyprojects.

Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The short bars indicate that those inputs must go low to activate the gate. Bubbles on inputs mean that these inputs go low to activate the gate.Combination Logic .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:44 PM] . In the low activated NOR circuit. A or B going low makes the output go high.hobbyprojects.com/combination_logic/low_level_activated_gates. A or B going low makes the output go low.com Low Level Activated Gates Tutorial A "bubble" on the output of a NAND indicates that the gate output goes low when the inputs are activated. In the low activated OR below.Low Level Activated Gates Tutorial & Circuits . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . both inputs must go low to make the output go high. A long bar above the output indicates that the output goes low when the gate is activated. http://www. In the low activated AND shown above. Microprocessor.

Low Level Activated Gates Tutorial & Circuits .html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:44 PM] .hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.com/combination_logic/low_level_activated_gates.Combination Logic .

Full Adder Tutorial & Circuits .com/combination_logic/the_full_adder. B and CARRY IN as inputs.hobbyprojects.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:49 PM] . Draw a truth table. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Hobby Projects Electronic.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Electronic Combination Logic . There is a more detailed description of operation on the page A 3 BIT ADDER.com The Full Adder Tutorial The full adder is made with two half adders. A CARRY OUT from a previous addition can be added to the bits A and B by means of the CARRY IN. with A. Microprocessor. <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . and SUM and CARRY OUT as outputs.

hobbyprojects.com/combination_logic/the_full_adder.Full Adder Tutorial & Circuits .Hobby Projects http://www.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:49 PM] .Electronic Combination Logic .

When button 3 is pushed.hobbyprojects. D4 is reverse biased and blocks the + 5 volts from the other lines. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic . Here we are converting decimal to binary.com/combination_logic/encoders.com Encoders Tutorial Encoding means converting one form of data to another type. With three lines you can have the binary numbers 000 to111 (decimal 0 to 7) encoded.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Hobby Projects Electronic. D2 conducts and takes the middle bit high. D3 again blocks the + 5 volts. Microprocessor. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. When the 1 button is pushed.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:03:57 PM] . When the 2 button is pushed. <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www. D1 is forward biased and the least significant bit goes high.Electronic Combination Logic . D3 and D4 conduct and take the two lower bits high.Encoders Tutorial & Circuits .

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Hobby Projects Electronic.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The next step is to add a 7490 counter to the inputs. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Electronic Combination Logic .com The 7447a Decoder Tutorial The assignment below is a demonstration of decoders and displays. http://www.7447a Decoder Tutorial & Circuits .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:00 PM] .com/combination_logic/the_7447a_decoder.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. Hobbyiest and R&D persons Combination Logic .

html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:00 PM] .Electronic Combination Logic .hobbyprojects.com/combination_logic/the_7447a_decoder.Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Combination Logic Tutorial http://www.7447a Decoder Tutorial & Circuits .

Electronic Circuits . Hobbyiest and R&D persons Intermediate Electronic Tutorials Products Search Sitemap Web Hobbyprojects.Flip Flop Tutorial & Circuits . Microprocessor.All about Flip Flops .hobbyprojects.com Flip-Flop Tutorial A Transistor R-S Flip-Flop NOR Gate Flip-Flop Switch Debouncing High Activated R-S Flip-Flop Low Activated Flip-Flop Clocked R-S Flip-Flop Clocked D Type Flip-Flop Edge Triggered Flip-Flops Toggle Flip-Flop Master/Slave D Type Flip-Flop J-K Master Flip-Flops J-K With Set and Preset <<< Back to Electronics for Intermediate Tutorial http://www.Hobby Projects Electronic.html [1/17/2007 5:04:02 PM] . Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com/flip_flop.

com A Transistor RS Flip Flop Tutorial This is a type of bistable multivibrator.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:05 PM] . Microprocessor. Its collector volts drops to a very low value. See the blue values for TR1 and red for TR2. When the base is joined to the supply voltage via a low value resistor. the two transistors will remain in this state. See red figures for TR1. with two stable states. Revising transistor behaviour :When a transistor base is connected to zero volts.hobbyprojects. Q is high and Q bar is low.Transistor RS Flip Flop Tutorial & Circuits .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. the transistor is turned on.Flip Flop Tutorials .com/flip_flop/a_transistor_RS_flip_Flop. http://www. Hobbyiest and R&D persons FLIP-FLOP . it is cut off and its collector voltage rises to the supply voltage. If SET is now removed from the zero volt rail. If SET is taken low (zero volts) thenTR1 is turned off. and becomes saturated. and blue for TR2. and its collector voltage turns TR2 on.

<<<< Back to Flip-Flop Tutorial http://www.hobbyprojects.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:05 PM] .Electronic Hobby Projects To make the flip-flop change state. This circuit is known as a SR flip-flop. Q will be low and Q bar high. Tr2 will now be off and Tr1 on.Transistor RS Flip Flop Tutorial & Circuits .Flip Flop Tutorials .com/flip_flop/a_transistor_RS_flip_Flop. The flip-flop will rest in this state until SET is again taken low again. RESET must now be taken low.

Switch Debouncing Tutorial & Circuits . giving a series of pulses.Flip Flop Tutorials .com/flip_flop/switch_debouncing.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. when Q is taken low by taking RESET high. If we revise the SET/RESET flip-flop.com Switch Debouncing Tutorial When a mechanical power switch is operated. we will recall that once Q has been pulsed high by the SET input. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. further pulsing produces no change at Q.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:10 PM] . Microprocessor. only the first pulse is recognised. Hobbyiest and R&D persons FLIP-FLOP .hobbyprojects. The circuit may see these as a series of logic pulses and behave incorrectly.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Therefore Q only recognises the first pulse from the bouncing switch and ignores any others. The circuit shown prevents this. Similarly. <<<< Back to Flip-Flop Tutorial http://www. as shown in the graph. The switch contacts bounce. the power is not available instantly.

Electronic Hobby Projects http://www.Switch Debouncing Tutorial & Circuits .com/flip_flop/switch_debouncing.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:10 PM] .hobbyprojects.Flip Flop Tutorials .

Hobbyiest and R&D persons FLIP-FLOP . When SET is pulsed LOW.com/flip_flop/low_activated_flip-flop. Microprocessor.Flip Flop Tutorials .Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.html [1/17/2007 5:04:13 PM] . <<<< Back to Flip-Flop Tutorial http://www.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com Low Activated Flip-Flop Tutorial SET and RESET are LOW activated inputs. If RESET is now pulsed LOW.hobbyprojects.Low Activated Flip-Flop Tutorial & Circuits . Q goes HIGH and bar Q goes LOW. then Q goes LOW and bar Q goes HIGH.

Q remains unchanged.com/flip_flop/clocked_D_type_flip-flop.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.Clocked D Type Flip-Flop Tutorial & Circuits . Microprocessor. http://www.com Clocked D Type Flip-Flop Tutorial The D type flip-flop has only one input (D for Data) apart from the clock. when new data may be available. When the clock goes high. D (a 0 or a 1) is transferred to Q. When the clock goes low. Q stores the data until the clock goes high again.hobbyprojects.Flip Flop Tutorials . Hobbyiest and R&D persons FLIP-FLOP .html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:17 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. The INDETERMINATE state is avoided with this flip-flop. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.

so Q goes low. data is low.Electronic Hobby Projects At A.hobbyprojects. <<<< Back to Flip-Flop Tutorial http://www.com/flip_flop/clocked_D_type_flip-flop. Q goes high and stays high until E. clock and data are high. At E. At C. clock is high and data is low. data is high so Q goes high.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:17 PM] . clock and data are both high. Q does not change during clock pulse D. because clock and data are still both high. At F.Flip Flop Tutorials .Clocked D Type Flip-Flop Tutorial & Circuits . Q goes high and stays high until B. At B. Q goes low and stays low until C.

Hobbyiest and R&D persons FLIP-FLOP .Toggle Flip-Flop Tutorial & Circuits . Below is shown a D type flip-flop connected as a toggle type. Therefore Q will toggle. T acts as an ENABLE / INHIBIT control.Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects.Flip Flop Tutorials . http://www. Microprocessor.html (1 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:20 PM] .com/flip_flop/toggle_flip-flop. when T is high. On each clock pulse positive going edge. Q will only toggle on the negative edge of the clock pulse.hobbyprojects. Remember that bar Q is the opposite level to Q. Q will go to the state bar Q was before the clock pulse arrived.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.com Toggle Flip-Flop Tutorial This flip-flop toggles (Q changes state) on the negative going edge of the clock pulse.

hobbyprojects.Electronic Hobby Projects <<<< Back to Flip-Flop Tutorial http://www.Flip Flop Tutorials .Toggle Flip-Flop Tutorial & Circuits .com/flip_flop/toggle_flip-flop.html (2 of 2) [1/17/2007 5:04:20 PM] .

Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students.Flip Flop Tutorials .JK Master Flip-Flops Tutorial & Circuits . If J and K are both high. If J and K are both low.hobbyprojects. Microprocessor. Q will not change. Q will go low on the negative going edge of the clock pulse. If J is high and K is low. the output toggles on the negative going edge of the clock pulse.com/flip_flop/JK_master_flip-flops.com JK Master Flip-Flops Tutorial The J-K flip-flop can be wired to behave as most other types of flip-flop.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic.html [1/17/2007 5:04:23 PM] .Electronic Tutorials Search Web Hobbyprojects. If K is high and J is low. Hobbyiest and R&D persons FLIP-FLOP . <<<< Back to Flip-Flop Tutorial http://www. Q will go high on the negative going edge of the clock pulse.

NOR Gate Flip-Flop Tutorial & CIrcuits . so its output is HIGH. the output of gate 2 goes LOW. Hobbyiest and R&D persons FLIP-FLOP . as shown in diagram A. The gates are now in the state shown in diagram B. Initially. This HIGH output is one input of gate 1. http://www. If the SET is pulsed again.com/flip_flop/NOR_gate_flip-flop. When the SET input of gate 2 is momentarily pulsed HIGH. Mircro Controller and PC based Projects / Circuits for Engineering Students. This means that both inputs of gate 1 are LOW. nothing happens. gate 2 has two LOW inputs. so its output is HIGH. Even though the pulse has finished. which is coupled to an input of gate 2.com NOR Gate Flip-Flop Tutorial Here. one input of each gate is held LOW by "pull down" resistors. the output of gate 2 stays LOW because of this HIGH input.Electronic Hobby Projects Electronic. so the output of gate 1 is LOW. We say that the circuit has remembered or LATCHED and is in the SET state. The other input is cross-coupled to